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This Document Contains Chapters 7 to 9 Chapter 7 – After the Ice: Before 10000 B.C. to Modern Times Multiple Choice Questions 1. The time period from 10,000 years ago to the present is called the __________. A. Miocene B. Pleistocene C. Eocene D. Holocene Answer: D 2. Which of the following changed in the Holocene? A. climate B. volcanic gas distribution due to a change in the pattern of eruptions C. global continent distribution D. oceanic faunal distribution Answer: A 3. By 10000 B.C. it is estimated that the world’s population was approximately __________. A. 2.5 million B. 5 million C. 8.5 million D. 10 million Answer: C 4. Use of the bow and arrow spread throughout the Old World by __________. A. 11,000 B.C. B. 9,000 B.C. C. 7,000 B.C. D. 5,000 B.C. Answer: B 5. Hunting and gathering intensified by __________. A. exploiting grain resources B. downsizing stone tools and toolkit specialization C. toolkit generalization D. remarkable technological adaptations for the time Answer: B 6. __________ enabled sedentary hunter-gatherers to cope with food shortages. A. Food storage B. Moving C. Stealing from other groups D. Cultivation Answer: A 7. Societies in areas rich and diverse in food resources sometimes achieved __________. A. social equality B. social complexity C. small population sizes D. greater mobility Answer: B 8. Initial investigations of __________ concluded it was occupied in the winter, but recent investigations show that this site was occupied in the spring and summer. A. Maglemose B. Guilá Naquitz C. Kebara D. Star Carr Answer: D 9. Which is NOT a subdivision of northern Mesolithic culture? A. Bølling-Allerød B. Maglemose C. Kongemose D. Ertebølle Answer: A 10. Cemeteries dating to the __________ period in Scandinavia show that some individuals met violent deaths, and there is even potential evidence of cannibalism. A. Bolling-Allerod B. Maglemose C. Kongemose D. Ertebolle Answer: D 11. Conditions for complex hunter-gatherer societies include everything EXCEPT __________. A. limited population movement B. abundant and predictable food resources C. higher than normal population D. ability to intensify food exploitation Answer: C 12. Around 11000 B.C. the __________ were beginning to process wild cereal grains. They were already adapting to cereal crops when climatic conditions became drier around 9000 B.C. A. Kebarans B. Natufians C. Maglemoseans D. Neanderthals Answer: B 13. Which period of post-Ice Age times in Europe preceded the introduction of farming? A. Neolithic B. Paleolithic C. Mesolithic D. Mesopotamia Answer: C 14. An ungulate is a __________. A. hoofed mammal, such as deer B. cereal crop C. type of stone tool D. culture in the eastern Mediterranean Answer: A 15. The ability of the world’s many environments to support animals and people is its __________. A. breathing room B. upper limits C. carrying capacity D. symbiotic relationship Answer: C 16. A transitional zone between different environments is a(n) __________. A. margin B. ecotone C. ecozone D. mast Answer: B 17. What is a label that describes the region of the eastern Mediterranean coastline and immediate hinterland? A. Mousterian B. Dryas C. Acheulian D. Levant Answer: D 18. __________ means to be around or near glaciers. A. Periglacial B. Postglacial C. Preglacial D. Ambiglacial Answer: A 19. Permanent settlement at one location for all, or sometimes just most, of the year and over more than one year is termed __________. A. stationary B. sedentism C. immobile D. fixed Answer: B 20. In 13000 B.C., small and highly mobile hunter-gatherer bands inhabited the Levant and are subsumed under the general cultural name of __________. A. Kebaran B. Mousterian C. Tabun D. Natufian Answer: A Essay Questions 21. Discuss the evidence used by recent archaeologists to conclude that Star Carr was occupied in the spring and summer instead of the winter as was first thought. Answer: Star Carr, located in North Yorkshire, UK, is a significant archaeological site dating back to the Mesolithic period (around 9000-8000 BCE). Initially, it was believed that Star Carr was primarily occupied during the winter months due to the discovery of large numbers of red deer antler headdresses and the presence of wooden platforms that were interpreted as being used for hunting in marshy areas during winter. However, recent archaeological investigations and advancements in analytical techniques have provided evidence suggesting that Star Carr was occupied during the spring and summer months instead. Here are some key pieces of evidence supporting this conclusion: 1. Seasonal Faunal Analysis: • Analysis of animal bones found at Star Carr has shown a dominance of juvenile red deer remains. This suggests that the red deer were hunted during the spring and early summer when the young animals were more vulnerable and easier to catch. • The presence of other seasonal species and absence of certain winter-adapted animals further support the idea of occupation during the warmer months. 