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This Document Contains Chapters 4 to 6 Chapter 4 – Origins and the Diaspora Begins: c. 200,000 Years Ago and Later Multiple Choice Questions 1. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens spread from Africa into East and Southeast Asia by about __________. A. 5,000 years ago B. 20,000 years ago C. 70,000 years ago D. 100,000 years ago Answer: C 2. In the year A.D. 1772, a small band of seamen led by French explorer Marion du Fresne landed on a sandy beach in southern __________ far off the southern coast of Australia. A. New Zealand B. Pitcairn Island C. North Island D. Tasmania Answer: D 3. According to Steven Mithen, archaic humans lacked which one vital component of the modern mind? A. intelligence B. cognitive dissonance C. cognitive flexibility D. spatial apperception Answer: C 4. The multiregional model hypothesizes that human populations throughout __________ evolved independently, first to archaic H. sapiens, then to fully modern humans. A. the Old World B. Africa C. Australia D. Southeast Asia Answer: A 5. The multiregional model hypothesizes that human populations have been separated from each other for approximately how long? A. 500,000 years B. 4 million years C. 2 million years D. 150,000 years Answer: C 6. The out-of-Africa model takes the diametrically opposite view of the multiregional model. According to it, H. sapiens evolved in one place, then spread to __________. A. all other parts of the Old World B. Asia C. N. America via the Bering land bridge D. Sundha and Sahul Answer: A 7. In contrast to earlier, still rather shadowy humans, all known human finds in Africa dating to later than __________ are fully modern, by which time it’s clear that the anatomical transition was complete. A. 80,000 year ago B. 120,000 years ago C. 175,000 years ago D. 250,000 years ago Answer: B 8. What is a useful tool for calibrating mutation rates because it accumulates mutations much faster than nuclear DNA? A. radiometric dating B. RNA C. endonuclease screening D. mtDNA Answer: D 9. Today, with data from the entire mtDNA genome, there is evidence that __________ display more diverse types of mitochondrial DNA than other present-day populations elsewhere in the world, a finding that suggests they had more time to develop such __________. A. Africans/mutations B. Europeans/mutations C. Asians/mutations D. Africans/polymorphisms Answer: A 10. __________ first appeared at a time of constant long-term climatic change, reflected in the Northern Hemisphere by long glacial periods separated by shorter warmer intervals. A. Modern humans B. Asians C. Europeans D. Africans Answer: A 11. From an archaeologist’s point of view, identifying __________ is virtually impossible, except from the occasional dated archaeological site with human remains and distinctive artifacts. A. Homo sapiens remains B. Neanderthal campsites C. migration patterns D. population movements Answer: D 12. Stephen Oppenheimer (2008) believes that anatomically modern humans first moved rapidly out of Africa along a huge arc of coastline from Africa, around the coasts of the __________ Ocean. A. Pacific B. Atlantic C. Indian D. Southern Answer: C 13. The Mt. Toba disaster some 70,000 years ago may have led to a serious human genetic bottleneck which resulted in __________. A. several mutations that changed skin pigmentation B. little genetic diversity amongst present humans C. major changes in tool technology D. an explosion of artwork as human cognition adapted to the disaster Answer: B 14. Cognitive abilities like fluent speech, enhanced planning abilities, and powerful intellectual skills are __________, which makes it extremely difficult to establish quite when anatomically modern humans acquired modern forms of human behavior. A. challenging B. intangibles C. ephemeral D. didactic Answer: B 15. __________, on the Indian Ocean shore near the southern tip of South Africa, has yielded extensive occupation deposits dating to at least 65,000 years ago, where numerous finely bladed tools, spear points (including some flaked with pressure, a much later innovation in Europe), and some possible bone points were found. A. Shanidar Cave B. Sibudu Cave C. Blombos Cave D. Petrolona Cave Answer: C 16. __________, in South Africa, has yielded a bone projectile point, a spatula-like tool for hide working, and a needlelike object, from a layer dating to about 61,000 years ago. A. Shanidar Cave B. Sibudu Cave C. Blombos Cave D. Petrolona Cave Answer: B 17. At the height of the last glaciation, about 18,000 years ago, sea levels were over _________ below modern levels. Dry land joined Sumatra to __________. A. 100 m (300 feet)/Borneo B. 50 m ( 150 feet)/Sarawak C. 150 m ( 500 feet)/Brunei D. 75 m ( 240 feet)/Madagascar