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Chapter Twenty Two
The Progressive Era
Multiple Choice
1. Lincoln Steffens did much of his research and writing about ________.
A) corruption in city government
B) filth in meatpacking plants
C) monopolies
D) environmental conservation
E) unhealthy working conditions
Answer: A
Lincoln Steffens was known for his investigative journalism focused on political corruption,
particularly within city governments. His work exposed the corrupt practices of urban
political machines, making
2. The author of The Jungle was ________.
A) Booker T. Washington
B) Upton Sinclair
C) John D. Rockefeller
D) Samuel Gompers
E) Henry Ford
Answer: B
Upton Sinclair wrote "The Jungle," a novel that exposed the unsanitary and inhumane
conditions of the meatpacking industry in Chicago.
3. The ________ set new standards for mass production in the early twentieth century.

A) Colt .45 revolver
B) McCormick reaper
C) Ford Model T
D) General Electric oscillating fan
E) phonograph
Answer: C
The Ford Model T revolutionized mass production with its assembly line manufacturing
process, setting new standards for efficiency and affordability in the automotive industry.
Option C is the correct answer.
4. What theory did Henry Ford use to derive his company’s enormous revenues?
A) sell cheap, low-quality goods
B) sell goods made with old-fashioned methods of production
C) sell goods made in low-volume, but of high-quality
D) sell a large volume of goods with a small unit profit on each
E) sell only high-priced, luxury goods
Answer: D
Henry Ford employed the strategy of selling a large volume of goods (in this case,
automobiles) with a small unit profit on each, known as mass production or economies of
scale, to generate substantial revenues.
5. Between 1898 and 1903, the American economy saw ________.
A) a decrease in the number of new, small businesses
B) greater competition in all industries
C) a wave of mergers and consolidations

D) the outlawing of trusts
E) meager business growth overall
Answer: C
The period between 1898 and 1903 witnessed a significant wave of mergers and
consolidations, leading to the formation of large corporate monopolies in various industries.
Option C is the correct answer.
6. Who was the leading financier in the United States in the early 1900s?
A) Jane Addams
B) Upton Sinclair
C) J. P. Morgan
D) Samuel Gompers
E) Henry Ford
Answer: C
J. P. Morgan was one of the most prominent financiers in the United States during the early
1900s, playing a key role in organizing and financing numerous industrial consolidations and
7. In 1900, ________ founded the first industrial research laboratory.
A) Du Pont
B) General Electric
C) Standard Oil
D) Eastman Kodak
E) Westinghouse
Answer: B

General Electric founded the first industrial research laboratory in 1900, marking a
significant milestone in the development of corporate research and development initiatives.
8. What did workers find when faced with changes in the new industrial system of mass
A) a safer working environment
B) no chance to see the final product
C) repetitive and boring work
D) new workers without their skills
E) few factory and unskilled jobs available
Answer: C
With the advent of mass production, workers often encountered repetitive and monotonous
tasks on assembly lines, leading to a sense of boredom and alienation from their work.
9. Which disaster forced state and national attention on working conditions in factories and
A) Homestead mining strike
B) Farmington fire
C) Ludlow disaster
D) Triangle Shirtwaist fire
E) Hormel stampede
Answer: D
The Triangle Shirtwaist fire in 1911 resulted in significant loss of life and brought widespread
attention to the unsafe working conditions in factories, leading to reforms in labor laws and
workplace safety regulations.

10. Between 1900 and 1920, many women found ________.
A) jobs as medical professionals
B) professional careers closed to them
C) support for working after they married
D) they earned pay equal to that of men
E) that most jobs were available to a homemaker
Answer: B
Despite some progress, between 1900 and 1920, many women still faced significant barriers
to entering professional careers, as opportunities were often limited and certain professions
remained closed to them due to societal norms and gender discrimination.
11. Most working African Americans at the beginning of the twentieth century ________.
A) had a life substantially improved from their parents
B) had the opportunity for a high quality education
C) worked as poor Southern sharecroppers
D) had little reason to protest their situation
E) often banded together to start businesses
Answer: C
Option C is correct as many working African Americans during this period were engaged in
sharecropping in the South, a system characterized by economic exploitation and limited
opportunities for social and economic advancement.
12. The Niagara Movement wanted to make what changes?
A) conserve more natural resources
B) gain civil rights for African Americans

