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Chapter Thirty-One
The Rise Of A New Conservatism, 1969–1988
Multiple Choice
1. What was the Moral Majority?
A) an international peacekeeping group
B) a group of moderates who denounced Nixon
C) a liberal group of political activists
D) a group of civil rights activists
E) a religious fundamentalist group
Answer: E
The Moral Majority was a prominent religious fundamentalist group in the United States
during the 1970s and 1980s, advocating for conservative social and political policies,
particularly regarding issues such as abortion, homosexuality, and school prayer.
2. What was the main focus of the Nixon presidency?
A) foreign policy
B) civil rights
C) economics
D) education
E) the armed forces
Answer: A
Nixon's presidency was primarily focused on foreign policy, with significant attention given
to issues such as the Vietnam War, the Cold War, and improving relations with China and the
Soviet Union through policies like détente.

3. Who served as Nixon’s national security advisor?
A) Warren Burger
B) G. Gordon Liddy
C) Henry Kissinger
D) William Rehnquist
E) John Mitchell
Answer: C
Henry Kissinger served as Nixon's national security advisor, playing a crucial role in shaping
American foreign policy during Nixon's presidency, particularly regarding the Vietnam War
and détente.
4. Nixon’s program to improve relations with the Soviet Union was known as ________.
A) containment
B) détente
C) perestroika
D) démarche
E) entente
Answer: B
Nixon's program to improve relations with the Soviet Union was known as détente,
characterized by efforts to ease Cold War tensions through diplomacy, arms control
negotiations, and increased economic cooperation.
5. The SALT treaties involved ________.
A) the American withdrawal from Vietnam
B) reduction of U.S. and Soviet offensive ballistic missiles

C) removal of Soviet nuclear weapons from Cuba
D) preventing outright war in the Middle East
E) the collapse of the former Soviet Union
Answer: B
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaties focused on the reduction and limitation
of U.S. and Soviet offensive ballistic missiles, aimed at curbing the arms race between the
two superpowers during the Cold War.
6. The operatives who staged the break-in at a Washington office complex in 1972 were
known as the ________.
A) “officers”
B) “robbers”
C) “plumbers”
D) “clean-up crew”
E) “bunglers”
Answer: C
The operatives who staged the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters
in the Watergate office complex in 1972 were known as the "plumbers," a covert group
established to stop security leaks and conduct intelligence operations for the Nixon
7. The greatest economic challenge faced by the Nixon administration involved ________.
A) the reduction of government spending
B) a dramatic increase in international oil prices
C) the bankruptcy of the Federal Reserve System
D) the crisis in American farming

E) rampant unemployment
Answer: B
The Nixon administration faced a significant economic challenge due to a dramatic increase
in international oil prices, particularly following the 1973 oil crisis triggered by OPEC's oil
embargo against countries supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
8. While the United States was home to only 6 percent of the world’s population, it was
responsible for ________ of the world’s energy consumption.
A) 9 percent
B) 22 percent
C) 40 percent
D) 75 percent
E) 90 percent
Answer: C
Despite having only 6 percent of the world's population, the United States was responsible for
approximately 40 percent of the world's energy consumption during the period in question,
highlighting its significant energy demands.
9. The international oil organization most responsible for raising petroleum prices in the
1970s was ________.
Answer: B

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was the international oil
organization most responsible for raising petroleum prices in the 1970s, particularly through
actions like the oil embargo of 1973, which significantly impacted global oil markets and
10. Who was the first woman to be appointed to the United States Supreme Court?
A) Ruth Bader Ginsburg
B) Sandra Day O’Connor
C) Eleanor Smeal
D) Elena Kagan
E) Bridget Maher
Answer: B
Sandra Day O'Connor was the first woman to be appointed to the United States Supreme
Court, nominated by President Ronald Reagan in 1981, and serving until her retirement in
11. The most encouraging economic development for women in the late twentieth century
was that ________.
A) women’s wages largely closed the gap with men’s wages
B) women made great progress in entering male-dominated professions
C) the number of female business owners increased greatly
D) the number of women serving on corporate boards grew rapidly
E) the Equal Rights Amendment was ratified in 1982
Answer: C

