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Chapter twenty-six
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the new deal
Multiple Choice
1. The most striking characteristic of the stock market in 1929 was _______.
A) the obsession with speculation among investors
B) the downward trend of major stocks early in the year
C) the government’s desire to carefully regulate the market
D) the heavy involvement of the majority of wage-earning Americans
E) the steady advancement through the decade
Answer: A
Rationale:
because the stock market in 1929 was characterized by rampant speculation, with investors
buying stocks on margin and engaging in risky trading practices in the hope of making quick
profits. This speculative fervor contributed to the market bubble and eventual crash in
October 1929.
2. By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed?
A) 10%
B) 12%
C) 25%
D) 33%
E) 50%
Answer: C
Rationale:
By 1932, approximately 25% of American workers were unemployed, marking the peak of
the Great Depression. This high level of unemployment resulted from widespread business

failures, bank closures, and a lack of consumer demand, leading to economic hardship for
millions of people.
3. The social and economic effects of the Depression _______.
A) affected only the wealthier classes
B) hit the middle class especially hard
C) lasted only a few months at the end of 1929
D) were suffered only by the lower classes
E) came to light only gradually
Answer: B
Rationale:
The social and economic effects of the Great Depression hit the middle class especially hard.
Many middle-class families lost their savings, homes, and jobs during the economic
downturn, leading to a decline in living standards and increased financial insecurity.
4. Hoover believed that unemployment relief _______.
A) was justified by previous government policies
B) would bring about dangerous inflation
C) could promote domestic unrest
D) should come from private charities
E) would be a sign of weakness
Answer: D
Rationale:
Hoover believed that unemployment relief should come from private charities rather than the
federal government. He was reluctant to expand government intervention in the economy and
believed that relying on private charity would maintain individual initiative and prevent
excessive government spending.
5. Hoover’s response to the Great Depression could best be described as _______.

A) restrained and cautious
B) innovative and adaptive
C) humanitarian and pragmatic
D) socialist and radical
E) aggressive and rapid
Answer: A
Rationale:
Hoover's response to the Great Depression could best be described as restrained and cautious.
He initially favored a limited government intervention and believed that the economy would
recover on its own without significant federal intervention. He was reluctant to implement
large-scale relief programs and instead focused on voluntary cooperation between
government and business.
6. Roosevelt’s Hundred Days banking legislation aimed to _______.
A) remedy a banking crisis
B) decrease government regulation of U.S. banks
C) allow the government to take over the banking system
D) give bankers a place in his government
E) merge smaller banks with larger ones
Answer: A
Rationale:. Roosevelt's Hundred Days banking legislation aimed to remedy a banking crisis
by restoring public confidence in the banking system. The Emergency Banking Act, part of
Roosevelt's Hundred Days, allowed the government to reopen solvent banks and provided
federal assistance to stabilize the banking sector.
7. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to _______.
A) help support continued control of electrical power by private companies
B) bring modernization and jobs to desolate areas of the upper rural South

C) alienate troublesome conservationists in his administration
D) test the authority of the Supreme Court
E) win votes in a largely Republican area of the country
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to bring modernization and jobs to
desolate areas of the upper rural South. It aimed to stimulate economic development, improve
infrastructure, and provide electricity to rural communities in the Tennessee Valley region
through hydroelectric power generation and flood control projects.
8. The National Recovery Administration sought to promote economic recovery by _______.
A) reducing corporate taxes
B) restoring competition
C) experimenting with national economic planning
D) implementing classical economic theory
E) eliminating all taxes
Answer: C
Rationale:
The National Recovery Administration (NRA) sought to promote economic recovery by
experimenting with national economic planning. It aimed to combat the Great Depression by
establishing industry-wide codes of fair competition, setting minimum wages and maximum
hours, and encouraging collective bargaining between employers and workers.
9. Which New Deal program did the Supreme Court declare unconstitutional?
A) Commodity Credit Corporation
B) Civilian Conservation Corps
C) National Recovery Administration
D) Tennessee Valley Authority

