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Chapter Fifteen
Secession And The Civil War
Multiple Choice
1. What caused seven states to secede from the Union before any shots had been fired?
A) the Compromise of 1850
B) John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry
C) the election of President Lincoln
D) the Emancipation Proclamation
E) Lincoln’s plans to free the slaves
Answer: C
The election of President Lincoln in 1860 was a pivotal event that triggered the secession of
seven Southern states. Lincoln's victory, without carrying a single Southern state, signaled to
Southern states that their interests would not be represented adequately in the federal
government, particularly concerning the issue of slavery.
2. Which of the following southern states was the first to secede from the Union?
A) Kentucky
B) Virginia
C) Alabama
D) South Carolina
E) North Carolina
Answer: D
South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union on December 20, 1860, following
Lincoln's election as president but before his inauguration. This was primarily due to
concerns about the potential threat to the institution of slavery.

3. Cooperationists believed that the slave states ________.
A) should act as a unit rather than secede one at a time
B) should remain in the Union
C) should form a new union with northern states
D) and the free states should simply find a way to get along
E) should cooperate with Britain and France
Answer: A
Cooperationists advocated for Southern states to act collectively rather than individually
seceding from the Union. They believed that by presenting a united front, the South could
better protect its interests, particularly regarding the institution of slavery.
4. The Confederate Constitution ________.
A) allowed the Atlantic slave trade to be reopened
B) abolished the three-fifths clause in determining congressional representation
C) prohibited free states from joining the new Confederacy
D) allowed the government to impose protective tariffs
E) required the government to protect slavery in the states and the territories
Answer: E
The Confederate Constitution explicitly protected slavery in both the existing states and any
territories that might be acquired in the future. It ensured the perpetuation and expansion of
slavery within the Confederacy.
5. The Crittenden Compromise would have ________.
A) extended the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific
B) abolished the Fugitive Slave Law

C) denied federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves
D) guaranteed slavery in all new territories
E) changed the Constitution to allow slavery to be abolished in all the states
Answer: A
The Crittenden Compromise proposed extending the Missouri Compromise line to the
Pacific, thereby allowing slavery in territories south of the line while prohibiting it north of
the line. This was an attempt to appease both Northern and Southern interests on the issue of
6. Where was the capital of the Confederacy located?
A) Montgomery, Alabama
B) Atlanta, Georgia
C) Richmond, Virginia
D) Savannah, Georgia
E) Memphis, Tennessee
Answer: C
Richmond, Virginia served as the capital of the Confederate States of America throughout
most of the Civil War, from 1861 until the fall of the Confederacy in 1865.
7. The first shots of the Civil War were fired at ________.
A) Fort Pickens
B) Fort Sumter
C) Manassas Junction
D) Fort Henry
E) Fort Donelson

Answer: B
The first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter, located in Charleston Harbor, South
Carolina, on April 12, 1861. This event marked the beginning of the armed conflict between
the Union and the Confederacy.
8. Which one of the following states was NOT part of the Confederacy?
A) Missouri
B) North Carolina
C) Texas
D) Tennessee
E) Florida
Answer: A
Missouri was a border state that remained in the Union during the Civil War, despite
significant pro-Confederate sympathies within its population.
9. Which was most common in determining whether a state supported the North or the South
in the Civil War?
A) ideology about slavery
B) opinions about Lincoln’s presidency and whether he was a legitimate leader
C) views on whether or not states had the right to secede from the Union
D) economic interests
E) religious convictions
Answer: C
The primary factor in determining whether a state supported the North or the South during
the Civil War was its stance on the issue of states' rights and secession. States that believed in

the right to secede from the Union tended to align with the Confederacy, while those who
opposed secession remained loyal to the Union.
10. As a war leader, Jefferson Davis ________.
A) focused more on policymaking than controlling the military
B) had an excellent relationship with his generals
C) lacked initiative and leadership on the home front
D) frequently used martial law to retain control
E) had the full support of southern governors
Answer: C
Jefferson Davis, as President of the Confederate States of America, faced criticism for his
management of the war effort. He struggled to maintain support both on the home front and
with military commanders, and his leadership was often characterized by indecision and a
lack of effective strategy.
11. In 1861, Lincoln declared martial law and suspended the _________ in the area between
Philadelphia and Washington.
A) Constitution
B) writ of habeas corpus
C) right to bear arms
D) freedom of speech protections
E) right to vote
Answer: B
Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus, a legal protection against unlawful detention, in
certain areas to maintain order and deal with potential threats to Union control during the
early stages of the Civil War.