2. Pollen Analysis: • Pollen analysis of sediment cores from the site provides insights into the vegetation and landscape during different seasons. Pollen profiles indicate a diverse range of plants, including those associated with spring and summer growth. • The absence of certain pollen types indicative of winter conditions supports the interpretation that Star Carr was not occupied during the coldest months of the year. 3. Isotopic Analysis: • Isotopic analysis of animal bones and human remains can provide information about diet and the timing of occupation. Analysis of nitrogen isotopes in human bones from Star Carr suggests a diet rich in freshwater fish, which are more abundant in lakes during the warmer months. • This dietary evidence aligns with the hypothesis that the site was occupied when fishing was more productive, typically in spring and summer. 4. Archaeological Features: • Detailed examination of the wooden platforms and structures at Star Carr has revealed evidence of activities related to fishing, such as the presence of fishing tackle and remains of freshwater fish. • These features suggest that the inhabitants were utilizing the lake and its resources during periods of higher biological productivity, which typically occur in spring and summer. 5. Environmental Reconstruction: • Reconstruction of past environmental conditions and climate using sediment analysis and other methods supports the idea that Star Carr was situated in a relatively open landscape with access to seasonal resources such as plants, animals, and fish during the warmer months. Overall, the combination of faunal analysis, pollen studies, isotopic analysis, and examination of archaeological features has led archaeologists to conclude that Star Carr was occupied during the spring and summer, rather than primarily during the winter as previously thought. This revised understanding provides deeper insights into the seasonal adaptations and lifeways of Mesolithic communities in the region. 22. Discuss how the Natufians’ utilization of wild cereal grains helped them adapt to a reliance on cereal crops. Answer: The Natufians were a culture that emerged in the Levant (modern-day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria) around 12,000 years ago, during the late Epipaleolithic period. They are significant in the study of human history because they represent one of the earliest societies to transition from a purely hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one that involved the deliberate cultivation and management of wild cereal grains. This transition laid the groundwork for the eventual development of agriculture. Utilization of Wild Cereal Grains by the Natufians: 1. Collection and Processing: • Gathering Wild Cereals: The Natufians were skilled foragers who exploited the rich diversity of wild plant resources in the Mediterranean climate of the Levant. They specifically targeted wild cereal grasses such as wild wheat (e.g., Triticum boeoticum) and barley (e.g., Hordeum spontaneum) that grew abundantly in the region. • Processing Techniques: They developed techniques to efficiently harvest and process these wild cereals. This included using grinding stones to crush the seeds into flour and possibly using techniques to separate the edible parts from the inedible husks. 2. Nutritional Benefits: • Dietary Contribution: Incorporating wild cereals into their diet provided the Natufians with a reliable and nutritious food source. Cereals are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and essential nutrients, which helped support their dietary needs, especially during periods when other food sources might have been scarce. • Caloric Efficiency: Cereal grains provide a higher caloric yield per unit of land compared to many wild plants, making them an attractive resource for increasing food security. 3. Socioeconomic Implications: • Sedentism and Settlement Patterns: The exploitation of wild cereals likely contributed to a more settled lifestyle among the Natufians. The availability of reliable food sources allowed them to establish semi-permanent or permanent settlements rather than constantly moving in search of food. • Social Organization: The ability to store surplus food, made possible by the exploitation of cereals, may have led to the development of social hierarchies and specialized labor roles within Natufian communities. 4. Cultural and Technological Developments: • Innovation and Technology: The practice of harvesting and processing wild cereals required innovation and the development of specialized tools and techniques, such as sickles for harvesting and grinding stones for processing. • Cultural Adaptation: The adoption of cereal exploitation represented a significant cultural adaptation, demonstrating the Natufians' ability to adapt and exploit their environment in new ways. 5. Transition to Agriculture: • The Natufians' reliance on wild cereals laid the foundation for the subsequent transition to agriculture. Over time, through selective harvesting, cultivation, and domestication, these wild cereal species were gradually transformed into domesticated crops, marking the beginning of agriculture in the region. In conclusion, the Natufians' utilization of wild cereal grains played a crucial role in their adaptation to a more settled lifestyle and their eventual transition to agriculture. By exploiting these abundant resources, they ensured a stable food supply, which supported population growth, social complexity, and technological innovation in the ancient Levant. This shift from hunting and gathering to cereal exploitation was a pivotal step in human history, leading to the development of agriculture and permanently altering the trajectory of human societies worldwide. 