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Chapter five
The american revolution: from elite protest to popular revolt, 1763–1783
Multiple Choice
1. At the end of the Seven Years’ War, American colonists could be best characterized as
________.
A) hostile toward the British
B) optimistic about the future
C) apathetic about colonial-British relations
D) eager for independence from Great Britain
E) trying to rebuild
Answer: B
Rationale:
At the end of the Seven Years' War, American colonists were best characterized as optimistic
about the future. The war had removed the immediate threat of French encroachment, leading
to a sense of relief and hopefulness among colonists regarding prospects for growth,
prosperity, and expansion into newly acquired territories.
2. George III believed ________.
A) Parliament should run the empire
B) the monarch should take an active role in government
C) the monarch should be a figurehead
D) qualified men should run the government
E) the monarch should consider parliamentary opinion when making decisions
Answer: B
Rationale:

George III believed that the monarch should take an active role in government. As a
constitutional monarch, he sought to assert royal authority and influence in governance, often
clashing with Parliament over matters of policy and administration.
3. The central issue in the Anglo-American debate over governance was ________.
A) divine sovereignty
B) laissez faire
C) parliamentary sovereignty
D) absolute rule
E) colonial sovereignty
Answer: C
Rationale:
The central issue in the Anglo-American debate over governance was parliamentary
sovereignty. Colonists contested the authority of the British Parliament to legislate for the
colonies without colonial representation, leading to tensions and conflicts over the extent of
parliamentary power.
4. Which of these was the elder statesmen that was one of the men who negotiated a peace
with Britain following the Revolutionary War?
A) James Otis
B) Samuel Adams
C) Benjamin Franklin
D) Thomas Jefferson
E) James Madison
Answer: C
Rationale:
Benjamin Franklin was the elder statesman who was one of the men who negotiated peace
with Britain following the Revolutionary War. He played a key diplomatic role in securing
the Treaty of Paris in 1783, which ended the war and recognized American independence.

5. The English political philosopher most often cited by American rebels was ________.
A) Thomas Paine
B) Edmund Burke
C) William Pitt
D) John Locke
E) David Hume
Answer: D
Rationale:
The English political philosopher most often cited by American rebels was John Locke.
Locke's ideas on natural rights, social contract theory, and the right to rebellion heavily
influenced American revolutionary thought, as evident in documents such as the Declaration
of Independence.
6. According to whose political theory is power dangerous and must be countered by virtue?
A) Commonwealthmen
B) Whigs
C) Tories
D) Patriots
E) Loyalists
Answer: A
Rationale:
According to Commonwealthmen political theory, power is dangerous and must be countered
by virtue. Commonwealthmen emphasized the importance of limiting government authority,
protecting individual liberties, and promoting civic virtue as a safeguard against tyranny and
corruption.
7. A major source of information for the colonists was ________.
A) newspapers

B) books
C) church meetings
D) the marketplace
E) the town crier
Answer: A
Rationale:
A major source of information for the colonists was newspapers. Newspapers played a crucial
role in disseminating news, political opinions, and information about events, policies, and
developments relevant to colonial life and governance.
8. Who was the Delaware Prophet?
A) Cotton Mather
B) Pontiac
C) Charles Townshend
D) George Grenville
E) Neolin
Answer: E
Rationale:
The Delaware Prophet was Neolin. Neolin, also known as the Delaware Prophet, was a
Native American religious leader who preached a message of cultural and spiritual renewal
among indigenous peoples, advocating resistance to European encroachment and cultural
assimilation.
9. Which prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains?
A) Navigation Act of 1772
B) Proclamation of 1763
C) Stamp Act of 1765
D) Townshend Acts of 1767

