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Chapter Nineteen
Toward An Urban Society, 1877–1900
Multiple Choice
1. The rise of cities and industry ________.
A) had little effect on American life
B) provided opportunities for all Americans
C) sustained the foundations of the pre-Civil War society
D) caused changes in all segments of the American society
E) was steady throughout the nineteenth century
Answer: D
The growth of cities and industry in the late nineteenth century profoundly impacted
American society, leading to significant changes across various segments. Urbanization and
industrialization brought about shifts in demographics, social structures, economic systems,
and cultural norms, affecting virtually every aspect of American life.
2. Building the new skyscrapers depended on ________.
A) concrete reinforced pilings
B) electrical elevators
C) automatic window cleaners
D) indoor plumbing
E) steel and glass
Answer: E
The construction of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century relied heavily on the use of
steel and glass, which allowed for taller and more structurally sound buildings. These

materials facilitated the development of iconic skyscrapers that transformed urban skylines
and represented technological and architectural innovation.
3. In 1894, the Immigration Restriction League demanded a literacy test for immigrants from
A) China
B) Ireland
C) southern and eastern Europe
D) Mexico
E) northern Europe
Answer: C
The Immigration Restriction League advocated for a literacy test for immigrants from
southern and eastern Europe in 1894. This demand reflected nativist sentiments and concerns
about the perceived negative impact of mass immigration from these regions on American
society and culture.
4. As the “new immigrants” entered American society, they ________.
A) were well prepared to make the adjustment
B) clung to the customs of their native countries
C) quickly assimilated into the society
D) never were able to adjust to new living conditions
E) gave up their native languages
Answer: B
The "new immigrants" who arrived in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries often
retained strong ties to their native customs, languages, and cultures, making assimilation into
American society a gradual and complex process. Many immigrants settled in ethnic enclaves
and maintained their cultural traditions while adapting to aspects of American life.

5. The most famous political machine of the late nineteenth century was ________.
A) the Fifth Street Gang
B) Tammany Hall
C) the Irish Mafia
D) the Lamar Circle
E) the Coughlin Gang
Answer: B
Tammany Hall, located in New York City, was the most famous political machine of the late
nineteenth century. Controlled by Democratic Party bosses, such as William "Boss" Tweed,
Tammany Hall wielded significant influence over local politics through patronage,
corruption, and urban political networks.
6. Tenements were ________.
A) saloons where working-class men gathered to socialize
B) urban apartment buildings that tended to be overcrowded
C) neighborhood ghettos of unassimilated East European immigrants
D) heavily developed industrial districts notorious for air and water pollution
E) pool halls frequented by members of violent street gangs
Answer: B
Tenements were urban apartment buildings characterized by overcrowded and unsanitary
living conditions, typically inhabited by working-class families and immigrants in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These cramped dwellings were emblematic of urban
poverty and lacked basic amenities and adequate ventilation.
7. In the Victorian code of morality, ________.
A) children were active participants in family life

B) wives were to be acknowledged as equal partners to their husbands
C) moral values were less important than economic values
D) strict standards of behavior should be followed
E) young women could go out without a chaperone
Answer: D
In the Victorian code of morality, strict standards of behavior and conduct were emphasized,
shaping social norms and expectations regarding manners, etiquette, and propriety.
Adherence to these moral principles was considered essential for maintaining societal order
and upholding traditional values.
8. If an American became ill in the 1870s, ________.
A) hospital insurance would cover the cost of the illness
B) home care would be the common form of treatment
C) there was little help from the medical profession
D) recent medical discoveries would guarantee recovery
E) he or she would probably die
Answer: B
In the 1870s, home care was the common form of treatment for illness in America, as formal
medical services were limited, especially for those outside urban areas. Families relied on
home remedies, herbal medicine, and the assistance of midwives or local practitioners for
healthcare needs.
9. Most American churchgoers in the 1880s _________.
A) stopped attending services by 1900
B) believed the school was the center of life
C) were church-attending Protestants