E) Civil Works Administration
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Administration (NRA) unconstitutional
in 1935. The Court ruled that the NRA exceeded the federal government's authority by
delegating legislative powers to private industry and infringing on states' rights to regulate
commerce.
10. Which of the following was a New Deal program that worked to bring about farm
recovery?
A) the Federal Farm Board
B) the Agricultural Adjustment Administration
C) the Tennessee Valley Authority
D) the National Recovery Administration
E) the Civilian Conservation Corps
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) was a New Deal program that worked to
bring about farm recovery. It aimed to address agricultural overproduction and falling crop
prices by paying farmers to reduce production and maintain stable prices. The AAA sought to
increase farm income and stabilize the agricultural sector during the Great Depression.
11. Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers believed that _______ production would raise
prices for farmers.
A) reducing
B) increasing
C) redistributing
D) expropriating
E) monitoring

Answer: A
Rationale:
During the Great Depression, overproduction contributed to falling agricultural prices.
Roosevelt's administration sought to alleviate this by reducing production, thus helping to
stabilize prices and incomes for farmers.
12. Young men were hired to clear land, plant trees, and build bridges and fish ponds by the
_______.
A) Tennessee Valley Authority
B) National Recovery Administration
C) Public Works Administration
D) Works Progress Administration
E) Civilian Conservation Corps
Answer: E
Rationale:
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a New Deal program aimed at providing jobs
for young men during the Great Depression. It focused on conservation work such as
reforestation, soil conservation, and the construction of recreational facilities in national
parks and forests.
13. By 1935, Roosevelt’s severest critics were those _______.
A) who were members of the Supreme Court
B) accusing him of being a socialist
C) demanding more radical reforms
D) accusing him of ignoring foreign interests
E) scolding him for not helping African Americans
Answer: C
Rationale:

By 1935, some of Roosevelt's critics were becoming more vocal, particularly those who felt
his New Deal programs were not going far enough to address the economic and social issues
of the time. These critics demanded more radical reforms than those being implemented by
Roosevelt's administration.
14. Francis Townsend advocated that the federal government pay $200 each month to
_______.
A) all Americans over the age of 60
B) dispossessed farmers
C) veterans of World War I
D) widows with two or more children
E) unemployed urban workers
Answer: A
Rationale:
Francis Townsend was known for his support of the Townsend Plan, which proposed
providing financial assistance to elderly Americans. Under his plan, individuals over the age
of 60 would receive $200 per month from the federal government, with the condition that
they spend it within the month to stimulate economic activity.
15. Which of the following was advocated by Father Charles Coughlin?
A) the Social Security Act
B) the National Union for Social Justice
C) the Civilian Conservation Corps
D) the Federal Theatre Project
E) the “Share the Wealth” movement
Answer: B
Rationale:
Father Charles Coughlin was a Catholic priest and radio personality who advocated for social
justice and economic reform during the Great Depression. He founded the National Union for

Social Justice, which called for monetary reforms, nationalization of banks, and other
economic policies to address the hardships faced by many Americans.
16. The National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act _______.
A) guaranteed that all workers would be paid a minimum wage
B) granted workers the right to organize and collectively bargain
C) gave management the right to forbid the “closed shop”
D) gave the president the power to end strikes
E) did not help workers who were not already unionized
Answer: B
Rationale:
The National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act, was passed in 1935. It
granted workers the right to organize and bargain collectively through unions. This legislation
was a significant milestone in labor rights and paved the way for increased unionization and
improved working conditions.
17. The industrial union movement of the 1930s _______.
A) sought to organize skilled workers in particular trades
B) had long been championed by the American Federation of Labor
C) was led by William Green
D) grew greatly in the 1930s
E) had been thriving for years before the Great Depression
Answer: D
Rationale:
The industrial union movement of the 1930s saw a significant increase in the organization of
workers across various industries, including automobile manufacturing, steel production, and
mining. This movement sought to organize workers regardless of their specific trade or skill
level, leading to the formation of large industrial unions such as the United Auto Workers and
the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

18. The sit-down strike _______.
A) was first used against General Motors in 1936
B) was used only by the United Auto Workers
C) proved ineffective against major corporations
D) was first used against the Ford Motor Company
E) was a time-tested technique from strikes in the 1920s
Answer: A
Rationale:
The sit-down strike, a tactic where workers occupy their workplace rather than picketing
outside, gained prominence during the 1930s. One of the most famous sit-down strikes
occurred at General Motors in 1936-1937 when workers occupied several plants to demand
better working conditions and union recognition.
19. The individual most responsible for promoting African-American rights during the New
Deal was _______.
A) Franklin D. Roosevelt
B) John Collier
C) Harry Hopkins
D) Harold Ickes
E) Huey Long
Answer: C
Rationale:
Harry Hopkins, as one of Franklin D. Roosevelt's closest advisers and the head of the Works
Progress Administration (WPA), played a significant role in promoting African-American
rights during the New Deal era. Under his leadership, the WPA implemented policies to
address racial discrimination in employment and provided opportunities for African
Americans to participate in public works projects.
20. Local authorities rounded up ________ to deport them and reduce the welfare rolls.

