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This Document Contains Chapters 13 to 15 Chapter 13 – The Story of Maize: Early Farmers in the Americas Multiple Choice Questions 1. Plants domesticated in the New World include __________. A. maize, chili peppers, and tobacco B. chili peppers, wheat, and tomatoes C. tobacco, tomatoes, and wheat D. sorghum, wheat, and maize Answer: A 2. The New World peoples domesticated all of the following animals EXCEPT __________. A. cattle B. dogs C. llamas D. turkeys Answer: A 3. The triumvirate of food crops in the Americas is __________. A. beans, potatoes, and chili peppers B. maize, beans, and potatoes C. maize, squash, and tobacco D. maize, beans, and squash Answer: D 4. The wild grass thought to be ancestral to maize is __________. A. cilantro B. teosinte C. corn D. leren Answer: B 5. Differences between the wild ancestor and domesticated maize include characteristics that __________. A. allow maize to grow in wetter and warmer climates B. allow maize to grow year round C. make maize easier to thresh D. make maize self pollinating Answer: C 6. The earliest evidence of maize domestication comes from __________. A. Chaco Canyon, New Mexico B. the Tehuacán Valley in southern Mexico C. Huaca Prieta, Peru D. Hopewell culture in Illinois Answer: B 7. Evidence from San Marcos Cave supports maize domestication as far back as __________. A. 2400 B.C. B. 5000 B.C. C. 4200 B.C. D. 3600 B.C. Answer: D 8. In the Andes five species of plants and animals were important domesticates. Which of the following is NOT one of these species? A. quinoa B. taro C. llama D. potato Answer: B 9. Irrigation farming on the Peruvian coast occurred as early as __________. A. 7000 B.C. B. 5000 B.C. C. 3000 B.C. D. 1000 B.C. Answer: C 10. People at the site of __________ on the north coast of Peru were skilled cotton weavers who devised a sophisticated art style with animal, human, and geometric designs. A. Cochise B. Huaca Prieta C. Paloma D. Asana Answer: B 11. Maize was introduced into the American Southwest around __________. A. 5000 to 4500 B.C. B. 4000 to 3500 B.C. C. 3000 to 2500 B.C. D. 2000 to 1500 B.C. Answer: D 12. __________ was a new type of maize developed in the American Southwest; it was more productive and flowered earlier. A. Maiz de ocho B. Chapalote C. Teosinte D. Quinoa Answer: A 13. Beans are important to the triumvirate of crops because __________. A. they add nitrogen, which is depleted by maize, to the soil B. they provide carbohydrates to the farmers C. they were the main part of people’s diet prior to the domestication of maize D. they add phosphorous to the soil Answer: A 14. The Ancestral Pueblo tradition is ancestral to modern Pueblo Native Americans such as the __________. A. Cherokee B. Hopi C. Comanche D. Maya Answer: B 15. The site of Casas Grandes in Chihuahua, Mexico, shows the trading relationship with the __________ culture, who lived in what is now southern Arizona. A. Hopewell B. Mogollon C. Hohokam D. Ancestral Pueblo Answer: C 16. The largest complex at Chaco Canyon could have housed more than __________. A. 7000 people B. 5000 people C. 3000 people D. 1000 people Answer: D 17. Roads at Chaco Canyon are likely __________. A. trading routes B. representations of Pueblo cosmology C. routes connecting related villages D. routes to sources of raw materials Answer: B 18. A site mentioned in the book that is located under cliff overhangs (cliff dwellings) is __________. A. Mesa Verde B. Chaco Canyon C. Casas Grandes D. Adena Answer: A 19. Moundbuilder cultures began in eastern North America after __________. A. A.D. 1000 B. 1000 B.C. C. 5000 B.C. D. 2000 B.C. Answer: D 20. The mounds constructed by the Moundbuilders were used __________. A. to serve as outlook posts B. as burial mounds C. to plant maize on top D. as foundations for the chief’s house Answer: B 21. The first moundbuilding culture of eastern North America was the __________. A. Anasazi B. Hopewell C. Adena D. Mississippian Answer: C 22. Burial mounds of the __________ were much more elaborate than the Adena. A. Anasazi B. Hopewell C. Mississippian D. Chacoans Answer: B 23. The text describes ceremonial artifacts found in Hopewell burial mounds. These artifacts were NOT made out of which of the following materials? A. jade B. copper C. soapstone D. mica Answer: A 24. Maize cultivation spread through eastern North America between __________. A. 500 and 100 B.C. B. 100 B.C. and A.D. 300 C. A.D. 800 to 1200 D. A.D. 1400 to 1800 Answer: C 25. Archaeologist James Knight has suggested three cults in Mississippian societies. Which of the following is NOT one of the three cults? A. sun god cult B. chiefly warfare cult C. earth/fertility cult D. ancestor worship cult Answer: A 26. The site of __________ in eastern North America became a political center and had population growth after A.D. 1050. A. Moundville B. Adena C. Hopewell D. Cahokia Answer: D 27. Status differences at Cahokia are indicated by all BUT which of the following? A. elaborate burials B. large houses C. hieroglyphs signifying chiefs and kings D. sacrificial victims associated with some burials Answer: C Essay Questions 28. Which wild grass is believed to be ancestral to maize? What are some of the differences between this wild grass and maize? Answer: The wild grass believed to be ancestral to maize (Zea mays) is called teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis). Teosinte is native to Mexico and Central America, where maize was domesticated thousands of years ago. Here are some differences between teosinte and maize: 1. Cob size and structure: • Teosinte has small, thin cobs with very few kernels tightly spaced along a tough central axis. • Maize has much larger cobs with many rows of large kernels arranged along a thicker central axis. 2. Kernel size and composition: • Teosinte kernels are small, hard, and encased in hard fruitcases (grains). • Maize kernels are larger, softer, and not encased in such hard fruitcases. 