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Chapter twenty-five
Transition to modern america
Multiple Choice
1. The _____ helped usher in an age of leisure.
A) use of electricity
B) use of cotton in textile manufacturing
C) introduction of popular fiction
D) increased use of domestic workers
E) equal distribution of wealth
Answer: A
Rationale:
The use of electricity revolutionized daily life in the 1920s, contributing significantly to the
age of leisure. It enabled the widespread adoption of labor-saving devices such as vacuum
cleaners, washing machines, and refrigerators, freeing up time for leisure activities and
enhancing overall quality of life.
2. The key to the new affluence of the 1920s lay in _____.
A) new methods of business organization
B) the discovery of new sources of raw materials
C) better methods of financing business
D) a more skilled work force
E) new forms of technology
Answer: E
Rationale:
The introduction of new forms of technology, such as assembly line production and mass
manufacturing techniques, was crucial to the newfound affluence of the 1920s. These

innovations significantly increased productivity and efficiency, leading to higher profits and
economic growth.
3. Crucial to the growth of the automobile industry in the 1920s was _____.
A) traditional financing options
B) new and increased marketing
C) the long life of the new automobile
D) the rise of steam power
E) greater disposable income
Answer: B
Rationale:
New and increased marketing efforts played a crucial role in the growth of the automobile
industry during the 1920s. Companies employed aggressive advertising campaigns to
promote their vehicles, targeting a broader consumer base and stimulating demand for cars.
4. The revolution in consumer goods _____.
A) was offset by problems in other industries, such as the railroads
B) epitomized the growth of all areas of the economy
C) was a short-term factor in the American economy
D) aided all other kinds of industry
E) helped fuel growth in the railroad industry
Answer: A
Rationale:
The revolution in consumer goods, while significant, was offset by problems in other
industries such as the railroads. Despite the growth of consumer spending, the railroad
industry faced challenges such as overexpansion, competition from other modes of
transportation, and declining demand for rail services.
5. The area of greatest decline in the American economy in the 1920s was _____.

A) automobiles
B) agriculture
C) banking
D) exports
E) manufacturing
Answer: B
Rationale:
Agriculture experienced the greatest decline in the American economy during the 1920s.
Farmers faced falling crop prices, overproduction, and heavy debt burdens, leading to
widespread economic hardship and rural distress known as the Farm Crisis.
6. The 1920 census revealed that _____.
A) slightly more than half of the population lived in cities
B) most people still resided in rural areas
C) southern cities were experiencing a population boom
D) a third of the population had migrated to the South
E) African Americans were migrating from the North
Answer: A
Rationale:
The 1920 census revealed that slightly more than half of the population lived in cities,
marking a significant demographic shift toward urbanization in the United States. This trend
reflected the growth of industrialization and urban centers during the 1920s.
7. Which of the following was NOT a popular sport that flourished in the 1920s?
A) boxing
B) baseball
C) college football

D) golf
E) soccer
Answer: E
Rationale:
Soccer was not a popular sport that flourished in the 1920s in the United States. While it
gained some popularity in immigrant communities, it did not achieve the widespread success
and prominence of sports like boxing, baseball, college football, and golf during that period.
8. The ________ exemplified the flowering of African-American culture in the 1920s.
A) growth of the NAACP
B) flapper era
C) Harlem Renaissance
D) expatriate community
E) “Garveyites”
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Harlem Renaissance exemplified the flowering of African-American culture in the
1920s. Centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, this cultural movement
celebrated the artistic, literary, and intellectual achievements of African Americans,
showcasing their talents and contributions to American society.
9. During the Red Scare of 1919–1920, ________ led the attack on foreign-born radicals.
A) A. Mitchell Palmer
B) Clarence Darrow
C) Warren G. Harding
D) Alexander Berkman
E) William Jennings Bryan
Answer: A

