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Chapter Eighteen
The Industrial Society
Multiple Choice
1. The most important advances in industrialization in the U.S. ________.
A) occurred during the last third of the nineteenth century
B) were developed during the Civil War
C) had developed in western Europe by 1900
D) had little effect on the American economy
E) began in the first years of the twentieth century
Answer: A
The period between the 1860s and the early 1900s marked a significant phase of
industrialization in the United States, characterized by rapid technological advancements, the
expansion of manufacturing, and the emergence of large-scale industries.
2. American industrial growth was concentrated in the ________.
A) Southwest
B) Northeast
C) Pacific
D) Southeast
E) Midwest
Answer: B
During the late nineteenth century, industrial growth in the United States was concentrated
primarily in the Northeast region, particularly in states like New York, Pennsylvania, and
Massachusetts, where industries such as textiles, steel, and machinery flourished.

3. The technical innovation of the nineteenth century with the widest impact was ________.
A) the Kodak camera
B) the oil well
C) the automobile
D) the railroad
E) the steam ship
Answer: D
The widespread development and expansion of the railroad network in the nineteenth century
revolutionized transportation, commerce, and communication in the United States,
significantly impacting economic growth and societal development.
4. The development of a national railway system ________.
A) provided needed jobs for an overabundant labor supply
B) had little effect on economic changes in the late nineteenth century
C) led to an integrated national economic system
D) had little help from the political system
E) was not completed until the early twentieth century
Answer: C
The establishment of a national railway system in the United States facilitated the movement
of goods, people, and resources across regions, contributing to the integration of the national
economy and the expansion of markets.
5. Rapid rail construction after the Civil War was possible because ________.
A) there was little competition between the builders
B) the rail companies managed their money and land wisely

C) federal and state governments provided important incentives
D) the western half of the nation was uninhabitable
E) the South was eager to participate
Answer: C
The federal government provided significant subsidies, land grants, and other incentives to
encourage the rapid construction of railroads, especially transcontinental lines, after the Civil
War, facilitating westward expansion and economic development.
6. A major change in the railroad industry after the Civil War was the development of
A) major railroad trunk lines
B) competition between owners for local markets
C) regional marketplaces
D) international rail systems
E) a greater number of small rail companies
Answer: A
After the Civil War, the railroad industry underwent significant consolidation and the
development of major trunk lines connecting major cities and regions, facilitating more
efficient transportation and trade networks.
7. The two transcontinental railroad lines met at ________.
A) Sacramento, California
B) Reno, Nevada
C) Promontory, Utah
D) Santa Fe, New Mexico
E) Salt Lake City, Utah

Answer: C
The meeting point of the Central Pacific Railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad, marking
the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad, was at Promontory Summit, Utah, in
May 1869.
8. By 1894, American railroads ________.
A) had difficulty finding the capital to expand
B) suffered from competition and overexpansion
C) had consolidated into four major lines
D) had eliminated competition
E) were at the peak of their bargaining power
Answer: B
By 1894, American railroads faced challenges due to overexpansion, excessive competition,
and financial instability, leading to periods of economic turmoil and bankruptcies within the
9. The most important figure in American finance was ________.
A) J. P. Morgan
B) Andrew Carnegie
C) Andrew Mellon
D) Albert Fink
E) E. F. Hutton
Answer: A

J. P. Morgan was a prominent American financier and banker who played a pivotal role in
shaping the nation's financial system, consolidating industries, and providing capital for
industrial expansion during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
10. After 1870, the measure of a nation’s industrial progress was determined by ________.
A) the production of steel
B) the production of iron
C) the number of railroad lines
D) agricultural output
E) per capita exports
Answer: A
After 1870, the production of steel became a key indicator of a nation's industrial prowess
and progress. Steel was crucial for various industries, including construction, transportation,
and manufacturing, and its production reflected technological advancements and economic
11. The company to become the first billion-dollar company was ________.
A) Thomson Steel Works
B) Standard Oil
C) Westinghouse
D) U.S. Steel
E) American Telephone and Telegraph
Answer: D
U.S. Steel, formed by the merger of several major steel companies in 1901 under the
leadership of J.P. Morgan, became the first billion-dollar company in the United States. Its
formation marked a significant milestone in corporate consolidation and the rise of industrial