E) Settlement Act of 1765
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Proclamation of 1763 prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Issued by the British government, it aimed to prevent conflicts with Native Americans and
maintain control over western territories acquired after the French and Indian War.
10. The radical American group that first emerged during the Stamp Act crisis was known as
________.
A) the Loyalists
B) the Sons of Liberty
C) the Democratic Republicans
D) the Federalists
E) Oliver’s Raiders
Answer: B
Rationale:
The radical American group that first emerged during the Stamp Act crisis was known as the
Sons of Liberty. Comprised of activists and agitators, the Sons of Liberty organized protests,
boycotts, and acts of resistance against British taxation and policies perceived as infringing
on colonial rights and liberties.
11. The Stamp Act of 1765 affected ________.
A) only businessmen and merchants
B) primarily colonial manufacturers
C) ordinary people, as well as the elite
D) only those in direct trade with Great Britain
E) notaries and other public officials
Answer: C

Rationale:
The Stamp Act of 1765 affected ordinary people, as well as the elite. This act imposed taxes
on a wide range of printed materials, including newspapers, legal documents, and playing
cards, impacting various segments of colonial society, from businessmen and professionals to
common laborers and artisans.
12. The boycott movement against the Stamp Act ________.
A) had little effect on Great Britain
B) mobilized colonial women to action
C) ultimately hurt American businessmen more than British
D) was opposed by New England businessmen
E) was badly organized
Answer: B
Rationale:
The boycott movement against the Stamp Act mobilized colonial women to action. Women
played a significant role in organizing and participating in non-importation agreements,
encouraging households to produce goods domestically and support local industries as a
means of protesting British taxation policies.
13. Which of the following stated Parliament’s belief in its own sovereignty?
A) Townshend Acts
B) Declaratory Act
C) Coercive Acts
D) Stamp Act
E) Sovereignty Act
Answer: B
Rationale:

The Declaratory Act stated Parliament's belief in its own sovereignty. Passed in 1766
alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, this act affirmed Parliament's authority to legislate for
the colonies "in all cases whatsoever," asserting its supremacy over colonial assemblies.
14. The fundamental issue leading to the Boston Massacre in 1770 was the ________.
A) British attempt to enforce the Tea Act
B) Boston Tea Party
C) passage of the Townshend Acts
D) sinking of the Gaspee
E) presence of so many British troops in Boston
Answer: E
Rationale:
The fundamental issue leading to the Boston Massacre in 1770 was the presence of so many
British troops in Boston. Tensions between colonists and British soldiers escalated due to the
perceived occupation of Boston by British forces, leading to confrontations and eventually
the deadly clash known as the Boston Massacre.
15. The Boston Massacre ________.
A) proved the importance of the British army in the colonies
B) raised the possibility of colonial armed resistance
C) had little effect on Anglo-colonial relations
D) had little support from colonial leaders
E) left fifty-three Americans dead
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Boston Massacre raised the possibility of colonial armed resistance. The event served as
a rallying cry for colonial opposition to British oppression and contributed to growing antiBritish sentiment, fueling calls for resistance and rebellion among the colonists.

16. Samuel Adams can best be described as a ________.
A) pacifier
B) compromiser
C) genuine revolutionary
D) pragmatist
E) guerrilla fighter
Answer: C
Rationale:
Samuel Adams can best be described as a genuine revolutionary. Adams was a key figure in
organizing colonial resistance to British policies, advocating for colonial rights and liberties,
and promoting the cause of American independence through political activism and agitation.
17. The Tea Act of 1773 was passed in order to ________.
A) save the East India Company
B) raise revenue to pay royal governors’ salaries
C) punish colonists for the Boston Massacre
D) support the stationing of British troops in America
E) recover revenue lost by reducing the tax on molasses
Answer: A
Rationale:
The Tea Act of 1773 was passed in order to save the East India Company. Facing financial
difficulties, the British government enacted the Tea Act to grant the company a monopoly on
the sale of tea to the colonies, intending to rescue it from bankruptcy and stabilize its
operations.
18. England passed the Coercive Acts in response to the ________.
A) colonial boycott of the Stamp Act
B) Boston Tea Party