23. Describe the Mesolithic in Scandinavia. What were its cultural periods and what were major changes associated with each period? Answer: The Mesolithic period in Scandinavia spanned roughly from around 9500 BCE to 4000 BCE, following the end of the Ice Age and preceding the Neolithic period marked by the advent of agriculture. This period was characterized by significant environmental changes and cultural adaptations as human populations adjusted to post-glacial landscapes. The Mesolithic in Scandinavia is divided into several cultural periods, each associated with distinct technological, social, and environmental developments: 1. Early Mesolithic (9500-7500 BCE) • Environment: During the Early Mesolithic, Scandinavia was still undergoing post-glacial rebound, with rising sea levels and changes in vegetation patterns as the ice retreated. • Cultural Characteristics: • Early Mesolithic cultures were characterized by mobile hunter-gatherer societies. • Use of microlithic stone tools became prominent, such as small geometric-shaped flint tools used in composite tools like arrows and harpoons. • Fishing and hunting of terrestrial game (e.g., elk, deer, wild boar) were important subsistence strategies. 2. Middle Mesolithic (7500-6000 BCE) • Environment: Continuation of post-glacial environmental changes with stabilization of sea levels and further development of forested landscapes. • Cultural Characteristics: • Increased use of watercraft, evidenced by the remains of dugout canoes and fishing gear. • Expansion of tool kit to include more specialized implements for fishing and hunting. • Cultural diversity and regional variations in tool traditions and subsistence strategies. 3. Late Mesolithic (6000-4000 BCE) • Environment: Climate continued to warm, resulting in the spread of mixed deciduous forests across Scandinavia. • Cultural Characteristics: • Intensification of fishing activities, with evidence of more sophisticated fishing technologies and techniques. • Development of semi-permanent or seasonal settlements, reflected in the construction of more substantial dwellings or pit houses. • Increasing regional differentiation in material culture and subsistence practices, possibly indicating the emergence of distinct cultural groups. Major Changes Associated with Each Period: • Technological Advances: Across the Mesolithic periods, there was a progressive refinement in stone tool technology, including the development of microlithic tools and specialized implements for fishing, hunting, and woodworking. • Subsistence Strategies: Mesolithic societies in Scandinavia relied heavily on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants. Over time, there was a trend towards greater exploitation of marine resources and a shift from generalized foraging to more specialized strategies. • Social Organization: Early Mesolithic groups were likely small, mobile bands with flexible social structures. By the Late Mesolithic, there is evidence of more complex social organization and the development of semi-permanent settlements, suggesting increased social cohesion and possibly emerging social hierarchies. • Cultural Diversity: Regional variations in material culture, subsistence practices, and settlement patterns indicate that Mesolithic societies in Scandinavia were diverse and adapted to local environmental conditions and resource availability. In summary, the Mesolithic period in Scandinavia was a time of dynamic cultural and environmental change. It saw the adaptation of human populations to post-glacial landscapes, the development of sophisticated stone tool technologies, increasing reliance on fishing, and the emergence of more settled patterns of living. These developments laid the groundwork for the transition to Neolithic lifestyles and the eventual adoption of agriculture in the region. Chapter 8 – Agriculture and Animal Domestication Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the models to explain the origins of agriculture? A. population pressure B. climatic change C. domestication of animals D. ecological theories Answer: C 2. For the site of Guilá Naquitz, computer modelling was used to determine the strategy people used to gather wild plants and how this changed when they began planting. It was found that __________. A. their strategies were always the same B. their strategies varied based on the climate C. once they figured out how to plant, they abandoned foraging all together D. the computer model did not correspond with the archaeological data Answer: B 3. The model that can explain the development of agriculture throughout the world is __________. A. population pressure B. influential leaders C. opportunistic foraging D. a combination of models Answer: D 4. Agriculture was not developed in __________ due to their extensive, reliable natural resources. A. Southern California and the Pacific Northwest B. Mesoamerica C. southern Africa D. Europe Answer: A 5. People in tropical areas became dependent upon agriculture __________ other regions of the