12. The first modern trust was ________.
A) United States Steel
B) the Northern Securities Company
C) Standard Oil
D) Carnegie Steel
E) the Pennsylvania Railroad
Answer: C
Standard Oil, founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1870, was the first modern trust, utilizing
innovative business practices to dominate the oil industry. Its structure and control over
various oil-related businesses set a precedent for the formation of trusts in other industries.
13. The most important development in the communications system in late nineteenthcentury America was the ________
A) telephone
B) post office
C) telegraph
D) radio
E) transatlantic cable
Answer: A
The invention and widespread adoption of the telephone, pioneered by Alexander Graham
Bell, revolutionized communication in late nineteenth-century America. It enabled real-time
voice communication over long distances, transforming business, personal communication,
and social interaction.
14. Which two were the most important developments of the late nineteenth century?
A) the typewriter and calculating machine

B) the telephone and the light bulb
C) factories and the sewing machine
D) the telegraph and processed meat
E) automobiles and the assembly line
Answer: B
The telephone, invented by Alexander Graham Bell, and the light bulb, developed by Thomas
Edison, were two of the most transformative and impactful inventions of the late nineteenth
century, revolutionizing communication and illumination, respectively.
15. The greatest inventor of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America was
A) Cyrus Field
B) Thomas A. Edison
C) Henry Bessemer
D) J. P. Morgan
E) Eli Whitney
Answer: B
Thomas Edison, often regarded as America's greatest inventor, made significant contributions
to various fields, including electricity, telecommunications, and sound recording. His
numerous patents and inventions, including the phonograph and the electric light bulb,
shaped modern technology and industry.
16. Which of the following individuals was NOT an innovator in retailing in the late
nineteenth century?
A) R. H. Macy
B) Cyrus Field

C) John Wanamaker
D) Richard W. Sears
E) Alvah C. Roebuck
Answer: B
Cyrus Field was known for his contributions to the transatlantic telegraph cable, not retailing.
The other options were notable figures in the retail industry during the late nineteenth
century, associated with prominent retail chains and innovations in marketing and sales.
17. The development of brand names, chain stores, and mail order houses ________.
A) drove the prices of goods upward
B) confused consumers
C) had little effect on the buying public
D) created a gulf between consumer and producer
E) provided convenience and standardization
Answer: E
The development of brand names, chain stores, and mail-order houses in the late nineteenth
century streamlined retail processes, offered consumers a wider selection of standardized
products, and provided convenience through catalog shopping and consistent branding.
18. Most working women ________.
A) were young and single
B) were married with children
C) were African American
D) had many professional opportunities
E) were widows or single mothers

Answer: A
In the late 1800s, a significant portion of working women were young and single, often
seeking employment in factories and other industries. Many of them were unmarried and
without children, making them more available for employment in the rapidly growing
industrial sector.
19. In comparison to male workers, female workers in the late 1800s ________.
A) received equal pay for equal work
B) moved into white-collar jobs formerly monopolized by men
C) reaped the rewards of the industrial system
D) were respected as important income earners
E) generally had female managers
Answer: B
Female workers in the late 1800s faced significant barriers to equal pay and opportunities
compared to male workers. However, some women were able to secure employment in whitecollar jobs traditionally held by men, although they often faced discrimination and unequal
20. Which of the following groups received the greatest rewards from industrialization?
A) white, native-born females
B) foreign-born males
C) African-American males
D) white, native-born males
E) skilled workers in all categories
Answer: D

In the late 1800s, white, native-born males generally received the greatest rewards from
industrialization. They held a dominant position in the workforce and had access to betterpaying jobs, opportunities for advancement, and greater social and economic privileges
compared to other demographic groups.
21. Why did the Knights of Labor fail?
A) A major defeat weakened the group.
B) It was unable to organize the workers.
C) It had no successful strikes.
D) It was unable to develop a set of objectives.
E) Terence Powderly was imprisoned.
Answer: A
The Knights of Labor faced several setbacks, including the Haymarket Riot of 1886, which
led to a decline in public support and membership. Additionally, internal divisions and
disagreements over tactics contributed to the organization's failure to maintain its momentum
and influence.
22. Unlike the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor ________.
A) believed workers would rise in stature
B) organized skilled and unskilled workers
C) emphasized economic goals for workers
D) organized a majority of the workers
E) hoped all workers could eventually become self-employed
Answer: C
Unlike the Knights of Labor, which aimed for broad social and political reforms, the
American Federation of Labor (AFL) focused primarily on economic goals for workers, such