D) had few private moral standards
E) were Roman Catholic parishioners
Answer: C
In the 1880s, a significant portion of American churchgoers were Protestant Christians who
actively participated in religious services and affiliated with various Protestant
denominations. Protestantism played a central role in American religious life during this
period, influencing social and cultural values.
10. After the Civil War, ________.
A) there was little need for reform movements
B) women were excluded from reform movements
C) reform movements remained active in American life
D) the national government was the major agent for change
E) reformers focused exclusively on temperance
Answer: C
Rationale: Despite the end of the Civil War, various social, economic, and political issues
persisted in American society, necessitating continued reform efforts. Reform movements
addressing issues such as labor rights, women's suffrage, and social justice remained active,
reflecting ongoing efforts to address inequalities and injustices.
11. The middle-class wives and children of the late nineteenth century ________.
A) found their status had remained unchanged
B) became more isolated from the working world
C) had a greater economic function
D) tended to deteriorate under the impact of industrialization
E) had more children
Answer: B

Middle-class wives and children in the late nineteenth century often became more isolated
from the working world due to the rise of industrialization and the emergence of distinct
gender roles. While men typically worked outside the home, women and children were often
confined to domestic roles, leading to increased social isolation.
12. The “new woman” of the 1880s and 1890s________.
A) won respect from the American society
B) developed from the economic changes of the times
C) quickly won political and civil rights
D) was usually married, working out of choice
E) still could not get a divorce
Answer: B
The concept of the "new woman" in the late 19th century emerged partly as a response to
economic changes, including industrialization and urbanization. This new archetype
represented women who sought greater independence, education, and opportunities outside
traditional domestic roles, reflecting broader shifts in societal norms and expectations.
13. In the late nineteenth century, ________.
A) few women entered the work force
B) most women took advantage of economic changes
C) few women challenged the system
D) the role of women in the society was changing
E) womanly “innocence” was never questioned
Answer: D

During the late nineteenth century, the role of women in society underwent significant
transformation, with many challenging traditional gender norms and seeking expanded
opportunities in education, employment, and civic engagement. These changes marked a shift
in societal attitudes towards women's roles and capabilities.
14. In the 1880s and 1890s, the common-law doctrine of femme couverte ________.
A) was revised to adapt to the changes of the period
B) provided women with freedom in their marriages
C) brought women new political rights
D) was strongly supported by women
E) was central to the idea of the new woman
Answer: A
The common-law doctrine of femme couverte, which restricted married women's legal and
property rights, underwent revisions in the late 19th century to adapt to changing social and
legal contexts. These revisions reflected evolving attitudes towards women's rights and
marital equality, albeit often still falling short of full empowerment.
15. A founder of the National American Woman Suffrage Association was ________.
A) Rheta Childe Dorr
B) John H. Kellogg
C) Susan B. Anthony
D) Charlotte Gilman
E) Rebecca Ablowitz
Answer: C
Susan B. Anthony was a prominent figure in the women's suffrage movement and one of the
founders of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Anthony played

a leading role in advocating for women's right to vote and promoting gender equality in the
United States.
16. Public schools in the 1870s and the 1880s ________.
A) placed greater value on educating females
B) vigorously stressed discipline and routine
C) ignored moral, religious education
D) emphasized egalitarianism between students and teachers
E) were considered better than factories by most students
Answer: B
Public schools in the 1870s and 1880s emphasized discipline and routine as part of efforts to
instill order and control in the educational environment. These schools prioritized behavioral
standards and conformity, reflecting broader social expectations for obedience and
compliance among students.
17. A major difference between northern and southern schools was that ________.
A) more students attended school in the South
B) all southern states had compulsory school attendance laws
C) fewer southern states had compulsory school attendance laws
D) northern states provided segregated school systems
E) southern schools provided better curricula
Answer: C
A significant difference between northern and southern schools in the late nineteenth century
was that fewer southern states had compulsory school attendance laws compared to their
northern counterparts. This discrepancy contributed to variations in educational access and
opportunities between the two regions.