world. A. before B. after C. at the same time as D. without knowledge of Answer: B 6. Accelerator mass spectrometry is used to date an object __________. A. using large quantities (handfuls) B. using small quantities (a single seed) C. within 10 years of the actual date D. by counting decay events (beta counts) Answer: B 7. Consequences of food production include everything EXCEPT __________. A. healthier lifestyle B. disease C. land ownership D. more sedentarism Answer: A 8. Compared to hunter-gatherers, agriculturists __________. A. are less vulnerable to famine B. are less vulnerable to gastrointestinal infections C. are less vulnerable to epidemics D. have a decline in quality and perhaps length of life Answer: D 9. One of the initial benefits of domesticating animals was __________. A. obtaining milk for drinking and cheese B. having a reliable source of meat C. using them as draught animals D. using their skins for clothing Answer: B 10. Domesticated animals __________. A. are no different from their wild counterparts B. are selected based on their characteristics useful to humans C. have the same herd structure (sex and age) as wild animals D. are always larger than wild animals Answer: B 11. Many African agricultural peoples turned to __________ in lean years. A. hunting B. gathering C. hunting and gathering D. animal domestication Answer: C 12. Human induced evolution could have changed wheat and barley to have conservative seed dispersal in __________. A. 5 to 15 years B. 20 to 30 years C. 50 to 60 years D. 100 to 150 years Answer: B 13. Paleopathology is the study of __________. A. the domestication of animals B. dating ancient artifacts C. ancient disease D. seeds Answer: C 14. Swidden agriculture is __________. A. also known as slash-and-burn agriculture B. a method of agriculture where the natural vegetation is plowed under and then the land left fallow C. a hunter-gatherer technique for savanna regeneration D. used only in hardwood forests Answer: A 15. A rachis is __________. A. a tool used to cultivate grain B. a tool similar to a plow C. the joint that attaches a seed to its stem D. the ancestor to modern-day cattle Answer: D 16. According to botanists, wild populations that were the source of the first domesticated wheat crops were located in __________. A. Mesoamerica B. Turkey C. Germany D. Scandinavia Answer: B 17. Technological advances associated with early plant and animal domestication include everything EXCEPT __________. A. permanent houses B. methods of food and water storage C. pottery D. advanced weaponry Answer: D 18. Modern theories about the origins of food production revolve around __________ models, which combine many factors. A. multiple B. compound C. multivariate D. simple Answer: C 19. Most theories about the origins of food production __________. A. are not easy to test B. are easy to test and dismiss C. do not take into account population pressure as a cause for domestication D. ignore what indigenous plants grew in the area of question Answer: A 20. One suggestion as to why agriculture did not occur earlier is because __________. A. people did not know plants were useable resources B. people did not have the technology to process plants C. humans were not living in areas where domesticated plants were located D. the world’s population was not large enough to limit mobility Answer: D Essay Questions 21. List and define three of the five hypotheses of the origins of agriculture and the domestication of animals. Answer: The origins of agriculture and the domestication of animals are complex processes that have been studied through various hypotheses to understand how and why they occurred. Here are three of the hypotheses that have been proposed: 1. Oasis Hypothesis: • Definition: The Oasis Hypothesis suggests that during the Pleistocene epoch, climatic changes led to the retreat of ice sheets and the drying of some areas, creating isolated patches of fertile land (oases) in arid regions. • Explanation: As humans followed and hunted wild game, they would have been attracted to these oases, where water and edible plants were more abundant and reliable. Over time, they would have deliberately cultivated and managed these plants, leading to the development of agriculture. • Key Points: This hypothesis emphasizes the role of environmental factors (specifically the availability of water in oases) in encouraging early humans to settle and begin plant cultivation. 2. Population Pressure Hypothesis: • Definition: The Population Pressure Hypothesis posits that increasing human populations and dwindling resources during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene periods forced societies to adopt new strategies for food procurement and production. • Explanation: As human populations grew, there would have been greater pressure on natural resources such as wild game, fruits, and seeds. This pressure could have incentivized humans to begin deliberately cultivating plants and domesticating animals as a means to ensure a stable and predictable food supply. • Key Points: This hypothesis highlights socio-economic factors (population growth and resource scarcity) as driving forces behind the transition to agriculture. 