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Chapter Three
Putting down roots: opportunity and oppression in colonial society
Multiple Choice
1. The character of the first English settlements in the New World ________.
A) remained remarkably similar throughout the seventeenth century
B) differed from colony to colony because of government rules
C) differed substantially from colony to colony from the very beginning of colonization
D) was determined primarily by the religious preference of each colony
E) was not significantly influenced by geography
Answer: C
Rationale:
The English settlements in the New World varied considerably in their characteristics from
colony to colony right from the beginning of colonization. Factors such as the motivations of
settlers, geographic conditions, relations with Native Americans, and economic activities
influenced the development of each colony differently.
2. Puritans viewed which of the following as essential to their New England commonwealth?
A) strict adherence to personal hygiene measures
B) a flexible form of colonial administration
C) a healthy family life
D) the rapid creation of an urban society in New England
E) honest public officials
Answer: C
Rationale:
Puritans considered a healthy family life essential to their vision of a well-ordered society.
They placed strong emphasis on family values, including marital fidelity, parental

responsibility, and the proper upbringing of children, as integral to the success of their New
England commonwealth.
3. The explanation for the tremendous population growth of seventeenth-century New
England can be found in the ________.
A) extraordinary fertility of New England women
B) emphasis Puritans placed on having large families
C) good relations maintained with local Indians
D) long lives of New England settlers
E) agricultural richness of the New World
Answer: D
Rationale:
The population growth in seventeenth-century New England was primarily attributed to the
long lives of settlers rather than any other factor listed. Factors such as low mortality rates,
relatively stable living conditions, and access to healthcare contributed to the population
expansion.
4. New England families differed from those of other English colonies in that they often
included ________.
A) Native Americans
B) grandparents
C) polygamy
D) widows
E) extended families living in one household
Answer: B
Rationale:
New England families often included grandparents, which was a distinguishing feature from
families in other English colonies. This reflected a cultural emphasis on familial bonds,
intergenerational support, and the preservation of family lineage within New England society.

5. In New England, women ________.
A) enjoyed rights and powers equal to those of men
B) outnumbered men in church by two to one
C) had no economic power whatsoever
D) could easily divorce their husbands
E) began to lobby for voting rights in this colonial period
Answer: B
Rationale:
In New England, women outnumbered men in church by two to one, indicating their active
participation in religious life and community affairs. While women did not enjoy equal rights
and powers to men, their significant presence in religious gatherings underscored their
influence within certain spheres of colonial society.
6. The society created by Puritans in New England ________.
A) copied the social order they had left behind in England
B) was modeled on contemporary Dutch society
C) represented a near-total rejection of traditional English ways
D) was quite similar to that of the Chesapeake region
E) adapted to include slavery
Answer: A
Rationale:
The society created by Puritans in New England closely mirrored the social order they had
left behind in England. Puritans sought to establish a community based on their interpretation
of biblical principles, which included hierarchical structures and strict moral codes
reminiscent of their English homeland.
7. Sumptuary laws ________.
A) made excessive gluttony a crime

B) established statutes that limited the wearing of fine apparel to the wealthy and prominent
C) criminalized frivolity on the Sabbath
D) provided that only “visible saints” could be buried in a church cemetery
E) made church attendance compulsory
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sumptuary laws established statutes that limited the wearing of fine apparel to the wealthy
and prominent members of society. These laws aimed to reinforce social distinctions and
maintain order by regulating conspicuous consumption and preserving class distinctions
within colonial communities.
8. The most important reason for the difference between the New England and Chesapeake
colonies was based on ________.
A) the different crops exported
B) the much higher mortality rate of the Chesapeake colonies
C) the practice of slavery in the southern colonies
D) contrasting economic systems
E) varying degrees of ethnic diversity in the populations
Answer: B
Rationale:
The significant difference between the New England and Chesapeake colonies was primarily
due to the much higher mortality rate in the Chesapeake colonies. Factors such as disease,
harsh living conditions, and conflicts with Native Americans contributed to a lower life
expectancy in the Chesapeake region compared to New England.
9. Compared to New England, Chesapeake society ________.
A) was more democratic
B) was characterized by small farms