18. A major change in the college curriculum of the late nineteenth century was to ________.
A) train students for the ministry
B) emphasize classical curriculum
C) have students follow a rigorous, prescribed curriculum
D) stress the practical application of education
E) eliminate electives from the curriculum
Answer: D
The late nineteenth century witnessed a shift in college curriculum towards emphasizing the
practical application of education rather than solely focusing on classical studies. This change
aimed to prepare students for the demands of an increasingly industrialized society by
providing them with skills and knowledge relevant to real-world challenges and occupations.
19. Booker T. Washington ________.
A) believed African Americans should fight for equal rights
B) had little hope for the future of African Americans in the American society
C) believed that self-help was the best plan for African Americans
D) emphasized the importance of higher education for African Americans
E) founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Answer: C
Booker T. Washington advocated for the philosophy of self-help and vocational education as
the best approach for African Americans to attain economic independence and social
advancement. He believed that practical skills and entrepreneurship would empower African
Americans and gradually lead to broader societal acceptance and equality.
20. W. E. B. Du Bois ________.
A) supported the views of Booker T. Washington

B) advocated revolutionary tactics for African Americans
C) founded the Tuskegee Institute
D) believed educational advancement was the key to success
E) was the author of the Atlanta Compromise
Answer: D
W. E. B. Du Bois emphasized the importance of education as a means of achieving social and
political equality for African Americans. He believed that access to higher education and
intellectual development were crucial for challenging racial discrimination and achieving full
citizenship rights.
21. The Social Darwinists ________.
A) believed the laws of nature applied to society
B) were active reformers in the late nineteenth century
C) had an overwhelming influence on American society
D) raised important questions about the ill effects of business trusts
E) stressed society’s responsibility to aid the poor.
Answer: A
Social Darwinists believed that Darwin's theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest
applied to human societies, suggesting that social progress resulted from the elimination of
the weak and the success of the strong. This perspective justified laissez-faire economic
policies and minimized government intervention in social and economic affairs.
22. Which of these was the result of Jim Crow laws?
A) legal distinctions between black and white civil rights
B) racial segregation across the South
C) the repeal of the Fifteenth Amendment

D) expanded higher education for blacks
E) the closing
Answer: B
Jim Crow laws enforced racial segregation across the South, establishing legal distinctions
between black and white individuals and institutions. These laws institutionalized racism and
discrimination, denying African Americans equal access to public facilities, education, and
political participation.
23. As a young lawyer, Clarence Darrow believed that ________.
A) aiding the poor was interfering with the evolutionary process
B) capitalism must be overthrown
C) without poverty there would be no crime
D) capital punishment was essential to the maintenance of civil order
E) a single tax on corporate profits would solve all social problems
Answer: C
As a young lawyer, Clarence Darrow held the belief that poverty was a significant factor
contributing to crime. He argued that addressing poverty and social inequality was essential
for reducing crime rates and improving societal well-being, reflecting his early advocacy for
social reform and justice.
24. ________ wrote the book Looking Backward, which described a future of socialism in
A) Walter Rauschenbusch
B) Edward Bellamy
C) Richard Frick
D) Jane Addams

E) Henry George
Answer: B
Edward Bellamy authored the book "Looking Backward," which presented a vision of a
future socialist society in America. Bellamy's work influenced discussions about social and
economic reform, sparking interest in socialist ideas and alternative models of societal
organization during the late nineteenth century.
25. Jane Addams was the founder of ________.
A) the South End House in Boston
B) the Henry Street Settlement in New York
C) Golden Home in San Francisco
D) Hull House in Chicago
E) the Neighborhood Guild in New York
Answer: D
Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first settlement houses in the United
States. Hull House provided vital social services and support to immigrant communities,
offering educational programs, childcare, healthcare, and advocacy for social reform.
Addams's pioneering work at Hull House made significant contributions to the Progressive
Era's social reform movements.
26. Which statement about late nineteenth-century immigrants is NOT true?
A) Most came seeking economic opportunities.
B) Most were highly skilled craftsmen.
C) Most were young males.
D) Most settled along the eastern seaboard.
E) Often they already knew someone in the United States.

