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Chapter Twenty-One
Toward Empire
Multiple Choice
1. Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as _________ to organize the Rough
Riders.
A) vice president
B) secretary of defense
C) assistant secretary of defense
D) secretary of the navy
E) assistant secretary of the navy
Answer: E
Rationale:
Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as assistant secretary of the navy to organize
the Rough Riders, a volunteer cavalry unit, during the Spanish-American War. This decision
allowed him to actively participate in military action and further his political ambitions.
2. For many political and religious leaders, expansion ________.
A) meant the demise of the American system
B) would threaten the purity of the Anglo-Saxon race
C) would put the United States into direct conflict with European nations
D) was necessary for sustained economic growth
E) went against the ideals of Christianity and American democracy
Answer: D
Rationale:
For many political and religious leaders, expansion was seen as necessary for sustained
economic growth. They believed that acquiring new territories would open up new markets
and resources, fueling economic prosperity for the United States.

3. Josiah Strong ________.
A) fostered the concept of the divine support for expansion
B) believed that only missionary work should be done overseas
C) had little regard for the theories of Charles Darwin
D) hindered American expansion through his religious teachings
E) thought foreign trade was unimportant to the United States
Answer: A
Rationale:
Josiah Strong fostered the concept of the divine support for expansion, promoting the idea
that expanding American influence overseas was part of a divine mission to spread
civilization and Christianity.
4. William Seward’s foreign policy included ________.
A) avoiding entangling foreign alliances
B) concentrating on promoting trade and commerce
C) alliances with major European powers
D) the United States’ domination of the Americas
E) a focus on Mexico, excluding Canada
Answer: D
Rationale:
William Seward’s foreign policy included the United States’ domination of the Americas. He
advocated for expanding American influence and control throughout the Western Hemisphere
to secure the nation's interests and promote its power.
5. James G. Blaine’s greatest diplomatic success was ________.
A) the purchase of Alaska
B) securing home rule for Canada

C) settling the Alabama claims with Britain
D) paving the way for the Pan-American Union
E) averting a war with Britain over Venezuela
Answer: D
Rationale:
James G. Blaine’s greatest diplomatic success was paving the way for the Pan-American
Union, an organization aimed at promoting cooperation and unity among the nations of the
Western Hemisphere.
6. In response to the successful American revolt in Hawaii in 1893, Grover Cleveland
________.
A) immediately annexed the islands
B) restored the queen to power
C) apologized to the Hawaiian people
D) refused to recognize the new government
E) tried, but failed, to restore the queen to power
Answer: E
Rationale:
In response to the successful American revolt in Hawaii in 1893, Grover Cleveland tried, but
failed, to restore the queen to power. He opposed the annexation of Hawaii and sought to
undo the actions of the American businessmen who had overthrown the monarchy.
7. After 1890, the U.S. Navy’s building program ________.
A) was sharply curtailed to help balance the federal budget
B) began to concentrate on fast, lightly armored commerce raiders
C) began to emphasize static, coastal defenses over building ships
D) shifted to the construction of a battleship navy with offensive power
E) started using steel steamships instead of sailing vessels

Answer: D
Rationale:
After 1890, the U.S. Navy’s building program shifted to the construction of a battleship navy
with offensive power. This shift reflected the changing strategic priorities and the growing
importance of naval power in projecting American influence abroad.
8. According to the theories of Alfred Thayer Mahan, ________.
A) large armies would protect American interests around the globe
B) American greatness would be recognized by its industrial output
C) little would be gained from American expansion abroad
D) a strong navy was an integral part of America’s wealth and power
E) standing armies were dangerous and expensive
Answer: D
Rationale:
According to the theories of Alfred Thayer Mahan, a strong navy was an integral part of
America’s wealth and power. Mahan argued that control of the seas was essential for
maintaining global influence and securing trade routes.
9. One consequence of General Weyler’s policy in Cuba was ________.
A) the generation of public sympathy for the Cuban people among Americans
B) a quick ending to the Cuban rebellion
C) strong support for Spain from the American government
D) an alliance between Cuban rebels and the American government
E) the end of “reconcentration” as a policy
Answer: A
Rationale:
One consequence of General Weyler’s policy in Cuba was the generation of public sympathy
for the Cuban people among Americans. Weyler’s harsh tactics, including reconcentration