3. Overall plant structure: • Teosinte plants are tall and branching, with multiple tillers. • Maize plants are typically single-stemmed and have been selectively bred for traits that enhance yield and ease of harvest. 4. Shattering vs. non-shattering: • Teosinte exhibits seed shattering, where mature seeds fall off the cob naturally, aiding in natural seed dispersal. • Maize has been bred to have reduced shattering, allowing for easier harvest and higher yield retention. 5. Leaf structure: • Teosinte leaves are narrower and more grass-like. • Maize leaves are broader and larger. 6. Genetic differences: • Teosinte has a different genetic makeup from maize, although they are closely related. Maize has undergone significant artificial selection, leading to changes in many genetic loci related to traits like kernel size, cob structure, and plant architecture. These differences highlight the extensive domestication process maize underwent from its wild ancestor, teosinte, resulting in a crop that is more productive and easier to cultivate. 29. Discuss the three cults that archaeologist James Knight believes were in Mississippian culture. Answer: Archaeologist James Knight proposed the existence of three cults within Mississippian culture, which flourished in the southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1600 AD. These cults are conceptual frameworks used to understand the religious and social organization of Mississippian societies. Here are the three cults as described by Knight: 1. The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC): • The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex was a widespread and influential religious and ceremonial tradition among Mississippian societies. It is characterized by a distinctive iconography featuring motifs such as the "Birdman," "Falcon Warrior," and various other zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figures. • SECC was associated with elite and ritualistic activities, including feasting, mound building, and elaborate burial practices. It likely served to reinforce social hierarchies and political authority within Mississippian societies. • This complex likely played a role in legitimizing leadership and maintaining social cohesion across different communities within the Mississippian cultural sphere. 2. The "Green Corn" Ceremony: • The "Green Corn" Ceremony was a crucial agricultural and ceremonial event observed by many Native American groups, including Mississippian societies. • This ceremony centered around the first corn harvest of the season, symbolizing renewal, fertility, and the cycle of life. It involved ritual cleansing, fasting, dancing, and communal feasting. • The Green Corn Ceremony was not exclusive to Mississippian cultures but was a significant cultural practice observed across many indigenous groups in the Southeastern United States. 3. The Southern Death Cult: • The Southern Death Cult is a term used to describe ritual practices and beliefs associated with death and burial among the Mississippian cultures of the Southern United States. • It encompasses various mortuary practices, including mound burials and the placement of grave goods such as pottery, tools, and ceremonial objects. • The Southern Death Cult reflects beliefs in an afterlife and the importance of honoring the deceased, as well as possibly serving social and political functions by reinforcing kinship ties and community identity through burial rituals. These three cults, as proposed by James Knight, provide insights into the complex religious, social, and political dynamics of Mississippian societies. They demonstrate the diversity of religious practices and beliefs among different communities within this cultural framework, highlighting the significance of ceremonial life and ritual activities in shaping Mississippian culture. 30. Analyze the ideas surrounding the developments in Chaco Canyon including the large structure known as Pueblo Bonito and its possible function as a Middle Place. Answer: The developments in Chaco Canyon, centered around structures like Pueblo Bonito, represent a significant cultural and architectural achievement of the ancient Pueblo peoples (Ancestral Puebloans) who inhabited the region from approximately 900 to 1150 AD. Pueblo Bonito is the largest and most iconic structure in Chaco Canyon, and its construction and function provide insights into the societal organization, religious practices, and regional interactions of its inhabitants. Pueblo Bonito: Architectural and Functional Analysis 1. Architecture and Layout: • Pueblo Bonito is a massive structure consisting of multiple stories and hundreds of rooms arranged around a central plaza. At its peak, it had over 600 rooms and covered an area of over 2 acres. • The architecture features thick masonry walls, multi-storied construction, and extensive ceremonial spaces such as kivas (round subterranean chambers used for rituals). 