Answer: B
While many late nineteenth-century immigrants possessed skills, the majority were not highly
skilled craftsmen. Instead, they often came seeking economic opportunities and employment
in industrializing sectors, contributing to the labor force in factories and urban centers.
27. Why was mainstream society troubled by the influx of new immigrants in the 1880s?
A) They feared that immigrants would try to assimilate into the American society.
B) They worried that the unskilled immigrants would lower factory standards.
C) They feared that the government would give immigrants equal rights.
D) They felt that immigrants would monopolize newly available western lands.
E) They worried that the new immigrants could not be assimilated.
Answer: E
Mainstream society was troubled by the influx of new immigrants in the 1880s because they
were concerned about the ability of these immigrants to assimilate into American society due
to cultural differences, language barriers, and ethnic diversity, leading to fears of social
cohesion and integration.
28. How did immigrant families compare to native-born families in the late nineteenth
A) Immigrant families married earlier than native-born families, and as a result, had more
B) Immigrant families had fewer children than native-born families, mostly because they
lived in cramped tenements that could not support large families.
C) Immigrant families tended to marry later and have more children than native-born
D) Immigrant families were usually headed by single women, whereas native-born
Americans tended to have nuclear families.

E) Immigrant families married much earlier than native-born families, and also tended to die
at much earlier ages.
Answer: C
Immigrant families tended to marry later and have more children than native-born families in
the late nineteenth century. This demographic pattern often resulted from cultural traditions,
economic factors, and social conditions prevalent among immigrant communities,
contributing to larger family sizes.
29. What was one consequence of the urban growth of the late nineteenth century?
A) urban renewal of neighborhoods
B) growth of middle-class neighborhoods
C) development of urban planning
D) powerful city political machines
E) construction of better housing
Answer: D
One consequence of the urban growth of the late nineteenth century was the rise of powerful
city political machines. These political organizations wielded significant influence over urban
politics and governance, often controlling municipal administrations and providing social
services to immigrant communities in exchange for political support.
30. Which of the following was NOT a reason that urban political machines stayed in power?
A) Municipal governments rarely provided public services such as water.
B) They understood how to use the political system for their own good.
C) They performed social services for immigrants.
D) There was little regard for the political system.
E) The cities needed the services they provided.
Answer: D

While urban political machines often faced criticism and opposition, their ability to stay in
power was not due to a lack of regard for the political system. Instead, they maintained their
influence through strategies such as providing essential social services to immigrant
communities, controlling patronage, and leveraging political connections.
31. Which statement about American life in the late nineteenth century is NOT true? A)
Meals tended to be heavy and so did people.
B) Medical science was still hopelessly primitive.
C) Infant mortality declined between 1877 and 1900.
D) There were few hospitals and no hospital insurance.
E) Food prices were constantly getting lower.
Answer: B
While medical science in the late nineteenth century was not as advanced as it is today, it was
not "hopelessly primitive." Significant advancements were made during this period, including
the understanding of germ theory, the development of antiseptic practices, and the discovery
of vaccines, which contributed to improvements in public health and medical treatment.
32. Significant medical developments in Victorian America included all of the following
EXCEPT ________.
A) eradication of tuberculosis, typhoid, and diphtheria
B) discovery that germs cause infection and disease
C) relatively safe and painless surgery
D) more antiseptic practices in childbirth
E) development of vaccines to prevent diseases
Answer: A