C) had fewer families
D) was more densely populated
E) had fewer slaves
Answer: C
Rationale:
Compared to New England, Chesapeake society had fewer families. The Chesapeake region
had a higher proportion of single men, indentured servants, and transient populations engaged
in tobacco cultivation, leading to fewer stable family units compared to the more settled and
family-oriented society of New England.
10. By the late 1600s, the gap between rich and poor in white Chesapeake society ________.
A) steadily shrank
B) steadily widened
C) remained unchanged
D) could not be estimated
E) is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers
Answer: B
Rationale:
By the late 1600s, the gap between rich and poor in white Chesapeake society steadily
widened. The emergence of a plantation economy, reliance on slave labor, and concentration
of wealth among a small elite exacerbated social inequalities, leading to a widening wealth
gap within the colonial society of the Chesapeake region.
11. Of the estimated 11 million African slaves carried to the Americas, the great majority
were sent to ________.
A) Brazil and the Caribbean
B) British North America
C) Chile

D) Argentina
E) Central America
Answer: A
Rationale:
The majority of African slaves, estimated at around 11 million, were sent to Brazil and the
Caribbean. These regions had extensive plantation economies that heavily relied on African
slave labor for the production of commodities such as sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cotton.
12. In the early seventeenth century, Virginia’s blacks ________.
A) were encouraged to marry white women
B) occasionally served in the House of Burgesses
C) sometimes became planters
D) greatly outnumbered whites
E) slowly integrated into white society
Answer: C
Rationale:
In the early seventeenth century, some blacks in Virginia sometimes became planters
themselves. While the majority of black individuals were enslaved and worked on
plantations, there were instances where free blacks acquired land and slaves, becoming smallscale planters in their own right.
13. During the colonial period, most of the slaves sent to the North American colonies were
supplied by the ________.
A) Dutch
B) Americans
C) Portuguese
D) Spanish
E) British

Answer: E
Rationale:
Most of the slaves sent to the North American colonies during the colonial period were
supplied by the British. British involvement in the transatlantic slave trade led to the
transportation of enslaved Africans to British North America to support labor-intensive
industries such as agriculture and mining.
14. The eighteenth-century population of the lowlands of South Carolina was ________
percent black.
A) 5
B) 10
C) 40
D) 60
E) 80
Answer: D
Rationale:
The eighteenth-century population of the lowlands of South Carolina was approximately 60
percent black. The region's economy was heavily reliant on plantation agriculture,
particularly rice cultivation, which required a large enslaved labor force.
15. Where did the creole language, Gullah, endure longest?
A) Maryland
B) North Carolina
C) Louisiana
D) Virginia
E) the Sea Islands
Answer: E
Rationale:

The creole language, Gullah, endured longest in the Sea Islands. Gullah developed among
enslaved Africans in the Sea Islands of South Carolina and Georgia, where African cultural
practices and languages persisted due to the relative isolation of these coastal regions.
16. In which colony were African Americans most able to preserve their African identity?
A) New Jersey
B) South Carolina
C) Pennsylvania
D) New York
E) Virginia
Answer: B
Rationale:
African Americans were most able to preserve their African identity in South Carolina. The
large proportion of African-born slaves, coupled with relatively less stringent control over
slave culture and practices, allowed for the retention of African traditions and languages
among enslaved populations in South Carolina.
17. The most serious slave rebellion of the colonial period was ________.
A) the Stono Uprising
B) the Denmark Vesey Conspiracy
C) Nat Turner’s Rebellion
D) the Jamestown Massacre
E) Bacon’s Rebellion
Answer: A
Rationale:
The most serious slave rebellion of the colonial period was the Stono Uprising. Occurring in
1739 in South Carolina, this rebellion involved a significant number of enslaved Africans
who revolted against their masters, resulting in violence and loss of life before being
suppressed by colonial authorities.