3. Coevolutionary Hypothesis: • Definition: The Coevolutionary Hypothesis proposes that agriculture and animal domestication were not deliberate decisions but emerged as part of a broader coevolutionary process involving humans, plants, and animals. • Explanation: According to this hypothesis, early human interactions with certain plants and animals (such as the tendency to gather and manage certain plant species or to exploit certain animal behaviors) led to mutual adaptations over time. This coevolution eventually resulted in domestication and the development of agriculture. • Key Points: The Coevolutionary Hypothesis emphasizes a gradual and reciprocal process of mutual adaptation between humans and potential domesticates, driven by ecological interactions rather than deliberate human agency. These hypotheses provide different perspectives on the complex processes that led to the origins of agriculture and animal domestication. They reflect the diverse factors—environmental, demographic, and ecological—that may have played crucial roles in these transformative developments in human history. 22. List five consequences of food production. Answer: The transition from food gathering to food production (agriculture) has had profound consequences for human societies and the environment. Here are five significant consequences of food production: 1. Surplus Food Production: • Definition: Agriculture allows for the production of surplus food beyond immediate needs, leading to food storage and accumulation. • Consequence: Surplus food enables population growth and the development of non-food producing specialists (e.g., craftsmen, leaders), leading to more complex societies and urbanization. 2. Sedentism and Settlements: • Definition: Agriculture encourages permanent or semi-permanent settlement as opposed to nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles. • Consequence: Sedentary communities develop, leading to the establishment of villages, towns, and eventually cities. This fosters social organization, governance structures, and cultural developments. 3. Changes in Social Structure: • Definition: Agriculture often leads to changes in social hierarchies and division of labor. • Consequence: Specialization emerges as people can focus on non-food-producing activities (e.g., artisans, traders). Social stratification may develop, with elites emerging who control surplus production and resources. 4. Environmental Impact: • Definition: Agriculture alters the natural environment through deforestation, irrigation, soil erosion, and changes in biodiversity. • Consequence: Environmental degradation can occur, affecting ecosystems, water resources, and soil quality. Agriculture's impact on land use can lead to habitat loss and contribute to climate change through deforestation and methane emissions. 5. Disease Transmission: • Definition: Agriculture can lead to increased disease transmission due to closer contact between humans, animals, and pathogens. • Consequence: Zoonotic diseases (those transmitted from animals to humans) become more prevalent. Population density in settlements can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, leading to epidemics and pandemics. These consequences illustrate the transformative effects of agriculture on human societies, both positive (such as increased food security and population growth) and negative (such as environmental degradation and disease transmission). Understanding these consequences is crucial for assessing the long-term sustainability and impacts of agricultural practices on societies and ecosystems. 23. Explain why some areas of the world did not adopt agriculture as a way of life. For those people who did adopt agriculture, why did it take so long for it to occur? Answer: The adoption of agriculture as a way of life was not universal across the world, and several factors contributed to why some regions did not adopt agriculture or did so relatively late compared to others. Similarly, for those societies that did eventually adopt agriculture, several reasons explain why this transition took considerable time: Why Some Areas Did Not Adopt Agriculture: 1. Environmental Factors: • Unsuitable Climate or Soil: Some regions lacked the necessary conditions (e.g., fertile soil, sufficient rainfall) to support the cultivation of domesticated plants. • Harsh Environments: Areas with extreme climates, such as deserts or polar regions, were not conducive to agriculture. 2. Abundance of Wild Resources: • Availability of Wild Resources: In regions where wild food resources (e.g., game, fish, wild plants) were abundant and easily accessible, there may have been less incentive to adopt agriculture, which requires significant labor and investment. 3. Cultural Preferences and Practices: • Nomadic or Semi-Nomadic Lifestyle: Some societies preferred or were adapted to a mobile lifestyle that followed the seasonal availability of wild resources, making settled agriculture less attractive. • Cultural Traditions: Cultural practices and beliefs may have favored hunting and gathering or herding over farming. 