While significant advancements were made in medical science during Victorian America, the
complete eradication of tuberculosis, typhoid, and diphtheria did not occur during this period.
However, progress was made in understanding the causes of infectious diseases, improving
surgical techniques, implementing antiseptic practices, and developing vaccines to prevent
33. Why did reformers turn their attention to prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages in the
nineteenth century?
A) They felt that high tariffs on alcohol were leading more people into poverty.
B) They felt that large producers of alcoholic beverages were driving smaller companies out
of business.
C) They did not want Americans to import alcoholic beverages from other countries.
D) They believed that drunkenness was the cause of many social evils.
E) They were worried that people were buying harmful liquor because alcoholic beverages
were not regulated.
Answer: D
Reformers turned their attention to prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages in the
nineteenth century because they believed that drunkenness was the cause of many social
evils, including poverty, domestic violence, and crime. They advocated for temperance and
prohibition laws to promote morality and improve societal well-being.
34. What did the popularity of sports in the United States indicate?
A) the influence of European culture
B) the increased amount of leisure time
C) the breakdown of sexual barriers
D) increased freedom for children
E) the boredom of industrial workers
Answer: B

The popularity of sports in the United States indicated the increased amount of leisure time
available to individuals, particularly in urban areas where industrialization and technological
advancements led to shorter working hours and more recreational opportunities. Sports
became a widespread pastime and contributed to the development of organized leagues and
35. What was the significance of the decline in fertility rates in America between 1800 and
A) It reflected the later marriage age among immigrant families.
B) It reflected a higher infant mortality rate due to primitive medical practices.
C) It reflected a conscious decision of many Americans to postpone or limit their families.
D) It showed that more Americans were remaining single rather than marrying and having
E) It showed that fewer Americans were dying of disease now that vaccines had come into
popular use.
Answer: C
The decline in fertility rates in America between 1800 and 1939 was significant because it
reflected a conscious decision of many Americans to postpone or limit their families. Factors
such as urbanization, changing social attitudes, and increased access to contraception
contributed to smaller family sizes as individuals sought to maintain or improve their
economic and social status.
36. Which of the following authors argued that the American ideal of women’s “innocence”
really meant their ignorance?
A) Charlotte Perkins Gilman in Women and Economics
B) Edward Bliss Foote in Plain Home Talk of Love, Marriage, and Parentage
C) Bessie and Marie Von Vorst in The Woman Who Toils
D) Helen Campbell in Women Wage Earners

E) Jane Addams in Twenty Years at Hull House
Answer: A
Charlotte Perkins Gilman in "Women and Economics" argued that the American ideal of
women’s “innocence” really meant their ignorance. She criticized the societal norms that
confined women to domestic roles and limited their access to education and intellectual
development, advocating for women's liberation and equality in all spheres of life.
37. What was a result of the Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson decision?
A) Segregation of schools and public transportation was deemed legal.
B) Integration of schools was to occur with deliberate speed.
C) Illiteracy among school-aged children would be eradicated.
D) De facto segregation could no longer occur.
E) Teachers at black schools were paid the same as their white counterparts.
Answer: A
The Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson decision resulted in segregation of schools and
public transportation being deemed legal. This decision established the "separate but equal"
doctrine, allowing for racial segregation as long as facilities and services provided to different
racial groups were deemed equal, perpetuating racial discrimination and inequality.
38. Educational changes in the years 1877 to 1900 did NOT include ________.
A) a decrease in illiteracy
B) “practical” courses in manual training and homemaking for older children
C) development of the kindergarten
D) compulsory school attendance in all states
E) “separate but equal” schools for African Americans in the South
Answer: D