The significant increase in the number of female business owners indicates a substantial shift
in economic empowerment for women, reflecting their increasing independence and success
in entrepreneurial endeavors.
12. The court decision in Roe v. Wade guaranteed a woman’s right to ________.
A) attend traditionally all-male schools
B) run for public office
C) serve in the military
D) earn equal pay for equal work
E) obtain an abortion
Answer: E
The Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 established a woman's constitutional right to have an
abortion, thereby legalizing abortion across the United States.
13. The birth of the gay liberation movement was ________.
A) the Outing
B) the founding of ACT UP
C) the Stonewall Riots
D) the founding of the Gay Activist Alliance
E) the founding of the Gay Liberation Front
Answer: C
The Stonewall Riots of 1969 in New York City are widely regarded as the catalyst for the
modern LGBTQ+ rights movement, marking a pivotal moment of resistance against police
raids and discrimination towards the LGBTQ+ community.
14. The first person to become president without being elected president or vice president
was ________.

A) Gerald R. Ford
B) Richard Nixon
C) Jimmy Carter
D) George H. W. Bush
E) Lyndon Johnson
Answer: A
Gerald R. Ford became president without being elected to either the presidency or the vice
presidency. He ascended to the presidency after Richard Nixon resigned in 1974.
15. Which executive order did President Ford give to the CIA in 1975?
A) He ordered the CIA to focus on domestic rather than international intelligence operations.
B) He ordered the CIA to limit their surveillance to hostile nations.
C) He ordered the CIA to do whatever was necessary to topple Castro.
D) He outlawed assassinations as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
E) He outlawed covert surveillance as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Answer: D
President Ford's executive order in 1975 prohibited assassinations as an instrument of U.S.
foreign policy, a response to revelations of CIA involvement in covert operations abroad.
16. The Camp David accords provided a framework for peace negotiations between
A) the United States and the Soviet Union
B) North Vietnam and South Vietnam
C) Iran and the United States
D) Israel and Egypt

E) the Soviet Union and China
Answer: D
The Camp David Accords facilitated peace negotiations between Israel and Egypt, mediated
by U.S. President Jimmy Carter in 1978, leading to a historic peace treaty between the two
17. In 1979, rebels in _________ took U.S. diplomats hostage.
A) Afghanistan
B) Iran
C) Iraq
D) Israel
E) Pakistan
Answer: B
In 1979, Iranian militants seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran, and took over 50
Americans hostage, an event known as the Iran hostage crisis.
18. Which group overwhelmingly supported Carter in the 1980 presidential election?
A) African Americans
B) blue-collar workers
C) Jewish voters
D) voters in the Sunbelt states
E) voters in the South
Answer: A

African Americans overwhelmingly supported Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election
due to his perceived commitment to civil rights and social justice issues.
19. What do supply-side economists believe?
A) that the economy will recover without changing tax structures
B) that tax cuts will always hurt the national economy
C) that tax cuts will lead to an economic boom
D) that certain tax increases will lead to an economic boom
E) that tax increases are needed to keep the deficit in check
Answer: C
Supply-side economists believe that tax cuts, particularly for businesses and high-income
individuals, will stimulate economic growth by incentivizing investment, innovation, and
20. President Reagan’s tax compromise with Congress called for an income tax cut of
A) 10 percent for three consecutive years
B) 15 percent over two years
C) 5 percent the first year and 10 percent the second and third years
D) 20 percent over two years
E) 5 percent each year for four years
Answer: C
President Reagan's tax compromise with Congress involved a gradual reduction in income
tax rates, with a 5 percent cut in the first year and additional cuts of 10 percent in the
subsequent two years.

21. The antimissile system based on the use of lasers and particle beams to destroy incoming
missiles from outer space was called ________.
Answer: D
SDI, which stands for Strategic Defense Initiative. This initiative, proposed by President
Ronald Reagan in 1983, aimed to develop a sophisticated antimissile system utilizing
technologies such as lasers and particle beams to intercept and destroy incoming ballistic
missiles, particularly from outer space.
22. The goal of the Boland Amendment was to ________.
A) prohibit American military aid to overthrow the Nicaraguan government
B) prohibit the sale of weapons to Iran under any circumstances
C) make it illegal for the United States to interfere in any foreign war without voter approval
D) allow covert operations in Central America to stop the spread of communism
E) allow the Reagan administration to send troops to topple communist regimes
Answer: A
The Boland Amendment, passed by the U.S. Congress in the 1980s, specifically aimed to
restrict the Reagan administration from providing military assistance or funding to the
Contras in Nicaragua with the purpose of overthrowing the Nicaraguan government.
23. The Iran-Contra affair was ________.