2. Possible Function as a Middle Place: • Archaeologist Stephen H. Lekson proposed the concept of a "Middle Place" to describe Pueblo Bonito and similar structures in Chaco Canyon. This concept suggests that these monumental buildings served as central places within a regional network, both physically and symbolically. • As a Middle Place, Pueblo Bonito likely functioned as a political, economic, and ceremonial hub for the surrounding communities. It may have hosted large gatherings, feasts, trade exchanges, and religious ceremonies. • The size and complexity of Pueblo Bonito suggest that it played a crucial role in integrating and consolidating the diverse communities and resources of the Chaco Canyon region. 3. Religious and Ceremonial Significance: • Pueblo Bonito and other structures in Chaco Canyon were aligned with astronomical events, indicating their role in celestial observations and possibly astronomical rituals. • The presence of numerous kivas and specialized ceremonial rooms within Pueblo Bonito suggests that it was a place of intense ritual activity, possibly involving community-wide ceremonies, ancestor worship, and rituals related to agriculture and fertility. Developments in Chaco Canyon 1. Regional Network and Influence: • Chaco Canyon was not isolated; it was connected through a network of roads (Chacoan Roads) to other sites in the region, facilitating trade, pilgrimage, and cultural exchange. • The construction of monumental architecture like Pueblo Bonito and other great houses in Chaco Canyon reflects the centralization of political power and the emergence of social hierarchies within Ancestral Puebloan society. 2. Environmental Adaptation: • The development of Chaco Canyon occurred in an arid environment, and the construction of large-scale structures required sophisticated engineering and resource management, including water collection and storage systems. 3. Decline and Abandonment: • Around 1150 AD, Chaco Canyon and its monumental architecture were gradually abandoned. The reasons for this decline are still debated and may include environmental factors, social unrest, resource depletion, or changes in religious and ceremonial practices. In summary, developments in Chaco Canyon, particularly the construction and function of Pueblo Bonito, exemplify the complex societal organization, religious beliefs, and regional interactions of the Ancestral Puebloans. Pueblo Bonito's potential role as a Middle Place underscores its significance as a central hub within the Chacoan cultural landscape, influencing and integrating communities across the region through ceremonial, economic, and political activities. Chapter 14 – The Development of Civilization Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a city as discussed in your text? A. a degree of organizational complexity B. large and dense settlement with populations at least in the thousands C. specialization and interdependence D. the lower limit of a city is 10,000 people Answer: D 2. V. Gordon Childe proposed the “Urban Revolution.” It was characterized by __________. A. the development of pottery B. the emergence of new social classes of artisans and specialists C. the development of villages D. egalitarian social and economic structures Answer: B 3. There are three themes to ecological theories about the origins of states. These include everything EXCEPT __________. A. diversity of local environments B. effect of cities on the environment C. ecological potential of river floodplains D. adoption of irrigation agriculture Answer: B 4. Items mentioned in the text thought to be traded by elites to maintain their power include all of the following EXCEPT __________. A. firewood B. obsidian C. copper D. salt Answer: A 5. Dispersing of trade goods and other commodities from a central place throughout a society is referred to as __________. A. taxation B. bartering C. redistribution D. reciprocity Answer: C 6. Colin Renfrew attributed the rise of the Minoan civilization to trading contacts as well as __________. A. the cultivation of olives and vines B. domestication of goats and the making of feta cheese C. the cultivation of tomatoes D. the mining of copper ores Answer: A 7. The text points out that trade alone cannot be a primary source of the emergence of states. The author concludes that __________. A. trade was not a consequence of civilization B. only one aspect of trade can cause cultural change C. no one aspect of trade can cause an evolution in trading practices D. maritime shipping is the most important form of trade Answer: C 8. __________ suggested that warfare, which came about from inter-village fighting over agricultural land, lead to state formation. A. Carneiro B. Flannery C. Renfrew D. Rathje Answer: A 9. Power of states can be divided into three domains. These include all of the following EXCEPT __________. A. political B. corporative C. economic D. social Answer: B 10. A state of interdependence between neighboring political units, such as city-states, is referred to as __________. A. reciprocity