4. Technological and Social Factors: • Lack of Domesticable Plants or Animals: In some regions, there may have been a scarcity of plants or animals suitable for domestication. • Technological Constraints: The development of agricultural techniques and tools (e.g., plows, irrigation) required innovation and knowledge that may have been lacking in some societies. Why Agriculture Took Time to Develop in Some Areas: 1. Natural and Environmental Cycles: • Environmental Stability: Agriculture requires stable environmental conditions for successful cultivation. Fluctuating climates or geological instability could delay the adoption of agriculture until conditions became more favorable. 2. Technological and Knowledge Constraints: • Trial and Error: Early agricultural practices often involved experimentation and adaptation, which took time to develop and refine. • Innovation and Learning: Knowledge of plant and animal domestication, soil management, and crop rotation had to accumulate gradually through observation and experimentation. 3. Social and Cultural Factors: • Social Organization: Agriculture often required changes in social organization and labor practices to support food production and storage. • Cultural Resistance or Inertia: Established cultural practices and traditions may have initially hindered the adoption of new agricultural practices. 4. Economic Considerations: • Economic Viability: For many societies, hunting-gathering or herding was economically viable and sustainable, delaying the need for agriculture until population pressures or other factors made it necessary. 5. Population Dynamics: • Population Density: Agricultural societies tend to support higher population densities than hunter-gatherer or pastoralist societies. Population growth and resource competition may have eventually incentivized agricultural adoption. In summary, the adoption of agriculture as a way of life was influenced by a complex interplay of environmental, cultural, technological, and social factors. While some regions did not adopt agriculture due to environmental constraints or cultural preferences, others that eventually did took time to develop the necessary knowledge, technologies, and social adaptations required for sustained food production. Chapter 9 – The Origins of Food Production in Southwest Asia Multiple Choice Questions 1. The time period when food production began is the __________. A. Paleolithic B. Mesolithic C. Neolithic D. Monolithic Answer: C 2. The Neolithic occurs __________. A. at the same time across the globe, 9500 B.C. B. at the same time across the globe, 4000 B.C. C. when the development of food production began D. when the development of a maritime lifestyle evolves Answer: C 3. At __________ in the Levant inhabitants domesticated only two-row barley. A. Abu Hureyra B. Jericho C. Kebara D. Netiv Hagdud Answer: D 4. At __________ in the Levant the inhabitants were living in more permanent settlements and domesticated rye, einkorn, and lentils. A. Abu Hureyra B. Kebara C. Jericho D. Natufia Answer: A 5. At __________ in the Levant the inhabitants did not have clay vessels and built massive walls around their settlement. A. Netiv Hagdud B. Jericho C. Abu Hureyra D. Kebara Answer: B 6. Due to differences between male and female skeletons at Abu Hureyra, it was shown that women __________. A. hunted B. foraged over long distances C. prepared most of the food D. worked considerably less than men Answer: C 7. At __________ in Kurdistan there is evidence that the inhabitants were killing large numbers of immature sheep. A. Abu Hureyra B. Zawi Chemi Shanidar C. Ali Kosh D. Jarmo Answer: B 8. Which of the following was NOT found at the site of Jarmo? A. storage bins B. seeds of barley, emmer wheat, and other minor crops C. evidence of temporary housing D. exotic materials such as obsidian, seashells, and turquoise Answer: C 9. Çatalhöyük contrasts with other Anatolian farming villages because __________. A. they had a monopoly on the obsidian trade B. the outside walls of the houses formed an artistic motif C. they had simple shrines with wooden walls and reliefs D. they grew dissimilar crops from other villages Answer: A 10. __________ conditions during 10500 B.C. to 10000 B.C. and peoples’ adjustments to the climate are thought to be reasons behind plant domestication. A. Warmer and wetter B. Colder and wetter C. Warmer and drier D. Colder and drier Answer: D 11. Netiv Hagdud __________. A. is a tiny early agricultural settlement in present-day Israel B. is important because it documents early efforts of domesticating cattle C. clearly shows that its inhabitants cultivated several cereal crops together D. is a large agricultural settlement in present-day Jordan Answer: A 12. The development and spread of agriculture took place under unusually favorable environmental conditions, probably in __________. A. the Jordan River valley region B. Egypt C. the Sudan D. southern Turkey Answer: A 13. The Natufians __________. A. were Ice Age hunters B. flourished as early as 18,000 B.C. C. traded in obsidian D. collected wild cereal grasses but did not attempt to cultivate them Answer: C 14. Agriculture and settled life developed in three regions in the Near East. Which of the following is NOT one of these three regions? A. Anatolia B. Afghanistan C. the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia D. the Levant Answer: B 15. The farmers of 10,000 – 9,000 B.C. __________. A. hunted bear B. hunted gazelles C. planted corn (maize) D. planted yams and sweet