C) limit the importation of Canadian goods
D) stop migrant workers from Mexico
E) extend voting rights to women
Answer: B
The Niagara Movement aimed to secure civil rights for African Americans, advocating for
social and political equality, making
13. The organization that led the fight for equal rights and education for blacks was the
C) Wobblies
Answer: B
The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) played a
significant role in advocating for equal rights and educational opportunities for African
Americans, making
14. What defined immigrants as “birds of passage”?
A) They remained in the United States.
B) They moved from region to region.
C) They took the train from their ship to a western farm.
D) They were detained, or “caged,” indefinitely where they arrived.
E) They did not stay permanently in the United States.

Answer: E
Immigrants labeled as "birds of passage" did not intend to settle permanently in the United
States but rather came temporarily to work and then returned to their home countries, making
15. In the first decades of the twentieth century, how did Mexican immigration to the United
States change?
A) It did not, but held steady.
B) It increased dramatically.
C) Mostly women and children came.
D) It was encouraged by the U.S. government.
E) It rarely occurred.
Answer: B
Mexican immigration to the United States increased significantly in the early twentieth
century, driven by factors such as economic opportunities and labor demand, making
16. In the early 1900s, immigrants to the United States ________.
A) were generally welcomed and prospered quickly
B) were easily assimilated into American society
C) encountered considerable hostility from American nativists
D) faced few problems adapting to their new environment
E) prospered financially and socially in professional jobs
Answer: C
Immigrants to the United States in the early 1900s often faced hostility and discrimination
from American nativists, making

17. The American Federation of Labor, in the first decade of the twentieth century, ________.
A) became increasingly radical.
B) remained devoted to the interests of skilled craftsmen
C) included more and more unskilled workers and women
D) lost its place as the largest American union
E) maintained a hostile stance towards corporations
Answer: B
The American Federation of Labor primarily represented the interests of skilled craftsmen
and remained focused on their concerns during the early 1900s, making option B the correct
18. Which describes the Industrial Workers of the World?
A) the most radical American labor union
B) similar to the American Federation of Labor
C) a self-help group for immigrant workers
D) an American business aimed at immigrants
E) a lobbying group for immigrant businesses
Answer: A
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was known for its radicalism and advocacy for
industrial unionism, making
19. One thing some forward-thinking business leaders did because they were concerned about
labor unrest was to ________.
A) initiate drug testing
B) encourage union activism
C) study applied psychology

D) ignore the problem
E) adopt a policy of limited force and coercion
Answer: C
Some business leaders studied applied psychology to understand and manage labor relations
more effectively and mitigate the risk of labor unrest, making
20. In terms of worker relations, what was Henry Ford known for?
A) being behind the times
B) having little concern for his workers
C) using trickery to get them to do what he wanted
D) having little respect for workers’ abilities
E) trying many innovations
Answer: E
Henry Ford was known for implementing various innovations in worker relations, including
the introduction of the $5 workday and assembly line improvements, reflecting his efforts to
improve worker conditions and productivity, making
21. How had life changed for Americans by 1920?
A) Their quality of life had improved.
B) One-quarter had lost their jobs due to a depression.
C) Only the rich saw their quality of life improve.
D) They could not afford mass-produced goods.
E) Life remained no different than their parents’ life.
Answer: A

By 1920, the quality of life for many Americans had improved due to factors such as
technological advancements, economic growth, and increased standards of living, making
22. The violence found in ________ led to the establishment of the National Collegiate
Athletic Association (NCAA).
A) hockey
B) football
C) lacrosse
D) basketball
E) baseball
Answer: B
The violence associated with football led to concerns about player safety and the
establishment of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to regulate and
oversee college athletics, making
23. Which of these popular forms of entertainment drew on the immigrant experience?
A) jazz
B) listening to records
C) vaudeville
D) ragtime
E) moving pictures
Answer: C
Vaudeville performances often incorporated elements of the immigrant experience, reflecting
the diverse cultural backgrounds of both performers and audiences, making
24. During the Progressive Era, the African-American experience heavily influenced