12. The first major battle of the war, at Bull Run, resulted in ________.
A) a Union victory
B) a Confederate victory
C) a bloody stalemate
D) the capture of Washington, D. C.
E) Sherman’s capture of Savannah, Georgia
Answer: B
The first Battle of Bull Run (also known as the First Battle of Manassas) resulted in a
Confederate victory. It shattered Northern illusions of a swift and easy war and demonstrated
the South's determination to fight for independence.
13. The Union general who replaced Winfield Scott as commander of Union forces was
A) Irvin McDowell
B) Joseph Hooker
C) Robert E. Lee
D) William Tecumseh Sherman
E) George McClellan
Answer: E
George McClellan replaced Winfield Scott as the commander of Union forces. McClellan's
cautious approach and tendency to overestimate Confederate strength frustrated Lincoln,
although he initially enjoyed widespread popularity.
14. One of the bloodiest battles of the war was ________, which took place on September 17,
A) Shiloh

B) Bull Run
C) Vicksburg
D) Gettysburg
E) Antietam
Answer: E
The Battle of Antietam, fought near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, was one
of the bloodiest single days in American military history. It resulted in significant casualties
on both sides but was tactically inconclusive.
15. The Emancipation Proclamation freed ________.
A) all slaves throughout the United States
B) only slaves in the loyal border states
C) only slaves in the western territories
D) only slaves in the Confederate-controlled areas
E) only children born in the future to those who were then slaves
Answer: D
The Emancipation Proclamation, issued by Lincoln on January 1, 1863, declared that all
slaves in Confederate-controlled areas were to be set free. However, it did not immediately
free slaves in Union-controlled border states or areas already under Union control.
16. Approximately what percentage of the slave population gained freedom during the war
under the terms of the Emancipation Proclamation?
A) 1 percent
B) 10 percent
C) 25 percent
D) 60 percent

E) 100 percent
Answer: C
The Emancipation Proclamation technically freed only those slaves in Confederate-controlled
areas, estimated to be about 25% of the total slave population. It did not apply to slaves in
Union-held territory or border states.
17. During the Civil War, about ________ African Americans served in the Union Army.
A) 10,000
B) 100,000
C) 200,000
D) 500,000
E) 1,000,000
Answer: C
Approximately 200,000 African Americans served in the Union Army during the Civil War,
contributing significantly to the Northern war effort.
18. The Enrollment Act of March 1863 ________.
A) drafted white men but allowed them to hire a substitute or pay a fee to avoid service
B) drafted black males into the armed forces but denied them pay for their service
C) allowed black men to join the American armed forces for the first time
D) required that all military service be voluntary rather than mandatory
E) prohibited wealthy men from hiring substitutes or paying a fee to avoid service
Answer: A

The Enrollment Act of March 1863, also known as the Civil War Military Draft Act,
instituted conscription in the United States during the Civil War. It drafted white men into
military service but allowed them to hire substitutes or pay a fee to avoid serving.
19. Copperheads ________.
A) strongly supported the Emancipation Proclamation
B) supported the growth of the federal government
C) narrowly won victory in the 1864 election
D) were militant antiwar activists
E) were a group of wealthy industrialists who secretly financed the war
Answer: D
Copperheads were Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and advocated for a
negotiated settlement with the Confederacy. They were vocal critics of Lincoln and his
administration's war policies.
20. The Confederate 1863 victory at Chancellorsville cost the Confederacy the life of
A) Jefferson Davis
B) “Stonewall” Jackson
C) Robert E. Lee
D) William Tecumseh Sherman
E) Ulysses S. Grant
Answer: B
The Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863 was a significant triumph,
but it came at a high cost, including the loss of General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, one of
the Confederacy's most skilled and respected commanders.

21. The victory at ________ gave the Union control of the Mississippi River.
A) Gettysburg
B) Vicksburg
C) Richmond
D) Shiloh
E) Fredericksburg
Answer: B
The Union victory at Vicksburg, Mississippi, in July 1863 gave the Union control of the
Mississippi River, splitting the Confederacy in two and significantly impacting its ability to
sustain itself economically and militarily.
22. Lincoln’s opponent from the Democratic Party in the presidential election of 1864 was
A) Jefferson Davis
B) Stephen Douglas
C) John Bell
D) Ulysses S. Grant
E) George McClellan
Answer: E
George McClellan was Lincoln's opponent from the Democratic Party in the presidential
election of 1864. McClellan ran on a platform advocating for a negotiated settlement with the
Confederacy, but Lincoln won re-election.
23. Who surrendered to the Union Army at Appomattox Courthouse in April of 1865?
A) Confederate President Jefferson Davis
B) General Robert E. Lee