camps, sparked outrage and humanitarian concerns in the United States, leading to increased
support for Cuban independence.
10. By late 1897, Spain was ________.
A) unwilling to meet any American demands
B) backing off from its harsh policy in Cuba
C) directing the polices of General Weyler
D) determined to maintain control at all costs
E) willing to free Cuba rather than go to war
Answer: B
Rationale:
By late 1897, Spain was backing off from its harsh policy in Cuba. Faced with international
pressure and growing unrest in Cuba, Spain began to reconsider its approach and showed
signs of willingness to adopt a more conciliatory stance.
11. At the outset of the Spanish-American War, ________.
A) there was little public support for the war in the United States
B) the American military was well prepared to fight a war
C) it was difficult to find the necessary volunteers for the American military
D) the army signed up as many as a million volunteers
E) the American army was 200,000 soldiers strong
Answer: D
Rationale:
The correct answer is D because at the outset of the Spanish-American War, there was
significant public support in the United States. The army was able to sign up as many as a
million volunteers due to patriotic fervor and enthusiasm for the conflict.
12. During the Spanish-American War, African Americans in the military ________.
A) found segregation and discrimination similar to civilian life

B) were treated as equals and given opportunities for advancement
C) had little opportunity to distinguish themselves in battle
D) were able to pressure the government for civil rights reforms
E) were never allowed to assume command positions
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because during the Spanish-American War, African Americans in the
military faced segregation and discrimination similar to civilian life, reflecting the racial
prejudices prevalent in American society at the time.
13. The term “smoked Yankee” in the Spanish-American War referred to ________.
A) northern artillery units
B) African-American infantry regiments
C) guerrilla fighters in Cuba
D) Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders
E) members of integrated units
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because "smoked Yankee" referred to African-American infantry
regiments in the Spanish-American War, highlighting their role and presence in the conflict.
14. The actions of Commodore Dewey in the Philippines ________.
A) had little effect on the outcome of the war
B) disproved Mahan’s theories regarding naval supremacy
C) provided the United States with an unexpected prize of war
D) showed the surprising strength of the Spanish fleet
E) were undeniably illegal, even if effective

Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because Commodore Dewey's actions in the Philippines provided the
United States with an unexpected prize of war by defeating the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay,
securing American control over the Philippines.
15. Which territory caused the most debate about the merits of the United States acquiring an
empire? A) Guam
B) Hawaii
C) Puerto Rico
D) the Philippines
E) the Dominican Republic
Answer: D
Rationale:
The correct answer is D because the acquisition of the Philippines caused the most debate
about the merits of the United States acquiring an empire due to concerns about imperialism,
colonialism, and the responsibilities of governing distant territories.
16. Which of the following individuals ultimately supported the annexation of the
Philippines?
A) Jane Addams
B) Andrew Carnegie
C) William Jennings Bryan
D) William McKinley
E) Samuel Gompers
Answer: D
Rationale:

The correct answer is D because President William McKinley ultimately supported the
annexation of the Philippines as part of his administration's imperialist policy.
17. The Philippine-American War was ________.
A) a minor event for Americans
B) more costly than the Spanish-American War
C) fought in a traditional manner
D) never completely resolved
E) over even before the Spanish-American War
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because the Philippine-American War was more costly than the
Spanish-American War in terms of both casualties and resources expended, reflecting the
intensity and duration of the conflict.
18. The leader of the Filipino resistance to U.S. occupation of the Philippines was ________.
A) Emilio Aguinaldo
B) José Burgos
C) William Howard Taft
D) Ferdinand Marcos
E) José Martí
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because Emilio Aguinaldo was indeed the leader of the Filipino
resistance to U.S. occupation of the Philippines, leading the fight for Philippine independence
against American forces.
19. Under the terms of the Taft Commission, the United States ________.
A) would control the Philippines in perpetuity