Answer: A 18. The earliest evidence for human settlement in New Guinea comes from the highlands at about __________ years ago. A. 18,000 B. 22,000 C. 38,000 D. 45,000 Answer: D 19. Approximately how long ago did people start deep ocean fishing? A. 18,000 years ago B. 28,000 years ago C. 45,000 years ago D. 8,000 years ago Answer: C 20. Tasmania is now an island, but a land bridge connected it to mainland Australia for at least __________ years of the late Ice Age, so that first settlement was a matter of hunting and foraging across dry land. A. 18,000 B. 22,000 C. 38,000 D. 55,000 Answer: D 21. The __________ hypothesis argues for independent evolution by region. A. out-of-Africa B. replacement C. multiregional D. morph Answer: C 22. The __________ model hypothesizes that human populations across the Old World evolved in one place (Africa) and spread to other parts of the world. A. out-of-Africa B. continuity C. multiregional D. single species Answer: A 23. Mitochondrial DNA research suggests that anatomically modern humans developed in __________. A. Asia B. Europe C. Australia D. Africa Answer: D Essay Questions 24. Discuss the implications of Neanderthals and modern humans coexisting as has been found at sites such as Qafzeh and St. Césaire. Answer: The coexistence of Neanderthals and modern humans, as evidenced at sites like Qafzeh and St. Césaire, has significant implications for our understanding of human evolution and interaction. Here are some key points to consider: 1. Interbreeding and Genetic Exchange: Genetic studies indicate that Neanderthals and modern humans interbred to some extent when they encountered each other. This interbreeding has left traces of Neanderthal DNA in the genomes of non-African modern human populations today. The existence of hybrid individuals (like the famous child of Lagar Velho) underscores that genetic exchange was possible. 2. Cultural Exchange and Adaptation: Coexistence suggests that Neanderthals and modern humans shared landscapes and resources. This could imply cultural interactions such as sharing technologies, ideas about tool-making, or even symbolic behaviors. Evidence of deliberate burials and symbolic artifacts among both groups suggests shared cultural practices or at least parallel developments in these domains. 3. Competition and Ecological Niches: Both Neanderthals and modern humans were hunter-gatherers, potentially competing for similar resources such as prey animals, plants, and territory. The fact that modern humans eventually became the dominant species globally suggests they may have had competitive advantages, whether due to technological innovations, social organization, or other factors. 4. Impact on Neanderthal Extinction: The overlap in time and space between Neanderthals and modern humans raises questions about the role of modern humans in the extinction of Neanderthals. While direct conflict leading to extinction is debated, the presence of modern humans could have contributed to pressure on Neanderthal populations through competition for resources or indirect factors. 5. Evolutionary Insights: The coexistence of Neanderthals and modern humans challenges simplistic views of linear evolution. Instead of a clear-cut replacement scenario (where modern humans completely replaced Neanderthals), the evidence suggests complex interactions, including interbreeding and cultural exchange, that shaped the genetic and cultural diversity of early human populations. 6. Continuity and Discontinuity: Understanding how and why Neanderthals disappeared while modern humans thrived is crucial for reconstructing the broader patterns of human evolutionary history. The coexistence phase offers a window into the dynamics of human populations during a critical period of prehistory. In summary, the implications of Neanderthals and modern humans coexisting at sites like Qafzeh and St. Césaire highlight the complexity of human evolution, including interbreeding, cultural exchange, competition, and the eventual dominance of modern humans. Studying these interactions enriches our understanding of how different human groups interacted and evolved during a pivotal time in our prehistory. 25. Compare and contrast the multiregional model of modern human origins with the out-of-Africa model. Answer: The multiregional model and the out-of-Africa model are two contrasting theories that attempt to explain the origin and evolution of modern humans (Homo sapiens). Here’s a comparison of both models: Multiregional Model: 1. Geographic Distribution: • Concept: Humans evolved simultaneously in multiple regions (Africa, Europe, Asia) from local archaic populations (e.g., Homo erectus). • Gene Flow: Significant gene flow occurred between different populations, allowing for continuous evolutionary change across regions. • Regional Continuity: Populations in each region persisted and evolved over time, with some degree of local adaptation. 