A) a covert operation through which the Reagan administration planned to topple the Iranian
B) a diplomatic disaster in which Iranian and Nicaraguan leaders were deeply insulted by one
of Reagan’s speeches
C) a foreign policy crisis in which Reagan sent combat troops to both Iran and Nicaragua in
order to keep the peace
D) a crisis between Iran and Nicaragua regarding an antimissile system that nearly resulted in
nuclear war
E) a scandal in which the government planned to sell weapons to Iran in order to finance
exiles fighting in Nicaragua
Answer: E
The Iran-Contra affair involved the Reagan administration's covert operation to sell weapons
to Iran, despite an arms embargo, with the intention of using the proceeds to fund Contra
rebels in Nicaragua, which was in violation of U.S. law and policies.
24. With the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty, both the Soviet Union and the United States
agreed to ________.
A) destroy their entire stockpile of intermediate-range missiles
B) remove and destroy all intermediate-range missiles in Europe
C) prevent developing nations from having access to intermediate-range missiles
D) limit their weapons arsenals to intermediate-range rather than long-range missiles
E) work together to create the world’s first intermediate-range missile
Answer: B
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, signed in 1987 between the United
States and the Soviet Union, required both parties to eliminate their stockpiles of ground-

launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers,
specifically targeting missile deployments in Europe.
25. Which statement best characterizes Reagan’s two terms as the governor of California?
A) He bullied the legislature to implement his conservative policies.
B) He lacked natural abilities as a political leader.
C) He was flexible and did not try to force all of his conservative policies.
D) He led the state further and further to the left through his reforms.
E) He ignored taxes and education to focus on immigration issues.
Answer: C
During his tenure as governor of California from 1967 to 1975, Ronald Reagan displayed
pragmatism by not rigidly adhering to all of his conservative principles. He compromised
with the Democratic-controlled legislature on several occasions and implemented policies
that were not strictly conservative.
26. What is one conservative criticism of liberals?
A) Liberals are too willing to sacrifice high standards to achieve social equality.
B) Liberals are too tough on communist dictatorships in other countries.
C) Liberals are too focused on what is right about America rather than what needs to be fixed.
D) Liberals ignore the social inequalities faced by ethnic minorities and women.
E) Liberals are focused on reducing government spending and social services.
Answer: A
One conservative criticism of liberals is that they prioritize social equality to such an extent
that they are willing to compromise on standards, potentially leading to lower quality
outcomes or neglecting important considerations in pursuit of equality.
27. Why did the Nixon administration decide to resume relations with China?

A) China had cautiously inquired about resuming normal diplomatic relations.
B) The United States believed it would force better relations with the Soviet Union.
C) The United States wanted to thwart the growing economic power of Japan.
D) The United States wanted to patch up relationships with Asian nations after the Vietnam
E) The suffering U.S. economy forced Nixon to make an economic arrangement with China.
Answer: B
The Nixon administration's decision to resume relations with China was largely driven by the
desire to improve relations with the Soviet Union. By engaging with China, the United States
aimed to create a geopolitical dynamic that would put pressure on the Soviet Union and
potentially improve U.S.-Soviet relations.
28. What was most important about the SALT I agreements?
A) They revealed the extent of the secret Soviet nuclear-weapon stockpiling.
B) They demonstrated that the United States would not compromise on its weapons program.
C) They demonstrated that the Soviet Union would not compromise on its weapons program.
D) They were a symbolic first step in a peaceful resolution of U.S.-Soviet tensions.
E) They were critical in exacerbating the stresses and tensions of the Cold War.
Answer: D
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) I agreements, signed in 1972, marked the first
attempt by the United States and the Soviet Union to curtail the arms race and limit the
proliferation of strategic nuclear weapons. While the agreements had limitations and did not
fully resolve tensions, they symbolized a diplomatic effort toward détente and reducing
nuclear tensions.
29. What inspired the infamous protests at Kent State during which four students were killed?
A) the bombing of Hanoi