B. chiefly cycling C. a polity D. peer-polity interaction Answer: D 11. According to the text, a city can be defined by its population. A generally used rule-of- thumb is a lower limit of __________ people for a city. A. 100,000 B. 50,000 C. 10,000 D. 5,000 Answer: D 12. James Breasted’s Fertile Crescent hypothesis assumes that __________. A. the low fertility of the Mesopotamian floodplain and the Nile Valley was a secondary cause for the appearance of cities and states in these regions B. larger grain consumption resulted from increased agricultural efficiency C. smaller grain surpluses resulted from social changes D. the extra food supported non-food producers, such as artisans, priests, and traders who were the backbone of state-organized societies Answer: D 13. American archaeologist William Rathje developed a hypothesis that considered an explosion in long-distance exchange a fundamental cause of __________ civilization. A. Maya B. Egyptian C. Mississippian D. Toltec Answer: A 14. Ecologically based theories of state formation __________. A. rely heavily on systems approaches B. have not lasted as long as many other hypotheses C. were extremely popular during the nineteenth century but have very few adherents today D. require heavy environmental understanding Answer: A 15. In every part of the world where early civilization appeared __________. A. people must have produced enough surplus to free some individuals of the burden to produce food B. ceremonial centers were not a requirement C. the ceremonial center was the tertiary focus of power, exchange, and authority D. public executions for many violations of the law were common Answer: A 16. When a complex society collapses __________. A. it usually becomes less egalitarian B. population densities rise C. information flow increases D. it becomes more egalitarian Answer: D 17. __________ has been described as a major potential cause for civilization. A. Earthquake response B. Irrigation C. Social change D. Cultural diffusion Answer: B 18. The Fertile Crescent theory __________. A. is implausible because the environment in all major centers of early civilizations is quite dissimilar B. is based on archaeological evidence from Sumer and southern China C. cites the fertility of the Nile and Mesopotamia floodplains as a primary reason for the emergence of cities D. relates the environmental conditions of the Deccan Plateau Answer: C 19. One major criticism of the hydraulic theory is that __________. A. in Mesopotamia, cities predate large-scale irrigation B. early civilization did not use irrigation C. large-scale irrigation does not necessarily require a bureaucracy D. most ancient civilizations became dependent on trade and animal husbandry and, therefore, did not require large-scale irrigation Answer: A 20. Early irrigation in Mesopotamia __________. A. required elaborate social organization B. was conducted on a large scale C. required a huge labor force D. was based on flooding of farm fields Answer: D Essay Questions 21. List and discuss three of the five features common to all preindustrial civilizations. Answer: Preindustrial civilizations share several fundamental features that are crucial to their organization and development. Here are three of these common features: 1. Agricultural Surplus and Sedentary Living: • One of the defining features of preindustrial civilizations is their reliance on agriculture as the primary means of subsistence. Agricultural surplus, achieved through the cultivation of crops and domestication of animals, allowed for the development of sedentary living. • Sedentary living refers to the establishment of permanent settlements (villages, towns, cities) where people live year-round, as opposed to nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles. • Agricultural surplus enabled population growth beyond immediate subsistence needs and supported specialized labor, such as artisans, priests, and administrators, who were essential for the functioning of early civilizations. 2. Social Stratification and Hierarchical Organization: • Preindustrial civilizations typically exhibited social stratification, where society was organized into distinct social classes or hierarchies based on factors such as wealth, power, occupation, and ancestry. • At the top of the social hierarchy were rulers or monarchs, often considered divine or semi-divine, who exercised political and religious authority. They were supported by a noble class comprising elites who held land and other resources. • Below them were artisans, merchants, farmers, and laborers who formed the majority of the population. Slavery or forms of bonded labor were also common in many preindustrial civilizations, providing a workforce for agricultural and construction tasks. 