Rationale:
A. Mitchell Palmer led the attack on foreign-born radicals during the Red Scare of 1919–
1920. As the Attorney General of the United States, Palmer oversaw the Palmer Raids, a
series of law enforcement actions targeting suspected anarchists and communists, resulting in
arrests, deportations, and civil liberties violations.
10. Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted of murder primarily because they were _____.
A) Russian immigrants
B) foreign-born
C) atheists
D) former criminals
E) African American
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted of murder primarily because they were foreign-born
immigrants. The trial of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian anarchists, was highly
controversial and widely criticized for its perceived bias against immigrants and political
radicals.
11. Which one of the following was NOT a result of prohibition?
A) an increase in drinking in America
B) an increase in crime in America
C) the end of alcohol consumption in America
D) an opposition to prohibition in cities
E) a lucrative bootlegging business
Answer: A
Rationale:

Prohibition led to a decrease in legal alcohol consumption in America, not an increase. The
intention of prohibition was to reduce alcohol consumption and its associated societal
problems, although it inadvertently fueled a lucrative bootlegging business and contributed to
a rise in organized crime.
12. The rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan began in 1915 in the state of _____.
A) Texas
B) Oregon
C) Illinois
D) Georgia
E) Alabama
Answer: D
Rationale:
The rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan began in 1915 in the state of Georgia. The Klan experienced
a resurgence in the early 20th century, primarily in the South but also spreading to other
regions, fueled by racism, nativism, and anti-immigrant sentiments.
13. The Ku Klux Klan went into decline soon after _____.
A) Klan leaders were found to be involved in sexual and financial scandals
B) the organization was unmasked as a secret communist conspiracy
C) new federal laws made membership a crime in 1927
D) evangelist Billy Sunday denounced it in a widely-reprinted sermon
E) it blocked a resolution of censure at the Democratic national convention
Answer: A
Rationale:
The Ku Klux Klan went into decline soon after Klan leaders were found to be involved in
sexual and financial scandals. These scandals tarnished the image of the Klan and led to
internal divisions within the organization, contributing to its decline in membership and
influence.

14. The immigration legislation of the 1920s _____.
A) had no lasting effect
B) was opposed by the large corporations
C) encouraged immigration from underdeveloped countries
D) was the most enduring achievement of the rural counterattack
E) was quickly repealed in the 1930s
Answer: D
Rationale:
The immigration legislation of the 1920s, particularly the National Origins Act of 1924, was
the most enduring achievement of the rural counterattack. It established immigration quotas
based on nationality, favoring immigrants from northern and western European countries
while severely restricting immigration from southern and eastern Europe and virtually
excluding Asian immigrants.
15. Which group was exempted from the provisions of the National Origins Act of 1921?
A) Italians
B) Russians
C) Germans
D) Mexicans
E) Irish
Answer: D
Rationale:
Mexicans were exempted from the provisions of the National Origins Act of 1921. The act
primarily targeted immigration from Europe and Asia, imposing quotas based on nationality,
but it did not apply to immigration from the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico.
16. John Scopes was put on trial for _____.
A) sending package bombs during the Red Scare

B) evading the draft during World War I
C) shouting “fire” in a crowded theater
D) teaching the theory of evolution in a Tennessee high school
E) committing murder and a payroll robbery
Answer: D
Rationale:
John Scopes was put on trial for teaching the theory of evolution in a Tennessee high school.
The Scopes Trial, also known as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was a highly publicized legal case
that tested a Tennessee law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in public schools.
17. Harding and his successors _____.
A) sought to continue the policies of Wilson
B) wanted a return to traditional Republican policies
C) advanced in new directions
D) sought to maintain the status quo
E) wanted to redefine “Republicanism”
Answer: B
Rationale:
Harding and his successors wanted a return to traditional Republican policies. They aimed to
restore conservative values and promote business interests, favoring limited government
intervention in the economy and supporting policies that benefited big business.
18. As Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover _____.
A) sought to limit government-business relations
B) established a reputation in the area of transportation
C) differed with the policies of Harding and Coolidge
D) pushed for closer relations between government and business

E) was completely unable to accomplish his goals
Answer: D
Rationale:
As Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover pushed for closer relations between government
and business. He believed in promoting cooperation between government and industry to
foster economic growth and stability, advocating for voluntary associations and industry selfregulation.
19. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon pushed for _____.
A) increased government spending
B) reduced government spending
C) creation of an estate tax
D) higher corporate taxes
E) higher taxes for the rich
Answer: B
Rationale:
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon pushed for reduced government spending. Mellon
believed in fiscal conservatism and advocated for lower taxes and government expenditures
to stimulate economic growth and reduce the national debt.
20. The root of the problems that farmers faced in the 1920s was _____.
A) crop disease
B) foreign competition
C) high labor costs
D) overproduction
E) high tariff rates
Answer: D
Rationale:

The root of the problems that farmers faced in the 1920s was overproduction. Following
World War I, agricultural production increased significantly, leading to surpluses, falling
prices, and economic hardship for farmers.
21. The Democratic candidate in the election of 1928 was _____.
A) Robert M. La Follette
B) James Cox
C) John W. Davis
D) Al Smith
E) William McAdoo
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Democratic candidate in the election of 1928 was Al Smith. Smith was the governor of
New York and the first Catholic to be nominated for president by a major party, but he lost to
the Republican nominee, Herbert Hoover.
22. An indicator of the future strength of the Democratic Party was _____.
A) its success in the presidential race of 1924
B) the shift of urban voters to the party
C) an increase in the number of rural Democrats
D) the unpopularity of Republican presidents
E) a large number of women voters
Answer: B
Rationale:
An indicator of the future strength of the Democratic Party was the shift of urban voters to
the party. The urbanization of America during the early 20th century led to a demographic
shift that favored the Democratic Party, particularly as urban populations grew and became
more politically active.

23. Beneath the surface, the two candidates in the election of 1928 _____.
A) were strikingly similar
B) were radically different
C) were somewhat alike
D) had little in common
E) despised each other
Answer: A
Rationale:
Beneath the surface, the two candidates in the election of 1928 were strikingly similar.
Despite their different party affiliations, both Herbert Hoover and Al Smith were moderate
progressives who supported similar economic policies, such as limited government
intervention and promoting business interests.
24. What was the significance of Ford’s Highland Park plant in the transition to modern
America?
A) It was the first factory to open in the United States.
B) It marked the maturity of mass production in the United States.
C) This plant produced crucial military equipment for World War I.
D) It was the place in which organized labor first emerged.
E) Women laborers were employed here for the first time.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The significance of Ford’s Highland Park plant in the transition to modern America was that
it marked the maturity of mass production in the United States. The Highland Park plant,
located in Michigan, was where Henry Ford introduced the moving assembly line and other
innovations that revolutionized manufacturing and made mass production of automobiles
possible.

25. How did the advent of mass production change the lives of many Americans in the early
twentieth century?
A) Americans attained the highest standard of living in the world.
B) There was an increase in racial harmony among U.S. workers.
C) Unemployment rates plummeted due to the mechanization of production.
D) The farmers of rural America benefited due to increased demand for produce.
E) Poverty went into decline due to the availability of cheap goods.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The advent of mass production changed the lives of many Americans in the early twentieth
century by enabling them to attain the highest standard of living in the world. Mass
production led to increased productivity, reduced costs, and greater availability of consumer
goods, contributing to rising living standards for many Americans.
26. What was one of the negative consequences of the consumer goods economy?
A) Mass production resulted in the depletion of crucial natural resources.
B) Labor disputes disrupted the production process and damaged economic growth.
C) The quality of the goods that were produced was substandard.
D) Growth was limited to the auto industry.
E) Traditional industries declined.
Answer: E
Rationale:
One of the negative consequences of the consumer goods economy was that traditional
industries declined. As consumer preferences shifted towards new products and technologies,
industries that could not adapt to mass production methods or compete with newer goods
experienced decline and sometimes faced obsolescence.
27. What was the effect of uniformity and standardization on the lives of average Americans?

A) It led to an increase in the average salary of the American worker.
B) Women were now able to leave their households to enter the work force.
C) It led to the homogenization of consumer goods and the blurring of regional
distinctiveness.
D) It resulted in economic stability that persisted throughout the next two decades.
E) Countless new brands emerged as different regions produced their own goods.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The effect of uniformity and standardization on the lives of average Americans was that it led
to the homogenization of consumer goods and the blurring of regional distinctiveness. Mass
production techniques and marketing strategies aimed at creating uniform products for a
national market, leading to a loss of regional diversity in consumer goods and cultural
practices.
28. Which of these did not share in the prosperity of the 1920s?
A) agriculture
B) department stores
C) the automotive industry
D) the chemical industry
E) the entertainment industry
Answer: A
Rationale:
Agriculture did not share in the prosperity of the 1920s. Despite advances in technology and
increased productivity in other sectors of the economy, agriculture faced overproduction,
falling prices, and economic hardship during the 1920s
29. Where and why did the major demographic shift of the 1920s take place?
A) There was a mass movement of people from the cities to the suburbs.