C) American victory at Saratoga
D) Declaratory Act
E) Tea Act
Answer: B
Rationale:
England passed the Coercive Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party. Also known as the
Intolerable Acts, these punitive measures were enacted to punish the colonists for the
destruction of British tea during the Boston Tea Party and to assert British authority over
Massachusetts.
19. The Suffolk Resolves advocated ________.
A) forcible resistance to the Coercive Acts
B) the assassination of British tax collectors
C) the formation of an American navy
D) the repeal of the Stamp Act
E) the formation of the Sons of Liberty
Answer: A
Rationale:
The Suffolk Resolves advocated forcible resistance to the Coercive Acts. Passed in response
to the Intolerable Acts, these resolutions called for the mobilization of colonial militias and
coordinated resistance against British oppression, laying the groundwork for armed conflict.
20. In December 1775, Parliament passed the ________, which cut America off from
international commerce.
A) Declaratory Act
B) Prohibitory Act
C) Commerce Act
D) Tea Act

E) Trade Act
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Prohibitory Act, passed by Parliament in December 1775, aimed to isolate and
economically cripple the rebellious American colonies by prohibiting all trade and commerce
with them. This act was a significant escalation of hostilities and underscored Britain's
determination to quell the rebellion through economic measures.
21. The author of the Declaration of Independence was ________.
A) George Washington
B) Benjamin Franklin
C) Samuel Adams
D) Patrick Henry
E) Thomas Jefferson
Answer: E
Rationale:
Thomas Jefferson authored the Declaration of Independence, which was adopted by the
Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. Jefferson's eloquent articulation of the colonies'
grievances and assertion of their natural rights has since become a foundational document in
American history.
22. The Loyalists were concentrated in _________.
A) remote mountainous areas
B) the Chesapeake colonies
C) the northernmost colonies
D) urban areas
E) the southernmost colonies
Answer: D

Rationale:
Loyalists were concentrated in urban areas during the American Revolution. They often
included wealthy merchants, Anglican clergymen, government officials, and others with
strong ties to British authority and economic interests, particularly in major port cities like
New York and Boston.
23. The American victory that led to the French alliance occurred at ________.
A) Saratoga
B) Yorktown
C) Breed’s Hill
D) Philadelphia
E) Trenton
Answer: A
Rationale:
The American victory at Saratoga in 1777 was instrumental in securing French military
support for the American cause. This pivotal triumph demonstrated to the French that the
American colonies were a viable force capable of challenging British authority, leading to
France formally entering the war as an ally of the colonies.
24. Whose activities were essential to the establishment of a colonial alliance with the
French?
A) Thomas Paine
B) John Adams
C) John Dickinson
D) Thomas Jefferson
E) Benjamin Franklin
Answer: E
Rationale:

Benjamin Franklin's diplomatic efforts were essential to the establishment of a colonial
alliance with the French. Franklin's negotiations in France played a crucial role in securing
military aid, financial support, and diplomatic recognition from France, which significantly
bolstered the American war effort.
25. For the British, French intervention meant ________.
A) a change in military strategy
B) little change in their military strategy
C) little challenge to their empire
D) a new ally in the war effort
E) fighting a two-front war, both in the colonies and in Europe
Answer: A
Rationale:
For the British, French intervention meant a change in military strategy. The entry of France
into the American Revolutionary War forced Britain to divert military resources and attention
away from the colonies to defend against French attacks in Europe and the Caribbean,
altering their original war plans.
26. How did ordinary colonists respond after the wealthy elite had initiated the American
rebellion?
A) They rejected the lead of their “betters.”
B) They lost rights gained during the colonial period.
C) They turned an elite movement into a mass movement.
D) They fought for a socioeconomic revolution against the gentry.
E) They retreated further from political activities.
Answer: C
Rationale:
After the wealthy elite had initiated the American rebellion, ordinary colonists responded by
turning an elite movement into a mass movement. Initially driven by colonial elites, the

rebellion gained broader popular support as ordinary colonists became increasingly involved
in protests, boycotts, and militia activities.
27. Which was central to the colonists’ position in the Anglo-American debate over
parliamentary powers?
A) their strong belief in the powers of their own provincial assemblies
B) their unswerving support of the monarchy
C) their willingness to defer to the wishes of Parliament
D) their desire for an authoritarian government
E) their desire for revolution
Answer: A
Rationale:
The colonists' strong belief in the powers of their own provincial assemblies was central to
their position in the Anglo-American debate over parliamentary powers. Colonists asserted
the principle of local self-government and argued that colonial assemblies, not Parliament,
should have primary authority over colonial affairs.
28. Which of the following linked religious values to the practice of government?
A) colonial newspapers
B) the Great Awakening
C) theories of the Earl of Bute
D) ideas from the Commonwealthmen
E) the works of John Locke
Answer: E
Rationale:
The works of John Locke linked religious values to the practice of government. Locke's
political philosophy, particularly his concept of natural rights and social contract theory,
influenced American political thought by emphasizing the relationship between government