A) popular music
B) impressionist painting
C) classical college curriculum
D) where factories were built
E) urban architecture
Answer: A
The African-American experience heavily influenced popular music during the Progressive
Era, particularly jazz and blues, which emerged as distinctive and influential genres, making
25. The Ashcan School of artists ________.
A) turned against realistic portrayals of life
B) tried to reflect the reality of urban life
C) were abstract artists
D) were influenced by European artists
E) believed that “less is more”
Answer: B
The Ashcan School of artists aimed to reflect the gritty reality of urban life, focusing on
everyday scenes and subjects often overlooked by traditional art, making
26. Magazines became popular and successful in the early 1900s partly because of which of
these factors?
A) appealing pictures, new fiction, and muckraking journalism
B) support for management’s rights, sensationalism, and new poetry
C) new printing techniques using huge new printing presses
D) yellow journalism and the appeal of local coverage

E) a new national postal system that delivered the mail
Answer: A
Magazines flourished in the early 1900s due to their incorporation of appealing visuals,
engaging fiction, and muckraking journalism. This combination captured readers' attention,
offering both entertainment and informative content that appealed to a broad audience.
27. How did industrialism change as it moved into the twentieth century?
A) Technology replaced workers, making both skilled craftsmanship and unskilled laborers
B) Mass production meant wealth and prosperity for most Americans, which affected the
global economy.
C) Factories became cleaner, safer, and more effective, which increased production.
D) The invention of plastic revolutionized the production industry, making household and
industrial products affordable.
E) Businesses grew larger and more automated, which affected both workers and production.
Answer: E
Industrialism in the twentieth century saw the rise of larger and more automated businesses,
impacting both the workforce and production processes. Automation and increased scale
changed the nature of labor and the efficiency of production methods.
28. Henry Ford is often described as the inventor of the assembly line. In what way is this an
inaccurate description?
A) Ford didn’t invent the assembly line himself; his managers and workers did.
B) Ford only improved upon the meatpacking industry’s use of the assembly line.
C) Because human workers worked on the line, it wasn’t really an assembly line.
D) Because machines were involved, it wasn’t really an assembly line.
E) The assembly line wasn’t used in the company until after Henry Ford’s death.

Answer: B
Henry Ford's contribution to the assembly line was not its invention but rather its significant
improvement and adaptation for automobile production. The assembly line concept had been
utilized in industries like meatpacking before Ford implemented it in his factories.
29. How did Ford’s Model T lead to better roads?
A) Ford built roads in every state so people could use his new cars.
B) Because urban centers were so crowded, many cities limited the number of cars that could
travel through them.
C) When cars became popular, cities began building roads far outside their city limits.
D) In response to more cars on the road, the federal government required states to establish
highway departments.
E) Automobile owners had to pay high taxes, which then went to build and improve the
federal highway system.
Answer: D
The popularity of Ford's Model T and the subsequent increase in automobile traffic prompted
government action to improve road infrastructure. This led to the establishment of highway
departments by states, which eventually contributed to the development of better roads.
30. The difference between a monopoly and an oligopoly includes ________.
A) whether or not a financier has a stake in a company
B) how the factory purchases its raw materials
C) how many companies control the market of a product
D) how many products a company produces for sale
E) whether the company has one or multiple factories
Answer: C