Compulsory school attendance in all states was not an educational change in the years 1877
to 1900. While efforts were made to improve attendance through truancy laws and
educational reforms, compulsory education laws varied across states and were not uniformly
implemented during this period.
39. Changes in higher education included all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) an increased number of colleges and universities
B) the first separate graduate schools
C) an increased emphasis on a classical curriculum
D) more educational opportunities for women
E) the new discipline of sociology was introduced
Answer: C
Changes in higher education during this period did not include an increased emphasis on a
classical curriculum. Instead, there was a shift towards more diverse academic offerings,
including professional and vocational programs, as well as the introduction of new disciplines
like sociology. This expansion aimed to meet the evolving needs of students and society.
40. How did the focus of higher education change between 1880s and 1900s?
A) Art and culture became an intrinsic part of education.
B) Agricultural training courses increased rapidly.
C) Standards for admission to universities fell.
D) Education for blacks and whites became more equal.
E) Curricula increasingly focused on practical knowledge.
Answer: E

The focus of higher education shifted between the 1880s and 1900s towards practical
knowledge and vocational training. This change reflected the demands of an industrializing
society and aimed to prepare students for careers in fields such as engineering, business, and
technology, rather than solely focusing on traditional academic subjects.
41. Which of the following places events in the correct chronological order?
A) Morrill Land Grant Act, Plessy v. Ferguson, establishment of Tuskegee Institute
B) Plessy v. Ferguson, Morrill Land Grant Act, establishment of Tuskegee Institute
C) Establishment of Tuskegee Institute, Morrill Land Grant Act, Plessy v. Ferguson
D) Morrill Land Grant Act, establishment of Tuskegee Institute, Plessy v. Ferguson
E) Plessy v. Ferguson, establishment of Tuskegee Institute, Morrill Land Grant Act
Answer: D
The correct chronological order of events is Morrill Land Grant Act, establishment of
Tuskegee Institute, Plessy v. Ferguson. The Morrill Land Grant Act was passed in 1862,
followed by the establishment of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881, and then the Plessy v.
Ferguson Supreme Court decision in 1896.
42. Why did many whites support Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise?
A) because it rejected militancy and attacks on white dominance
B) because it rejected the idea that blacks needed equal rights in the American society
C) because it called for blacks to get a college education and to fight actively for their rights
D) because it called for the integration of schools and an end to “separate but equal”
E) because it promoted the idea of professional careers for blacks
Answer: A
Many whites supported Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise because it rejected
militancy and attacks on white dominance. Washington's approach emphasized vocational

education and economic self-improvement for African Americans rather than challenging the
existing social order, making it more palatable to many white Americans.
43. Which of these was true of the experience of African Americans in the period from about
1870 to 1890?
A) The end of the Civil War brought implementation of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
B) Race riots occurred, but were confined to the South.
C) The works of writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe continued to have a profound effect
in the South.
D) Lynchings became a thing of the past
E) They saw their civil rights and even their safety erode significantly.
Answer: E
During the period from about 1870 to 1890, African Americans saw their civil rights and even
their safety erode significantly. Despite the passage of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
Amendments, African Americans faced widespread discrimination, segregation, and violence,
including the rise of Jim Crow laws and the proliferation of lynchings.
44. What did Henry George propose as a solution to poverty in the modern society?
A) to let nature take its evolutionary course
B) to replace all taxes with a “single tax” on land
C) a socialist utopia in which the government owns the means of production
D) to establish worker and farmer cooperatives to own the means of production
E) to make churches the center of social reform instead of the government
Answer: B
Henry George proposed replacing all taxes with a “single tax” on land as a solution to
poverty in modern society. His idea was based on the belief that land values arise from the