B) the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
C) the U.S. invasion of Cambodia
D) the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam
E) the end of military draft deferments
Answer: C
The protests at Kent State University in May 1970 were triggered by President Nixon's
decision to expand the Vietnam War into Cambodia. This announcement sparked widespread
protests across college campuses in the United States, culminating in the tragic shooting at
Kent State, where National Guard troops fired on unarmed student protesters, killing four and
injuring nine others.
30. Which of the following best describes the Watergate Scandal?
A) President Nixon’s 1972 affair with a young intern from the Republican National
B) President Nixon’s involvement in ordering an attack on unarmed civilians in Vietnam
C) President Nixon’s attempts to cover up sources of campaign funding in the 1972 election
D) President Nixon’s attempts to hide his involvement in a break-in at the Democrats’
E) President Nixon’s attempts to bribe the North Vietnamese to agree to end the Vietnam War
Answer: D
The Watergate Scandal refers to a series of illegal activities undertaken by members of the
Nixon administration, including the break-in at the Democratic National Committee
headquarters at the Watergate office complex in 1972. Nixon and his aides attempted to cover
up their involvement, leading to a major political scandal that ultimately resulted in Nixon's
resignation in 1974.
31. Why did Saudi Arabia cut off oil shipments to the United States in 1973?

A) Saudi Arabia wanted to force U.S. intervention in the October War.
B) Saudi Arabia feared Soviet retaliation if it supplied the United States with oil.
C) President Carter was refusing to pay full price for Saudi oil shipments.
D) The United States had become involved in the conflict in Nicaragua.
E) The United States had sent emergency aid to Israel during the October War.
Answer: E
Saudi Arabia, along with other Arab nations, imposed an oil embargo on the United States in
1973 due to its support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War (October War). The decision
was a response to the United States' resupply efforts for Israel, seen as detrimental to Arab
interests in the conflict.
32. The most serious consequence of the 1970s oil shocks for America was ________.
A) the collapse of several Arab states that were friendly to the United States
B) the loss of international respect for Americans
C) the decline of the automobile culture in the United States
D) the beginning of the mass exodus from American suburbs
E) the rampant inflation they fueled in the larger economy
Answer: E
The oil shocks of the 1970s led to rampant inflation in the United States. The increase in oil
prices caused by the shocks resulted in higher production costs and increased prices for goods
and services, contributing significantly to inflationary pressures during that period.
33. How did the American family unit change after 1970?
A) The divorce rate sharply increased.
B) The birth rate steadily declined.
C) The number of births to women over age 30 increased.

D) The number of single-parent households was cut in half.
E) Many more fathers started staying home to raise children.
Answer: C
After 1970, there was a significant increase in the number of births to women over the age of
30. This trend was indicative of changing societal norms and women's increasing
participation in the workforce, leading to delayed childbirth among women pursuing career
34. Why did some working class women oppose the Equal Rights Amendment?
A) They worried about losing the protections of state laws designed to help women.
B) They worried that their bosses would fire them if they openly supported it.
C) They thought it helped middle-class women but ignored working class women.
D) They feared that it would lead to the drafting of women into the military.
E) They mistrusted the National Organization for Women, which sponsored it.
Answer: A
Some working-class women opposed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) because they
feared it would nullify certain state laws that provided protections specifically for women in
the workforce, such as regulations on working conditions and hours, which they perceived as
beneficial to them.
35. How did President Clinton change the experience of gays and lesbians in the military?
A) He launched an investigation to root out and prosecute homosexuals in the military.
B) He instigated a ban on homosexuals in the military.
C) He established the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” military policy.
D) He pressured the military to accept a small number of openly gay recruits.
E) He forced the military to accept homosexuals in every branch of the service.

Answer: C
President Clinton implemented the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy in the military, which
allowed gays and lesbians to serve as long as they did not openly disclose their sexual
orientation. While this policy was viewed as a compromise, it represented a significant shift
in how the military dealt with LGBTQ+ individuals.
36. President Gerald Ford’s brief “honeymoon” with the American public ended when he
A) confessed to taking steroids during his college football days at Michigan
B) suppressed declassified files pertaining to the Kennedy assassination
C) proposed normalizing relations with Castro’s Cuba
D) granted disgraced President Richard Nixon a full pardon
E) appointed liberal Republican Nelson Rockefeller as his vice president
Answer: D
President Gerald Ford's popularity declined sharply when he granted a full pardon to Richard
Nixon, his predecessor, for any crimes he may have committed during the Watergate scandal.
Many Americans saw this as an act of political favoritism and a failure to hold Nixon
accountable for his actions.
37. How did Carter try to redeem his presidency in what became known as his “national
malaise” speech?
A) He tried to blame the Soviet Union for ruining his presidency.
B) He tried to pin responsibility on the public’s lack of confidence.
C) He offered to donate a million dollars to popular American charities.
D) He tried to demonstrate that he understood the common man.
E) He showed clips from a propaganda film to sway public opinion.
Answer: B