The distinction between a monopoly and an oligopoly lies in the number of companies
controlling the market of a product. A monopoly exists when a single company dominates the
market, while an oligopoly involves a few large firms controlling the market.
31. Because of new methods of production in the first years of the twentieth century, workers
A) felt almost part of the machinery, endangered and bored
B) were more satisfied, which led to better safety and higher wages
C) were made to work long hours for better pay and benefits
D) were fired because automation eliminated low-skilled jobs
E) felt their unique products were worth more than they were selling for
Answer: A
New methods of production in the early twentieth century, such as assembly lines, often made
workers feel like they were just a part of the machinery. This sense of being expendable and
performing repetitive tasks led to feelings of endangerment and boredom among workers.
32. How did management methods by Frederick W. Taylor’s affect workers?
A) Management kept workers happy by improving their working conditions, wages, and
B) A new comfortable working environment increased worker satisfaction, loyalty, and
C) Workers were given the power to influence how production was carried out, which
increased their willingness to work.
D) Workers had to meet specific work standards, which often led to higher pay for doing
monotonous and dangerous jobs.
E) Workers were allowed to develop the best solutions to problems.
Answer: D

Frederick W. Taylor's management methods, known as scientific management, introduced
specific work standards that workers had to meet. While this sometimes resulted in higher
pay for certain tasks, it often meant performing monotonous and dangerous jobs under strict
33. American businesses began paying attention to size, speed, organization and marketing
because ________.
A) new laws required reforms to ensure worker safety and a safe work environment
B) strikes were putting many companies out of business
C) profitable companies needed to mass produce goods quickly using unskilled labor
D) old factories had to be rebuilt to produce the goods demanded by consumers
E) unskilled workers demanded a good working environment and higher pay
Answer: C
The need for mass production of goods quickly using unskilled labor drove American
businesses to focus on size, speed, organization, and marketing strategies. This demand arose
from the desire to meet consumer needs efficiently and profitably.
34. Which of these arrived in the 1910s, helping to end the isolation felt by farmers?
A) electrification of most rural areas
B) rural free delivery and mail order businesses
C) telephones in most areas of rural America
D) radio programs
E) commuter trains
Answer: B

Rural free delivery and the rise of mail-order businesses in the 1910s helped to alleviate the
isolation felt by farmers by providing them access to goods and services previously
unavailable or difficult to obtain in remote areas.
35. How did irrigation create a rural class system in the West?
A) Native Americans owned water rights, so they became a wealthy, powerful class divided
from white farmers.
B) Rich Europeans invested in companies that sold diverted water and owned land, while
westerners became poor tenant farmers.
C) Irrigation created fertile land, which was sold to immigrants from southern and eastern
Europe for small farms.
D) Irrigation made once undesirable Indian reservations desirable, so Native Americans were
displaced and made to live as nomads.
E) Only the wealthy could afford to irrigate, creating a divide between landowners and
Answer: E
Irrigation required significant investment, which often only the wealthy could afford.
Consequently, this led to a class division between those who owned land with access to
irrigation and those who worked the land but couldn't afford irrigation, creating a rural class
36. Why did more black women work than white women in the early 1900s?
A) Black women had traditionally worked for white women.
B) Many companies hired black women over white women.
C) Black families often needed two incomes to survive.
D) Reformers hired black workers when they were available.
E) Black women had more education than white women.
Answer: C

Economic necessity often compelled black families to have both spouses working to make
ends meet, leading to a higher percentage of black women in the workforce compared to
white women.
37. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois did not agree on ________.
A) whether or not an industrial society was good for African Americans
B) whether or not changes in rights should occur immediately or gradually
C) using unions to promote racial equality
D) supporting woman’s right to vote
E) whether or not progressivism should include a racial agenda
Answer: B
Booker T. Washington favored gradual economic progress for African Americans and
believed in accommodating segregation, while W.E.B. Du Bois advocated for immediate civil
rights and education for African Americans, highlighting their ideological difference on the
pace of change.
38. The founding of the NAACP grew out of ________.
A) race riots and lynchings
B) strikes at major industrial plants
C) differences between white and black reformers
D) political fighting over a civil rights amendment
E) northern reaction to southern politics
Answer: A

