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Chapter Two
New World Experiments: England’s Seventeenth-Century Colonies
Multiple Choice
1. English settlers in seventeenth-century America could best be characterized in terms of
their ________.
A) striking social diversity
B) similarity to French and Spanish migrants of the same period
C) unity of purpose and motivation
D) desire to help each other
E) homogeneity
Answer: A
Rationale:
The English settlers in seventeenth-century America came from diverse backgrounds,
including different regions of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. They varied in terms of
social class, occupation, religious affiliation, and reasons for migration, leading to a striking
social diversity among them.
2. The founding of Pennsylvania was tied to the ________.
A) Quaker movement
B) Restoration
C) Glorious Revolution
D) institution of the joint-stock company
E) agricultural revolution
Answer: A
Rationale:

Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn, who was a prominent Quaker leader. He
established the colony as a haven for Quakers and other religious minorities seeking freedom
from persecution, making the founding of Pennsylvania closely tied to the Quaker movement.
3. William Penn acquired the Three Lower Counties to provide Pennsylvania with
A) Philadelphia.
B) settlers.
C) access to the Atlantic.
D) arable land lacking in Pennsylvania.
E) mineral resources.
Answer: C
Rationale:
William Penn acquired the Three Lower Counties (present-day Delaware) to provide
Pennsylvania with access to the Atlantic Ocean. This access was essential for trade and
communication with other colonies and the mother country, ensuring the economic viability
of Pennsylvania.
4. Joint-stock companies allowed for _______.
A) concentrated wealth in the hands of a few
B) more successful colonization
C) more investors
D) more profit
E) more royal control
Answer: C
Rationale:
Joint-stock companies allowed for more investors to pool their resources together for
colonization ventures, spreading the financial risk among a larger group. This increased the
availability of capital for colonization efforts and made it feasible for more individuals to
participate in ventures beyond their individual means.

5. The ________ Company was responsible for the settlement of Jamestown.
A) New England
B) Royal African
C) Virginia
D) American
E) New World
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Virginia Company was responsible for the settlement of Jamestown. It was a joint-stock
company chartered by King James I to establish colonies in the New World, and Jamestown
was its first successful settlement in 1607.
6. In which colony were religious reasons least important in its founding?
A) Massachusetts
B) Rhode Island
C) Maryland
D) Virginia
E) Pennsylvania
Answer: D
Rationale:
Religious reasons were least important in the founding of Virginia. While economic motives,
such as the search for gold and other valuable resources, were significant factors, religious
freedom or the desire to establish a particular religious community did not play a primary role
in Virginia's founding compared to colonies like Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maryland, and
Pennsylvania.
7. The selection of a site for Jamestown was based primarily on the settlers’ ________.
A) fear of surprise attacks

B) desire for a healthful place to live
C) belief that friendly Indians lived nearby
D) need for close proximity to the open ocean
E) fear of diseases in the swamps
Answer: A
Rationale:
The selection of Jamestown's site was primarily based on the settlers' fear of surprise attacks
from Spanish ships and hostile Native American tribes. The location was chosen to provide
strategic defensive advantages, such as visibility and access to navigable waterways, to
protect the settlers from potential threats.
8. Jamestown might have gone the way of Roanoke had it not been for the perseverance of
________.
A) John Winthrop
B) John Smith
C) Pocahontas
D) Richard Hakluyt
E) Cotton Mather
Answer: B
Rationale:
Jamestown might have met the same fate as the Roanoke Colony, which mysteriously
disappeared, if not for the perseverance and leadership of Captain John Smith. His strict
discipline, resourcefulness, and ability to negotiate with Native American tribes helped the
colony survive during its early, challenging years.
9. Jamestown’s prosperity was ensured by ________.
A) the discovery of gold
B) the development of fur trading