In his "national malaise" speech, President Carter attempted to address the crisis of
confidence gripping the nation by acknowledging the challenges faced by the American
people and urging a collective effort to overcome them. He emphasized the need for unity
and a renewed sense of purpose to tackle pressing issues.
38. Why did militants seize the U.S. embassy in Tehran in 1979?
A) The Carter administration had threatened war if the oil embargo wasn’t lifted immediately.
B) The Carter administration had seized insurgents the week before and refused to release
C) The Carter administration refused to end American involvement in Nicaragua.
D) President Carter publicly denounced their Ayatollah’s revolution.
E) Carter had allowed the exiled shah to seek medical treatment in the United States.
Answer: E
Militants seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran in 1979 primarily in response to the United
States' decision to allow the deposed Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to enter the
country for medical treatment. The militants viewed this as an affront to the Iranian
Revolution and demanded the return of the Shah to Iran to face trial.
39. What was one reason why Reagan won the 1980 presidential election?
A) He made large inroads among the African-American community.
B) He carried every state east of the Mississippi.
C) He benefited from the growing political power of the Sunbelt region.
D) He won the majority of votes among Jewish voters.
E) He led in every single southern state.
Answer: C

Ronald Reagan won the 1980 presidential election, in part, due to the support he garnered
from the Sunbelt region. His conservative policies and appeal to traditional values resonated
strongly with voters in this region, contributing significantly to his electoral success.
40. Why did Reagan fire air traffic controllers in the summer of 1981?
A) in retaliation for their lack of support during the 1980 election
B) in response to a record number of accidents at airports around the nation
C) in response to a strike by the air traffic controllers’ union
D) to prevent the formation of an air traffic controllers’ union
E) to forestall a wage increase that would threaten the balanced budget
Answer: C
President Reagan fired over 11,000 air traffic controllers who were on strike in the summer of
1981 after they violated a law prohibiting strikes by federal government employees. Reagan's
actions were seen as a strong stance against organized labor and set a precedent for how his
administration would handle labor disputes.
41. A central tenet of Reagan’s approach to foreign policy at the beginning of his presidency
was the belief that ________.
A) the Palestine Liberation Organization represented a serious threat to the United States
B) trading arms for hostages was an effective way to negotiate quietly with terrorists
C) the Middle East needed United States intervention to achieve freedom
D) the Soviet Union was a deadly enemy that threatened the United States
E) Israel could not be trusted to honor its agreements
Answer: D
Reagan's foreign policy doctrine, often termed "Reagan Doctrine," was characterized by a
strong anti-communist stance. He believed that the Soviet Union, as the leader of the
communist bloc, posed a significant threat to the United States and the world order. This

belief underpinned his policies such as military buildup, support for anti-communist
movements globally, and tough rhetoric against the Soviet Union.
42. What did the United States do in the early 1980s that caused the Soviet Union to break off
disarmament negotiations in Geneva?
A) It revealed plans to develop the Strategic Defense Initiative.
B) It placed missiles in Great Britain and Germany.
C) It sent American troops into Afghanistan.
D) It opened up diplomatic relations with China.
E) It forcibly broke the Saudi Arabian oil embargo.
Answer: B
The placement of missiles in Great Britain and Germany was part of NATO's response to the
Soviet Union's deployment of intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Eastern Europe. This
deployment by the United States heightened tensions and led to the breakdown of
disarmament negotiations in Geneva.
43. How did Reagan’s approach to the conflict in Nicaragua differ from Carter’s?
A) Carter refused to get involved; Reagan sent economic aid to the Sandinista government.
B) Carter deployed ground troops to Nicaragua; Reagan implemented an airstrike strategy.
C) Carter favored an airstrike strategy in Nicaragua; Reagan deployed ground troops instead.
D) Carter sent troops to Nicaragua; Reagan gave economic aid to the Sandinista government.
E) Carter gave economic aid to the Sandinista government; Reagan cut off that economic aid.
Answer: E
While Carter did provide some economic aid to the Sandinista government in Nicaragua,
Reagan's approach significantly differed as he cut off this aid and instead supported the
Contras, anti-Sandinista rebels, in their efforts to overthrow the Nicaraguan government.