The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was founded in
response to race riots, lynchings, and other forms of racial violence against African
Americans, with the aim of combating racial injustice and promoting civil rights.
39. Between 1915 and 1918, labor productivity dropped in the United States because
A) the United States was involved in World War I
B) markets in Europe were not buying products, so production was reduced
C) unemployment caused demand and then production to decrease
D) violent race riots stopped production
E) horrible working conditions led to strikes and absenteeism
Answer: E
Labor productivity declined due to strikes and absenteeism caused by the deplorable working
conditions in many industries during this period, which affected production output negatively.
40. A major difference between the goals of the American Federation of Labor and the
Industrial Workers of the World was ________.
A) whether to get better pay for their members
B) a concentration on working conditions
C) whether business owners should be allowed into the union
D) whether to represent skilled workers or all workers
E) working collaboratively with corporate leaders
Answer: D
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) primarily represented skilled workers and focused
on improving wages and working conditions for its members, while the Industrial Workers of
the World (IWW) sought to organize all workers, skilled and unskilled, and pursued broader
social and economic reforms.

41. What methods were often used by unions to achieve their goals?
A) lockouts and government troops to protect workers
B) firing managers and using industrial psychology
C) strikes, leading to negotiations
D) buying out factory owners and boycotting products
E) hiring other workers to take their place and striking
Answer: C
Unions frequently utilized strikes as a method to pressure employers into negotiations and
concessions regarding wages, working conditions, and other labor-related issues.
42. In the early 1900s, why did the middle class have a powerful effect on production?
A) Most immigrants were working in factories and made many consumer goods.
B) The growing middle-class had influence as consumers of mass-produced goods.
C) The working class and reformers were pushing for better conditions in factories.
D) The poor and rich classes were increasing their demand for mass-produced goods.
E) The growing middle class needed jobs, so production increased to end unemployment.
Answer: B
The expanding middle class had significant purchasing power as consumers of massproduced goods, which influenced production trends and stimulated industrial growth during
the early 1900s.
43. “Off-the-rack” clothes replaced what kind of clothing?
A) home-made clothes
B) designer clothing
C) working uniforms

D) “ready-to-wear” clothes
E) mail-order catalog clothes
Answer: A
"Off-the-rack" clothes replaced homemade clothes as they were mass-produced and readily
available for purchase in stores, offering convenience and affordability to consumers.
44. Which of these was true for life expectancy in the U.S. in the period from 1900 to 1920?
A) Life expectancy rose for some groups, but fell for others.
B) Life expectancy rose for men, but not women.
C) Life expectancy fell across the board.
D) Life expectancy for the population as a whole remained static.
E) Across the board, life expectancy rose.
Answer: E
During the period from 1900 to 1920, advancements in public health, sanitation, and medical
care contributed to an overall increase in life expectancy for the population as a whole in the
United States.
45. In what way were the methods of Henry Ford and Edward L. Stratemeyer similar?
A) Both applied the assembly line to auto manufacturing.
B) Both turned out high-quality goods at high prices.
C) Neither would give in to labor demands.
D) Both used mass-production techniques.
E) Both transformed public transportation.
Answer: D

Both Henry Ford and Edward L. Stratemeyer utilized mass-production techniques in their
respective fields – Ford in automobile manufacturing and Stratemeyer in book publishing.
They revolutionized their industries by streamlining production processes and increasing
46. How were the works of dancers, musicians, artists, and poets related in the early 1900s?
A) Many were experimenting with forms of ultra-realism.
B) Many broke sharply with convention.
C) Many were returning to classic forms from ancient Greece and Rome.
D) Many were trying to create an international arts movement.
E) Many were experimenting with technology to enhance their art form.
Answer: B
During the early 1900s, various artists across different disciplines, including dancers,
musicians, artists, and poets, were characterized by their tendency to break sharply with
conventional norms and traditions, seeking to create innovative and often provocative works.
47. In what sense did the Ashcan School reflect the work of muckrakers?
A) in the media they used
B) in their methods
C) in their subjects
D) in their interest in the West
E) in being predominantly women
Answer: C
The Ashcan School, a group of early 20th-century American realist artists, focused on
depicting scenes of everyday urban life, often portraying the gritty realities of urban
existence. Similarly, muckrakers were journalists who exposed social injustices and
corruption, shedding light on the darker aspects of society. Both the Ashcan School artists and