3. Urbanization and Centralized Administration: • Preindustrial civilizations typically developed urban centers or cities as focal points of political, economic, and cultural activity. These cities served as administrative hubs where government institutions, religious centers, markets, and specialized craft production were concentrated. • Urbanization facilitated the growth of centralized administration and governance systems, which were necessary to manage larger populations and territories. Bureaucracies emerged to oversee taxation, justice, public works, and defense. • Urban centers also promoted cultural exchange, intellectual pursuits (such as writing and education), and artistic expression, fostering a distinctive urban culture that set civilizations apart from smaller societies or chiefdoms. These features—agricultural surplus and sedentary living, social stratification and hierarchical organization, and urbanization with centralized administration—lay the foundation for the complexity and endurance of preindustrial civilizations. They enabled these societies to expand, innovate, and exert influence over vast regions, leaving enduring legacies in history and shaping subsequent developments in human civilization. 22. List and discuss three of the six classic theories of the emergence of states. Answer: The emergence of states, understood as complex sociopolitical entities characterized by centralized authority, hierarchical organization, and extensive administrative structures, has been theorized and studied by scholars across various disciplines. Here are three classic theories that attempt to explain the emergence of states: 1. The Hydraulic Hypothesis: • Proposed by Karl Wittfogel in the mid-20th century, the Hydraulic Hypothesis posits that the need to manage and control water resources, particularly for irrigation in arid or semi-arid regions, played a crucial role in the development of states. • According to this theory, the construction and maintenance of large-scale irrigation systems required centralized authority to coordinate labor, manage water distribution, and resolve conflicts over access to water. • States emerged as bureaucratic entities capable of organizing and mobilizing resources to undertake such monumental hydraulic projects, thereby consolidating power and establishing control over agricultural production and surplus. 2. The Economic Surplus and Social Stratification Theory: • This theory suggests that the accumulation of agricultural surplus, beyond subsistence needs, was a driving force behind the emergence of states. The surplus allowed for the support of non-agricultural specialists (such as rulers, priests, artisans, and soldiers) who did not directly produce food but contributed to the functioning of early complex societies. • Social stratification, where individuals or groups gained privileged access to surplus resources, became institutionalized. This stratification reinforced by kinship ties, religious beliefs, or military prowess, created hierarchies that required centralized political authority to maintain and legitimize. • States emerged as mechanisms to control the distribution of surplus, enforce social hierarchy, provide security, and regulate trade and economic transactions within and across regions. 3. The Warfare and Defense Theory: • This theory emphasizes the role of external threats and the need for defense as catalysts for state formation. As societies grew and accumulated resources, they became targets for raids, conquest, or competition over territory and resources. • To protect themselves against external threats, communities formed alliances, built fortifications, and organized defense forces. Over time, these defensive measures necessitated centralized authority and coordination to effectively mobilize resources, plan military campaigns, and negotiate treaties or alliances. • States emerged as institutions capable of organizing standing armies, enforcing borders, and projecting power beyond their immediate communities, thereby providing security and stability to their populations. These classic theories offer distinct perspectives on how and why states emerged in different regions and contexts throughout history. They highlight the interplay of environmental factors, economic dynamics, social organization, and external pressures in shaping the development of early states as complex sociopolitical entities. 23. What is meant by the statement, in the last part of the chapter, “The record of early civilizations could easily be written in cyclical terms…”? Answer: The statement "The record of early civilizations could easily be written in cyclical terms…" suggests an interpretation of history where the rise and fall of civilizations are viewed as recurring patterns or cycles rather than linear progressions. This concept contrasts with the idea of historical development as a straightforward march of progress from primitive to advanced stages. Here are some key points to understand this statement: 1. Cyclical View of History: • In a cyclical view of history, civilizations are seen as going through repeated cycles of growth, flourishing, decline, and collapse. This pattern is often associated with the notion of "civilizational cycles," where societies experience phases of rise (growth, expansion, prosperity) and fall (decay, conflict, collapse). • Each cycle may involve similar stages of development, such as initial formation, consolidation of power, cultural and technological achievements, challenges or crises, and eventual decline or transformation. 2. Examples from History: • Many ancient civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and Mesoamerica, experienced periods of rise and fall over centuries or millennia. For instance, the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom of Egypt were followed by periods of decentralization and foreign rule before the New Kingdom re-established centralized authority. • Similarly, the collapse of the Roman Empire led to the fragmentation of political authority in Western Europe, followed by the rise of new political entities and cultural developments during the medieval period. 