and the protection of individual liberties, which aligned with religious principles of moral
governance.
29. What was the most significant consequence of the Seven Years’ War?
A) its virtual destruction of American Indians
B) Britain’s staggering war debt
C) the remaining French toehold in Quebec
D) the assassination of George II
E) a distaste for further fighting by the colonists
Answer: B
Rationale:
The most significant consequence of the Seven Years’ War was Britain's staggering war debt.
The cost of financing the war placed a tremendous financial burden on Britain, contributing
to economic instability and prompting the imposition of new taxes on the American colonies,
which ultimately fueled colonial resentment and rebellion.
30. In what way did the Sugar Act differ from earlier regulations, such as the Navigation
Acts?
A) Its purpose was to show the colonists that they were not in control.
B) Its purpose was to show the colonists that they were autonomous.
C) It taxed sugar for the specific benefit of the East India Company.
D) Its purpose was to collect revenue from the Americans.
E) It had nothing to do with trade.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Sugar Act differed from earlier regulations, such as the Navigation Acts, in that its
purpose was to collect revenue from the Americans. While the Navigation Acts primarily
regulated colonial trade to benefit British mercantilist interests, the Sugar Act imposed duties

on imported sugar and other goods with the aim of generating revenue to help offset Britain's
war debt.
31. Which of the following did NOT occur as part of the Stamp Act crisis?
A) Patrick Henry denounced British taxation with his Virginia Resolves.
B) A Stamp Act Congress drew together colonial leaders from different regions.
C) Resistance drew many into political action that included street violence.
D) Massachusetts reacted so bitterly that the British imposed the Coercive Acts.
E) Colonial women began to take a greater role in politics.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Massachusetts reacted so bitterly that the British imposed the Coercive Acts did not occur as
part of the Stamp Act crisis. The Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, were
passed in response to the Boston Tea Party, not the Stamp Act crisis.
32. What was the tone of the Stamp Act Congress?
A) extreme radicalism, with some delegates calling for an immediate declaration of
independence
B) restraint and conciliation, with no mention of independence or disloyalty
C) bitter division between pro-independence radicals and Loyalists who favored British rule
D) angry disputes between various colonies and regions
E) a show of the strength of the Loyalist faction in the colonies
Answer: B
Rationale:
The tone of the Stamp Act Congress was restraint and conciliation, with no mention of
independence or disloyalty. Delegates sought to address colonial grievances against the
Stamp Act through peaceful means, petitioning for the repeal of the act and reaffirming their
loyalty to the British Crown.

33. Which list places events in the correct order?
A) Townshend duties, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Coercive Acts
B) Townshend duties, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, Coercive Acts
C) Boston Tea Party, Coercive Acts, Boston Massacre, Townshend duties
D) Coercive Acts, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Townshend duties
E) Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Townshend duties, Coercive Acts
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct order of events is Townshend duties, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party,
Coercive Acts. These events unfolded sequentially during the period of escalating tensions
between the American colonies and the British government, culminating in the imposition of
coercive measures in response to colonial resistance.
34. While repealing the Townshend duties, why did the North ministry retain a tax on tea?
A) to stabilize prices for tea
B) to punish American tea smugglers
C) to punish John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and the Sons of Liberty
D) to symbolize Parliament's power to tax Americans
E) to ensure that tea from England would not be boycotted
Answer: D
Rationale:
The North ministry retained a tax on tea while repealing the Townshend duties to symbolize
Parliament's power to tax Americans. By maintaining a tax on tea, Parliament sought to assert
its authority to levy taxes on the colonies and demonstrate its supremacy over colonial
assemblies, reinforcing the principle of parliamentary sovereignty.
35. What was the main purpose of the continental “Association”?
A) to foster improved relations between the various colonies