as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions. The AFL primarily organized
skilled workers and pursued collective bargaining with employers to achieve its objectives.
23. Concerning women workers, the American Federation of Labor ________.
A) enthusiastically supported their needs
B) either ignored or opposed them as members
C) brought important changes in the workplace
D) allowed them into leadership positions
E) encouraged all producing women to join
Answer: B
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) largely ignored or opposed the inclusion of women
as members, focusing primarily on organizing skilled male workers. Despite the growing
presence of women in the workforce, the AFL's leadership prioritized the interests of male
workers and did not actively support the needs of women workers.
24. The principle of the “iron law of wages” stated that ________.
A) the welfare of the workers dictated wages
B) supply and demand regulated wages
C) all workers should be treated the same
D) the quality of work should be determined by managers
E) wages should remain unchanged as long as possible
Answer: B
The "iron law of wages" was an economic principle that suggested wages would naturally be
determined by the supply of and demand for labor in the market. According to this principle,
wages would tend to stabilize at a level determined by the balance between the supply of
available workers and the demand for their labor by employers.

25. What was the most important impact of the Haymarket Riot?
A) The eight-hour day became widely accepted.
B) The AFL folded.
C) Labor organizations became linked with anarchism.
D) The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed unanimously.
E) The labor movement ended.
Answer: C
The Haymarket Riot of 1886 in Chicago resulted in a negative public perception of labor
organizations, as they became associated with anarchism and violence. This linkage had a
lasting impact on the labor movement in the United States, leading to increased government
surveillance and repression of labor activities.
26. What effect did the American government have on industrial growth?
A) It followed a policy of laissez-faire.
B) It closely regulated the pace of growth.
C) It provided incentives for growth.
D) It balanced agrarian and industrial demands.
E) It increased taxes on industry.
Answer: C
The American government played a significant role in fostering industrial growth by
providing incentives such as land grants, subsidies, and tariffs that protected domestic
industries from foreign competition. These incentives encouraged investment in
infrastructure, technology, and manufacturing, contributing to the rapid expansion of industry
in the late 19th century.
27. Which of the following was NOT a factor in American industrial development?

A) an abundance of natural resources
B) a heavy influx of immigrants
C) new technological innovations
D) industrialization of the South after the Civil War
E) an abundance of labor
Answer: D
While the South experienced some industrialization after the Civil War, it was not as
significant a factor in American industrial development as the other options listed. The
industrialization of the North, driven by factors such as abundant natural resources,
technological innovations, immigration, and a growing labor force, had a much greater
impact on overall industrial growth in the United States.
28. How were American railroads different from European railroads?
A) American railroads connected only major cities, whereas older European railroads
connected small towns as well.
B) European railroads employed workers from the upper class, whereas American railroad
workers were from the lowest class in society.
C) European railroads brought goods to places that could not be reached any other way,
whereas American railroads could reach only metropolitan areas.
D) Trains on American railroads were not able to travel as far or as fast as European trains
because the land on which they traveled was undeveloped.
E) European railroads were built between already existing towns, but American railroads
often created the towns that they served.
Answer: E
Unlike European railroads, which primarily connected established towns and cities, American
railroads often spurred the growth of new towns and cities along their routes. This difference

reflects the role of railroads in facilitating westward expansion and the settlement of
previously undeveloped areas in the United States.
29. Why didn’t early American railroads actually link different regions to each other?
A) They did not have enough steel to make the tracks very long.
B) They were only built to bring goods from one city to another.
C) They had different schedules and incompatible gauges.
D) They were only affordable to the richest passengers.
E) They were built with inferior equipment and were constantly breaking down.
Answer: C
Early American railroads faced the challenge of using different track gauges and operating on
different schedules, making it difficult for trains from different regions to seamlessly connect
with each other. This lack of standardization hindered the efficient transportation of goods
and passengers between regions until the adoption of a standard gauge for all railroads.
30. What is the significance of the adoption of a standard gauge for all railroads?
A) It allowed all rails to be built of steel instead of inferior quality metal.
B) It allowed trains to travel on all tracks, thus integrating the entire system.
C) It kept all trains running to coordinate their schedules.
D) It allowed tracks to be built on both government and private lands.
E) It kept the trains from derailing so often and so disastrously.
Answer: B
The adoption of a standard gauge for all railroads in the United States allowed trains to travel
seamlessly between different regions without the need for transfers or adjustments. This
standardization greatly improved the efficiency and reliability of railroad transportation,
facilitating the integration of the national railway network and spurring economic growth and