potatoes Answer: B 16. Ali Kosh __________. A. is the Iraqi archaeologist who discovered Jarmo B. was Robert Braidwood’s key informant C. is a well-known archaeological site D. is a Jordanian early-Neolithic site Answer: C 17. Among the early domesticated animals of the Neolithic in the Near East are __________. A. horses, dogs, and cattle B. pigs, cattle, and horses C. sheep, goats, and pigs D. cattle, goats, and camels Answer: C 18. The term “Natufian” applies to a culture in __________. A. western Europe B. northern Europe C. the Near East D. southern Asia Answer: C 19. Which of the following plants was NOT domesticated in the Near East? A. emmer wheat B. potato C. barley D. millet Answer: B 20. Steven Mithen (2006) believes that religious beliefs __________. A. led to farming B. led to unusual burial patterns C. created a caste system that allowed for farming D. destroyed the band level societies of the time Answer: A Essay Questions 21. Discuss how the sites found in the Zagros foothills and Mesopotamia demonstrate the stages toward domestication of plants and animals. Answer: The sites found in the Zagros foothills and Mesopotamia provide crucial insights into the early stages of plant and animal domestication, marking significant developments in human history. Here’s how these sites contribute to our understanding of these processes: 1. Zagros Foothills: • Ganj Dareh: Located in the western Zagros Mountains, Ganj Dareh dates back to around 10,000-9,000 BCE. It is known for evidence of early plant domestication, particularly of wild cereals like barley and wheat. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh were among the first to intentionally cultivate these plants, marking a pivotal shift from reliance on wild foraging to controlled cultivation. • Chogha Golan: This site, also in the Zagros region and dated to around 9,000-8,000 BCE, shows further advancement in plant domestication. It provides evidence of more systematic cultivation of barley and wheat, along with legumes like lentils and peas. The presence of storage facilities suggests surplus agricultural production, indicative of a settled lifestyle. These sites in the Zagros foothills demonstrate the initial stages of plant domestication, where early humans experimented with cultivating wild plants, gradually selecting and propagating those with desirable traits like larger seeds and easier harvestability. 2. Mesopotamia: • Çatalhöyük: While not in Mesopotamia proper but nearby in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), Çatalhöyük (7500-5700 BCE) provides insights into early animal domestication. The site shows evidence of the domestication of cattle, sheep, and goats, marking a significant shift towards human control over animal breeding, herding, and husbandry. • Ubaid Period (Mesopotamia): Around 6500-4000 BCE, during the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia, settlements like Eridu and Ur demonstrate further advancements in agriculture and animal domestication. Domesticated crops included barley, wheat, and dates, while domesticated animals included cattle, sheep, and pigs. Irrigation systems were also developed to support agriculture, indicating a more sophisticated approach to food production and settlement. Mesopotamian sites illustrate the co-evolution of agriculture and animal domestication, where early humans transitioned from wild game hunting and gathering to the deliberate breeding and rearing of animals for food, labor, and materials. Common Themes and Contributions: • Sedentism: Both the Zagros and Mesopotamian sites reflect a shift from nomadic lifestyles to settled communities. Sedentism was enabled by reliable food sources provided by agriculture and animal husbandry. • Technological Advancements: Tools such as sickles, grinding stones, and pottery vessels found at these sites indicate technological advancements to support agriculture, food processing, and storage. • Social Implications: The transition to agriculture and animal domestication had profound social implications, including population growth, division of labor, and the emergence of complex societies. In conclusion, the sites in the Zagros foothills and Mesopotamia represent crucial stages in the domestication of plants and animals, providing evidence of early agricultural practices, technological innovations, and social transformations that laid the foundation for the development of complex civilizations in the ancient Near East. 22. What are the two stages of farming development? Answer: The development of farming can broadly be categorized into two main stages: 1. Neolithic Revolution: • The Neolithic Revolution, also known as the Agricultural Revolution, marks the transition from a lifestyle based on hunting and gathering to one based on agriculture and settlement. • This period began around 10,000 BCE in various regions around the world, including the Middle East (Mesopotamia), China, Mesoamerica, and parts of Africa. • Key developments during this stage include: • Domestication of Plants: Early humans began cultivating wild plants, such as cereals (e.g., wheat, barley, rice), legumes (e.g., lentils, peas), and fruits (e.g., figs). • Domestication of Animals: Animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and later horses were domesticated for food, labor, and other resources. • Sedentary Lifestyle: Settlements became more permanent as people established villages and towns to tend to their crops and animals. • Technological Advances: Tools such as stone axes, sickles, plows, and pottery were developed to aid in agriculture and food storage. • Social Changes: The shift to agriculture led to population growth, division of labor, and the development of social hierarchies and organized societies. 