A) African Americans
B) Mexican immigrants
C) Asian immigrants
D) Native Americans
E) European Americans
Answer: B
Rationale:
During the Great Depression, there was widespread anti-immigrant sentiment, particularly
towards Mexican immigrants who were seen as competing for jobs. As a result, local
authorities in some areas conducted deportation campaigns targeting Mexican immigrants in
an effort to reduce competition for employment and relieve pressure on welfare systems.
21. Despite the New Deal, ________ remained the country’s most impoverished citizens.
A) African Americans
B) Asian Americans
C) Native Americans
D) Mexican Americans
E) “Okies” and “Arkies”
Answer: C
Rationale:
Despite the implementation of New Deal programs aimed at alleviating poverty and
unemployment, Native Americans continued to face severe economic challenges. Historical
factors such as displacement from their lands, loss of traditional livelihoods, and inadequate
government support contributed to their ongoing impoverishment.
22. Roosevelt’s “court packing” proposal was _______.
A) a non-starter that never got off the ground
B) curtailed due to opposition from Republicans

C) effectively blocked by Democratic opposition
D) implemented partially and resulted in three appointments
E) successful at limiting the power of the Supreme Court
Answer: C
Rationale:
Roosevelt's "court packing" plan aimed to add more justices to the Supreme Court to shift its
ideological balance in favor of New Deal policies. However, it faced strong opposition from
both Republicans and Democrats, and ultimately, Democratic opposition within Congress
effectively blocked the proposal.
23. Why did farmers during the Great Depression resort to such extreme measures as
dumping fresh milk into the streets?
A) Like many other Americans during the Great Depression, dairy farmers fell victim to
despair and lost their hope in the future.
B) The shipping industry had been so devastated by the Great Depression that farmers had no
way to get their produce to market.
C) Farmers hoped to increase demand and drive up prices for their products by decreasing the
available supply.
D) Due to widespread poverty among the American population, hardly anyone could afford to
buy milk.
E) The government had instituted milk rationing which resulted in the overproduction of milk
by dairy farmers.
Answer: C
Rationale:
During the Great Depression, agricultural markets faced overproduction, leading to
plummeting prices for farmers. In an attempt to increase demand and raise prices, some
farmers resorted to extreme measures such as destroying crops or dumping milk into the
streets to reduce supply and drive up prices.
24. How did the consumer-goods revolution contribute to the great crash of 1929?

A) The production of durable goods, which did not need to be replaced, outpaced demand
and led to wide-scale layoffs.
B) Mass-produced consumer goods were of such poor quality that people eventually stopped
purchasing them and the industry began to falter.
C) The consumer goods revolution had contributed to a lack of confidence in the strength of
the American economic system.
D) The consumer goods revolution led to an increase in home construction that eventually
crashed due to overproduction.
E) The beneficiaries of the consumer goods revolution did not invest their money in the stock
exchange. Answer: A
Rationale:
The consumer-goods revolution of the 1920s led to the mass production of durable goods
such as automobiles, refrigerators, and radios. However, as production outpaced demand,
inventories piled up, leading to layoffs in the manufacturing sector. This imbalance
contributed to the economic downturn that culminated in the Great Crash of 1929.
25. How did Americans respond to the bull market climate on the eve of the great crash in
1929?
A) A general sense of caution about the ability of the market to continue to yield such
fantastic dividends caused the market to falter.
B) Average Americans tended not to invest in the market themselves, instead relying on
professional stockbrokers to invest their savings.
C) Many Americans looked to the government for guidance on how to invest in such a
rapidly growing market.
D) Wild optimism about the continued growth of the stock market led Americans to engage in
speculative investing practices.
E) Wary about the danger of “get rich quick” schemes, many Americans carefully guarded
their life savings. Answer: D
Rationale:

In the bull market climate of the late 1920s, there was widespread optimism about the stock
market's continued growth. Many Americans, fueled by this optimism, engaged in speculative
investing practices, buying stocks on margin and participating in the frenzied buying activity
that characterized the period leading up to the Great Crash of 1929.
26. How did the Great Depression affect Americans psychologically?
A) The loss of savings and employment led most Americans to renounce capitalism and turn
to socialism.
B) Unemployment and poverty undermined people’s sense of self-worth and caused many to
despair.
C) Most men either committed suicide or abandoned their families because they could not
provide for them.
D) Americans in the middle and upper classes had more emotional resources and fared better
than poor people.
E) Hunger and poverty made Americans unable to think properly and make good decisions,
leading to divorce and crime. Answer: B
Rationale:
The Great Depression had a profound psychological impact on Americans, as widespread
unemployment and poverty eroded people's sense of self-worth and hope for the future. Many
individuals experienced despair and psychological distress due to their economic
circumstances, contributing to a national mood of uncertainty and anxiety.
27. What effect did the Great Depression have on immigration to the United States?
A) The rate of immigration to the United States remained constant during the Great
Depression.
B) More immigrants came to the United States at this time due to the availability of low-skill,
hard-labor jobs.
C) Progressives urged that legislation be passed to restrict immigration and make it more
difficult for immigrants to become citizens.
D) Conservatives supported immigration reform since immigrants tended to take jobs that
Americans were too proud to take.

E) The Great Depression effectively reversed the flow of immigration across the Rio Grande,
deporting hundreds of thousands of immigrants.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The economic hardships of the Great Depression led to a significant decrease in immigration
to the United States. Additionally, the government implemented restrictive immigration
policies, including deportation campaigns targeting immigrants, particularly those from
Mexico, in an effort to reduce competition for jobs during the economic downturn.
28. How did Roosevelt go about winning the Democratic nomination in 1932? A) He set the
populists and urban reformers in opposition to each other.
B) He called for an end to traditional beliefs and conservative policies.
C) He backed the platform of the segregationists against the reformers.
D) He appealed to both the traditionalists and the new urban elements within the party.
E) He relied heavily on minority voters.
Answer: D
Rationale:
In securing the Democratic nomination in 1932, Roosevelt appealed to a broad coalition
within the party. He sought support from both traditionalists and new urban elements,
recognizing the need to unite various factions to secure victory in the presidential election.
29. Which of FDR’s actions ended the immediate financial crisis of the 1930s?
A) FDR established the Tennessee Valley Authority and created thousands of new jobs.
B) FDR’s Works Progress Administration spent nearly $5 billion on emergency relief.
C) FDR worked with powerful European nations to advance American agricultural trade.
D) Using a calm and fatherly tone, FDR soothed the public’s fears during fireside chats.
E) FDR gave government aid to the large banks, restoring confidence in the banking system.
Answer: E

Rationale:
FDR's decision to provide government aid to large banks was instrumental in restoring
confidence in the banking system during the immediate financial crisis of the 1930s. Through
measures such as the Emergency Banking Act and the establishment of the Federal Deposit
Insurance Corporation (FDIC), FDR stabilized the banking sector and prevented further bank
failures, which helped to alleviate the financial panic and restore public trust in the banking
system.
30. How did agencies created during the Hundred Days affect the Great Depression?
A) They attempted to relieve the suffering of Americans by giving government-subsidized
loans at very low rates.
B) Agencies such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Civilian Conservation Corps
succeeded in getting most of the unemployed back to work.
C) Their main effect was to end economic stagnation by getting many people back to work on
government projects.
D) They strengthened all the failing banks of the country, restoring Americans’ confidence in
banking.
E) They did little to affect the Great Depression, but they were perceived to be effective by
the public.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Agencies created during the Hundred Days, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
and the Public Works Administration (PWA), aimed to combat unemployment and stimulate
economic recovery by employing millions of Americans on government-funded projects. By
providing jobs and income to the unemployed, these agencies helped to alleviate economic
stagnation and promote recovery during the Great Depression.
31. What ultimately caused the National Recovery Administration to fail?
A) It did not address business owners’ goals of stabilizing production and raising prices.
B) It compelled all companies to join, regardless of whether they wanted to or not.