18. British authorities based their colonial commercial policies on the theory of ________.
A) feudalism
B) laissez-faire
C) mercantilism
D) federalism
E) republicanism
Answer: C
Rationale:
British authorities based their colonial commercial policies on the theory of mercantilism.
Mercantilism aimed to increase a nation's wealth and power by promoting exports, limiting
imports, and establishing colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods.
19. The Navigation Acts established the principle that ________.
A) trade between the colonies of Spain and of England would be beneficial
B) Spain would have most-favored status in trading with England
C) free trade was good for all
D) the British colonies’ only trading partner was England
E) North American industry should be discouraged
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Navigation Acts established the principle that the British colonies’ only trading partner
was England. These acts required colonial goods to be transported on English ships and sold
in English markets, thereby ensuring that colonial trade benefited the British economy and
strengthened imperial control over colonial commerce.
20. The intention of the Navigation Acts was to ________.
A) remove the Dutch as a commercial competitor
B) promote English industrial development

C) keep the American colonies weak and dependent
D) stimulate colonial economic diversification
E) finance the British navy
Answer: A
Rationale:
The intention of the Navigation Acts was to remove the Dutch as a commercial competitor.
These acts aimed to restrict Dutch involvement in colonial trade by requiring goods to be
transported in English ships and by imposing tariffs and trade restrictions on Dutch
merchants, thereby strengthening England's economic dominance in the Atlantic world.
21. The Staple Act of 1663 stated that ________.
A) Americans must stop raising corn and wheat
B) imports to America had to be shipped through England
C) Americans could not produce iron products
D) rum had to be manufactured in the West Indies
E) Americans could only produce staple foodstuffs
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Staple Act of 1663 mandated that imports to America had to be shipped through England.
This measure aimed to ensure that English merchants benefited from colonial trade by
channeling goods through English ports, thereby bolstering England's economic dominance
and control over colonial commerce.
22. Beginning in 1696, the ________ settled disputes that occurred at sea.
A) House of Commons
B) Lords of Trade
C) Board of Trade
D) Privy Council

E) vice-admiralty courts
Answer: E
Rationale:
Beginning in 1696, disputes that occurred at sea were settled by vice-admiralty courts. These
courts, operating under British admiralty law, had jurisdiction over maritime matters,
including disputes related to trade, navigation, and violations of colonial trade regulations.
23. One of the major causes of ________ was the disfranchisement of landless freemen by
the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1670.
A) Bacon’s Rebellion
B) Coode’s Rebellion
C) Leisler’s Rebellion
D) the Stono Uprising
E) Shays’s Rebellion
Answer: A
Rationale:
One of the major causes of Bacon’s Rebellion was the disfranchisement of landless freemen
by the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1670. This disenfranchisement fueled resentment
among landless individuals who felt excluded from political participation and economic
opportunities, contributing to the social unrest that erupted in Bacon’s Rebellion.
24. The armed conflict between Native Americans and New Englanders in 1675 was led by
________.
A) Massasoit
B) Powhatan
C) Metacomet
D) Tecumseh
E) Opechancanough

Answer: C
Rationale:
The armed conflict between Native Americans and New Englanders in 1675, known as King
Philip's War, was led by Metacomet, also known as King Philip. Metacomet was the
Wampanoag sachem who sought to resist English encroachment on Native American lands
and sovereignty in New England.
25. The peaceful ousting of James II by Parliament in 1688 was known as ________.
A) King James’s War
B) the Restoration
C) Parliament’s Rebellion
D) the Glorious Revolution
E) the People’s War
Answer: D
Rationale:
The peaceful ousting of James II by Parliament in 1688 was known as the Glorious
Revolution. This event marked the transition of power from James II to William III and Mary
II, signaling a shift towards constitutional monarchy and parliamentary sovereignty in
England.
26. As a result of the Salem witchcraft trials, ________.
A) nineteen people were hanged
B) twenty-three people were banished
C) eight people were pressed to death with weights
D) fourteen people were burned at the stake
E) nine people were executed by firing squad
Answer: A
Rationale:

As a result of the Salem witchcraft trials, nineteen people were hanged. The trials, fueled by
hysteria and paranoia, led to the execution of individuals accused of witchcraft in Salem,
Massachusetts, during 1692 and 1693.
27. Why were New England colonists more likely to maintain English customs than those
who migrated to Virginia and Maryland?
A) The New England colonists came from higher social ranks than those in the other colonies
and were more familiar with traditional English customs.
B) The New England colonists brought more English goods with them to America, which
helped keep the traditions alive.
C) The New England colonists tended to migrate as families and thus were able to keep
family and other traditions in the New World.
D) The New England colonists generally came to America as single men and women and
found that preserving their English customs comforted them.
E) The New England colonists were proud to be English, while the other colonists wanted to
reject their English traditions.
Answer: C
Rationale:
New England colonists were more likely to maintain English customs than those who
migrated to Virginia and Maryland because they tended to migrate as families. The cohesive
family units in New England facilitated the preservation of English customs, language, and
cultural practices within the community, promoting continuity with their English heritage.
28. Why did the population of New England rise in the seventeenth century?
A) Better overall health resulted in people living longer.
B) Puritan families tended to have many children.
C) Couples in New England married younger and tended to have more children.
D) Many more immigrants came to New England than to the other colonies.
E) Colonists from the southern colonies moved to New England in large numbers.

Answer: A
Rationale:
The population of New England rose in the seventeenth century primarily due to better
overall health resulting in people living longer. Factors such as access to clean water,
improved sanitation, and a healthier diet contributed to lower mortality rates, leading to
population growth within the New England colonies.
29. What role did women have in the New England colonies?
A) They generally had no independence at all from men.
B) They had the same legal rights as men but could not vote.
C) They made no decisions and simply followed the orders of men.
D) They had no legal rights, but they were able to vote and hold public office.
E) They were respected for their work but were legally inferior to men.
Answer: E
Rationale:
In the New England colonies, women had a role in household management, child-rearing, and
agricultural work. While women were respected for their contributions to the household
economy, they were legally inferior to men and lacked rights such as voting or holding public
office, reflecting the patriarchal nature of colonial society.
30. Why did Massachusetts and Connecticut feel the need to pass sumptuary laws?
A) They weren’t comfortable with the idea that lower class people were taking on the
trappings of the upper classes.
B) They weren’t comfortable with the idea that upper class people were “slumming” and
taking on the trappings of the lower classes.
C) They wanted to abolish all signs of the British social class system.
D) They wanted to establish a minimum dress code for the lower classes.
E) They wanted to limit finery for all colonial classes.
Answer: A

Rationale:
Massachusetts and Connecticut felt the need to pass sumptuary laws because they weren’t
comfortable with the idea that lower-class people were taking on the trappings of the upper
classes. Sumptuary laws aimed to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies by restricting
extravagant displays of wealth and luxury among lower-class individuals, thereby
maintaining distinctions between social ranks.
31. Which of the following was true of seventeenth-century New England?
A) Most families had several servants.
B) There were wide gaps between the rich and the poor.
C) Land ownership was widespread.
D) Few colonists owned their own land.
E) All free males could vote.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Land ownership was widespread in seventeenth-century New England. The availability of
land for purchase or distribution through land grants encouraged a significant portion of the
population to acquire property, contributing to a relatively egalitarian society where many
individuals owned land.
32. Which of these was true of Chesapeake families in the 1600s?
A) Stable nuclear families were the rule.
B) Most marriages did not last ten years.
C) Three-generation families commonly lived together.
D) Remarriage was uncommon after a spouse died.
E) Large families were common because of early marriage.
Answer: B
Rationale:

Most marriages did not last ten years in Chesapeake families in the 1600s. High mortality
rates, especially among young adults, contributed to the instability of marriages and family
units in the Chesapeake region during this period.
33. Which was NOT a factor that retarded population growth in seventeenth-century Virginia
and Maryland?
A) Many young women delayed marriage until their terms of service were complete.
B) Infant mortality rates were very high in both colonies.
C) Local Indians kidnapped many women and children.
D) The life expectancy was short.
E) The gender ratio was seriously unbalanced.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Local Indians kidnapping many women and children was NOT a factor that retarded
population growth in seventeenth-century Virginia and Maryland. While conflicts with Native
Americans occurred, they did not significantly impact population growth compared to factors
such as high infant mortality rates, short life expectancy, and imbalanced gender ratios.
34. How would late seventeenth-century Virginia best be described?
A) a plantation society, dominated by a slaveholding elite
B) a diversified society and economy, with minimal social stratification
C) a society of small farmers, committed to diversified agriculture
D) a successful commercial enterprise that returned large profits to the crown
E) a society struggling with the question of slavery
Answer: A
Rationale:
Late seventeenth-century Virginia can best be described as a plantation society, dominated by
a slaveholding elite. The economy was heavily dependent on plantation agriculture,