C) General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
D) General Ulysses S. Grant
E) Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens
Answer: B
General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in
Virginia on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the Civil War.
24. Approximately ________ soldiers died in the Civil War.
A) 50,000
B) 125,000
C) 620,000
D) 950,000
E) 1,500,000
Answer: C
It's estimated that approximately 620,000 soldiers died during the Civil War, making it the
deadliest conflict in American history.
25. What did the Sanitary Commission promote?
A) cleanliness, nutrition, and medical care in northern army camps
B) healthy drinking water in northern cities
C) improved sewer systems in southern urban centers
D) cleanliness in northern factories
E) nutrition and medical care for freed or escaped slaves
Answer: A

The Sanitary Commission was a volunteer organization that focused on promoting
cleanliness, nutrition, and medical care in Union army camps during the Civil War, aiming to
improve the health and well-being of soldiers.
26. After Lincoln’s election, which best describes what happened in the upper South?
A) States there immediately seceded.
B) These states were afraid to secede since they were so close to the Union forces.
C) States there did not think that Lincoln’s election alone was a good enough reason to
D) States there began taking steps to emancipate their slaves.
E) These states considered forming their own republic separate from the North and the Deep
Answer: C
The upper South, including states like Virginia and Tennessee, initially did not secede
immediately after Lincoln's election, as they did not view his election alone as a sufficient
reason to secede. They were more cautious and deliberative in their approach to the secession
27. Which best describes the South’s goal in seceding from the Union?
A) to create a slave empire based on reactionary ideals
B) to slowly get rid of slavery and exist as an independent nation
C) to recreate the government of the British Isles
D) to recreate the Union as it had been before the Republican Party
E) to form a powerful nation that would eventually take over the North
Answer: D

The primary goal of the South in seceding from the Union was to recreate the Union as it had
been before the rise of the Republican Party, which was perceived as a threat to the institution
of slavery and Southern interests.
28. Lincoln rejected the Crittenden compromise because _______.
A) he wanted to avoid war with the South
B) war was by then inevitable
C) extending the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific would solve the slavery issue
D) the firing on Fort Sumter had begun the war
E) he felt he had a mandate to oppose slavery
Answer: E
Lincoln rejected the Crittenden Compromise because he believed it would compromise the
principles of his party, which opposed the extension of slavery into new territories. He saw
slavery as morally wrong and felt a mandate to oppose its expansion.
29. Which statement best describes Lincoln’s early military policy toward the Confederacy?
A) He wanted to take the South back by force as soon as possible.
B) He wanted the South to be responsible for starting the war.
C) He wanted the North to take the first military action.
D) He wanted the North to refrain from military action regardless of southern actions.
E) He wanted to start the war with a decisive Union victory in a key southern city.
Answer: B
Lincoln's early military policy toward the Confederacy aimed to hold the South responsible
for starting the war by refraining from taking aggressive military action, thereby positioning
the North as acting defensively.
30. The attack on Fort Sumter ________.

A) was a prolonged and exceptionally bloody battle
B) weakened the secession movement
C) caused increasing opposition to the war in the North
D) united northern opinion against the rebellion
E) was the first southern defeat of the war
Answer: D
The attack on Fort Sumter, while not a prolonged battle, was a significant event that united
northern opinion against the rebellion. It was viewed as an act of aggression and defiance
against the authority of the federal government, leading to increased support for war in the
31. In the beginning, the Civil War was a ________.
A) struggle to free the slaves
B) struggle to preserve the Union
C) personal struggle between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis
D) struggle to preserve “King Cotton”
E) struggle over control of new and future territories
Answer: B
The primary goal of the Union at the outset of the Civil War was to preserve the Union and
prevent the secession of Southern states. While issues surrounding slavery played a
significant role in the conflict, the initial impetus for the war was the preservation of the
United States as a single nation.
32. Which statement best describes the Confederate constitution?
A) It was a loose collection of ideas rather than a formally drafted document.
B) It was very similar to the U.S. Constitution.