C) royal financial support
D) tobacco cultivation
E) potato cultivation
Answer: D
Rationale:
Jamestown's prosperity was ensured by the cultivation of tobacco, which became the colony's
primary cash crop. Tobacco cultivation proved to be highly profitable and sustainable, driving
economic growth and attracting more settlers to Virginia.
10. The man who taught Virginians how to grow tobacco was ________.
A) Captain John Smith
B) Powhatan
C) John Rolfe
D) Sir Edwin Sandys
E) the Duke of Marlboro
Answer: C
Rationale:
John Rolfe, an English colonist, is credited with introducing and successfully cultivating
tobacco in Virginia. His efforts significantly contributed to the economic success of the
colony and paved the way for tobacco to become a staple crop in Virginia's economy.
11. Georgia was founded as a refuge for ________.
A) religious dissenters
B) the poor of London
C) Native Americans
D) former slaves
E) French exiles

Answer: B
Rationale:
Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733 as a haven for debtors and the "worthy
poor" of London. Oglethorpe envisioned Georgia as a place where those facing economic
hardship in England could start anew and have the opportunity to become self-sufficient
through small-scale farming.
12. Under the headright system in Virginia, ________.
A) every adult male could vote
B) every child was guaranteed a primary education
C) 50 acres were granted for each new settler, free or indentured
D) new immigrants were guaranteed a year’s provisions
E) every new settler was entitled to one slave
Answer: C
Rationale:
Under the headright system in Virginia, each new settler, whether free or indentured, was
granted 50 acres of land. This was a means of encouraging immigration and the expansion of
the colony's population and agricultural output.
13. James Oglethorpe was responsible for the founding of ________.
A) New Jersey
B) Carolina colony
C) Georgia
D) Maryland
E) Connecticut
Answer: C
Rationale:

James Oglethorpe was responsible for the founding of Georgia in 1733. He envisioned the
colony as a place of refuge for debtors and the poor of London, as well as a buffer between
the prosperous South Carolina colony and Spanish Florida.
14. In which colony was the death rate for the early colonists most severe?
A) Massachusetts
B) New York
C) Rhode Island
D) Virginia
E) Pennsylvania
Answer: D
Rationale:
Virginia had the most severe death rate among early colonists. The harsh conditions,
including disease, conflicts with Native Americans, and lack of initial preparation, led to high
mortality rates in the early years of Jamestown.
15. In 1624, Virginia became ________.
A) an independent commonwealth
B) a proprietary colony
C) a royal colony
D) part of Maryland
E) the primary destination for female settlers
Answer: C
Rationale:
In 1624, Virginia became a royal colony under direct control of the English crown. This
transition occurred after the dissolution of the Virginia Company due to financial difficulties
and conflicts with Native Americans.
16. Initially, Lord Baltimore intended that Maryland be a haven for ________.

A) Quakers
B) Puritans
C) Catholics
D) Baptists
E) Separatists
Answer: C
Rationale:
Lord Baltimore intended Maryland to be a haven for Catholics fleeing religious persecution
in England. Maryland was established as a proprietary colony by Cecil Calvert, the second
Lord Baltimore, with the goal of providing religious freedom for Catholics in the New World.
17. The document in which the Pilgrims established a civil government for their Plymouth
colony has become known as the ________.
A) Bill of Rights
B) Mayflower Compact
C) Statement of Principles
D) Cambridge Agreement
E) Plymouth Agreement
Answer: B
Rationale:
The document in which the Pilgrims established a civil government for their Plymouth
colony is known as the Mayflower Compact. It was signed aboard the Mayflower in 1620 and
provided a framework for self-government based on the consent of the governed.
18. Seventeenth-century English Puritans ________.
A) were only a tiny minority of all Englishmen
B) were committed to significant institutional change
C) were firmly supportive of the status quo

D) accepted the tenets of Catholicism with reservations
E) were neurotic and self-righteous
Answer: B
Rationale:
Seventeenth-century English Puritans were committed to significant institutional change
within the Church of England. They sought to purify the church of what they saw as remnants
of Catholicism and advocated for reforms to align the church more closely with their
interpretation of Scripture.
19. King Charles I disbanded Parliament in 1629 because he could not deal with intense
criticism from the ________.
A) Puritans
B) Baptists
C) Catholics
D) Anglicans
E) Presbyterians
Answer: A
Rationale:
King Charles I disbanded Parliament in 1629 because he could not deal with intense criticism
from the Puritans. Parliament, which included a significant Puritan faction, opposed many of
Charles's policies, particularly those related to religion and taxation.
20. The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay believed that the best way to reform the Church of
England was to ________.
A) separate from it and reform it from the outside
B) rely on help from the English monarchy
C) remain in the Church and reform it from the inside
D) refuse to associate with it in any way