muckrakers aimed to highlight the less glamorous and often overlooked aspects of American
48. The muckrakers and progressives disagreed on what to reform first and how to do it, but
not on _______.
A) the need for reform
B) the need for unions
C) the rights of big business
D) the role of immigrants in America
E) the need for racial equality
Answer: A
While muckrakers and progressives may have differed on specific reform priorities and
strategies, they generally agreed on the overarching need for reform to address social,
economic, and political issues prevalent in American society during the early 1900s.
49. How did mass production change life for Americans?
A) It created a split society of rich workers with skills and poor ones without skills.
B) It provided low wage jobs, so few Americans could buy the mass-produced goods.
C) Unions had to control the conditions in all places where products were mass produced.
D) The government created regulations for every part of daily life and employment.
E) It provided jobs, income, and mass-produced products that workers could afford.
Answer: E
Mass production revolutionized American life by providing jobs, steady income, and
affordable mass-produced goods to consumers, thereby raising living standards and
contributing to the growth of consumer culture.

50. How did Mexican immigration in the early 1900s contribute to the change in the
A) These immigrants were the first to put the Mexican imprint on Southwestern culture.
B) Many of these immigrants became the unskilled workers who built the Southwest’s
irrigation, transportation, and urban projects.
C) This new wave of Mexican immigrants displaced Native Americans from their lands.
D) Many of these immigrants were hired as skilled and professional workers in the
Southwest’s new cities and factories.
E) The Mexican immigrants did not stay nor did they have a lasting contribution on the
Southwest or its culture.
Answer: B
Mexican immigrants in the early 1900s played a significant role in the development of the
Southwest by providing a labor force for various industries, including agriculture,
construction, and transportation. Many worked as unskilled laborers, contributing to the
region's growth and infrastructure projects.
1. How did industrialization change after 1900? How did it affect industrial workers?
Answer: After 1900, industrialization intensified with the advent of new technologies and
manufacturing processes. Mass production techniques, such as assembly lines, increased
efficiency and output in factories. Additionally, industries like steel, oil, and automobiles
experienced significant growth. This period also saw the rise of corporate giants, which
wielded immense economic power.
For industrial workers, this era brought both advancements and challenges. On one hand,
increased production meant more job opportunities in urban centers, drawing rural
populations to cities in search of work. However, these jobs often came with poor working
conditions, long hours, and low wages. Industrial accidents were common, and workers had
little to no job security. The lack of labor regulations meant that workers had minimal
protections against exploitation by employers.

2. Trace the rise of labor unions. Identify their successes and failures.
Answer: Labor unions emerged as a response to the harsh conditions faced by industrial
workers. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, workers began organizing themselves to
demand better wages, working hours, and conditions. The American Federation of Labor
(AFL), founded in 1886, played a significant role in uniting various trade unions.
The successes of labor unions included securing better wages, shorter working hours, and
improved workplace safety standards through collective bargaining with employers. They
also advocated for legislation to protect workers' rights, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act
and the National Labor Relations Act.
However, labor unions also faced challenges and failures. Some of their demands were met
with resistance from employers, leading to strikes and labor conflicts. The Great Depression
of the 1930s posed significant challenges to the labor movement, as unemployment soared
and many workers lost faith in union efficacy. Additionally, internal divisions within the labor
movement sometimes weakened its collective bargaining power.
3. Analyze the new urban culture that emerged after 1900 and how it changed the lives of
urban Americans?
Answer: The early 20th century witnessed the emergence of a vibrant urban culture
characterized by rapid social changes, technological innovations, and cultural shifts. Cities
became hubs of diversity, with immigrants from various countries contributing to a rich
tapestry of customs, languages, and traditions.
Urbanization brought about significant changes in the lives of urban Americans. It fostered a
consumer culture, with department stores, theaters, and amusement parks offering new forms
of entertainment and leisure activities. The availability of mass-produced goods transformed
consumption patterns, as people embraced modern conveniences and adopted new lifestyles.
However, urbanization also led to overcrowding, inadequate housing, and social inequalities.
The rapid influx of people into cities strained infrastructure and public services, leading to
sanitation issues and health hazards. Urban poverty became pervasive, with marginalized
communities facing discrimination and limited access to resources.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands

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