particularly tobacco cultivation, with large landowners holding significant power and
influence over both economic and political affairs.
35. What seems to have hindered the development of towns in the Chesapeake region?
A) hostility between different ethnic groups
B) the absence of navigable rivers
C) the absence of a vibrant middle class
D) an economy based on one crop destined for export
E) the dependence on a one-crop economy for use in the colonies
Answer: D
Rationale:
An economy based on one crop destined for export seems to have hindered the development
of towns in the Chesapeake region. The focus on tobacco cultivation led to the establishment
of large plantations spread across rural areas, with limited incentive or resources allocated for
the development of urban centers or diversified economic activities.
36. Why did colonial lawmakers create strict slave codes in the late 1600s?
A) Lawmakers wanted slaves to be treated fairly.
B) Lawmakers feared an uprising because the African population had increased greatly.
C) Lawmakers wanted to prevent an influx of additional Africans into America.
D) Lawmakers wanted African Americans to be treated the same as indentured servants.
E) Lawmakers wanted to pave the road for African slaves to eventually become citizens.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Colonial lawmakers created strict slave codes in the late 1600s because they feared an
uprising due to the significant increase in the African population. The growing number of
enslaved Africans posed a perceived threat to colonial stability, prompting authorities to
implement harsher regulations and surveillance to maintain control and suppress potential
rebellions.

37. Which of the following best characterizes the creole languages that developed among
slaves in some parts of the southern colonies in the seventeenth century?
A) Creole languages were a mixture of English and different African languages.
B) Creole languages were based on African languages.
C) Creole languages were a mixture of French, English, and Dutch languages.
D) Creole languages were written versions of African languages.
E) Creole languages were informal, colloquial versions of English.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Creole languages that developed among slaves in some parts of the southern colonies in the
seventeenth century were a mixture of English and different African languages. These
languages emerged as a means of communication among diverse African ethnic groups and
between Africans and European colonizers, facilitating cultural exchange and resistance to
oppression.
41. What did the seventeenth-century revolts of American colonial gentry represent?
A) an early rehearsal for the American Revolution
B) confrontations between ordinary people and their rulers
C) competition among local factions for control of their colonies
D) ideological struggles over colonial rights
E) a struggle between the planters and yeoman farmers
Answer: C
Rationale:
The revolts of American colonial gentry in the seventeenth century represented competition
among local factions for control of their colonies. These revolts often stemmed from disputes
over political power, economic interests, or conflicting visions for governance within the
colonies, rather than being direct precursors to broader revolutionary movements.
42. Which statement about Bacon’s Rebellion is FALSE?

A) Bacon would probably have been accepted into the ruling clique had he only waited.
B) Bacon led a rebellion to prevent Governor Berkeley from waging a war against the
Susquehannock Indians.
C) Bacon was perceived as a hero by the common people of Virginia.
D) Bacon and his men burned Jamestown to the ground.
E) Bacon, a member of a respectable English family, had only recently arrived in Virginia.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Bacon’s Rebellion was not primarily aimed at preventing Governor Berkeley from waging a
war against the Susquehannock Indians. Instead, it was fueled by grievances related to land
distribution, Native American policy, and political corruption, with Bacon leading a rebellion
against Governor Berkeley's administration.
43. Which issue led directly to Bacon’s Rebellion?
A) the inability of the governor to take action against the Indians on the frontier
B) the unfair trial of colonial smugglers by British admiralty courts
C) Parliament’s decision to appoint a governor rather than allow popular elections
D) the attempt to move the capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg
E) the attempt of Bacon to obtain a license to engage in the fur trade
Answer: A
Rationale:
The inability of the governor to take action against the Indians on the frontier led directly to
Bacon’s Rebellion. Nathaniel Bacon and his supporters were frustrated by Governor
Berkeley's failure to effectively address Native American attacks on the frontier, prompting
Bacon to lead a rebellion against the colonial government.
44. What was the New England version of the Glorious Revolution?
A) a year-long celebration of the overthrow of James II