3. Implications for Understanding History: • Writing history in cyclical terms suggests that recurring patterns of societal organization, cultural achievements, economic systems, and political structures shape the trajectories of civilizations. • It acknowledges that civilizations are not static but dynamic entities that undergo continuous change and adaptation in response to internal and external pressures. • By recognizing cyclical patterns, historians and scholars can analyze similarities and differences across civilizations and identify common challenges or factors that contribute to their rise and fall. Overall, the statement reflects a perspective in historiography that appreciates the complexity and unpredictability of human societies over time, emphasizing the recurring nature of certain historical processes and the cyclical patterns of growth and decline observed in early civilizations. Chapter 15 – Early Civilizations in Southwest Asia Multiple Choice Questions 1. Around __________ farmers on the Assyrian plains relied on seasonal rainfall and later developed simple irrigation methods. A. 7000 B.C. B. 5000 B.C. C. 3000 B.C. D. 1000 B.C. Answer: A 2. Handmade pottery of coarse clay painted or incised with dots, circles, and other designs is called __________. A. Kush B. Hassunan C. Napata D. Samarra Answer: B 3. The most brilliantly painted pottery found in northern Iraq around 6000 B.C. were from the __________ culture. A. Hassunan B. Halafian C. Samarra D. Kush Answer: B 4. The first settlements on the Mesopotamian floodplain are categorized as __________. A. Eridu B. `Ubaid C. Uruk D. Sumerian Answer: B 5. The Ubaid settlers cultivated __________ in irrigated fields. A. maize B. barley and dates C. wheat D. millet Answer: B 6. The site of Uruk demonstrates the early cultural development of the __________ civilization. A. Hopewell B. classical Egyptian C. Sumerian D. Zagros Answer: C 7. The first writing appears by __________. A. 5000 B.C. B. 4600 B.C. C. 3300 B.C. D. 2200 B.C. Answer: C 8. Incised signs depicting objects are believed to have led to __________. A. hieroglyphs B. cuneiform C. numerals D. poetry Answer: B 9. The earliest use of copper in tools and ornaments appears on the plateau to the north of Mesopotamia in __________. A. the third millennium B.C. B. 1050 B.C. C. 4500 B.C. D. the fifth or sixth millennium B.C. Answer: D 10. The development of bronze weapons can be linked to the __________. A. rise of warfare B. use of iron ores in metallurgy C. introduction of the plow D. increase of egalitarianism Answer: A 11. The text describes the __________ civilization (3000-2334 B.C.) of southern Mesopotamia with its vast reaching trade networks and interregional dependence. A. Uruk B. ‘Ubaid C. Sumerian D. Halafian Answer: C 12. The __________ cultural tradition appeared by 3200 B.C. in Khuzistan, Iran. The clay tablets of this culture can be found from settlements across the Iranian Plateau. A. Proto-Elamite B. Tepe Yahya C. Susa D. Akkadian Answer: A 13. The largest early Bronze Age workshop in Southwest Asia has been found in __________ and dates to between 2700 and 2200 B.C. A. Akkadian B. Susa C. Babylon D. Khirbat Hamra Ifdan Answer: D 14. The Sumerian culture was followed by the __________ state, which flourished from about 2334 to 2112 B.C. A. Ubaid B. Akkadian C. Halafian D. Hassuna Answer: B 15. The Assyrian Empire (about 1000 to 612 B.C.) rose to prominence with __________. A. Sargon B. King Ur-Nammu C. King Assuruballit D. King Nebuchadnezzar Answer: C 16. The king of Assyria based his control on __________. A. the control of trade routes and his military prowess B. the maize-growing lands of northern Iraq C. social leadership D. culturally progressive ideas for the time Answer: A 17. King Nebuchadnezzar ruled over Mesopotamia during the __________ empire. A. Babylonian B. Assyrian C. Halafian D. Eridu Answer: A 18. Which of the following statements about Mesopotamia is NOT correct? A. The Victorians thought of Mesopotamia as the location of the Biblical Garden of Eden. B. Today, Mesopotamia is a hot, inhospitable environment. C. There are few permanent water supplies away from the great rivers and their tributaries. D. Today, as in the past, Mesopotamia enjoys a year-round temperate climate. Answer: D 19. The appearance of the Halafian painted wares in Mesopotamia and Anatolia at approximately 6000 B.C. is thought to have coincided with __________. A. the emergence of chiefdoms B. the introduction of agriculture C. increased warfare D. Phoenician trade Answer: A 20. Writing developed at about the same time as __________. A. agriculture B. the domestication of cattle C. copper metallurgy D. religion Answer: C Essay Questions 21. Discuss the environmental changes that brought about settlement in the lowlands of Southern Mesopotamia. Answer: Settlement in the lowlands of Southern Mesopotamia, specifically the region known as Sumer, was significantly influenced by environmental changes that made agriculture and permanent settlement possible. Here are the key environmental factors that contributed to the development of early civilizations in Southern Mesopotamia: 1. Availability of Water: • Southern Mesopotamia is situated between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, often referred to as the "Fertile Crescent." These rivers provided a consistent water source for irrigation and agriculture. • During the 4th millennium BC, there was an increase in water availability due to higher precipitation levels and the gradual stabilization of river courses. This allowed for reliable irrigation systems to be developed, supporting the cultivation of crops like barley and wheat. 