C) In the final analysis, very few industries decided to enroll in the NRA.
D) Its rules favored large corporations over small businesses and laborers.
E) It did not attempt to address labor leaders’ goals of establishing a minimum wage.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The National Recovery Administration (NRA) failed primarily due to criticisms that its rules
and codes favored large corporations over small businesses and laborers. Many small
businesses and workers felt marginalized by the NRA's policies, leading to widespread
opposition and ultimately undermining the effectiveness of the program.
32. How did the farm recovery program work to fix the agricultural industry?
A) It favored small farming operations over large industrial ones.
B) It convinced farmers to stop destroying their livestock and crops.
C) It found new international markets for surplus American crops.
D) It set production limits for leading crops and paid farmers subsidies.
E) It increased demand by giving away surplus food to the starving poor.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The farm recovery program, implemented through initiatives such as the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration (AAA), aimed to address agricultural overproduction and falling
prices during the Great Depression. It worked by setting production limits for key crops and
paying farmers subsidies to reduce output, thereby stabilizing prices and incomes in the
agricultural sector.
33. Why was the New Deal criticized during the early years of the Great Depression?
A) Many felt that Roosevelt’s programs were not aggressive enough in helping those truly in
need.
B) Some felt that its programs favored minorities and immigrants, leaving white middle class
Americans without aid.

C) Policies of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration were criticized for hampering
agricultural production and leading to food shortages.
D) Critics disagreed with the New Deal’s attempts to institute national health insurance and
relief for the unemployed.
E) Roosevelt and his policies were criticized for not reaching out to bankers, business leaders,
and others in the world of finance.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The New Deal faced criticism during the early years of the Great Depression because some
believed that Roosevelt's programs were not aggressive enough in addressing the needs of
those most severely affected by the economic crisis. Critics argued that more radical and
comprehensive measures were necessary to provide relief and stimulate economic recovery.
34. How did Huey Long’s “Share the Wealth” movement reflect on the federal government’s
efforts to address the Great Depression?
A) The fact that Americans were swayed by Huey Long’s flamboyant style suggested that
they had become disillusioned with FDR’s leadership.
B) The “Share the Wealth” movement complemented the New Deal’s programs, which
similarly sought to increase the standard of living of all Americans.
C) The “Share the Wealth” movement suggested that a large number of people felt that more
should be done for those in trouble.
D) Rising frustration with the slow pace of recovery resulted in a grassroots revival of
fundamentalist Christianity.
E) The emergence of viable third-party candidates suggested that neither Democrats nor
Republicans were capable of ending the Great Depression.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Huey Long's "Share the Wealth" movement reflected widespread frustration with the
economic hardships of the Great Depression and the perceived inadequacy of federal

government efforts to address them. Long's populist message resonated with many Americans
who felt that more should be done to alleviate poverty and inequality during this time of
crisis.
35. What was the primary motivation for the passage of the Social Security Act?
A) It was motivated by a belief that people ought to take responsibility for their economic
decisions and situations.
B) It was motivated by a desire to fend off Republican challenges to Democratic policies and
to ensure that FDR would be reelected.
C) It was motivated by a belief that wealth should be distributed equally among all American
citizens and across all social classes.
D) It was motivated by a concern that radical elements within American society would gain
power if discontent among the poor and dispossessed was not remedied.
E) It was motivated by a sense of duty to ensure that all American citizens, especially the
elderly, handicapped, and unemployed, were adequately protected.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The primary motivation for the passage of the Social Security Act was to provide a safety net
for American citizens, particularly the elderly, handicapped, and unemployed. The Act
established a system of social insurance to protect individuals from economic insecurity in
old age, unemployment, and disability, reflecting a sense of duty to ensure the well-being of
all citizens.
36. How did the New Deal affect American industrial workers?
A) It provided them with jobs, regardless of race or gender.
B) It provided the means for them to organize and bargain for benefits.
C) It allowed skilled workers to unionize, but left unskilled workers unrepresented.
D) It left them at the mercy of businesses that were supported by the government.
E) It squeezed out women and minorities to give jobs to white male workers.