31. Which of the following lists industrial developments in proper chronological order?
A) the completion of the first transcontinental railroad, formation of the first trust, formation
of U.S. Steel Corporation
B) the formation of U.S. Steel Corporation, formation of the first trust, completion of the first
transcontinental railroad
C) the formation of the first trust, completion of the first transcontinental railroad, formation
of U.S. Steel Corporation
D) the formation of the first trust, formation of U.S. Steel Corporation, completion of the first
transcontinental railroad
E) the formation of U.S. Steel Corporation, completion of the first transcontinental railroad,
the formation of the first trust
Answer: A
The completion of the first transcontinental railroad occurred in 1869, followed by the
formation of the first trust (the Standard Oil Trust) by John D. Rockefeller in 1882. The U.S.
Steel Corporation, organized by Andrew Carnegie and J.P. Morgan, was formed in 1901,
making option A the correct chronological order of industrial developments.
32. Which of the following individuals is INCORRECTLY associated with the industry he
helped to found?
A) Andrew Carnegie: steel
B) J. P. Morgan: finance
C) Henry Bessemer: railroads
D) John Rockefeller: oil
E) William Kelly: steel
Answer: C

Henry Bessemer is incorrectly associated with railroads. He is actually known for his
contribution to the steel industry with the invention of the Bessemer process, which
revolutionized steel production by making it faster, cheaper, and more efficient. Railroads
were a major consumer of steel, but Bessemer himself was not directly involved in the
railroad industry.
33. What was the reason for Andrew Carnegie’s success?
A) He inherited a large family fortune.
B) He understood how to organize steel industry management.
C) He shared profits with his workers.
D) He had no competition from other producers.
E) He had worked in the steel industry since childhood.
Answer: B
Andrew Carnegie's success in the steel industry can be attributed to his exceptional
organizational and managerial skills. He implemented innovative management practices, such
as vertical integration and cost control measures, which allowed him to streamline operations,
increase efficiency, and reduce costs. Carnegie's strategic vision and leadership played a
crucial role in building his steel empire and establishing him as one of the wealthiest
industrialists of his time.
34. What was the result of Andrew Carnegie’s sale of Carnegie Steel?
A) J. P. Morgan combined it with other steel companies into the U.S. Steel Corporation.
B) It led to the formation of the first American trust.
C) It inspired John D. Rockefeller to sell his Standard Oil Company.
D) It led to the building of the Brooklyn Bridge, the largest steel structure in the world.
E) Charles Schwab bought it and combined it with National Steel to form the largest steel
company in the United States.
Answer: A

After Andrew Carnegie sold Carnegie Steel to J.P. Morgan in 1901, Morgan combined it with
other steel companies to form the U.S. Steel Corporation, one of the first billion-dollar
corporations in the United States. This consolidation marked a significant milestone in the
history of American industry, creating a massive and highly influential corporate entity.
35. Why did John D. Rockefeller reject competition among oil companies?
A) He believed that consolidation, not competition, created stronger companies.
B) He did not want to be forced to lower his prices to consumers.
C) He felt that other oil companies were inferior to his company.
D) He believed that competition would only weaken his own company.
E) He felt that his company needed to develop before it could compete with others.
Answer: A
John D. Rockefeller rejected competition among oil companies because he believed that
consolidating smaller firms into a single, vertically integrated entity would create a stronger
and more efficient organization. By controlling all aspects of the oil industry, from production
to refining to distribution, Rockefeller sought to eliminate wasteful competition and achieve
greater efficiency and profitability.
36. What was the consequence of the formation of the Standard Oil Trust?
A) The federal government passed legislation to stop further trusts from forming.
B) Other industries followed its lead and trusts became common in America.
C) John D. Rockefeller lost control of his company.
D) Other oil companies began to compete with Standard Oil over prices.
E) It became famous as the only trust ever formed in the United States.
Answer: B