2. Urbanization and Civilization: • The second stage of farming development involves the growth and consolidation of complex societies and civilizations. • This stage typically begins with the establishment of cities and urban centers, which are supported by surplus food production from agricultural practices. • Key characteristics include: • Urban Centers: Cities emerged as hubs of political, economic, religious, and cultural activity. • Specialization: With surplus food production, individuals were able to specialize in various professions beyond agriculture, leading to the development of specialized crafts, trade, and governance. • Writing and Record-Keeping: Writing systems were developed to keep records of transactions, laws, and religious practices, contributing to the development of complex administrative systems. • Technological and Cultural Advancements: Advances in architecture, metallurgy, mathematics, and art flourished in urbanized societies. • Empires and States: Larger political entities, such as empires and states, emerged, often spanning significant geographical areas and diverse populations. These two stages represent significant milestones in human history, marking the transition from small-scale agricultural societies to complex civilizations that shaped the course of human development across different regions of the world. 23. Describe the early Neolithic village of Jericho. What are the possible implications of the walls? What is the speculation about their function? Answer: Jericho is one of the oldest known continuously inhabited cities in the world and provides valuable insights into early Neolithic village life. Here’s an overview of Jericho and the implications of its famous walls: Early Neolithic Village of Jericho: 1. Location and Chronology: • Jericho is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank, Palestine. • It dates back to around 9000 BCE, placing it among the earliest known settlements of the Neolithic period. 2. Archaeological Discoveries: • Walls: Jericho is famously known for its impressive defensive walls, which are some of the earliest known fortifications in human history. • Circular Houses: The village consisted of round or oval-shaped houses made of mud bricks, with flat roofs and floors sunk below ground level. • Burial Practices: Inhabitants practiced burial of the dead under the floors of their houses, indicative of early spiritual or ceremonial beliefs. Possible Implications of the Walls: 1. Defense: • The walls of Jericho are estimated to have been about 3.6-4 meters (12-13 feet) high and surrounded the settlement in a concentric manner. • Their primary function was likely defense, protecting the inhabitants from potential threats such as raids by other groups or wild animals. 2. Symbolism and Identity: • Beyond their practical defensive purpose, the walls of Jericho may have had symbolic significance, representing the identity and cohesion of the community. • They could have served as a visible marker of territory and community pride, reinforcing social cohesion among the villagers. Speculation about Their Function: 1. Protection Against Flooding: • Some scholars suggest that the walls may have also served to protect against seasonal floods from the nearby Jordan River. • By fortifying the settlement, the walls could have helped to mitigate the risks posed by natural disasters and ensured the safety of the community. 2. Cultural and Ceremonial Significance: • Another theory proposes that the construction of the walls and the communal effort involved in their maintenance could have had ritualistic or ceremonial importance. • They may have been periodically rebuilt or renovated as part of communal rituals or to mark significant events in the village’s life. 3. Trade and Exchange: • The walls could have controlled access to resources and trade routes, potentially enhancing Jericho’s role as a trading center in the region. • Controlled access through gates or openings in the walls would have facilitated interactions with neighbouring communities and trading partners. Conclusion: The early Neolithic village of Jericho, with its fortified walls and round houses, provides a glimpse into the social, economic, and spiritual aspects of early settled life. The walls, while primarily defensive, likely held broader implications for community identity, resilience against natural elements, and ceremonial practices. Their construction and maintenance underscore the cooperative efforts and organizational skills of the inhabitants, marking an important milestone in the development of human settlements and urban planning. Test Bank for People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory Brian M. Fagan , Nadia Durrani 9780205968022

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