44. Why did Congress refuse Reagan’s request for money and authority for further
intervention in Nicaragua?
A) They believed the Nicaraguan conflict was not a threat to the United States.
B) They wanted to block as many of Reagan’s foreign policy initiatives as possible.
C) They feared repeating the mistakes of the Vietnam War.
D) They feared angering the public in an election year.
E) There were no funds available due to expanding deficits.
Answer: C
The memory of the Vietnam War was still fresh in the minds of many in Congress, leading to
concerns about getting involved in another potentially lengthy conflict. This fear of repeating
the mistakes of Vietnam was a significant factor in Congress's refusal to grant Reagan's
request for further intervention in Nicaragua.
45. What was one reason why the United States gave encouragement to Israel during the
invasion of southern Lebanon?
A) The Reagan administration hoped that the invasion would destroy the PLO.
B) The Reagan administration hoped that the invasion would lead to the release of hostages.
C) The Reagan administration hoped that the invasion would force Lebanon to honor a treaty.
D) The Reagan administration hoped that the invasion would sever Soviet-Lebanese
E) The Reagan administration hoped that the invasion would redraw borders in the Middle
Answer: A
The Reagan administration saw the invasion of southern Lebanon as an opportunity to
weaken the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which was seen as a threat to both

Israel and U.S. interests in the region. Supporting Israel in this endeavor was aligned with
Reagan's broader anti-communist and anti-terrorist foreign policy objectives.
46. What influenced President Reagan’s interaction with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev?
A) The Soviet Union was becoming an economic power that the United States could not
B) The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and escalated the arms race.
C) Mikhail Gorbachev was interested in making peace with the United States.
D) Mikhail Gorbachev was committed to blocking American interests abroad.
E) The Soviet Union had fallen into chaos and a resulting civil war.
Answer: C
Mikhail Gorbachev's willingness to engage in dialogue and his pursuit of domestic reforms,
particularly with policies like perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness), created an
opportunity for improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. Reagan
recognized this and engaged with Gorbachev in diplomatic efforts to ease tensions and reduce
the risk of nuclear confrontation.
47. Which component was NOT part of Nixon’s plan to end the war in Vietnam?
A) a gradual withdrawal of American troops
B) training South Vietnamese forces to take over
C) renewed bombing of North Vietnam
D) increased military spending
E) taking a hard line in negotiations with Hanoi
Answer: D
Nixon's plan to end the Vietnam War, known as Vietnamization, involved gradually
withdrawing American troops, training South Vietnamese forces to take over the fighting, and
taking a hard line in negotiations with Hanoi. Increased military spending was not a central

component of Nixon's plan for ending the war; instead, he sought to reduce American
involvement and expenditure in Vietnam.
48. How did the Watergate Scandal compare to previous presidential scandals?
A) Unlike previous scandals, Watergate was about lust rather than money.
B) Unlike previous scandals, Watergate was about power rather than money.
C) Unlike previous scandals, Watergate was about money rather than power.
D) Like previous scandals, Watergate was covered up and never revealed to the public.
E) Like previous scandals, Watergate demonstrated the inefficacy of journalism.
Answer: B
Watergate was distinct from previous presidential scandals in that it was primarily about the
abuse of power rather than financial misconduct. The scandal involved efforts by members of
Nixon's administration to undermine the democratic process, including illegal surveillance,
obstruction of justice, and abuse of executive power.
49. How was the Watergate Scandal similar to the Iran-Contra affair?
A) They both were excused due to significant progress in U.S.-Soviet relations.
B) They both restored the public’s faith in federal government.
C) They both brought the United States to the brink of nuclear war.
D) They both involved major errors in international diplomacy.
E) They both involved illegal actions that tarnished a president’s reputation.
Answer: E
Both the Watergate Scandal and the Iran-Contra affair involved illegal actions taken by
members of the executive branch that tarnished the reputation of the president and his
administration. In Watergate, Nixon's administration engaged in illegal activities to cover up
their involvement in a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters. In the
Iran-Contra affair, members of Reagan's administration facilitated the sale of arms to Iran and