The formation of the Standard Oil Trust set a precedent for the consolidation of industries
through trusts, leading to the proliferation of trusts in various sectors of the American
economy. Inspired by Standard Oil's success, other industry leaders sought to create similar
combinations to gain control over their respective markets, contributing to the rise of
monopolies and oligopolies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
37. What was one result of the proliferation of patents in the late nineteenth century?
A) The country got most of its technology from Europe.
B) The marketplace was oversaturated with goods.
C) Americans no longer imported most of their technology.
D) Few Americans participated in the economic changes.
E) Americans began to fear technology.
Answer: C
The proliferation of patents in the late 19th century resulted in increased domestic innovation
and technological development in the United States. With a growing number of patents
granted to American inventors, the country became less reliant on importing technology from
Europe and other regions. This shift contributed to the rise of the United States as a leading
industrial and technological power.
38. What was the significance of American Telephone and Telegraph?
A) It was the first telephone company in the United States.
B) It was formed in order to boost competition between local phone companies.
C) For many years, AT&T was the only phone company in the United States.
D) It combined various telegraph and telephone companies into a single monopoly.
E) It was an example of a holding company.
Answer: E

American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) was one of the earliest and most prominent
examples of a holding company in the United States. As a holding company, AT&T
controlled numerous subsidiary companies involved in the telegraph and telephone industries,
allowing it to exert significant influence and control over telecommunications in the country.
AT&T's structure and dominance played a crucial role in shaping the development of the
telecommunications industry in the United States.
39. What was the significance of Thomas Edison’s laboratory at Menlo Park?
A) It was where Edison first invented the telegraph.
B) It was the first modern research laboratory.
C) It was where the telephone was finally perfected.
D) It was the site of the first power station in New York.
E) It was where Edison first sent a message over telephone wires.
Answer: B
Thomas Edison's laboratory at Menlo Park was widely regarded as the first modern research
laboratory in the United States. Here, Edison and his team of researchers conducted
numerous experiments and developed a wide range of inventions, including the phonograph,
the incandescent light bulb, and improvements to the telegraph. The Menlo Park laboratory
set a new standard for scientific research and innovation, laying the groundwork for future
advancements in technology and industry.
40. Which was NOT a consequence of the advent of advertising and large-scale retailing?
A) Chain stores spread across the country.
B) The demand for goods increased.
C) A new type of consumption united much of the country in a homogenous culture.
D) Most consumers felt threatened by new industrial goods.
E) Americans became aware of needs they didn’t realize they had.
Answer: D

The advent of advertising and large-scale retailing in the late 19th century led to various
consequences, including the spread of chain stores, increased demand for goods, the
emergence of a homogenous consumer culture, and the creation of new wants and needs
through effective marketing. However, it is unlikely that most consumers felt threatened by
new industrial goods; instead, they were often enticed by advertising to purchase these goods,
contributing to the growth of consumerism and the expansion of the market economy.
41. What does it mean to say that some professions became “feminized” in the late 1800s?
A) Women were much better at certain jobs, such as nursing, and began to dominate those
B) Men were no longer capable of doing certain jobs, since they were needed in industrial
jobs, so women took their places.
C) Only married women were allowed to work at certain jobs since unmarried women would
be leaving their jobs eventually to get married.
D) As more women took jobs in certain fields, men left them, and this lowered the status of
these professions.
E) Many women began to get work as lawyers, doctors, and ministers, and Americans began
to accept women in these kinds of work.
Answer: D
During the late 1800s, as industrialization expanded and created new job opportunities in
factories and other sectors, many men transitioned to industrial jobs, leaving vacancies in
traditional female-dominated professions such as teaching, nursing, and clerical work.
Consequently, more women entered these fields to fill the positions left by men. However, the
influx of women into these professions led to a decline in their status and prestige. As these
occupations became increasingly associated with women, they were often devalued in
society, leading to lower wages, fewer advancement opportunities, and less respect compared
to male-dominated professions. This phenomenon, known as "feminization," resulted in the
marginalization of women in the workforce and reinforced gender stereotypes regarding
suitable roles for men and women.