B) the overthrow of Governor Andros
C) a year-long celebration of the crowning of William and Mary
D) a new bill of rights for all colonists
E) a new bill of rights for land-owning colonists
Answer: B
Rationale:
The New England version of the Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of Governor
Andros. In 1689, the Dominion of New England collapsed, leading to the ousting of
Governor Edmund Andros and the restoration of local colonial governments, marking a
significant shift in governance for the New England colonies.
45. What do we know about the sources of the witchcraft hysteria in Salem?
A) They are known to have been primarily economic.
B) They reflected the community’s underlying resistance to the teachings of Calvinism.
C) They lay in the community’s dislike of English authority.
D) They are likely the result of preexisting conflict.
E) They may have been related to the presence of real witches.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The sources of the witchcraft hysteria in Salem are likely the result of preexisting conflict.
Various social, economic, and religious tensions within Salem Village contributed to the
outbreak of accusations and trials, including disputes over land, property, and religious
authority, which escalated into the witchcraft hysteria of 1692.
46. Which of the following was NOT a cause of the Salem witchcraft hysteria?
A) the community’s history of religious discord
B) disagreements between Salem’s poor people and its upper classes
C) Salem’s history of engaging in occult practices

D) fear of attack by nearby Indians
E) the underlying misogyny of the entire colonial culture
Answer: C
Rationale:
Salem’s history of engaging in occult practices was NOT a cause of the Salem witchcraft
hysteria. While accusations of witchcraft arose from various tensions within Salem Village,
there is no historical evidence to suggest that prior engagement in occult practices directly
contributed to the hysteria.
47. During the Salem witchcraft hysteria, Increase Mather and other leading ministers
________.
A) called for execution of the accused witches
B) completely ignored the controversy
C) urged restraint and caution
D) called for colony-wide searches for accused witches
E) questioned the validity of the testimony of minors
Answer: C
Rationale:
During the Salem witchcraft hysteria, Increase Mather and other leading ministers urged
restraint and caution. While some ministers initially supported the investigations, many
became concerned about the fairness and reliability of the trials, advocating for moderation
and careful consideration of evidence.
48. Why is the Navigation Act in 1660 considered the most important piece of imperial
legislation drafted before the American Revolution?
A) It allowed the development of the colonial navy into one of the most powerful in the
world.
B) It greatly strengthened the English mercantile empire.

C) It allowed colonists to trade with the Dutch, which eventually caused the British to
retaliate with acts that sparked the American Revolution.
D) It established France and Holland as allies of the colonies and enemies with England.
E) Its passage directly led to the Boston Tea Party, which was the first act of rebellion by the
American colonists.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Navigation Act in 1660 is considered the most important piece of imperial legislation
drafted before the American Revolution because it greatly strengthened the English
mercantile empire. The Act aimed to regulate colonial trade, bolstering England's economic
dominance by restricting colonial commerce and ensuring that colonial resources benefited
the mother country.
49. What was a difference between the rights in marriage of women in the Chesapeake region
and those of women in New England in the 1600s?
A) Women in the Chesapeake region tended to have more power because they were fewer in
number and thus began from a better bargaining position.
B) Women in New England had more rights because there were more women there and they
had greater strength as a community.
C) Women in New England had fewer rights because the colonists there came from more
strict and traditional backgrounds.
D) Women in the Chesapeake region tended to have fewer rights because the planter class
had more restrictions on the roles of women in society.
E) Women in New England had fewer rights because the women there tended to live much
shorter lives than those in the Chesapeake region.
Answer: A
Rationale:
A difference between the rights in marriage of women in the Chesapeake region and those of
women in New England in the 1600s was that women in the Chesapeake region tended to