B) gave the Filipinos complete independence
C) provided funds but did not interfere with local government
D) gave the army complete control of the Philippines
E) guaranteed future independence for the Philippines
Answer: E
Rationale:
The correct answer is E because under the terms of the Taft Commission, the United States
guaranteed future independence for the Philippines, although the actual timeline for
independence was not immediate.
20. By 1900, China ________.
A) had succeeded in resisting European influence
B) was the leading Asian power
C) had become vulnerable to European imperialism
D) had closed the door to the outside world
E) welcomed U.S. intervention
Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because by 1900, China had become vulnerable to European
imperialism, with various Western powers exerting influence and control over Chinese
territory and resources.
21. The Open Door policy ________.
A) claimed economic rights for the U.S. in China
B) met with the approval of western Europe
C) had little effect on American policy in the Far East
D) provided the United States with a sphere of influence in China

E) was publicly denounced in China
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because the Open Door policy claimed economic rights for the U.S.
in China, advocating for equal access to Chinese markets and trade opportunities for all
foreign powers.
22. The Boxer Rebellion took place in ________.
A) the Philippines
B) China
C) Hawaii
D) Cuba
E) Puerto Rico
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because the Boxer Rebellion took place in China, where Chinese
nationalists, known as Boxers, rebelled against foreign influence and presence in the country.
23. Which individual is incorrectly matched with the region of his greatest foreign policy
achievement? A) James G. Blaine: Latin America
B) George Dewey: Russia
C) William Seward: Alaska
D) John Hay: China
E) John W. Foster: Hawaii
Answer: B
Rationale:

The correct answer is B because George Dewey's greatest foreign policy achievement was
not in Russia but rather in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War, where he led the
U.S. Navy to victory in the Battle of Manila Bay.
24. How did the end of the Spanish-American War impact the influence of the United States
on the world stage?
A) It gave the United States lands beyond its borders for the first time, making it an imperial
power.
B) It marked the United States’ first major military victory against a world power and
established America as an overseas empire.
C) It opened the Caribbean to the United States, giving it protectorates as with European
countries.
D) It led to the annexation of Hawaii, giving the United States a stronghold in the Pacific and
access to all of Asia.
E) It showed the rest of the world that the United States was militarily powerful and
diplomatically weak, like most other world powers.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because the end of the Spanish-American War marked the United
States’ first major military victory against a world power (Spain) and established America as
an overseas empire with territorial acquisitions such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
Philippines.
25. Why was the American expansion of the 1890s different from earlier expansionist efforts?
A) It was intended for settlement.
B) It had primarily agricultural objectives.
C) It would create economic and military colonies overseas.
D) It would venture into uninhabited areas.
E) It was the result of war and invasion.
Answer: C

Rationale:
The correct answer is C because the American expansion of the 1890s differed from earlier
expansionist efforts by focusing on creating economic and military colonies overseas,
marking a shift towards imperialism and global influence.
26. Why did some people in the 1890s, and even today, consider late nineteenth-century
American foreign policy to be an “aberration”?
A) As a democratic republic founded on the idea of freedom, the United States had no right to
deny independence to other countries by annexation.
B) The United States had never previously expanded its territory so rapidly.
C) The United States had once been a small country of just thirteen states, so expanding to
new lands and creating new states was considered an aberration.
D) As a democratic republic founded on the idea of freedom, the United States had the
obligation to seek the same rights for countries around the world.
E) As a former colony, the United States understood the challenges of gaining independence
and could better assist new nations than Europe could.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because some people in the 1890s, and even today, consider late
nineteenth-century American foreign policy to be an "aberration" due to the contradiction
between the democratic principles upon which the United States was founded and the
annexation of foreign territories without their consent, which was seen as denying
independence to other countries.
27. How did the geography of the United States encourage isolationism among some
Americans?
A) The United States was so close to Canada and Mexico, that expansion there seemed to
make the most sense.
B) The United States was a relatively small country compared to Canada or Mexico, making
it less willing to engage in armed conflicts over land.