E) actively work to destroy the tenets with which they disagreed
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay believed that the best way to reform the Church of
England was to remain within the church and reform it from the inside. They sought to purify
the church of perceived corruptions and establish a model Christian community based on
their interpretation of Scripture.
21. Because of its policy of religious toleration, ________ attracted unusual numbers of
independent-minded people.
A) Maryland
B) Connecticut
C) Pennsylvania
D) New York
E) Rhode Island
Answer: E
Rationale:
Rhode Island attracted unusual numbers of independent-minded people due to its policy of
religious toleration, which was established by its founder, Roger Williams. This policy
allowed individuals of various religious beliefs to practice freely without fear of persecution,
making Rhode Island a haven for religious dissenters and those seeking greater personal
freedom.
22. The English takeover of New Netherland (which was subsequently renamed New York)
________.
A) had little immediate effect on the colony
B) was followed by the expulsion of the Dutch
C) led to the prompt creation of a legislature
D) met with armed resistance by the Dutch

E) sparked a war between the English and the Dutch
Answer: A
Rationale:
The English takeover of New Netherland had little immediate effect on the colony. When the
English captured New Amsterdam in 1664, the Dutch surrendered without resistance, and the
English allowed Dutch residents to remain and continue their way of life under English rule.
23. The colony of Pennsylvania was established as a religious sanctuary for ________.
A) Puritans
B) Catholics
C) Baptists
D) Quakers
E) Presbyterians
Answer: D
Rationale:
Pennsylvania was established as a religious sanctuary for Quakers by its founder, William
Penn. Penn sought to create a colony where Quakers and other religious minorities could live
and worship freely without persecution, making Pennsylvania one of the most tolerant and
diverse colonies in British America.
24. Large numbers of the first English settlers in the Carolinas came from ________.
A) Ireland
B) Barbados
C) Rhode Island
D) Jamaica
E) the Virgin Islands
Answer: B
Rationale:

Large numbers of the first English settlers in the Carolinas came from Barbados. Many
settlers from Barbados, seeking new opportunities and land, migrated to the Carolinas,
bringing their experience in sugar cultivation and slaveholding, which influenced the
development of plantation economies in the region.
25. To its founding leaders, ____________ would be a “City on a Hill.”
A) Rhode Island
B) Connecticut
C) Maryland
D) Pennsylvania
E) Massachusetts
Answer: E
Rationale:
To its founding leaders, Massachusetts would be a "City on a Hill." This phrase, famously
used by John Winthrop in his sermon aboard the Arbella in 1630, expressed the Puritan belief
that their colony would serve as a model Christian community, shining as an example for
others to follow.
26. Which of these was true of the relationship between political events in England and
English colonization in North America?
A) The two were unrelated.
B) Events in England impacted the direction of colonization repeatedly.
C) After about 1650, events in England had no effect on the colonies.
D) Colonization caused the fall of two English governments in the 1600s.
E) Because of the difficulty of ocean journeys, events in England produced no effects in the
colonies.
Answer: B
Rationale:

Events in England repeatedly impacted the direction of colonization in North America.
Political, religious, and economic developments in England influenced colonial policies,
governance structures, and patterns of settlement throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries.
27. Which of these was ultimately most important in leading to divisions among settlers in
Pennsylvania?
A) Penn’s support for Quakerism
B) the colony’s location
C) the institute of proprietorship
D) Penn’s propaganda
E) the granting of headrights
Answer: D
Rationale:
Penn's propaganda was ultimately most important in leading to divisions among settlers in
Pennsylvania. William Penn's promotional efforts, including his writings and advertising
campaigns, attracted diverse groups of settlers to the colony. However, conflicting
expectations and interpretations of Penn's promises contributed to tensions and divisions
among settlers over time.
28. In the early days of the Virginia Colony, which is the best description of its settlers?
A) They were about evenly divided between men and women.
B) They were well-prepared to establish a colonial outpost.
C) They preferred to search for riches rather than farm.
D) They had few troubles except for unfriendly Indians.
E) They organized a successful community government.
Answer: C
Rationale:

In the early days of the Virginia Colony, its settlers preferred to search for riches rather than
farm. Many of the early settlers were gentlemen adventurers seeking quick wealth through
activities such as mining for gold and silver, rather than engaging in agricultural pursuits.
29. The first three years of Jamestown’s history witnessed ________.
A) terrible hardship and suffering
B) the discovery of gold and silver
C) successful attempts at growing many profitable crops
D) the establishment of a representative form of government
E) the erection of the first Christian church in North America
Answer: A
Rationale:
The first three years of Jamestown's history witnessed terrible hardship and suffering. The
colony faced numerous challenges, including disease, famine, conflicts with Native
Americans, and poor leadership, leading to a high mortality rate among the colonists.
30. What eventually solved the economic problems of seventeenth-century Virginia?
A) the cultivation of tobacco
B) the reorganization of the joint-stock company
C) a successful agreement with the Native Americans
D) trading with Barbados
E) stopping the import of goods from England
Answer: A
Rationale:
The cultivation of tobacco eventually solved the economic problems of seventeenth-century
Virginia. Tobacco emerged as a profitable cash crop that provided a reliable source of income
for Virginia's settlers, leading to economic growth and prosperity in the colony.
31. Indentured servants ________.

A) were working off the cost of their passage to America
B) served the same number of years regardless of age or experience
C) had no more legal rights than slaves
D) were never legally emancipated
E) usually lived long enough to complete their terms of service
Answer: A
Rationale:
Indentured servants were individuals who worked for a specified period, typically around 4-7
years, to pay off the cost of their passage to America. In exchange for their labor, they
received passage to the colonies and, upon completing their term, were often granted freedom
dues, which could include land, money, or goods.
32. Those who migrated to the Chesapeake Bay area as indentured servants were ________.
A) usually from the dregs of English society
B) English farmers who saw a better future in the New World
C) normally single males in their teens or early twenties
D) married individuals who came with their families
E) generally convicted criminals who traded jail time in England for indentures
Answer: C
Rationale:
Those who migrated to the Chesapeake Bay area as indentured servants were normally single
males in their teens or early twenties. They sought economic opportunity in the New World
and often entered into indentured servitude to finance their passage to the colonies.
33. In 1622, the Native American tribes of Virginia ________.
A) attacked the English settlements
B) formed an alliance with the Native American tribes of New England
C) established permanently good relations with the English settlers

D) learned from the English settlers how to grow tobacco
E) migrated westward to avoid future contact with settlers
Answer: A
Rationale:
In 1622, the Native American tribes of Virginia launched a coordinated attack on the English
settlements, known as the Indian Massacre of 1622. This attack resulted in the deaths of
hundreds of English colonists and strained relations between the Native Americans and the
English settlers.
34. Why did the original boundaries of Maryland present a problem to colonists?
A) They were vaguely defined.
B) They accidentally crossed into Virginia.
C) They did not extend to the coast.
D) They cut through territory of the Algonquin.
E) They extended much further than Charles I had planned.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The original boundaries of Maryland presented a problem to colonists because they were
vaguely defined. This ambiguity led to disputes over land ownership and conflicting
territorial claims between Maryland and neighboring colonies, particularly Virginia.
35. Lord Baltimore’s settlement in Maryland ________.
A) became a successful feudal outpost in America
B) declared war on Virginia in 1639
C) never succeeded in becoming a feudal society
D) became a haven for persecuted Protestants
E) successfully put into effect his vision
Answer: C