have more power because they were fewer in number and thus began from a better bargaining
position. In the Chesapeake, where women were outnumbered by men, they often had more
leverage in negotiations within marriage and inheritance arrangements compared to the more
balanced gender ratios in New England.
50. Consider the following statement. “The elements that sparked a powerful sense of
nationalism among colonists dispersed over a huge territory would not be evident for a long
time.” What does this statement mean?
A) The colonists tended to dislike the colonists in regions other than their own.
B) The colonies were getting very close to forming an independent country.
C) The colonies were still separate and had very little to do with each other.
D) The colonies had expanded to a huge area of the country.
E) The colonies saw themselves as English first and Americans second.
Answer: C
Rationale:
This statement suggests that during the period referenced, likely before the American
Revolution, the colonies remained largely isolated from each other, lacking significant
interactions or shared experiences that could foster a strong sense of national identity.
Instead, they retained their distinct characteristics and loyalties to their respective regions,
indicating a lack of unity and integration across the vast expanse of colonial territory.
Essay
1. What was the cultural and economic role of the family in colonial New England?
Answer: The family played a central role in colonial New England, serving as the
fundamental unit of society both culturally and economically. Culturally, the family was the
primary institution for transmitting religious and moral values, education, and social norms to
future generations. Religious beliefs, particularly the Puritan emphasis on family cohesion
and community welfare, influenced family dynamics and relationships. Economically, the
family unit was essential for agricultural production, craftsmanship, and household industries.
Families worked together to cultivate land, raise livestock, and produce goods for subsistence
and trade. In addition, the family served as a unit of labor, with each member contributing to

the household economy according to their abilities. The economic success and social standing
of families often depended on their ability to work cooperatively and efficiently.
2. What economic factors shaped the emerging social structures of colonial America?
Answer: Several economic factors shaped the emerging social structures of colonial America,
influencing patterns of wealth distribution, social mobility, and class distinctions. The
availability of land and natural resources played a crucial role in determining economic
opportunities and social status. Those who owned large tracts of land or engaged in lucrative
ventures such as trade or commerce often occupied the highest social positions. In contrast,
indentured servants, laborers, and enslaved individuals typically occupied the lower rungs of
the social ladder, lacking access to land and economic independence. Economic inequalities
and disparities in wealth contributed to the stratification of colonial society, with entrenched
elites wielding significant political and social power. Additionally, the emergence of a market
economy, fueled by trade and commerce, further shaped social relationships and hierarchies,
leading to the formation of distinct social classes based on economic status and occupation.
3. Describe the origins of slavery in the mainland English colonies. How did Africans adjust
to life as slaves? What factors influenced the enactment of slave codes by colonial
assemblies?
Answer: The origins of slavery in the mainland English colonies can be traced back to the
early colonial period when European settlers sought cheap labor to cultivate cash crops such
as tobacco, rice, and indigo. Initially, indentured servants from Europe were the primary
source of labor, but as demand for labor increased and the supply of indentured servants
dwindled, African slavery emerged as a lucrative solution. Africans were forcibly captured,
transported across the Atlantic in the brutal transatlantic slave trade, and sold into bondage in
the colonies. Upon arrival, Africans faced harsh conditions and brutal treatment, including
forced labor, physical abuse, and cultural and familial disruption. Despite these challenges,
many Africans adapted to life as slaves by forming resilient communities, preserving cultural
traditions, and resisting oppression through acts of rebellion and sabotage. Factors such as
racial prejudice, economic interests, and the desire to maintain social control influenced the
enactment of slave codes by colonial assemblies. These laws sought to regulate and
institutionalize slavery, codifying the inferior legal status of enslaved Africans, restricting
their rights and freedoms, and perpetuating the institution of chattel slavery for generations to
come.

4. How did mercantilism shape the economic and political relationship between England and
its colonies?
Answer: Mercantilism played a central role in shaping the economic and political relationship
between England and its colonies during the colonial period. Under the mercantilist system,
colonies were viewed primarily as a source of raw materials and a market for finished goods,
serving to enrich the mother country and strengthen its economy. To achieve this goal,
England imposed a series of mercantilist policies and regulations aimed at maximizing
colonial trade and ensuring that colonial resources flowed exclusively to England. These
policies included the Navigation Acts, which restricted colonial trade to English ships and
markets, and imposed tariffs and duties on certain colonial goods. Additionally, England
maintained tight control over colonial governance and administration through appointed
governors, colonial assemblies, and the assertion of royal authority. In return for providing
colonial protection and oversight, England expected colonies to adhere to mercantilist
principles and contribute to the economic prosperity of the empire. This economic and
political relationship, characterized by colonial dependency and exploitation, laid the
groundwork for tensions and conflicts that would ultimately lead to the American Revolution.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands
9780205900688

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