Answer: B
Rationale:
The New Deal empowered American industrial workers by providing them with the means to
organize into labor unions and collectively bargain for better wages, working conditions, and
benefits. Programs such as the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) protected workers'
rights to unionize and engage in collective bargaining, leading to significant improvements in
labor conditions.
37. How were women and African Americans in the automobile and steel industries affected
by the organization of labor in the 1930s?
A) They were given a higher percentage of jobs because the government recognized that both
groups had been traditionally undervalued.
B) Their wages increased to equal that of white men because the government recognized that
they had been traditionally underpaid.
C) They were granted education and agricultural incentives to remove them from the
workforce and reduce competition for white men.
D) They filled largely unskilled jobs and were able to join unions along with skilled laborers
due to the passage of new legislation.
E) They did not benefit from the organization of labor and were shut out of almost all unions
and trade associations.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Women and African Americans in the automobile and steel industries benefited from the
organization of labor in the 1930s by gaining access to union representation and the
opportunity to join labor unions along with skilled laborers. While they often filled unskilled
positions, the passage of legislation such as the Wagner Act enabled them to participate in
organized labor movements and advocate for improved working conditions and wages.
38. Most African Americans shifted political affiliation from the Republican Party to the
Democratic Party in response to _______.
A) FDR designing the TVA and NRA specifically to benefit African Americans.

B) FDR appointing African Americans to high-ranking government positions.
C) FDR ensuring that African Americans received the same wages as white workers.
D) FDR using the New Deal to create legislation to end segregation in the South.
E) FDR providing employment and job security to most African Americans.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Most African Americans shifted political affiliation from the Republican Party to the
Democratic Party in response to FDR appointing African Americans to high-ranking
government positions. This representation and inclusion in government gave African
Americans a sense of recognition and political empowerment, leading to a shift in their
political allegiance.
39. What was one major impact of the New Deal on party politics?
A) It restored the U.S. economy to its original preeminence in the world.
B) It united Democrats and Republicans as no other crisis had before or since.
C) It sought to create a coalition by reaching out to ethnic voters.
D) It changed the political affiliations for most rural and urban voters.
E) It created a unified Democratic party of rural southerners and urban westerners.
Answer: C
Rationale:
One major impact of the New Deal on party politics was its effort to create a coalition by
reaching out to ethnic voters. The Democratic Party under FDR's leadership sought to expand
its base of support by appealing to diverse ethnic groups, including immigrants and
minorities, through policies and programs aimed at addressing their needs and concerns.
40. What is one reason why the election of 1936 was noteworthy?
A) It restored Republicans to power after years of Democratic rule.
B) It was the first time a third-party candidate received a sizable number of votes.

C) It marked the creation of a new, powerful political coalition.
D) It affected the political affiliation of most rural and small town voters.
E) It solidified a Democratic party of rural southerners and urban westerners.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The election of 1936 was noteworthy because it marked the creation of a new, powerful
political coalition. FDR's landslide victory in this election solidified the Democratic Party's
dominance and brought together diverse groups such as urban workers, ethnic minorities, and
rural farmers under the banner of the New Deal coalition.
41. Why did FDR attempt to “pack” the Supreme Court?
A) He knew opposing the Supreme Court would unite his disparate Democratic Party.
B) He knew opposing the Supreme Court would win him bipartisan support.
C) He saw the Supreme Court’s interference with the New Deal as unconstitutional.
D) He wanted to remove the final and most powerful threat to his New Deal programs.
E) He wanted to create a Democratic Supreme Court to ensure his legacy.
Answer: D
Rationale:
FDR attempted to "pack" the Supreme Court because he wanted to remove the final and most
powerful threat to his New Deal programs. The Supreme Court had struck down several key
pieces of New Deal legislation, leading FDR to propose expanding the Court to gain
favorable rulings and protect his progressive agenda.
42. How did the creation of reform programs during the New Deal eventually lead to its
demise?
A) The programs actually did very little to change the U.S. economic situation.
B) The programs required massive government spending and could not be sustained.
C) The programs were dismissed by Republicans who took control of Congress.

D) The programs were unpopular with the general public who began to speak out.
E) The programs were too progressive and could not outlast political changes.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The creation of reform programs during the New Deal eventually led to its demise because
the programs required massive government spending that could not be sustained in the long
term. As the costs of the New Deal mounted and the federal deficit increased, concerns about
fiscal responsibility and the sustainability of the programs grew, leading to criticism and
opposition that contributed to the eventual unraveling of the New Deal coalition.
43. How did FDR’s attitude toward budget deficits impact the success of the New Deal?
A) He drew from the country’s reserves and could not rescue the economy.
B) He did not see the importance of deficits, which could have helped the economy.
C) He raised the deficits, which inhibited his ability to save the economy.
D) He sought a balanced budget when he should have increased spending.
E) He spent too much and nearly bankrupted the United States.
Answer: D
Rationale:
FDR's attitude toward budget deficits impacted the success of the New Deal because he
initially sought a balanced budget when he should have increased spending to stimulate
economic recovery. This conservative approach to fiscal policy hindered the effectiveness of
New Deal programs in combating the Great Depression, as increased government spending
was needed to stimulate demand and create jobs.
44. How might FDR’s personal background have prepared him to meet the challenges of the
Great Depression?
A) Since he was from a privileged background, he did not personally suffer financial
hardship, which left him free to address the country’s crisis.