Rationale:
Lord Baltimore's settlement in Maryland never succeeded in becoming a feudal society.
While Maryland was initially envisioned as a feudal manorial system, the realities of colonial
life, including the scarcity of labor and the diversity of settlers, prevented the full
implementation of feudalism.
36. Which identifies why the Mayflower Compact is considered an important historical
document?
A) It was the first example of colonists describing the hardships endured on a voyage to the
New World.
B) It was a legal document that authenticated the Pilgrims’ right to settle in New England.
C) It included a list of the passengers on the Mayflower who became the first New England
colonists.
D) It was the first example of colonists forming their own government in North America.
E) It was the first example of colonists negotiating a treaty with Native Americans in North
America.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Mayflower Compact is considered an important historical document because it was the
first example of colonists forming their own government in North America. Signed aboard
the Mayflower in 1620, the compact established a framework for self-government and the
rule of law among the Pilgrims in Plymouth Colony.
37. The Pilgrims who left Holland to settle in America ________.
A) were non-Separatists from the Church of England
B) feared their way of life was being undermined by the ways of their Dutch hosts
C) had few alternatives because they were harassed by the Dutch
D) arrived in Virginia, even though their destination was Massachusetts Bay
E) were Catholic radicals eager to overthrow England’s monarchy

Answer: B
Rationale:
The Pilgrims who left Holland to settle in America feared their way of life was being
undermined by the ways of their Dutch hosts. While they appreciated the religious freedom
they found in Holland, they were concerned about the influence of Dutch culture and the
impact it was having on their English identity and religious practices.
38. The founding of Georgia can be described as _______.
A) religiously-motivated
B) political
C) economically-motivated
D) idealistic
E) strategic
Answer: E
Rationale:
The founding of Georgia can be described as strategic. James Oglethorpe founded Georgia in
1733 as a buffer between the prosperous South Carolina colony and Spanish Florida. Georgia
served as a defensive outpost against Spanish incursions and as a refuge for debtors and the
"worthy poor" of London.
39. How did someone become a member of a church in the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
A) They became part of whatever church was in their community.
B) A person who already belonged to the church had to provide testimony for anyone new
who wanted to join.
C) A new member needed the testimony of neighbors before acceptance in a church.
D) A person had to perform community service before being allowed to join a community
church.
E) The church community would vote in order to decide whether to let a new member in.
Answer: C

Rationale:
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, someone became a member of a church by needing the
testimony of neighbors before acceptance in a church. This process, known as "soul
examination," required individuals seeking membership to provide evidence of their religious
faith and moral character to the congregation.
40. Which is the only category in which seventeenth-century colonists in Massachusetts were
more successful than Virginia’s colonists?
A) relating to the Indians
B) establishing the Anglican Church
C) finding a profitable staple crop
D) adopting a concept of community welfare
E) collecting taxes to pay for community services
Answer: D
Rationale:
The only category in which seventeenth-century colonists in Massachusetts were more
successful than Virginia's colonists was adopting a concept of community welfare.
Massachusetts Bay Colony emphasized communal values and collective responsibility for the
welfare of its members, leading to the establishment of various social welfare programs and
institutions.
41. How did Roger Williams’ religious ideas clash with those of the Puritans?
A) Williams believed that settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who had unconventional
religious views should be punished by the colonial leaders.
B) Williams felt that it was not enough to purify the Church of England from within, but to
separate from it.
C) Williams did not believe that the Puritans should separate from the Church of England, but
rather to try to improve it.
D) Williams did not support religious toleration and insisted that the members of the Church
of England try to preserve their own freedom of worship.

E) Williams believed that colonial leaders could not also be religious leaders.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Roger Williams' religious ideas clashed with those of the Puritans primarily because he
advocated for complete separation of church and state, contrary to the Puritan belief in
purifying the Church of England from within. Williams argued that individuals should have
freedom of conscience and that the civil government should not interfere with matters of
religious belief and practice.
42. Anne Hutchinson’s skillful self-defense at her trial before the magistrates of
Massachusetts Bay was ruined by ________.
A) her affinity for the dictum of works
B) her claim of personal revelation
C) her reliance on the Scriptures
D) her rejection of free grace
E) the fact that she was female
Answer: B
Rationale:
Anne Hutchinson's skillful self-defense at her trial before the magistrates of Massachusetts
Bay was ruined by her claim of personal revelation. Hutchinson's assertion that she received
direct inspiration from God undermined the authority of the Puritan clergy and challenged the
established religious hierarchy, leading to her eventual banishment from the colony.
43. Which best describes how the colony of New York was settled?
A) New York originally was settled by the Duke of York and subsequently became Dutch.
B) New York originally was settled by the Dutch and then taken by force by the English.
C) New York was settled exclusively by the Dutch.
D) New York was settled originally by African Americans who were later pushed out by the
English.