B) There was a mass movement of people from the rural countryside to cities.
C) The development of mechanization in agricultural production drew populations from
urban centers to more rural areas.
D) People moved in large numbers from urban areas to rural areas.
E) Population shifted from the South to the North.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The major demographic shift of the 1920s took place as there was a mass movement of
people from the rural countryside to cities. This shift, known as urbanization, was driven by
various factors such as the availability of industrial jobs, mechanization in agriculture
reducing the need for farm labor, and the allure of urban amenities and lifestyles.
30. How did the emergence of urban culture affect the lives of women?
A) The emergence of urban culture led to a spike in the numbers of working women.
B) Women found their leisure time greatly increased.
C) Salaries of female workers began to climb during this period.
D) Women grew more assertive and concentrated on individual self-expression.
E) More women than men were able to attain academic degrees.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The emergence of urban culture affected the lives of women by making them more assertive
and concentrated on individual self-expression. Urbanization provided women with
opportunities to participate in social and cultural activities outside the home, leading to
changes in societal norms and expectations regarding gender roles.
31. How were families affected by the changes sweeping American society in the 1920s?
A) Generally, childhood and adolescence became shorter periods because families needed to
send children to work at a younger age.

B) Fewer married women took jobs outside of the home as traditional values were restored
across the country.
C) The “youth movement” of the 1920s championed traditional family values, such as respect
for one’s parents.
D) Church attendance in urban areas decreased due to a drop in population and in the
construction of houses of worship in the countryside.
E) The average American family decreased in size due to the availability of more effective
birth control methods.
Answer: E
Rationale:
Families were affected by the changes sweeping American society in the 1920s as the average
American family decreased in size due to the availability of more effective birth control
methods. Economic prosperity and cultural shifts led to changes in family dynamics,
including a decline in birth rates and smaller family sizes.
32. How did attitudes toward sex and marriage change during the Roaring Twenties?
A) Victorian attitudes towards sex and marriage reemerged to sway American society
throughout the 1920s.
B) There was minimal change in attitudes toward sex and marriage at this time in American
history.
C) Divorce rates remained low as conservative values continued to dominate urban American
society.
D) People freely flouted Victorian sexual mores and behavior and more than half of all
marriages ended in divorce.
E) There was greater tolerance in attitudes toward sex, which was no longer a taboo subject,
along with a higher incidence of divorce.
Answer: E
Rationale:

Attitudes toward sex and marriage changed during the Roaring Twenties as there was greater
tolerance in attitudes toward sex, which was no longer a taboo subject, along with a higher
incidence of divorce. The cultural shifts of the 1920s, including the influence of urbanization
and changing gender roles, led to more liberal attitudes regarding relationships and sexuality.
33. In what way can Jazz Age activities be seen as an effect of the economic growth of this
period?
A) The boom in consumer goods resulted in people turning away from sports and
entertainment to spend their leisure time shopping.
B) The rise in industry led to the construction of the first local transit systems, which made it
easier for Americans to attend cultural events.
C) Increased standards of living provided the middle class with disposable income to spend
on an increasing variety of diversions.
D) The uniformity and austerity of mass production was reflected in the era’s culture, which
became more straitlaced and buttoned down.
E) Business leaders and laborers became preoccupied with making money, which left little
time for leisure activities or other diversions.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Jazz Age activities can be seen as an effect of the economic growth of this period because
increased standards of living provided the middle class with disposable income to spend on
an increasing variety of diversions. The economic prosperity of the 1920s allowed more
people to afford leisure activities such as attending jazz clubs, dances, and other forms of
entertainment.
34. How did authors Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald differ?
A) Hemingway lived as an expatriate in Europe, while Fitzgerald remained at home in the
United States.
B) Hemingway belonged to the Lost Generation, while Fitzgerald was part of the Harlem
Renaissance.