efforts of the community rather than individual landowners and that taxing land would
promote economic equality and eliminate poverty.
45. What was the Social Gospel?
A) an organization that promoted reforms of the era, including temperance
B) a musical group which worked on creating awareness about social evils
C) a religious program carried out in Chicago state prisons
D) a religious philosophy that addressed both spiritual and social concerns
E) a nickname for the doctrines of the social Darwinists
Answer: D
The Social Gospel was a religious philosophy that addressed both spiritual and social
concerns. It emphasized the application of Christian principles to social problems such as
poverty, inequality, and injustice, advocating for social reform and the creation of a more just
and equitable society based on Christian ethics.
46. Why were many women part of the settlement house reform movement?
A) They believed that poverty was the worst problem in the society and must be prevented.
B) Men were not interested in urban poverty, and women were the only ones left to tackle the
C) The women who helped start settlement houses could bring their children there, which
made it easier for them.
D) It was one of the few places in the American society in which they could use their talents.
E) Women believed that education was the only way to eradicate poverty in the United States.
Answer: D
Many women were involved in the settlement house reform movement because it provided
them with an outlet to use their talents and skills for the betterment of society. At a time when

women had limited opportunities for participation in public life, settlement houses offered
them a platform to engage in social reform, education, and community service.
47. Why did some immigrants resist the settlement house movement?
A) They did not trust organizations that were headed by women.
B) They felt that settlement houses kept them segregated from the rest of the society.
C) They did not want their children educated by Americans.
D) They did not want other people to tell them how to live and act.
E) They believed that living in a settlement house would never get them out of poverty.
Answer: D
Some immigrants resisted the settlement house movement because they viewed it as an
imposition on their autonomy and cultural identity. They were skeptical of outsiders telling
them how to live and preferred to maintain their own customs and traditions rather than
assimilate into mainstream American society.
48. How did working-class families and middle-class families experience urbanization and
industrialization differently?
A) Working-class families tended to have strong family ties as a result of their urban lives
and work, whereas women and children in middle-class families tended not to participate in
the work that men did.
B) Working-class families often did not spend much time together because everyone worked
at different times, but middle-class families tended to work and socialize together.
C) In middle-class families only the men earned money, but in working-class families, some
women did work out of the home.
D) In working-class families, more children lived with their parents into their twenties,
whereas in middle-class families children tended to leave home as soon as they got work.
E) Working-class families tended to have fewer members of the household engaged in work,
which is what kept them in a permanent state of poverty.

Answer: C
Middle-class families typically relied on the income of the male breadwinner, while workingclass families often required additional income from working-class women to make ends
meet. This difference in economic participation shaped the experiences and dynamics within
each type of family.
49. How did the role of children in American society change in the late nineteenth century?
A) Children were valued more as people who could contribute to the family and not just as
people to be left alone for many years.
B) Children were viewed less as “little adults” who should contribute to the family as soon as
possible, and viewed more as young people who needed years to grow up.
C) People began to think of children as less in need of general education and more in need of
vocational education tailored to the jobs they would eventually get.
D) Children were no longer thought of as “free help” and were instead paid for many of the
chores they did at home.
E) People began to understand the necessity for children to learn important skills as
apprentices and not just at home with their families.
Answer: B
In the late nineteenth century, there was a shift in the perception of children from being seen
as miniature adults who should contribute to the family's economic well-being to being
viewed as individuals in need of nurturing, education, and protection. This change reflected
evolving social attitudes towards childhood and the recognition of the importance of child
50. What does the following quote mean? “The United States was born in the country and
moved to the city.”
A) The United States started out as a small country, but became extremely populated over

B) Most Americans were uncomfortable with living in large cities until the nineteenth
C) The size of the country grew exponentially larger once people started living in cities.
D) Most Americans preferred living in rural areas, but were forced to move to cities because
that was where most jobs were located.
E) The United States began as a rural country and then became much more urban over time.
Answer: E
The quote signifies the transformation of the United States from a predominantly rural
society to an increasingly urbanized one over time. It highlights the shift in population
distribution and economic activity from rural areas to urban centers as industrialization and
urbanization progressed throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
1. How did technology affect patterns of urban life in late nineteenth-century America? Under
what conditions did the urban poor live? Why did technology fail to help these people?
Answer: Technology in the late nineteenth century transformed urban life in America by
facilitating mass transportation, leading to the growth of cities and the development of urban
infrastructure such as electric lighting and public transportation systems. However, despite
technological advancements, the urban poor lived in overcrowded tenements and slums
characterized by poor sanitation, inadequate housing, and limited access to basic amenities.
While technology improved living conditions for some urban residents, it failed to alleviate
the plight of the urban poor due to various factors such as inadequate government regulation,
economic inequality, and social discrimination. Technological innovations primarily
benefited the affluent classes, exacerbating the disparity between the rich and the poor in
urban areas.
2. Compare the role of the political machines and the social reformers in dealing with the new
urban environment of the late nineteenth century. Which group seems to have been more