E) New York was settled originally by the French who were later pushed out by the Dutch.
Answer: B
Rationale:
New York was originally settled by the Dutch and then taken by force by the English. The
Dutch established New Amsterdam on the southern tip of Manhattan Island in the early 17th
century. However, in 1664, the English captured the colony and renamed it New York after
the Duke of York, who was granted the land by King Charles II.
44. Seventeenth-century Quakers were known for their ________.
A) aggressive and overbearing personalities
B) belief in humility and pacifism
C) concept of predestination
D) unwillingness to seek the conversion of others
E) belief in the necessity of an educated clergy
Answer: B
Rationale:
Seventeenth-century Quakers were known for their belief in humility and pacifism. Quaker
theology emphasized the inner light of Christ in every individual and rejected formal rituals
and clergy hierarchy. Quakers advocated for nonviolence, equality, and social justice, often
challenging established religious and political institutions.
45. Why was William Penn’s Frame of Government remarkable for its time?
A) It included more personal liberties than other English colonies.
B) It denied the right of due process for citizens.
C) It established the Quaker religion in Pennsylvania.
D) It granted freedom of conscience to all except Catholics.
E) It prevented the religious rule of the Church of England.
Answer: A

Rationale:
William Penn's Frame of Government was remarkable for its time because it included more
personal liberties than other English colonies. Penn's government charter for Pennsylvania,
issued in 1681, provided for representative democracy, religious freedom, and fair treatment
under the law, setting a precedent for constitutional governance and individual rights.
46. Which made the economy of Carolina different from the other southern colonies?
A) Carolina’s economy was based on slavery and cotton.
B) Carolina’s economy was as diverse as that of the Middle Colonies.
C) Carolina’s economy became dependent on rice as a staple.
D) Carolina’s economy was based on selling slaves and rum.
E) Carolina’s economy was based on sugar, which was easy to grow in the colony.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Carolina’s economy became dependent on rice as a staple. Unlike other southern colonies like
Virginia and Maryland, which focused primarily on tobacco cultivation, Carolina developed a
rice-based plantation economy. Rice cultivation, particularly in the lowlands of South
Carolina, became highly profitable and shaped the social and economic structure of the
region.
47. Why did the new colonists of Georgia demand slaves?
A) Farmers were given so many acres of land that they felt they could not farm efficiently
without slaves.
B) The main crop of Georgia—tobacco—could be cultivated only with slave labor.
C) The colonists felt that since they had no voice in government, they needed a class of
people even lower on the social rung than they were.
D) The English settlers in Georgia were used to having slaves and demanded that they could
not get along without them.

E) The colonists believed that they could compete economically with South Carolina only if
they were allowed to have slaves.
Answer: E
Rationale:
The new colonists of Georgia demanded slaves because they believed that they could
compete economically with South Carolina only if they were allowed to have slaves.
Georgia's economy struggled initially, and colonists believed that access to slave labor would
enable them to cultivate labor-intensive crops such as rice and indigo more profitably.
48. The lives of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson provide strong evidence that
________.
A) Puritans seldom disagreed on matters of theology
B) Massachusetts Bay officials insisted on freedom of religious thought and expression
C) Massachusetts Bay faced difficulties in creating a society based on a religious principle
D) Massachusetts Bay Colony sent preachers to frontiers as missionaries to the Indians
E) most Puritans had wanted to break away from the Church of England
Answer: C
Rationale:
The lives of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson provide strong evidence that
Massachusetts Bay faced difficulties in creating a society based on a religious principle. Both
Williams and Hutchinson challenged the religious and political authorities of the colony,
advocating for religious freedom and individual conscience, which conflicted with the Puritan
leaders' vision of a homogenous religious community.
49. How did the religious beliefs of the Quakers compare to those of the Puritans?
A) Both rejected the Church of England and wanted to separate and form their own new
religions.
B) The Quakers rejected the Church of England in favor of their own form of worship; the
Puritans merely wanted to reform the Church of England.