2. Alluvial Soil Deposits: • The Tigris and Euphrates rivers annually flooded, depositing nutrient-rich silt and alluvial soil across the floodplains. These deposits replenished the soil fertility, making it highly suitable for agriculture. • The floodwaters also deposited natural levees along the riverbanks, providing elevated areas that were safer from floods and conducive to settlement and agriculture. 3. Climate and Natural Resources: • Southern Mesopotamia experiences a hot and arid climate, characterized by long, dry summers and short, mild winters. This climate was suitable for the cultivation of crops adapted to arid conditions, such as barley. • The region also had access to natural resources such as reeds for building materials, clay for pottery, and bitumen for waterproofing boats and structures. These resources supported economic activities and technological developments. 4. Development of Irrigation Systems: • The need to manage water for agriculture led to the development of sophisticated irrigation systems, including canals, levees, and reservoirs. These systems allowed for the diversion and storage of river water during the dry season, ensuring year-round agricultural productivity. • Irrigation technology and management became essential for maximizing crop yields and supporting larger populations, contributing to the growth of urban centers like Uruk and Ur. 5. Geographic Location and Trade: • Southern Mesopotamia's location between the Persian Gulf and the Anatolian Plateau facilitated trade and cultural exchange with neighboring regions. • The development of urban centers and surplus agricultural production enabled Southern Mesopotamian societies to engage in long-distance trade, importing goods like metals, timber, and precious stones in exchange for agricultural products. In summary, the environmental changes in Southern Mesopotamia, particularly the availability of water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, fertile alluvial soil, and the development of irrigation systems, were crucial factors that supported agricultural productivity and enabled the growth of early civilizations. These settlements eventually evolved into sophisticated urban societies characterized by monumental architecture, centralized authority, and cultural achievements during the Bronze Age. 22. What are characteristics and important inventions in Sumerian civilization? Answer: The Sumerian civilization, one of the earliest urban civilizations in Mesopotamia, flourished between approximately 4500 BCE to 1900 BCE. It was located in the southernmost region of Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq. Here are some characteristics and important inventions associated with the Sumerian civilization: Characteristics of Sumerian Civilization: 1. Urbanization: Sumerians developed some of the world's first cities, such as Ur, Uruk, and Eridu, characterized by monumental architecture and complex social structures. 2. Writing System: The Sumerians are credited with developing one of the earliest writing systems known as cuneiform. Initially used for accounting and record-keeping, cuneiform evolved into a complex script used for a wide range of purposes including literature, legal documents, and historical records. 3. Religion and Mythology: Sumerians had a polytheistic religion with a pantheon of gods and goddesses who were believed to control various aspects of life. They built ziggurats, large stepped temples, as centers of worship. 4. Government and Law: City-states like Uruk had centralized governments with kings who ruled over the territory. The Sumerians developed some of the earliest known legal codes and systems of justice. 5. Trade and Economy: Sumerians engaged in extensive trade both within Mesopotamia and with other regions, exchanging goods such as grain, textiles, and metals. 6. Technological Advancements: Sumerians made significant advances in various fields including mathematics, astronomy, and irrigation. Important Inventions of Sumerian Civilization: 1. Cuneiform Writing: As mentioned, cuneiform is one of the earliest known writing systems. It involved the use of wedge-shaped symbols impressed into clay tablets using a reed stylus. This allowed for the recording and preservation of information, leading to the development of literature and historical records. 2. Wheel: Sumerians are credited with inventing the wheel, initially for use in pottery making around 3500 BCE, and later for transportation in the form of wheeled carts and chariots. This invention revolutionized travel and trade. 