used the proceeds to fund Contra rebels in Nicaragua, circumventing congressional
50. How did Reagan challenge the liberal premises of the New Deal?
A) Reagan asserted that the federal aid programs established under the New Deal had actually
worsened the Great Depression.
B) Reagan abolished all federal aid programs, leaving it entirely up to individual states to
provide social services.
C) Reagan expanded the New Deal programs, demonstrating that they had not been extensive
enough or helpful enough.
D) Reagan asserted that the private sector should solve America’s problems rather than the
federal government.
E) Reagan wanted the federal government to take a more active role in helping America than
it had during the New Deal.
Answer: D
Reagan believed in reducing the size and scope of the federal government, which was a
departure from the New Deal's reliance on government intervention in the economy. He
advocated for deregulation and tax cuts, asserting that the private sector and free market
mechanisms were more effective in addressing societal issues than government programs.
This challenged the New Deal's premise of a strong federal role in providing social welfare
and economic stability.
A) Reagan did criticize certain aspects of New Deal policies, but he didn't argue that they
worsened the Great Depression. Rather, he contended that they were ineffective in promoting
long-term economic growth.
B) Reagan did not abolish all federal aid programs; although he aimed to reduce the federal
government's involvement, he did not eliminate all social services provided by the federal
C) Reagan's policies generally aimed to reduce government intervention rather than
expanding it, making this option inconsistent with his approach.

E) Reagan's stance was to reduce government intervention, not increase it, making this option
contradictory to his overall philosophy.
1. How was Nixon’s Cold War strategy different from that of Kennedy and Johnson?
Answer: Nixon's Cold War strategy differed from that of Kennedy and Johnson primarily in
its emphasis on détente and realpolitik rather than the containment policy pursued by his
predecessors. Nixon sought to ease tensions with the Soviet Union and China through
diplomatic engagement, such as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) with the USSR
and the normalization of relations with China. He believed in engaging with communist
powers to achieve strategic goals and reduce the risk of nuclear conflict.
2. How did economic factors complicate the presidencies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter?
Answer: Economic factors complicated the presidencies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter
through challenges such as stagflation, energy crises, and unemployment. During Ford's
presidency, the economy faced high inflation rates coupled with stagnant economic growth,
leading to a difficult environment for policymaking. Additionally, the 1970s witnessed two
significant oil shocks, contributing to economic instability and energy shortages.
Jimmy Carter inherited these economic challenges and faced further complications, including
the Iranian Revolution, which disrupted oil supplies and led to another energy crisis. Carter's
attempts to address inflation through monetary policy measures faced mixed results, and his
handling of the economy was criticized amidst rising unemployment and discontent.
3. How did the status of women and gays change during the 1970s and 1980s?
Answer: The status of women and gays underwent significant changes during the 1970s and
1980s, marked by advancements in civil rights, legal recognition, and social acceptance. The
women's rights movement gained momentum, leading to landmark achievements such as the
passage of Title IX, which prohibited gender discrimination in education, and the Roe v.
Wade Supreme Court decision, which legalized abortion.
Similarly, the gay rights movement made strides towards greater visibility and equality, with
events like the Stonewall riots in 1969 galvanizing activism. In the 1970s, several states
decriminalized homosexuality, and organizations advocating for LGBTQ rights emerged. The

1980s saw the HIV/AIDS crisis bring increased attention to LGBTQ issues, sparking both
discrimination and activism.
4. How was Reagan’s foreign policy different from Nixon’s? Whose was more successful?
Answer: Reagan's foreign policy differed from Nixon's in its assertive stance towards the
Soviet Union and emphasis on military buildup, as opposed to Nixon's focus on détente and
diplomatic engagement. Reagan pursued a policy of peace through strength, advocating for
increased defense spending and strategic initiatives like the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
to challenge Soviet dominance.
Nixon, on the other hand, pursued a policy of détente, seeking to ease Cold War tensions
through diplomatic negotiations and arms control agreements like SALT I. While Nixon's
approach aimed at reducing the risk of direct military confrontation, Reagan's administration
took a more confrontational stance, leading to heightened tensions but also significant
diplomatic breakthroughs, such as the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands

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