C) Both considered all people equal in the sight of the Lord and saw no need for a learned
ministry.
D) The Quakers did not seek converts, but simply wanted to practice their own beliefs
peacefully; the Puritans sought to convert people throughout England.
E) Unlike the Quakers, the Puritans felt that there was no need for spiritual leaders, since one
person’s interpretation of the Bible was as valid as anyone else’s.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Quakers rejected the Church of England in favor of their own form of worship,
emphasizing individual spiritual experience and the presence of God within each person.
They believed in the priesthood of all believers and rejected the authority of clergy. In
contrast, the Puritans sought to reform the Church of England from within, advocating for
stricter adherence to Biblical principles and doctrine.
50. Which statement provides the best interpretation of this sentence from text page 53? “The
diversity of early English colonization must be emphasized precisely because it is so easy to
overlook.”
A) Most historians did not realize how similar the English colonies were when they were
initially settled.
B) The reasons that people settled the English colonies were so complex that they have only
begun to be understood recently.
C) Settlers of the English colonies tended to overlook the hardships that they would face
because they were so eager for religious freedom.
D) The experiences of the early English colonists cannot be separated from their experiences
back in England.
E) Because most of the colonists were English, and eventually formed a single nation, many
assume that they were originally more alike than different.
Answer: E
Rationale:

The statement emphasizes the necessity of recognizing the diversity among early English
colonies despite the tendency to overlook it. While the colonies eventually formed a single
nation, each had unique origins, motivations, economies, and social structures. This diversity
played a significant role in shaping the development of colonial America and its eventual
trajectory toward nationhood.
Essay
1. What problems did early settlers in Virginia have to overcome? What factors attracted
settlers to that area?
Answer: Early settlers in Virginia faced numerous challenges, including disease, famine,
conflicts with Native Americans, and unfamiliarity with the land and climate. Disease,
particularly malaria, took a heavy toll on the settlers, leading to high mortality rates.
Additionally, the settlers struggled with food shortages and inadequate agricultural practices.
They also faced hostile encounters with Native American tribes, further complicating their
efforts to establish permanent settlements. Despite these challenges, several factors attracted
settlers to Virginia. The promise of land ownership through the headright system, the
opportunity for economic prosperity through tobacco cultivation, and the allure of adventure
and exploration in the New World motivated many to make the journey to Virginia.
2. How did affairs in England impact changes in the colonies in the 1600s?
Answer: Affairs in England exerted significant influence on the colonies in the 1600s,
shaping their governance, economy, and social structure. Political events such as the English
Civil War and the Glorious Revolution had direct repercussions in the colonies, leading to
changes in colonial administration and governance. The establishment of royal colonies, such
as Virginia becoming a royal colony in 1624, altered the relationship between the colonies
and the Crown. Economic policies enacted by the English government, such as mercantilist
regulations and trade restrictions, influenced the economic activities of the colonies and often
led to tensions and conflicts. Religious conflicts in England, such as the persecution of
dissenting religious groups, prompted waves of migration to the colonies, further diversifying
their population and religious landscape.
3. Analyze the dynamic between religious and economic motivations in the establishment and
development of the English colonies in the seventeenth century.

Answer: The establishment and development of the English colonies in the seventeenth
century were driven by a complex interplay of religious and economic motivations. Religious
factors played a significant role in the colonization efforts, as many settlers sought to escape
religious persecution and establish communities where they could practice their faith freely.
Colonies such as Massachusetts Bay and Maryland were founded with explicit religious
objectives, with Puritans seeking to create a "city upon a hill" and Catholics seeking refuge
from persecution. However, economic considerations also heavily influenced colonization
efforts. The pursuit of profit, particularly through the cultivation of cash crops like tobacco in
Virginia and rice in South Carolina, drove much of the early settlement and development. The
institution of indentured servitude and later slavery further underscored the economic
imperative, as labor was essential for the exploitation of natural resources and agricultural
production. Over time, the dynamic between religious and economic motivations varied
among the colonies, with some prioritizing religious homogeneity and others focusing
primarily on economic gain. However, both factors remained intertwined throughout the
colonial period, shaping the social, political, and cultural landscape of English America.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands
9780205900688

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