C) Hemingway’s style included bittersweet prose, while Fitzgerald favored a sparse, clean
approach.
D) Hemingway wrote about a lack of human concern, while Fitzgerald wrote about the quest
for personal honor.
E) Hemingway was known for his glittery lifestyle on Long Island, while Fitzgerald became
renowned for stalking lions in Africa.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald differed in that Hemingway lived as an expatriate
in Europe, while Fitzgerald remained at home in the United States. Their differing lifestyles
and experiences influenced their writing styles and subject matter, with Hemingway often
drawing on his experiences abroad while Fitzgerald focused more on American themes and
settings.
35. What did the Red Scare reveal about the darker side of American society?
A) There was a deep undercurrent of intolerance and bigotry in American society.
B) Americans were more interested in economic growth than in personal liberties.
C) Racism emerged as a new phenomenon in the America of the 1920s.
D) Americans were willing to tolerate immigrants if they stayed out of political life.
E) There was a general indifference toward issues of race, ethnicity, and national identity.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The Red Scare revealed a darker side of American society, showing that there was a deep
undercurrent of intolerance and bigotry. The fear of communism and radicalism during the
Red Scare led to widespread suspicion, discrimination, and violations of civil liberties,
highlighting the darker aspects of American society during the 1920s.
36. Which group in American society greatly benefited from the passage of prohibition?
A) The upper middle class greatly benefited because they were exempt from this law.

B) Bootleggers who controlled the illegal production and sale of alcohol greatly benefited.
C) People in rural areas who championed this “noble experiment” greatly benefited.
D) Churches greatly benefited due to the role they played in counseling alcoholics.
E) Government leaders who passed the law greatly benefited from public appreciation.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The prohibition era provided significant opportunities for bootleggers who controlled the
illegal production and sale of alcohol. With the demand for alcohol remaining high despite its
illegality, bootleggers profited immensely from supplying alcohol through underground
channels.
37. Why did the Ku Klux Klan experience a rebirth during the early part of the 1920s?
A) The Klan was the chief producer and purveyor of illegal liquor during prohibition.
B) The perception of eroding traditional values led many to adopt the Klan’s extremism.
C) The growth of the Klan was an indicator of a rise in the standard of living.
D) The Klan broadened its constituency to Catholics, which attracted new members.
E) The Klan employed violent methods to force people to join their membership.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Ku Klux Klan experienced a rebirth during the early part of the 1920s because the
perception of eroding traditional values led many to adopt the Klan’s extremism. Social
changes, including urbanization, immigration, and cultural shifts, fueled fears among some
segments of society, leading to a resurgence of the Klan, which capitalized on these anxieties.
38. Why did nativism grow in the 1920s?
A) There was a great deal of postwar resentment toward Europeans.
B) Americans tended to favor immigration from “native” Latin America.
C) Most European immigrants were socialists or communists.

D) Influential Americans feared the purity of the race was threatened.
E) Many Americans had a racist bias against Europeans.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Nativism grew in the 1920s because influential Americans feared the purity of the race was
threatened by immigration. Concerns about maintaining the dominance of Anglo-Saxon
culture and preserving perceived American values led to increased hostility and
discrimination toward immigrants, particularly those from Eastern and Southern Europe.
39. What did the Scopes trial reveal about religious tensions during the 1920s?
A) It displayed the divide between science and fundamentalism.
B) It demonstrated a suspicion of the Roman Catholic Church.
C) It was a pivotal moment in the heated debate over abortion.
D) It highlighted differences between Christianity and Judaism.
E) It alienated those who believed in the separation of church and state.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The Scopes trial revealed religious tensions during the 1920s by displaying the divide
between science and fundamentalism. The trial, which centered on the teaching of evolution
in public schools, highlighted the clash between religious beliefs and scientific principles,
reflecting broader debates over the role of religion in education and society.
40. What was the intent of the Republican Party’s push for “normalcy”?
A) The return to normalcy indicated Republican reservations about mass production and
other broad economic changes.
B) “Normalcy” aimed to raise income taxes for all classes of American citizens.
C) This term indicated that Republicans wanted to reverse the cultural transformation
sweeping American society.