Answer: Political machines and social reformers played contrasting roles in addressing the
challenges of the new urban environment in the late nineteenth century. Political machines,
often led by powerful political bosses, provided essential services and resources to urban
residents in exchange for political support, primarily through patronage and favors. While
political machines offered immediate assistance to urban dwellers, they were often associated
with corruption, nepotism, and exploitation. In contrast, social reformers advocated for
systemic changes to address urban problems such as poverty, inequality, and unsanitary living
conditions. Although social reformers faced resistance from entrenched political interests,
their efforts led to the implementation of progressive policies and reforms aimed at
improving urban living standards in the long term. Overall, while political machines provided
short-term relief, social reformers' initiatives contributed to lasting improvements in the
urban environment, making them more successful in effecting positive change.
3. How did economic change and urbanization affect family life?
Answer: Economic change and urbanization in the late nineteenth century profoundly
impacted family life in America. As industrialization and urbanization accelerated, many
families migrated from rural areas to cities in search of employment opportunities, leading to
changes in household dynamics and social structures. The shift from agrarian to industrial
economies meant that families increasingly relied on wage labor rather than agricultural work
for sustenance, altering traditional gender roles and family relationships. Urbanization also
contributed to the fragmentation of extended families as individuals pursued economic
opportunities in urban centers, often resulting in nuclear family units becoming more
prevalent. Additionally, economic pressures and the demands of urban living led to longer
working hours for both men and women, reducing the amount of time families could spend
together and impacting childcare and household responsibilities. Overall, economic change
and urbanization reshaped family life by influencing living arrangements, gender roles, and
social interactions within households.
4. How did education change in the late nineteenth century? Explain the controversy over
education for blacks. Why did new educational opportunities open up for women? What was
the main goal of primary education? Why?
Answer: In the late nineteenth century, education underwent significant changes in the United
States, marked by the expansion of public schooling and the emergence of new educational
philosophies and practices. However, these developments were accompanied by controversies

and challenges, particularly concerning education for marginalized groups such as African
Americans and women.
The controversy over education for blacks stemmed from deep-seated racial prejudices and
segregationist policies prevalent in American society during this period. While some
advocated for equal educational opportunities for African Americans, others opposed
integration and sought to maintain segregated schooling systems based on racial
discrimination. The landmark Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) upheld the
constitutionality of "separate but equal" facilities, further entrenching racial segregation in
New educational opportunities opened up for women in the late nineteenth century due to the
rise of the women's rights movement and changing societal attitudes towards gender roles and
education. Influential advocates such as suffragists and reformers pushed for women's access
to higher education and professional training, leading to the establishment of coeducational
colleges and the founding of women's colleges and universities. Additionally, the demand for
female teachers in expanding public school systems created opportunities for women to
pursue careers in education, contributing to greater gender equity in the teaching profession.
The main goal of primary education in the late nineteenth century was to impart essential
knowledge and skills deemed necessary for citizenship, moral development, and economic
productivity. Public schools focused on instilling literacy, numeracy, and civic values in
students to prepare them for active participation in democratic society and the workforce.
Primary education aimed to cultivate good citizenship, promote social cohesion, and equip
individuals with the intellectual and practical tools needed to succeed in an increasingly
complex and industrialized world.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands

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