C) It was based on the British Constitution.
D) It was a subject of ongoing debate throughout the war.
E) It represented the desires of reactionary extremists in the South.
Answer: B
The Confederate Constitution closely resembled the United States Constitution, with some
notable differences, particularly regarding the protection of slavery and the rights of
individual states.
33. To secure the necessary troops for the war, both the North and the South ________.
A) resorted to a draft
B) forbade wealthy men to buy exemptions
C) allowed women to join combat units
D) hired mercenaries from Europe
E) used “press gangs,” coercion, and blackmail to obtain soldiers
Answer: A
Both the Union and the Confederacy resorted to conscription, or a draft, to secure the
necessary troops for the war effort. This was due to the increasing demand for manpower as
the conflict dragged on.
34. Which statement best describes the disparity in resources between the North and the
South during the Civil War?
A) The North had more factories and industrial workers than the South.
B) The value of industrial production was higher in the South.
C) The South had more textiles and firearms factories.
D) The South had more miles of railroad tracks than the North.
E) The North was unable to access its immigrant population for manpower.

Answer: A
The North had a significant advantage in terms of industrial capacity, with more factories and
a larger workforce than the South. This allowed the Union to produce and supply its armies
more effectively than the Confederacy.
35. During the war, the Confederate economy ________.
A) managed to produce a surplus of industrial goods
B) easily evaded the effects of the northern blockade
C) suffered from severe inflation
D) actually benefited from the Emancipation Proclamation
E) boomed, as most do during a war
Answer: C
The Confederate economy suffered from severe inflation during the Civil War, as the
government printed large amounts of paper money to finance the war effort, leading to a
rapid increase in prices for goods and services.
36. Why was Lincoln angry with General McClellan after the battle at Antietam?
A) McClellan retreated while he still had a chance to win the battle.
B) McClellan killed Robert E. Lee rather than taking him prisoner.
C) McClellan lost the battle, despite having a clear advantage in the field.
D) McClellan lost too many men in the battle, which weakened the Union army.
E) McClellan was slow to pursue Robert E. Lee after the battle and let Lee escape.
Answer: E

Lincoln was frustrated with General McClellan's failure to pursue and decisively defeat
General Lee's retreating Confederate army after the Battle of Antietam, believing that
McClellan missed an opportunity to deliver a decisive blow to the Confederacy.
37. Why did northern sentiment to free the slaves increase as the war dragged on?
A) People began to realize that slavery was immoral.
B) People recognized that emancipation could be used as a weapon against the South’s
economic and social systems.
C) Congress thought it would be easier to reintegrate the southern states into the Union if
slavery were abolished.
D) Hatred for the South and the Confederacy had increased.
E) Strategists thought that a northern emancipation law might goad southern military leaders
into making tactical mistakes.
Answer: B
As the war progressed and the Northern public became increasingly aware of the economic
and social underpinnings of the Confederacy's reliance on slavery, there was a growing
recognition that emancipation could weaken the South's ability to sustain the war effort.
38. How did the Emancipation Proclamation change how each side viewed the war?
A) It made the South realize that slavery was not a sustainable system.
B) It allowed both sides to focus exclusively on fighting.
C) It made the South realize that it should re-enter the United States and fight for slavery in
D) It committed the North to abolishing slavery as a major aim of the war.
E) It made the South realize that secession had not been necessary.
Answer: D

The Emancipation Proclamation, by committing the North to abolishing slavery as a major
aim of the war, transformed the conflict into a moral crusade against slavery. It also
undermined the Confederacy's economic and social foundations by offering freedom to
enslaved individuals in Confederate-held territories.
39. African-American soldiers did all of the following during the Civil War EXCEPT
A) serve in segregated units under white officers
B) make a vital contribution to the North’s victory
C) serve in integrated units under black officers
D) participate disproportionately in heavy labor behind the lines
E) accept lower pay initially than their white counterparts
Answer: C
African-American soldiers predominantly served in segregated units under white officers
during the Civil War. Integration of units under black officers did not occur until much later
in American military history.
40. During the war, the North ________.
A) was plagued by the lack of manufactured goods
B) suffered from a weak railroad system
C) was plagued by a series of violent anti-draft riots
D) finally overcame the problem of anti-African-American racism
E) slowly began to starve
Answer: C
The North experienced a series of violent anti-draft riots, particularly in major cities like New
York City, where residents were angered by conscription and exemptions for the wealthy.