D) Republicans sought to shrink government intervention in all aspects of the economy as
part of the planned return to normalcy.
E) Reacting to the reforms of progressive presidents, such as Woodrow Wilson and Teddy
Roosevelt, Republicans sought stability and security.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The intent of the Republican Party’s push for “normalcy” was to react to the reforms of
progressive presidents, such as Woodrow Wilson and Teddy Roosevelt, by seeking stability
and security. After a period of social and economic upheaval, Republicans aimed to restore
what they perceived as traditional values and institutions, providing a sense of normalcy and
reassurance to the American public.
41. How did Republican policies affect the wealthiest Americans?
A) Overall, the wealthiest Americans paid a higher percentage of their income in taxes.
B) Wealthy Americans faced new kinds of taxes, such as the estate tax.
C) Wealthy Americans saw their income taxes reduced significantly.
D) The wealthiest Americans became the hardest hit during the Great Depression.
E) The wealthiest Americans experienced a difficult relationship with the government.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Republican policies affected the wealthiest Americans by allowing them to see their income
taxes reduced significantly. The policies of Republican administrations in the 1920s,
including tax cuts and a pro-business stance, favored the wealthy by reducing their tax burden
and promoting economic growth through deregulation and lower taxes on high-income
individuals.
42. Why did Hoover have greater appeal than Smith in the election of 1928?
A) As a big-city politician, Hoover appealed to the immigrant population that was larger than
the “nativist” population.

B) As a Protestant and someone who stood for traditional American values, Hoover appealed
to a larger majority of Americans.
C) Hoover was a self-made man who embodied the American belief in freedom of
opportunity and upward mobility.
D) Hoover had fought valiantly during World War I, whereas Smith was known to be a “draft
dodger.”
E) Prior to the presidential race of 1928, Smith had never been involved in politics and had
little experience.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Hoover had greater appeal than Smith in the election of 1928 because, as a Protestant and
someone who stood for traditional American values, he appealed to a larger majority of
Americans. Smith's Catholic faith and perceived association with urban machine politics
alienated some voters, particularly in Protestant rural areas, while Hoover's background as a
self-made man and his reputation as an efficient organizer resonated with many Americans.
43. What was the pivotal role of religion in the 1928 election?
A) Most Americans voted for Hoover as the Protestant candidate.
B) Most Americans were Catholic immigrants and identified with Smith.
C) The Ku Klux Klan helped elect Hoover because he was Protestant.
D) The Roman Catholic Church ordered its faithful to vote for Al Smith.
E) Religiously active Protestants refused to participate in this election.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The pivotal role of religion in the 1928 election was that most Americans voted for Hoover as
the Protestant candidate. Hoover's Protestant background and image as a defender of
traditional values appealed to a predominantly Protestant electorate, contributing to his
victory over Smith, who faced discrimination due to his Catholic faith.

46. Which of the following was NOT a way that the Red Scare influenced American society?
A) Fears of radical elements within American society led to a restriction of civil liberties as
authorities sought to contain the perceived threat.
B) There was an increased sense of fear as radicals committed violent acts such as the
bombing of Attorney General Palmer’s home in 1919.
C) The negative response to the Red Scare contributed to a rise in membership of the
Communist Party across the United States.
D) The Red Scare led to heightened antagonism toward foreigners and the widespread
deportation of certain groups of immigrants.
E) In certain cases, such as the Sacco and Vanzetti murder trial, the justice system was
compromised and justice did not prevail.
Answer: C
Rationale:
While the Red Scare influenced American society in various ways, including restrictions on
civil liberties, increased fear, and heightened antagonism toward foreigners, it did not
contribute to a rise in membership of the Communist Party across the United States. In fact,
the Red Scare was primarily directed against perceived communist threats, leading to the
suppression of communist activities rather than an increase in party membership.
47. Which issue from the 1920s continues to factor heavily in politics today?
A) open immigration versus restrictive legislation
B) segregation versus integration
C) communism versus conservatism
D) prohibition versus alcohol distribution
E) the theory of evolution versus a belief in creationism
Answer: A
Rationale:

The issue of open immigration versus restrictive legislation from the 1920s continues to
factor heavily in politics today. Debates over immigration policy, including questions of
border security, refugee admission, and pathways to citizenship, remain central to political
discourse and policymaking, reflecting ongoing tensions and divisions within American
society.
48. What did Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover all have in common?
A) All three politicians were presidents from the Democratic Party.
B) All three politicians were born and raised in America’s largest cities.
C) All three politicians were conservatives who epitomized traditional values.
D) All three politicians pushed a reform agenda while serving in office.
E) All three politicians supported small business owners and labor unions.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover all shared the commonality of being conservatives who
epitomized traditional values. As Republican presidents during the 1920s, they generally
favored limited government intervention in the economy, tax cuts, and policies supportive of
business interests, reflecting a conservative approach to governance that emphasized free
enterprise and individual responsibility.
49. Which political tensions began in the 1920s and still exist today?
A) tensions between Protestants and Catholics
B) tensions between Republicans and Democrats
C) tensions between “wets” and “drys”
D) tensions between traditional conservatives and neo-conservatives
E) tensions between male and female politicians
Answer: B
Rationale:

Political tensions between Republicans and Democrats began in the 1920s and still exist
today. The two major political parties have historically represented different ideological
perspectives and policy priorities, leading to ongoing competition and conflict in American
politics. Partisan divisions persist across various issues, shaping electoral outcomes,
legislative agendas, and public discourse.
50. Which of the following is the best characterization of the United States in the decade
following World War I?
A) The United States suffered an economic decline that left millions out of work and lasted
until the next world war.
B) The United States was devastated emotionally by the war and spent the 1920s rebuilding
its confidence and command.
C) The United States emerged from the war as one of the powerful nations of the world, and
spent the 1920s economically and politically solidifying that dominance.
D) The United States was disillusioned by the conflict and spent the 1920s completely
isolated and removed from the international stage.
E) The United States continued to be divided by ethnicity with German and Russian
Americans on one side and English and French Americans on the other.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The best characterization of the United States in the decade following World War I is that it
emerged from the war as one of the powerful nations of the world and spent the 1920s
economically and politically solidifying that dominance. The war contributed to the rise of
the United States as a global economic and military power, and the 1920s saw efforts to
maintain and expand American influence both domestically and internationally through
policies such as isolationism and economic expansion.
Essay
1. How did mass production, marketing, and popular culture begin to homogenize regional
and local subcultures during the 1920s?

Answer: Mass production, marketing, and the rise of popular culture during the 1920s led to
the homogenization of regional and local subcultures in several ways. First, mass production
techniques allowed for the standardized manufacturing of goods, leading to the availability of
the same products across different regions. Second, marketing strategies, such as advertising
campaigns, promoted the consumption of these mass-produced goods, creating a demand for
uniform products nationwide. Finally, the emergence of popular culture, including radio,
cinema, and magazines, disseminated common cultural norms and values, eroding local
traditions and customs in favor of a more standardized national culture.
2. What factors account for the “rural counterattack” of the 1920s? What forms did it take?
What was its most significant success?
Answer: The "rural counterattack" of the 1920s was fueled by several factors. One key factor
was the perceived cultural clash between rural and urban values, with many rural Americans
feeling marginalized by the rapid urbanization and modernization of society. This
counterattack took various forms, including the resurgence of fundamentalist religious
movements, such as the growth of the Ku Klux Klan, which targeted immigrants and urban
elites. Additionally, prohibition, which was largely supported by rural Americans, represented
a legislative victory for the rural counterattack, as it sought to impose rural moral standards
on the entire nation. However, its most significant success was perhaps the Scopes Monkey
Trial of 1925, where fundamentalist values clashed with modern scientific theories in a
highly publicized legal battle, highlighting the tensions between rural traditionalism and
urban modernity.
3. What events marked the interaction between political and cultural developments related in
the 1920s?
Answer: The 1920s witnessed significant interactions between political and cultural
developments, with several key events marking this intersection. One such event was the
passage of prohibition laws, which reflected the influence of cultural values on political
decision-making. Prohibition was a response to the moral concerns of many Americans
regarding alcohol consumption, and its enforcement involved political action at both the state
and federal levels. Another notable event was the rise of the Harlem Renaissance, a cultural
movement that celebrated African American art, music, and literature. The Harlem
Renaissance had political implications, as it challenged racial stereotypes and advocated for
social and political equality for African Americans. Additionally, the emergence of radio as a

mass medium for communication allowed political leaders to reach a broader audience and
shape public opinion through speeches and broadcasts, further blurring the lines between
political and cultural spheres.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands
9780205900688

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