B) His service as assistant secretary of the Navy under Woodrow Wilson prepared him to
balance foreign and domestic affairs during the Great Depression.
C) His relationship to Theodore Roosevelt helped him become a conservationist and a
powerful Republican leader.
D) His bout with polio gave him personal experience of suffering and made him more
sensitive to the downtrodden of society.
E) His Ivy League education helped him understand the needs of wealthy American
businessmen during the Great Depression.
Answer: D
Rationale:
FDR's personal experience with polio prepared him to meet the challenges of the Great
Depression by giving him personal experience of suffering and making him more sensitive to
the struggles of marginalized groups in society. This empathy and understanding influenced
his policies and initiatives aimed at addressing the needs of the poor and disadvantaged
during the economic crisis.
45. Which of these explains the failure of the National Recovery Administration?
A) Labor and management were unable to really work together.
B) Its programs failed to help farmers.
C) Few banks were actually saved by the program.
D) The Supreme Court struck the program down at the height of its success.
E) The limits put on competition drove prices disastrously low.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The failure of the National Recovery Administration (NRA) can be attributed to the inability
of labor and management to effectively collaborate. Despite its goals of promoting industrial
recovery through cooperation between labor and business, the NRA faced challenges in
implementing and enforcing its codes of fair competition, leading to conflicts and
inefficiencies in the administration of the program.

46. Which of the following was NOT a way that the Great Depression benefited the
Democrats?
A) Their handling of the Depression was universally popular, giving the Democrats control of
Congress for a two-year period.
B) The Democrats were given the mandate to address the crisis and had almost unanimous
support early on.
C) FDR and Democratic lawmakers passed landmark legislation, such as the Social Security
Act.
D) The Republicans had been unable to prevent the Depression, and as a result the Democrats
returned to power.
E) Initially, Democrats enjoyed party cohesion that helped push through New Deal programs.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The statement "Their handling of the Depression was universally popular, giving the
Democrats control of Congress for a two-year period" was NOT a way that the Great
Depression benefited the Democrats. While the other options highlight ways in which the
Democrats benefited politically or legislatively from the Great Depression, the given
statement inaccurately suggests that their handling of the Depression directly resulted in
universal popularity and congressional control.
47. Working women in the 1930s faced all of the following EXCEPT _______.
A) discriminatory hiring and firing practices
B) an unemployment rate higher than 20 percent for a decade
C) lower wages sanctioned by government regulations
D) lack of a minimum wage for maids and waitresses
E) lack of appointments for women in high-ranking positions
Answer: E
Rationale:

Working women in the 1930s faced discriminatory hiring and firing practices, an
unemployment rate higher than 20 percent for a decade, lower wages sanctioned by
government regulations, and lack of a minimum wage for maids and waitresses. However,
lack of appointments for women in high-ranking positions was not a specific challenge faced
by working women in the 1930s, as opportunities for women in leadership roles were limited
across most sectors.
48. In his second term, Roosevelt was stung by all of the following EXCEPT _______.
A) strained relations with Congress in the wake of his “court packing” scheme
B) the defeat of minimum wage and maximum hour legislation
C) a serious economic relapse known as the “Roosevelt recession”
D) a Republican resurgence during the 1938 midterm elections
E) the emergence of a conservative congressional coalition
Answer: B
Rationale:
In his second term, Roosevelt was stung by strained relations with Congress in the wake of
his "court packing" scheme, a serious economic relapse known as the "Roosevelt recession,"
a Republican resurgence during the 1938 midterm elections, and the emergence of a
conservative congressional coalition. However, the defeat of minimum wage and maximum
hour legislation did not directly sting Roosevelt during his second term; instead, it was an
issue he faced earlier in his presidency.
49. Which of the following adjectives best describes economic recovery in the wake of the
New Deal?
A) fast and steep
B) well-paced and continuous
C) slow and halting
D) slow but steady
E) fast but halting