C) The United States was protected on both sides by vast oceans that discouraged attack from
Europe or Asia.
D) Natural barriers separated the U.S. from both Canada and Mexico.
E) The United States was beginning to prosper and look for new markets for its products, and
workers for its factories.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because the geography of the United States, with vast oceans on both
sides, encouraged isolationism among some Americans by providing a natural barrier that
discouraged foreign invasion and fostered a sense of security from external threats.
28. How were religion and foreign policy related in the late nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries in the United States?
A) Many U.S. foreign ministers were religious leaders, using their diplomatic posts for
missionary access.
B) Many religious leaders believed that the United States was blessed with riches that should
be shared with the world’s poor, making foreign policy mainly about charity.
C) Many religious leaders believed that the United States belonged to Christians, and they
should be content and not seek more riches throughout the world.
D) Many religious leaders believed that Americans should bring Christianity to the rest of the
world, so they advocated imperialist foreign policies.
E) Many religious leaders followed the “conversion by sword” example of Europe in the
Middle Ages, so they advocated military coups.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The correct answer is D because in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many
religious leaders in the United States believed in the duty to spread Christianity worldwide,
leading them to advocate for imperialist foreign policies aimed at bringing Christianity to
other parts of the world.

29. Why did William Seward encourage the United States to buy Alaska? A) He had surveyed
Alaska’s rich resources.
B) He believed any new land was worth attaining.
C) It gave the United States access to Russia and Asia.
D) It gave the United States access to the Pacific Ocean.
E) He hoped the United States would annex Canada.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The correct answer is E because William Seward encouraged the United States to buy Alaska
in part because he hoped it would eventually lead to the annexation of Canada, expanding
American territory further northward.
30. How did the United States and Great Britain avoid war over Venezuela?
A) The defeat of Spain in Cuba encouraged Great Britain to concede Venezuela to the United
States.
B) Great Britain’s superior naval fleet, which was fully deployed off the coasts of Venezuela
and Guiana, discouraged U.S. involvement.
C) Larger problems in Africa and Europe caused Britain to agree to negotiate with Venezuela.
D) The U.S. annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines convinced Great Britain to concede
Venezuela.
E) The Venezuelan people successfully boycotted British and U.S. products, demonstrating
their resolve for self-rule.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because during the Venezuela Crisis, larger problems in Africa and
Europe, particularly the Boer War and tensions with Germany, diverted Britain's attention and
led them to agree to negotiate with Venezuela to avoid further escalation with the United
States.

31. During the Cleveland administration, which nation did the United States replace as the
major power in Latin America?
A) Germany
B) Great Britain
C) Venezuela
D) Mexico
E) Spain
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because during the Cleveland administration, the United States
replaced Great Britain as the major power in Latin America, marking a shift in influence and
dominance in the region.
32. Why did American involvement in Hawaii increase in the 1890s? A) There was intense
pressure from American missionaries.
B) There was a fear of German influence in the region.
C) American business interests on the island forced the issue.
D) American traders were interested in Hawaii’s cotton crop.
E) Native Hawaiians appealed to the United States for help.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because American involvement in Hawaii increased in the 1890s due
to the growing influence of American business interests on the island, particularly in sugar
and other agricultural industries, which led to increased political and economic ties with the
United States.
33. How did the provisional government of Hawaii respond to President Cleveland’s demand
that the queen be restored to her throne?
A) They refused and instead declared Hawaii to be a U.S. state.