B) to seek a conservative, peaceful resolution of the political crises of the mid–1770s
C) to raise money to feed starving Indians displaced by western settlements
D) to halt trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed
E) to raise and equip armies to fight for the American cause
Answer: D
Rationale:
The main purpose of the continental “Association” was to halt trade with Britain until the
Intolerable Acts were repealed. Formed in response to the Coercive Acts, the Continental
Association organized a boycott of British goods and sought to exert economic pressure on
Britain to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights.
36. What was the most important responsibility facing the Second Continental Congress?
A) to convince the colonists of the necessity for war
B) to win loyalty from the Indians
C) to organize the colonies for war
D) to find a strong political leader for the nation
E) to draft the Declaration of Independence
Answer: C
Rationale:
The most important responsibility facing the Second Continental Congress was to organize
the colonies for war. As tensions with Britain escalated and armed conflict loomed, the
Congress assumed a leading role in coordinating military efforts, mobilizing resources, and
establishing governmental structures to support the American war effort.
37. What was the significance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense?
A) Widening popular support for revolution.
B) It acknowledged the sovereignty of the monarch.
C) It persuaded colonial elites to sever their ties with Great Britain.

D) It had little immediate popularity among the colonists.
E) It did not criticize all monarchs, just George III.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The significance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was widening popular support for
revolution. Published in early 1776, Common Sense galvanized public opinion in favor of
independence by articulating compelling arguments for American autonomy and republican
government, appealing to a broad audience and helping to shift sentiment towards rebellion.
38. Which of the following explains why England lost the Revolutionary War?
A) The British government did not believe it could win the war.
B) British finances could not support the war.
C) British strategists did not understand how to fight the war.
D) George III never supported the war effort.
E) British soldiers sympathized with the Americans.
Answer: C
Rationale:
British strategists did not understand how to fight the war explains why England lost the
Revolutionary War. Despite possessing superior resources and military capabilities, British
military leaders struggled to adapt to the unconventional tactics employed by American
forces, leading to strategic blunders and ultimately contributing to British defeat.
39. What was the role of the colonial militias?
A) They played a decisive role in several major battles.
B) They kept the slave population in line.
C) They maintained political control in areas not occupied by British troops.
D) They consisted mainly of African Americans.
E) They would sometimes switch sides if they did not get paid.

Answer: C
Rationale:
The role of the colonial militias was primarily to maintain political control in areas not
occupied by British troops. Militias acted as local defense forces, mobilizing to protect
colonial interests, enforce colonial laws, and suppress internal unrest or dissent, especially in
regions where British authority was limited or absent.
40. Why did many African Americans in the North take up arms to fight the British?
A) They believed that the king and the British Parliament were solely responsible for their
lack of freedom.
B) They felt that the British had unfairly taxed them without offering representation in
Congress.
C) They believed that the Americans were more likely to win the war.
D) They felt that the army was the safest place for them to be at the time.
E) They felt that the Americans were more likely to free them from slavery if they sided with
them.
Answer: E
Rationale:
Many African Americans in the North took up arms to fight the British because they felt that
the Americans were more likely to free them from slavery if they sided with them. Joining the
American cause offered a chance for freedom and equality, as some believed that supporting
the patriots would lead to the abolition of slavery.
41. What did military strategists in 1779 predict would be Britain’s last chance for victory
over the colonies?
A) a more effective use of its great navy
B) the breaking of the French-American alliance
C) calling on its European allies for help
D) a successful campaign in the Southern Colonies