These riots underscored the deep divisions and social tensions within Northern society during
the Civil War.
41. What caused the New York riot of July 1863?
A) a combination of racial prejudice and opposition to the draft
B) a combination of fervent abolitionism and religious zeal
C) a strong anti-immigrant sentiment
D) economic desperation
E) southern agitators who were trying to stir up trouble
Answer: A
The New York Draft Riots of July 1863 were sparked by a combination of racial prejudice,
particularly against African Americans, and opposition to the draft imposed by the Union
Army during the Civil War. The riots were fueled by resentment among working-class whites
who feared job competition from freed slaves.
42. Which identifies the main reason for Lincoln’s victory in the 1864 presidential campaign?
A) The Democratic Party failed to offer a strong candidate.
B) Northern morale was high throughout the war and Lincoln had few critics.
C) Heavy northern losses rallied the Republican Party behind him.
D) A string of northern military victories rallied the Republican Party behind Lincoln.
E) Lincoln ran unopposed.
Answer: D
Lincoln's victory in the 1864 presidential campaign was primarily due to a string of
significant Union military victories, such as the capture of Atlanta by General William T.
Sherman, which bolstered Northern morale and rallied support behind Lincoln's leadership.
43. Which statement best characterizes Sherman’s march through Georgia?

A) Sherman defied Lincoln by refusing to implement a scorched-earth policy.
B) Sherman destroyed almost anything of military or economic value in his path.
C) Sherman destroyed cities, but was careful to do little damage to infrastructure.
D) Sherman avoided major population centers in order to travel as quickly as possible.
E) Sherman was careful not to alienate the local population.
Answer: B
Sherman's march through Georgia, known as the "March to the Sea," involved the deliberate
destruction of military targets, infrastructure, and economic resources in his path. Sherman's
goal was to cripple the South's ability to wage war and break the will of the Confederate
44. How did life change for women as a result of the Civil War?
A) Men traumatized from the war were less choosy about marriage.
B) Northern women pushed the boundaries of their traditional roles.
C) Women were forced into more subservient roles than they had previously occupied.
D) Traditional gender inequalities were destroyed and women were seen as equals.
E) Women gained the right to vote during the post-war period.
Answer: B
The Civil War prompted significant changes in women's roles, particularly in the North,
where women took on new responsibilities in the absence of men who had gone off to fight.
Many women entered the workforce, took on leadership roles in community organizations,
and contributed to the war effort through volunteer work.
45. Which statement best describes the situation for women in the South after the Civil War?
A) The South remained more conservative about women’s role in the society than the North.
B) The South became more liberal about women’s role in the society than the North.

C) The situation for women in southern society did not change as a result of the war.
D) Women took the lead in criticizing the Confederate cause and repairing the relationship
with the North.
E) Southern women became less active in the economy and the society as a result of the war.
Answer: A
After the Civil War, the South remained more conservative regarding women's roles in
society compared to the North. Traditional gender roles persisted, and there were limited
opportunities for women to expand their roles beyond the domestic sphere.
46. After the war, many working-class northern whites were ________.
A) eyeing unoccupied agricultural land in the South and considering taking up farming
B) fearful that the abolition of slavery would have negative effects on workers in general
C) hopeful that the crusade against slavery could broaden into a movement to help workers in
D) unemployed since the Confederate army had destroyed or disrupted so many northern
E) feeling fierce anti-immigrant sentiments since so few immigrants had supported the Union
Answer: C
After the Civil War, many working-class northern whites were hopeful that the momentum
generated by the abolition of slavery would lead to broader social reforms, including
improvements in workers' rights and conditions.
47. As a result of the war, how did the American society change?
A) The United States became a better place for large corporations.
B) The United States became more reliant on individuals and small producers for economic

C) The United States began to emulate nostalgic representations of life in the Old South.
D) The United States became more socialistic, and began to address the needs of the poor and
the disadvantaged.
E) The United States became militantly anti-corporation.
Answer: A
The Civil War facilitated the growth of large corporations in the United States, particularly in
industries related to war production, transportation, and finance. This period marked the
beginning of the rise of industrial capitalism in America.
48. Which identifies a key reason for the South’s defeat in the Civil War?
A) The Confederacy lacked a single competent general to lead its troops.
B) Southern planters were reluctant to start growing food crops instead of cash crops.
C) Confederate armies lacked the conviction to fight a prolonged war with the North.
D) The South was too industrialized to adapt well to a wartime economy.
E) The northern troops were better individual soldiers than Confederate troops.
Answer: B
Southern reliance on cash crops such as cotton before and during the Civil War led to a
reluctance among Southern planters to switch to food crop production. This resulted in
shortages of food and other essential supplies for the Confederate army and civilian
population, contributing to the South's eventual defeat.
49. Why did Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina join the Confederacy only
after the attack at Fort Sumter?
A) When given a choice of whether to fight for or against states that had already seceded,
those states sided with the Confederacy.
B) When given a chance to join the Confederacy, those states joined because they thought
they could convince the South to reunite with the North.