B) They refused and instead seceded from the United States.
C) They refused and instead declared Hawaii to be a republic.
D) They agreed and restored the queen to her throne.
E) They agreed but the queen no longer wanted to rule.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because the provisional government of Hawaii refused President
Cleveland's demand and instead declared Hawaii to be a republic, maintaining their control
over the islands.
34. How were Admiral Mahan’s naval theories connected to industrialism?
A) He applied theories of industrialization to shipbuilding techniques to produce a large, new
fleet of navy vessels.
B) He believed that industrialism created surplus products, creating a need for merchant ships
to reach foreign markets and a navy to protect the merchants.
C) He saw that, throughout history, only nations with strong navies were able to compete in
industrial societies.
D) He believed that industrialization dehumanized people, so he encouraged the traditional
manual labor of ship building and sailing.
E) He believed that industrialism was distracting Americans from important foreign affairs,
so he developed a navy that would focus Americans outward.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because Admiral Mahan's naval theories were connected to
industrialism by his belief that industrialization created surplus products, leading to a need for
merchant ships to reach foreign markets, which in turn necessitated a strong navy to protect
those merchant interests.
35. In their approaches to the Cuban rebellion against Spain, ________.

A) President Cleveland was neutral while President McKinley favored the insurgents
B) President Cleveland wanted to intervene for the insurgents, but McKinley was neutral
C) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley wanted war with Spain
D) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley were totally neutral
E) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley opposed involvement with Spain or Cuba
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because during the Cuban rebellion against Spain, President
Cleveland was neutral while President McKinley favored the insurgents and eventually led
the United States into war with Spain, supporting Cuba's fight for independence.
36. In what way did the outcome of the Spanish-American War fulfill Theodore Roosevelt’s
hopes for the United States?
A) It gave the United States influence and eventually dominance in Latin America and
Western Europe.
B) It made the United States a world power, on equal footing to European imperialist
countries.
C) It gave the United States more foreign markets for their surplus of farm and factory
products.
D) It gave the United States influence in the Caribbean, helped further the annexation of
Hawaii, and was the impetus to create a powerful navy.
E) It freed Cuba, gave Americans something to consider other than material gain, and
provided practice for the army and navy.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The correct answer is E because the outcome of the Spanish-American War fulfilled
Theodore Roosevelt's hopes for the United States by freeing Cuba, diverting Americans'

attention from material gain, and providing practice for the army and navy, all of which were
in line with Roosevelt's ideals of national vigor and preparedness.
37. What was one result of yellow journalism stories about Cuba in the 1890s?
A) Americans believed Cubans were conspiring to control the Caribbean and were, therefore,
reluctant to go to war to help them gain independence.
B) Americans believed that Spain had a right to imperialist holdings in Cuba but that they
should treat their colonies better.
C) Americans became enraged about Spain’s treatment of Cubans and the sinking of the
Maine.
D) Cowardly journalists did not report Cuban atrocities for fear that the Spanish government
would retaliate, hence the term “yellow journalism.”
E) Powerful Asian governments saw Cuba as the first step in a series of imperialist moves, so
they sent journalists to the U.S. to spread rumors against intervention.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because one result of yellow journalism stories about Cuba in the
1890s was that Americans became enraged about Spain's treatment of Cubans and the sinking
of the USS Maine, which helped to galvanize public opinion in favor of intervention in the
Spanish-American War.
38. What finally pushed President McKinley to ask for a declaration of war against Spain?
A) He was a weak and indecisive leader, who was forced into war.
B) The conflicting national interests of Spain and the United States left few alternatives.
C) He hoped that a war would bring him political power and the country territorial gains.
D) Spain was unwilling to accede to any of the demands of the United States.
E) The Cuban people appealed to him directly and asked for his help.
Answer: B
Rationale:

The correct answer is B because conflicting national interests between Spain and the United
States, particularly regarding the situation in Cuba, left few alternatives for President
McKinley but to ask for a declaration of war against Spain to resolve the crisis.
39. In what way was the Spanish-American War fought by small-town America?
A) Most of the volunteer soldiers who served in the armed forces were from rural America.
B) There were so many volunteers that each unit of soldiers was like a small town in size and
function.
C) The navy and army found that men worked better if they knew someone in their unit, so
they created a buddy system, pairing men from small towns.
D) Soldiers were organized into National Guard units by town, so they observed the customs
and relationships of their hometowns.
E) All of America was involved in the war effort, making uniforms, saving metal, conserving
food; the war was won by people back home in small towns.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The correct answer is D because the Spanish-American War was fought by small-town
America in the sense that soldiers were often organized into National Guard units by town,
fostering a sense of camaraderie and familiarity with the customs and relationships of their
hometowns.
40. In what way was the experience of the Spanish-American War ironic for AfricanAmerican soldiers?
A) Most of the people that African-American soldiers fought against in Cuba had the same
African heritage. B) African Americans were not permitted to fight in the Cuban conflict but
were allowed to fight in the Philippines.
C) African Americans were not permitted to fight in Cuba and could only work as cooks,
medics, and servants to white soldiers.
D) The United States was finally recognizing the freedom and humanity of African
Americans, while invading Cuba.

E) The United States were fighting to give Cubans freedom, yet they denied many freedoms
to African Americans.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The correct answer is E because the experience of the Spanish-American War was ironic for
African-American soldiers in that the United States was fighting to give Cubans freedom
from Spanish rule while simultaneously denying many freedoms to African Americans at
home, highlighting the inconsistency in American ideals and actions.
41. How did some American labor leaders respond to the idea of annexing the Philippines?
A) They were against it because they worried about losing jobs to cheap labor from the
Philippines.
B) They were against it because they worried that Filipino workers would demand higher
wages than Americans.
C) They were against it because they worried trade with the Philippines would increase
import tariffs and raise taxes.
D) They were in favor of it because they wanted to increase union membership by recruiting
Filipino workers.
E) They were in favor of it because they believed Filipinos would take the jobs that American
workers did not want.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because some American labor leaders responded to the idea of
annexing the Philippines by opposing it due to concerns about losing jobs to cheap labor from
the Philippines, which could undercut American workers' wages and job opportunities.
42. Why was Booker T. Washington opposed to the idea of annexing the Philippines?
A) Washington thought the United States should focus on domestic matters instead, such as
the treatment of African Americans and American Indians.

B) Washington thought the Filipinos would resist the idea of converting to Christianity and
believed that all Americans should be Christian.
C) Washington feared that Filipinos would migrate to the United States and work for lower
wages, which would take jobs away from African Americans.
D) Washington warned that possessing a colony would increase the federal debt and lead to
higher income taxes as a result.
E) Washington believed that having a colony was opposed to basic American ideals, such as
independence and self-determination.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because Booker T. Washington opposed the idea of annexing the
Philippines because he believed the United States should focus on domestic matters, such as
improving the treatment of African Americans and American Indians, rather than involving
itself in overseas imperialism.
43. How did the Boxer Rebellion affect U.S. foreign policy in China?
A) The United States realized that China would not cooperate with the Open Door policy and
began to join the European nations in dividing up China.
B) The United States affirmed their Open Door policy and declared China’s independence
from any foreign (European) rule.
C) The United States saw that China was determined to keep out foreign influence, so they
withdrew to the Philippines, to avoid armed conflict.
D) The United States realized that anti-imperialists back home wanted them to withdraw
from China, so they negotiated secretly.
E) The rebellion in Cuba turned the United States’ attention away from China and to the antiimperialist demonstrations closer to home.
Answer: B
Rationale:

The correct answer is B because the Boxer Rebellion affected U.S. foreign policy in China by
reaffirming the Open Door policy, which aimed to ensure equal access to Chinese markets for
all foreign powers and declared China's independence from any foreign (European) rule.
44. Does U.S. foreign policy today more closely reflect the isolationist or the expansionist
model?
A) Because the United States no longer participates in armed conflicts in other countries, it
reflects the isolationist model.
B) Because the United States only participates in the world economically (not militarily or
politically), it reflects the isolationist model.
C) Because the United States participates in affairs throughout the world for its own benefit,
it reflects the expansionist model.
D) Because the United States only participates in the other countries’ struggles for freedom
and not for any U.S. gain, it reflects the expansionist model.
E) Since the U.S. has exerted its influence through its buying power, it reflects the imperialist
model. Answer: C
Rationale:
The correct answer is C because U.S. foreign policy today reflects the expansionist model as
the United States participates in global affairs for its own benefit, asserting its influence
economically, politically, and militarily in various regions around the world.
45. Which of the following was NOT a factor in fostering a change in American foreign
policy by 1890?
A) the census report of 1890
B) concern over lack of natural resources
C) oversaturation of domestic markets
D) the rise of evolution-inspired notions of racial superiority
E) the perceived need for more foreign markets
Answer: B

Rationale:
The correct answer is B because concern over the lack of natural resources was not a
significant factor in fostering a change in American foreign policy by 1890. Instead, factors
such as the census report of 1890, oversaturation of domestic markets, the rise of evolutioninspired notions of racial superiority, and the perceived need for more foreign markets played
crucial roles in shaping American foreign policy.
46. Which of the following was NOT a difficulty in annexing the Hawaiian Islands?
A) no clear motives for annexation
B) the threat of Japanese intervention
C) the opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxons
D) the lack of political consensus for annexation in Washington
E) the fear of the problems that colonial rule would bring
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because there were clear motives for annexing the Hawaiian Islands,
including strategic location, economic interests, and potential military advantages. However,
factors such as the threat of Japanese intervention, opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxons,
lack of political consensus in Washington, and fear of the problems that colonial rule would
bring were significant difficulties in the annexation process.
47. Which of the following did NOT play any role leading up to the Spanish-American War?
A) the de Lôme letter
B) the annexation of Hawaii
C) the sinking of the Maine
D) the “reconcentration” policy
E) the riots in Havana in January
Answer: B
Rationale:

The correct answer is B because the annexation of Hawaii did not directly play a role leading
up to the Spanish-American War. However, the de Lôme letter, the sinking of the Maine, the
"reconcentration" policy, and the riots in Havana in January were significant events or
policies that contributed to the tensions between the United States and Spain, eventually
leading to the war.
48. Which of the following was NOT an argument opposing the annexation of the
Philippines?
A) The natives could not be Christianized.
B) Colonization violated the founding principles of the U.S.
C) The Filipinos could never become Americans.
D) Cheap labor could be imported from the Philippines.
E) Trade could flourish without annexation.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The correct answer is A because the argument that the natives could not be Christianized was
not commonly used as a reason opposing the annexation of the Philippines. However,
arguments such as colonization violating the founding principles of the U.S., Filipinos not
being able to become Americans, cheap labor being imported from the Philippines, and trade
flourishing without annexation were significant arguments against annexation.
49. U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East today most closely resembles the foreign policy of
the 1890s regarding ________.
A) Venezuela––the United States nearly went to war with a European power over another
country’s border dispute
B) the Philippines—the United States used military power to protect a country’s
independence and then had trouble withdrawing immediately
C) Hawaii—the United States annexed a territory and then formed a state out of valuable
foreign land