E) increasing the British army in the colonies by 25,000 men
Answer: D
Rationale:
Military strategists in 1779 predicted that a successful campaign in the Southern Colonies
would be Britain’s last chance for victory over the colonies. The British believed that by
capturing key Southern cities and rallying Loyalist support, they could undermine American
morale, disrupt supply lines, and regain control over the region.
42. Which event marked the end of the military phase of the war?
A) the capture of New York City by French forces
B) Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga
C) the British evacuation of Boston
D) Cornwallis’s surrender at Yorktown
E) the destruction of a British army at the Battle of New Orleans
Answer: D
Rationale:
Cornwallis’s surrender at Yorktown marked the end of the military phase of the war. The
decisive victory by combined American and French forces at Yorktown in 1781 forced the
surrender of General Cornwallis and his British troops, effectively ending major military
operations and leading to negotiations for peace.
43. American Loyalists, who sided with the British during the War for Independence,
________.
A) tended to be wealthy conservatives
B) were known for their wickedness and immorality
C) favored a strongly centralized, authoritarian form of government
D) came from all occupations and social classes
E) were pacifists who opposed war for any reason

Answer: D
Rationale:
American Loyalists, who sided with the British during the War for Independence, came from
all occupations and social classes. Loyalists included wealthy landowners, merchants,
artisans, farmers, and others who remained loyal to the British Crown for various reasons,
such as economic interests, cultural ties, or fear of political instability.
44. After the Revolutionary War, why did many American Loyalists who returned to England
feel betrayed?
A) They were treated as second-class citizens in England.
B) They were denied any monetary compensation for their sacrifices.
C) They were viewed as traitors by the native-born English.
D) They were viewed as foreigners by the native-born English.
E) They were put in prisons because they would not pay their debts.
Answer: A
Rationale:
After the Revolutionary War, many American Loyalists who returned to England felt betrayed
because they were treated as second-class citizens in England. Despite their loyalty to the
British Crown, Loyalists encountered suspicion, discrimination, and social ostracism in
England, where they were often viewed as outsiders or disloyal subjects.
45. What was the significance of the Treaty of Paris of 1783?
A) It established the American borders at the Appalachian Mountains.
B) It ensured Loyalists would not be compensated for their lands.
C) It did not provide a favorable conclusion to the war.
D) It allowed Americans the opportunity to form an independent nation.
E) It did not include compensation for Loyalists.
Answer: D

Rationale:
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 marked the end of the Revolutionary War and recognized the
independence of the United States from Great Britain, thereby allowing Americans the
opportunity to form their own nation.
46. Which of the following was NOT a key benefit of the Treaty of Paris for the United
States?
A) guaranteed independence
B) fishing rights in the North Atlantic
C) the rights to Florida
D) all territory east of the Mississippi River
E) an end to the war
Answer: C
Rationale:
While the Treaty of Paris granted the United States various benefits including guaranteed
independence, fishing rights, and territorial claims, it did not grant the rights to Florida,
which remained under Spanish control until later treaties.
47. Which of the following was NOT a task facing the new nation?
A) deciding what form the new government would take
B) learning how political power would be distributed
C) learning how to ensure political equality for all
D) learning to fend off French attempts to control the country
E) bridging the division of state and federal authority
Answer: D
Rationale:

While the new nation faced challenges such as deciding its form of government, distributing
political power, ensuring political equality, and defining state-federal relations, there were no
significant French attempts to control the country following the Revolutionary War.
48. What was the most significant outcome of the Boston Massacre?
A) It demonstrated to the colonists that British troops were largely symbolic and the British
would back down in the face of organized resistance.
B) It demonstrated to the colonists that British troops had no effective way to restore order in
the colonies.
C) It showed that the colonists had a better organized army than the British and would be
difficult to defeat.
D) It was the first act of organized resistance against the British troops in the colonies.
E) It demonstrated to the colonists that British troops would resort to violence to restore order
in the colonies.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The Boston Massacre heightened tensions between the American colonists and British
authorities by demonstrating that British troops were willing to resort to violence to maintain
control, further fueling anti-British sentiment and ultimately contributing to the outbreak of
the Revolutionary War.
49. What does the following quote by Benjamin Rush signify? “The American war is over,
but this is far from being the case with the American Revolution. On the contrary, nothing but
the first act of the great drama is closed.”
A) The American Revolution was not a war at all, but merely a break from English control
over the colonies.
B) The war was merely the first step in the colonists’ move toward establishing a new nation.
C) The war was not yet over and the Americans needed to prepare for another round of
fighting against the British if they ever hoped to gain their independence.