C) When given a chance to join the Confederacy, those states joined because they thought it
would enhance their economic situation.
D) When given a chance to join the Confederacy, those states joined because they thought
they could convince the other states to abolish slavery.
E) When given a chance to join the Confederacy, those states joined because they thought
they could convince the North to accept secession.
Answer: A
After the attack on Fort Sumter, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded
from the Union and joined the Confederacy. They chose to side with the Confederate states
that had already seceded rather than remaining loyal to the Union.
50. How did the role of government change as a result of the Civil War?
A) More power was given to local governments instead of the state and federal levels.
B) The federal government became less involved in economic policy.
C) All constitutional restrictions on federal government were dissolved.
D) The federal government became recognized as supreme over state governments.
E) State governments were confirmed as being supreme over the federal government.
Answer: D
The Civil War led to a significant increase in the power and authority of the federal
government over state governments. This shift was primarily driven by the need for a
centralized authority to coordinate military efforts and manage the wartime economy.
1. What arguments did secessionists develop to justify leaving the Union? What problems did
secession create for both Lincoln’s administrations?
Answer: Secessionists justified leaving the Union primarily on the grounds of states' rights,
asserting that states had voluntarily joined the Union and therefore could voluntarily leave it

if they felt their rights were being infringed upon. They argued that the federal government's
growing power threatened the sovereignty of individual states, particularly regarding issues
such as slavery and tariffs. Secession created significant challenges for both of Lincoln's
administrations. It plunged the nation into a devastating civil war, which required immense
resources and leadership to navigate. Additionally, it posed a threat to the stability and
integrity of the United States, challenging Lincoln's ability to preserve the Union and uphold
the Constitution.
2. Compare the adjustments the North and South made to meet the demands of total war.
What factors gave the North the advantage?
Answer: Both the North and the South made significant adjustments to meet the demands of
total war, including mobilizing their economies, implementing conscription, and utilizing
new military technologies. However, the North had several advantages that contributed to its
ability to sustain the war effort. Economically, the North had a more diversified economy
with greater industrial capacity, allowing it to produce weapons, ammunition, and supplies at
a much higher rate than the agrarian South. The North also had superior transportation
infrastructure, which facilitated the movement of troops and supplies. Furthermore, the North
had a larger population base, providing a larger pool of manpower for its armies and labor
force for its industries. These factors combined gave the North a significant advantage in
terms of resources and logistical capabilities.
3. Compare Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis as wartime leaders. To what extent were
these differences due to differing conditions in the Union and the Confederacy?
Answer: Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis both faced the immense challenges of leading
their respective nations through a devastating civil war. However, they approached leadership
in distinct ways shaped by the differing conditions in the Union and the Confederacy. Lincoln
demonstrated exceptional political skill, adeptly navigating the complexities of maintaining
unity in a fractured nation while simultaneously leading the Union war effort. He utilized his
powers as commander-in-chief and his mastery of public opinion to rally support for the war
and implement crucial policies such as emancipation. Davis, on the other hand, struggled to
maintain cohesion among Confederate states and grapple with internal divisions throughout
the war. The Confederacy's emphasis on states' rights limited Davis's authority and hindered
his ability to enforce central control over various aspects of the war effort. Thus, while both

leaders faced significant challenges, Lincoln's leadership was more effective due to the
greater unity and resources available to him in the Union.
4. Evaluate the overall impact of emancipation on the outcome of the war.
Answer: Emancipation had a profound impact on the outcome of the Civil War, both
strategically and morally. Strategically, emancipation altered the nature of the conflict by
transforming it into a war for freedom and human rights. It deprived the Confederacy of its
economic foundation by disrupting the institution of slavery and undermining the labor force
that sustained the Southern economy. Emancipation also bolstered the Union cause by
attracting support from abolitionists, free African Americans, and European powers
sympathetic to the abolitionist cause. Morally, emancipation affirmed the Union's
commitment to the principles of liberty and equality enshrined in the Declaration of
Independence. While emancipation alone did not guarantee victory for the Union, it
significantly weakened the Confederacy and contributed to the ultimate Union triumph.

Test Bank for The American Story
Robert A. Divine, T. H. Breen, R. Hal Williams, Ariela J. Gross, H. W. Brands

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