D) Cuba—the United States used military power and defeated an imperial enemy in a short
amount of time
E) Alaska—the United States bought territory from other countries and eventually made it a
state
Answer: B
Rationale:
The correct answer is B because U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East today, particularly in
relation to military intervention and the challenges of withdrawing from conflicts, most
closely resembles the foreign policy of the 1890s regarding the Philippines, where the United
States used military power to protect a country's independence and then faced difficulties in
withdrawing immediately.
50. What can be assumed about attitudes toward foreign policy given the status of the
Republican Party in the early twentieth century?
A) The pro-isolationist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that
expansionists were in the minority.
B) The anti-imperialist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that
pro-imperialists were a minority.
C) The pro-isolationist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that
interventionists were in the minority.
D) The pro-expansionist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that
isolationists were in the minority.
E) The anti-imperialist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that
isolationists were also popular.
Answer: D
Rationale:
In the early twentieth century, particularly during the era of imperialism and expansionism,
the Republican Party, led by figures like Theodore Roosevelt, advocated for an assertive
foreign policy that included territorial expansion and interventionism. This stance aligns with
the pro-expansionist position. Consequently, it can be inferred that within the Republican

Party, those favoring expansionist foreign policies were predominant, implying that
isolationists, who favored a more restrained role in international affairs, were likely in the
minority.
Essay
1. What factors encouraged some Americans to favor imperialism in the late nineteenth
century? How did these goals contradict the American tradition of isolationism?
Answer: Some Americans favored imperialism in the late nineteenth century due to economic
interests, belief in cultural superiority, and a desire for strategic military bases. Economic
interests drove expansionists to seek new markets and resources abroad. Additionally, the
idea of spreading American values and civilization was appealing to those who believed in
cultural superiority. Furthermore, acquiring colonies provided strategic military bases to
protect American interests overseas. These goals contradicted the American tradition of
isolationism, which advocated for non-intervention in foreign affairs and avoiding
entanglements in overseas conflicts. Imperialism involved actively seeking territorial
expansion and exerting influence over other nations, which went against the principle of
isolationism.
2. How did the Spanish-American War become a war of imperialism?
Answer: The Spanish-American War became a war of imperialism due to America's
acquisition of territories from Spain, including Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Initially portrayed as a conflict to liberate Cuba from Spanish oppression, the war quickly
transformed into a broader imperialistic endeavor. With the Treaty of Paris in 1898, the
United States gained control over territories outside of Cuba, asserting its imperial ambitions.
The war marked America's emergence as a global power with territorial possessions beyond
its continental borders, signaling its shift towards imperialistic policies.
3. What were the major objections to colonizing the Philippines after the Spanish-American
War? Have any of the predictions of the treaty’s opponents come true?
Answer: Major objections to colonizing the Philippines after the Spanish-American War
included concerns about violating principles of self-determination, cultural imperialism, and
the costs of maintaining overseas territories. Critics argued that annexing the Philippines
went against American ideals of freedom and self-governance by imposing colonial rule on a
distant people. They also warned of the challenges of administering a culturally and

geographically diverse archipelago and the potential for anti-American sentiment to fuel
resistance. Additionally, opponents feared the financial burden of governing and defending a
far-flung colony. Some predictions of the treaty's opponents did come true, such as the
outbreak of the Philippine-American War, a protracted conflict against Filipino nationalists
resisting American rule. Furthermore, administering the Philippines proved challenging, and
cultural differences hindered efforts to impose American values.
4. What postwar events in the Philippines and China revealed to America the realities of
imperialism?
Answer: Postwar events in the Philippines and China, such as the Philippine-American War
and the Boxer Rebellion, revealed to America the realities of imperialism. The PhilippineAmerican War, a bloody conflict between Filipino nationalists and American forces,
demonstrated the challenges of governing and pacifying a resistant population in a distant
colony. It exposed the brutality of colonial rule and the lengths to which imperial powers
would go to maintain control. Similarly, the Boxer Rebellion in China, where Chinese
nationalists rebelled against foreign influence and oppression, highlighted the complexities
and dangers of imperial ventures. Both events forced America to confront the moral and
practical implications of its imperialistic ambitions, leading to debates over the nation's role
as a global power and the responsibilities that came with it.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands
9780205900688

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