3. Mathematics: Sumerians developed a complex system of metrology and arithmetic based on the sexagesimal (base 60) numeral system. They used this system for measurements, calculations of area and volume, and in trade and commerce. 4. Calendar: Sumerians developed one of the earliest known calendars based on lunar cycles, with months consisting of 29 or 30 days. This calendar system was later refined by other civilizations in the region. 5. Irrigation: In order to support agriculture in the arid landscape of Mesopotamia, Sumerians developed advanced irrigation techniques, including the use of canals and dikes to control the flow of water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 6. Urban Planning: Sumerian cities were meticulously planned, with grid-like street layouts, large public buildings, and defensive walls. This organization facilitated efficient governance and trade within city-states. The contributions of the Sumerians laid the foundation for later Mesopotamian civilizations such as the Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, influencing subsequent cultures across the Near East and beyond. 23. Describe the rise of the Assyrians. Which empire took over Assyrian control? Answer: The rise of the Assyrians as a major power in ancient Mesopotamia is a fascinating chapter in history, characterized by military prowess, administrative innovation, and cultural influence. Here's an overview of how the Assyrian Empire emerged and the subsequent empire that took over Assyrian control: Rise of the Assyrians: 1. Early Assyrian Period (c. 2000 - 1365 BCE): • The Assyrians initially inhabited the region north of Babylonia (southern Mesopotamia) around the city of Ashur (modern-day Qal'at Sherqat in Iraq). • During this period, they were primarily known as traders and merchants, participating in the extensive trade networks of the Near East. 2. Expansion and Consolidation (c. 1365 - 911 BCE): • Around the mid-14th century BCE, Assyria began to expand its influence through military conquests under kings like Ashur-uballit I and Adad-nirari I. • They gradually extended their control over northern Mesopotamia, including areas previously dominated by the Mitanni and Hittites. • The Assyrians established a formidable military machine, relying on infantry, cavalry, and siege warfare techniques to subdue their enemies. 3. Height of Power (911 - 612 BCE): • The Assyrian Empire reached its peak during the Neo-Assyrian period, which began with the reign of Adad-nirari II (911-891 BCE) and continued through the rule of powerful kings like Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal. • They expanded aggressively, conquering vast territories from Egypt in the west to Persia in the east, including parts of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and the Levant (modern-day Syria, Israel, and Jordan). 4. Administrative Innovations and Cultural Achievements: • The Assyrians developed advanced administrative systems to govern their vast empire, including the use of provincial governors and a well-organized army. • They promoted the use of Aramaic as a lingua franca throughout their empire, facilitating communication and administrative efficiency. • Assyrian kings were also patrons of art and literature, commissioning impressive palace reliefs, sculptures, and documenting their military conquests on clay tablets. Decline and Fall: The Assyrian Empire began to decline in the late 7th century BCE due to a combination of internal strife, revolts in conquered territories, and external pressures: 1. Babylonian and Median Alliance (612 BCE): • The final blow to the Assyrian Empire came in 612 BCE when a coalition of Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians besieged and sacked Nineveh, the Assyrian capital. • This marked the end of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the fall of Assyrian dominance in Mesopotamia. Empire that Took Over Assyrian Control: Following the fall of the Assyrian Empire, several powers vied for control of Mesopotamia, including the Babylonians and the Medes: 1. Neo-Babylonian Empire: • The Neo-Babylonian Empire, under the Chaldean ruler Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar II, emerged as the dominant power in Mesopotamia after defeating the Assyrians and their allies. • Nebuchadnezzar II expanded Babylonian territory significantly and rebuilt Babylon into a magnificent city, known for its Hanging Gardens and the famous Ishtar Gate. 2. Medes and Persians: • The Medes, an Indo-European people from western Iran, also played a significant role in the downfall of Assyria. They, along with the Babylonians, were crucial in the siege of Nineveh. • Eventually, the Medes would be absorbed into the rising Achaemenid Persian Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BCE, which would go on to conquer Babylon and establish the largest empire the world had seen up to that point. In summary, the Assyrians rose to power through military prowess and administrative innovations, only to be overthrown by a coalition of Babylonians and Medes in 612 BCE. The Neo-Babylonian Empire succeeded Assyria as the dominant power in Mesopotamia, eventually giving way to the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Test Bank for People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory Brian M. Fagan , Nadia Durrani 9780205968022

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