42. According to historian Stephan Thernstrom, what was the extent of American social
mobility in the early industrial era?
A) almost none
B) some, but not much
C) substantial, but limited
D) a great deal
E) almost 100%
Answer: C
Stephan Thernstrom's analysis suggests that while there was some degree of social mobility
in the early industrial era, it was not without its limitations. While individuals could move
between social classes to some extent, factors such as economic inequality, discrimination,
and structural barriers imposed constraints on the extent of upward mobility. Thus, while
social mobility was possible for some, it was not equally accessible to all members of society,
leading to a situation of substantial but limited mobility.
43. Which of the following best describes the early American Federation of Labor?
A) an alliance of industrial unions that tried to change the economic system
B) an alliance of industrial unions that tried to improve wages and working conditions
C) an alliance of craft unions that tried to change the economic system
D) an alliance of craft unions that tried to improve wages and working conditions
E) an alliance of craft unions that gave its workers a political voice
Answer: D
The early American Federation of Labor (AFL), under the leadership of Samuel Gompers,
primarily consisted of craft unions representing skilled workers in various trades. The AFL
focused on specific goals such as higher wages, shorter hours, and improved working
conditions for its members, rather than attempting to fundamentally change the economic

system. Its emphasis on practical, achievable objectives distinguished it from more radical
labor organizations of the time.
44. Which of the following best describes the Knights of Labor?
A) a union of workers aimed at uplifting, utopian reform
B) a union of producers aimed only at improving wages and working conditions
C) a federation of industrial unions aimed at making each man his own employer
D) a federation of craft unions aimed only at improving wages and working conditions
E) a union of producers determined to make each man his own employer
Answer: A
The Knights of Labor was a labor organization founded in the late 19th century with a broad
vision of social and economic reform. Unlike craft unions, the Knights of Labor sought to
unite all workers, regardless of skill level or trade, and advocated for sweeping changes such
as the eight-hour workday, workplace democracy, and cooperative ownership of industry.
Their platform included not only immediate improvements in wages and working conditions
but also broader social and economic transformation.
45. Why did Samuel Gompers oppose women in the American Federation of Labor?
A) He felt that women workers needed to be organized separately.
B) He believed that women should not work out of the home.
C) He feared that women would attempt to take leadership roles in the union.
D) He knew they could not afford the high initiation fees.
E) He said that women workers would lower the pay scales for men.
Answer: E
Samuel Gompers, as the leader of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), opposed the
inclusion of women in the union primarily out of concern that their participation would lead
to a decrease in wages for male workers. Gompers believed that employers would use the

availability of female labor to justify paying lower wages overall, thereby undermining the
gains made by male workers. This stance reflected prevalent attitudes toward gender roles
and labor market competition at the time.
46. What was a result of the Haymarket Square riot?
A) It brought public sympathy to the plight of the workers.
B) It strengthened the national labor movement.
C) It weakened the national labor movement.
D) It forced government regulation of unions.
E) It ended labor strife in Chicago.
Answer: C
The Haymarket Square riot of 1886 dealt a severe blow to the national labor movement in the
United States. Following the bombing and ensuing violence, public opinion turned against the
labor movement, associating it with radicalism and violence. The backlash led to increased
repression of labor organizations, including the suppression of strikes and the passage of antilabor legislation. The Haymarket incident contributed to a decline in union membership and
weakened the influence of organized labor for some time.
47. What was the result of the Homestead Strike?
A) It forced management to meet the workers’ demands.
B) It was resolved through negotiation and bargaining.
C) It had little interference from the government.
D) It brought national attention to the costs of industrialization.
E) It was peaceful compared to Haymarket.
Answer: D
The Homestead Strike of 1892, occurring at the Homestead Steel Works in Pennsylvania,
brought significant national attention to the labor struggles of industrial workers and the

impact of industrialization on labor relations. The violent clash between striking steelworkers
and Pinkerton detectives hired by management highlighted the tensions between labor and
capital in the United States. The strike and its aftermath sparked widespread debate and
scrutiny of industrial working conditions and labor rights, contributing to a broader public
awareness of the social costs of industrialization.
48. What does it mean to say that Americans spoke a “common language of consumption” by
the late nineteenth century?
A) People found that the only way they could become truly American was to buy goods made
in America
B) Americans were united in a common consumer culture, in which they all could buy the
same kinds of goods.
C) English became the universal and official language of commerce.
D) Because of the new types of work in the United States, most Americans were becoming
very wealthy and could afford consumer goods.
E) Only native-born Americans bought the new consumer goods, which broadened the gap
between immigrants and nonimmigrants in the United States.
Answer: B
By the late 19th century, the United States experienced the rise of a common consumer
culture characterized by mass production, advertising, and the availability of a wide range of
consumer goods. This "common language of consumption" refers to the shared experience of
Americans from diverse backgrounds purchasing and consuming similar products, reflecting
the growing influence of consumerism and standardized goods in American society.
49. Historian Herbert G. Gutman noted that industrialization transformed the “culture of
work.” Which of the following best explains this?
A) Industrialization dramatically increased leisure time.
B) Workers eagerly adopted new technology because it made their work easier.
C) The new technology required difficult and even demeaning changes to work patterns.