Answer: C
Rationale:
Economic recovery in the wake of the New Deal can be described as slow and halting. While
the New Deal initiatives and programs aimed to stimulate recovery, the effects were gradual
and uneven, with periods of improvement interspersed with setbacks and challenges. The
economy experienced fluctuations and struggles to fully recover from the Great Depression,
resulting in a slow and uneven path to recovery.
50. What was the most significant long-range effect of the New Deal on American society?
A) After the New Deal, Americans tended to resist large-scale governmental programs that
sought directly to control aspects of economic and social life.
B) The economic initiatives and programs instituted by FDR’s administration during the New
Deal have continued to strengthen the U.S. economy to this day.
C) Since the New Deal, a tight coalition between southern Democrats and conservative
Republicans has continued to oppose presidential policies.
D) The immigration policies established during the New Deal continue to set quotas,
insulating American-born workers from foreign-born competition.
E) Certain key programs, such as Social Security, have become an integral part of American
life, providing essential benefits to millions of Americans today.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The most significant long-range effect of the New Deal on American society was that certain
key programs, such as Social Security, have become an integral part of American life,
providing essential benefits to millions of Americans today. Social Security, established
during the New Deal era, remains one of the most enduring and impactful social welfare
programs in U.S. history, providing retirement, disability, and survivor benefits to American
citizens and shaping the social safety net for generations.
Essay
1. Analyze the causes of the Great Depression. What role did the stock market crash play?

Answer: The Great Depression was caused by a combination of factors, including
overproduction, speculation, excessive borrowing, and unequal distribution of wealth. The
stock market crash of 1929 served as a catalyst, triggering a chain reaction of events that
exacerbated existing economic vulnerabilities. The crash led to a loss of confidence in the
economy, resulting in widespread panic selling and a collapse of stock prices. This, in turn,
caused banks to fail, businesses to close, and unemployment to soar, deepening the economic
downturn and prolonging the effects of the Depression.
2. What made Franklin Roosevelt better equipped than Herbert Hoover to handle the crisis of
the Great Depression?
Answer: Franklin Roosevelt was better equipped than Herbert Hoover to handle the crisis of
the Great Depression due to his ability to inspire confidence and implement bold, innovative
policies. Unlike Hoover, who initially favored a more hands-off approach to economic
intervention, Roosevelt embraced the idea of active government intervention to address the
economic crisis. He introduced the New Deal, a series of programs aimed at providing relief,
recovery, and reform, which helped alleviate the suffering of millions of Americans and laid
the groundwork for economic recovery.
3. How did the Roosevelt administration deal with crises in banking, manufacturing, and
agriculture? In which area did it have the most success? In which did it have the least
success? Why?
Answer: The Roosevelt administration addressed crises in banking, manufacturing, and
agriculture through a combination of regulatory measures, relief programs, and government
intervention. In banking, Roosevelt implemented the Emergency Banking Act to stabilize the
financial system and restore public confidence in banks. This proved to be one of the
administration's most successful initiatives, as it helped prevent further bank failures and
restore stability to the banking sector.
In manufacturing, the administration implemented various programs under the New Deal,
such as the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and the Works Progress Administration
(WPA), aimed at stimulating economic activity and providing jobs. While these programs
provided some relief and employment, they were not without flaws and faced criticism for
inefficiency and favoritism.

In agriculture, the Roosevelt administration implemented the Agricultural Adjustment Act
(AAA) to address the problem of overproduction and falling farm prices. The AAA sought to
boost farm income by reducing crop surpluses through production controls and price
supports. However, the program faced challenges, including opposition from tenant farmers
and sharecroppers, and did not fully alleviate the agricultural crisis.
4. How did the New Deal affect organized labor throughout the decade of the 1930s?
Answer: The New Deal had a significant impact on organized labor throughout the 1930s,
leading to a resurgence of labor activism and the establishment of labor rights and
protections. Roosevelt's administration enacted several key pieces of legislation favorable to
labor, including the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) and the Fair Labor Standards Act
(FLSA), which guaranteed workers the right to organize, engage in collective bargaining, and
receive a minimum wage and overtime pay.
These measures empowered workers to form unions and negotiate with employers for better
wages, hours, and working conditions. As a result, union membership grew substantially
during the 1930s, and labor unions became more influential in shaping labor relations and
advocating for workers' rights. The New Deal's support for organized labor helped pave the
way for the growth of the labor movement in the United States and contributed to the
improvement of workers' lives.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands
9780205900688

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