D) Americans needed to free themselves from other European countries that were restricting
their trade and keeping them from economic and political independence.
E) The American Revolution would not end until the English monarchy was destroyed and a
new form of government was put in place in England to better rule the colonies.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Benjamin Rush's quote suggests that while the military conflict may have ended, the broader
struggle for independence and the establishment of a new nation was just beginning,
indicating that the war was only the initial phase in the larger revolution.
50. Which statement best explains why the Boston Tea Party became a famous symbol of the
American Revolution?
A) The Boston Tea Party was one of the most destructive acts in the entire war.
B) The Boston Tea Party was the final action before the first shots that led to the actual war.
C) The Boston Tea Party showed that the colonists had lost their respect for the British
monarchy.
D) The Boston Tea Party not only killed many soldiers, it also destroyed millions of dollars
worth of property.
E) The Boston Tea Party was an unprecedented act of violence by angry colonists against the
British troops.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Boston Tea Party symbolized the colonists' defiance against British authority and their
rejection of British taxation without representation, demonstrating a shift in attitude towards
the British monarchy and laying the groundwork for the broader movement towards
independence.
Essay

1. Why were parliamentary sovereignty and the meaning of representation the main points of
conflict in the years leading up to the Revolution? Why would the writings of the
Commonwealthmen have appealed to Americans influenced by the Great Awakening?
Answer: Parliamentary sovereignty and the meaning of representation became major points
of conflict due to the colonists' increasing dissatisfaction with perceived infringements on
their rights and liberties by the British Parliament, which claimed ultimate authority over the
colonies. The colonists contested the idea of parliamentary sovereignty, asserting that they
should have representation in the legislative body that imposed taxes and made laws affecting
them. The writings of the Commonwealthmen, which emphasized principles of liberty,
limited government, and the rights of individuals, would have appealed to Americans
influenced by the Great Awakening because both movements emphasized the importance of
individual freedoms and challenged hierarchical authority structures, resonating with the
colonists' desire for greater autonomy and self-governance.
2. What was the impact of the approach to revolution on Native Americans?
Answer: The approach to revolution had a varied impact on Native Americans, often resulting
in significant disruptions to their lives and societies. Some Native American tribes allied with
the British, hoping to protect their territories from colonial expansion or to seek revenge for
past grievances against colonial settlers. Others sided with the American Patriots, seeking to
assert their autonomy or to align with the side they perceived as offering the best
opportunities for their survival. However, regardless of their allegiances, many Native
American communities faced devastating consequences, including loss of land, displacement,
violence, and the erosion of traditional ways of life, as the Revolutionary War and its
aftermath intensified conflicts and encroachments on indigenous territories.
3. What factors led to British defeat in the American Revolution?
Answer: Several factors contributed to the British defeat in the American Revolution. One
key factor was the strategic challenges posed by fighting a prolonged war across a vast
geographical expanse, which strained British resources and supply lines. Additionally, the
British faced logistical difficulties in managing a conflict against a determined and
increasingly organized colonial resistance. Furthermore, the British encountered significant
opposition from within the colonies, including guerrilla warfare tactics employed by
American Patriots and support from France and other European powers, which further
complicated British efforts to suppress the rebellion. Ultimately, the British failure to quell

the rebellion and secure decisive victories led to their eventual defeat and the recognition of
American independence.
4. Why did some Americans oppose independence? How did their overall political beliefs
compare with those of Americans who supported independence?
Answer: Some Americans opposed independence for various reasons, including economic
interests, loyalty to the British Crown, fear of instability and chaos, and doubts about the
feasibility of self-governance. These individuals often identified as Loyalists or Tories and
tended to be wealthier, more conservative, and more closely tied to British institutions and
traditions. They generally favored maintaining colonial ties to Britain and preserving existing
social and political structures. In contrast, Americans who supported independence, often
referred to as Patriots or Whigs, espoused revolutionary ideals such as liberty, equality, and
self-determination. They sought to break free from British control, establish republican forms
of government, and expand individual freedoms and opportunities. Their political beliefs
aligned with Enlightenment principles and a desire for greater autonomy and representation
in governance.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands
9780205900688

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