D) Low pay led to frequent worker resistance, especially “sit-down” strikes.
E) Many workers were able to rise from the bottom to the top of the social classes.
Answer: C
Industrialization brought about significant changes in the nature of work, often requiring
workers to adapt to new technologies and production methods. While technological
advancements increased efficiency in some cases, they also introduced challenges such as
longer hours, repetitive tasks, and deskilling of labor. Workers often faced harsh working
conditions, including low wages and unsafe environments, as industrialization prioritized
profit over worker well-being. As a result, the culture of work was transformed, with many
workers experiencing significant disruptions and hardships in their daily work routines.
50. What was one negative effect of industrialization in the United States in the late
nineteenth century?
A) People did not want to live in cities any longer.
B) Most immigrants were not allowed to work at the new industrial jobs.
C) Labor disputes led to the first labor unions.
D) There was a greater need for consumer goods than ever before.
E) There was now a growing disparity in income between the rich and poor.
Answer: E
Industrialization in the late nineteenth century contributed to a widening gap between the rich
and the poor in the United States. While industrialists amassed great wealth through the
expansion of their businesses, many workers faced low wages, long hours, and poor working
conditions. This economic inequality resulted in a disproportionate distribution of wealth,
with industrialists and business owners accumulating vast fortunes while workers struggled to
make ends meet. The growing income disparity between the affluent elite and the working
class became a significant social issue, fueling tensions and contributing to the emergence of
labor movements and calls for social reform.

1. What was the role of government in fostering economic growth in the late nineteenth
century? What growth-related problems did businesses encounter? How did businesses cope
with these problems?
Answer: In the late nineteenth century, the government played a significant role in fostering
economic growth through policies that promoted industrialization, expansion of infrastructure
like railroads, and protective tariffs that shielded domestic industries from foreign
competition. However, businesses encountered various growth-related problems such as
monopolistic practices, labor unrest, and financial instability. To cope with these challenges,
businesses implemented strategies like forming trusts or monopolies to consolidate control
over markets, employing anti-union tactics to suppress labor movements, and establishing
financial networks to stabilize markets and access capital.
2. What was the role of technology in economic growth in the late nineteenth century?
Answer: Technology played a pivotal role in driving economic growth in the late nineteenth
century by revolutionizing industrial processes, transportation, and communication.
Innovations such as the Bessemer process for steel production, the introduction of electricity,
and the mechanization of agriculture significantly increased productivity and efficiency in
various sectors. Additionally, advancements in transportation, including the expansion of
railroads and the development of steamships, facilitated the movement of goods and people
over long distances, thereby expanding markets and stimulating economic activity.
3. What was the cultural impact of advances in marketing?
Answer: Advances in marketing during the late nineteenth century had profound cultural
impacts, shaping consumer behavior, and societal norms. The rise of advertising, branding,
and mass media allowed businesses to create and disseminate persuasive messages promoting
consumption. This led to the emergence of consumer culture, where material possessions and
status symbols became increasingly important markers of social identity. Furthermore,
marketing techniques contributed to the standardization of tastes and preferences, influencing
notions of beauty, fashion, and lifestyle.
4. How did industrialization affect the working class? How did workers attempt to improve
their lot? To what extent did they succeed?

Answer: Industrialization had significant effects on the working class, including harsh
working conditions, low wages, long hours, and job insecurity. Workers faced exploitation by
employers who prioritized profit over labor rights and safety. In response, workers organized
labor unions to advocate for better wages, shorter hours, and improved working conditions.
Strikes, collective bargaining, and political activism were common tactics employed by labor
movements to address grievances and demand reforms. While workers achieved some gains
through legislation like the establishment of labor protections and the legalization of unions,
their successes were often met with resistance from employers and government intervention,
leading to ongoing struggles for economic justice and social equity.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands

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