2. Mechanism of Evolution: • Continuous Evolution: Evolution of modern human traits (anatomical and genetic) occurred gradually within regional populations through natural selection and gene flow. • No Replacement: There was no single "out-of-Africa" migration replacing all other archaic populations; instead, archaic populations gradually transformed into modern humans. 3. Genetic Evidence: • Regional Variants: Predicts genetic continuity and shared ancestry among modern human populations across different continents. • Polygenetic Inheritance: Supports the idea that different human traits evolved independently in various regions. 4. Fossil Evidence: • Regional Features: Points to the presence of regional anatomical features persisting over time (e.g., Neanderthal features in Europe, Denisovan features in Asia). Out-of-Africa Model (Replacement or Recent African Origin Model): 1. Geographic Distribution: • Concept: Modern humans evolved in Africa and subsequently dispersed out of Africa, replacing archaic human populations (like Neanderthals and Denisovans) in other regions. • Single Origin: All non-African modern human populations are descended from a single small group of Homo sapiens that left Africa relatively recently (around 60,000-80,000 years ago). 2. Mechanism of Evolution: • Bottleneck: Proposes a genetic bottleneck effect where only a small subset of the African population migrated and successfully colonized other regions. • Replacement: Emphasizes the replacement of existing archaic human populations in Eurasia and beyond by modern humans, driven by competitive advantages (e.g., cognitive abilities, technological advancements). 3. Genetic Evidence: • Genetic Diversity: Supports higher genetic diversity in African populations compared to non-African populations, consistent with a longer history of evolution and population expansion in Africa. • Time Depth: Non-African populations show evidence of genetic bottlenecks and founder effects, reflecting a recent origin from a small founding population. 4. Fossil Evidence: • Anatomical Modernity: Emphasizes the emergence of distinctly modern human traits (e.g., cranial morphology, tool technologies) in Africa first, with subsequent spread to other regions. • Replacement Events: Fossil evidence (e.g., in Europe, Australia) suggests abrupt replacement of earlier hominins by modern humans around 40,000-60,000 years ago. Comparison: 1. Evolutionary Dynamics: • Multiregional Model: Emphasizes gradual evolution within local populations with gene flow between regions. • Out-of-Africa Model: Highlights a single origin event followed by rapid dispersal and replacement of archaic populations. 2. Genetic Patterns: • Multiregional Model: Predicts regional continuity and admixture between archaic and modern humans. • Out-of-Africa Model: Supports the "Eve" hypothesis, where all non-Africans descend from a single maternal ancestor in Africa. 3. Fossil Evidence: • Multiregional Model: Interprets regional variation in fossil morphology as evidence for local continuity. • Out-of-Africa Model: Points to the appearance of modern human features in Africa first, with subsequent spread and replacement events in other regions. 4. Timing and Spread: • Multiregional Model: Suggests a longer period of human evolution with continuous interactions and adaptations across regions. • Out-of-Africa Model: Proposes a more recent and rapid dispersal of modern humans out of Africa. In summary, while both models seek to explain the origins and spread of modern humans, they differ fundamentally in their interpretations of genetic, fossil, and archaeological evidence. The out-of-Africa model currently has stronger support from genetic studies, while the multiregional model has been largely refuted due to the lack of genetic evidence supporting widespread continuity between regional populations. Chapter 5 – Europe and Eurasia: c. 48,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The acronym AMH stands for __________. A. advanced modern humans B. actually modern humans C. anatomically modern humans D. actuarially modern humans Answer: C 2. Which site in Southwest Asia shows evidence that Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted? A. Skhul B. Qafzeh C. et-Tabun D. Negev Answer: B 3. The replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans is marked by __________. A. radically different tool technologies B. a gradual change in tool technologies C. no changes in the tool technologies D. a combination of Neanderthal and modern human tool technologies Answer: B 4. When did Homo sapiens appear in Europe? A. 80,000 years ago B. 70,000 years ago C. 60,000 years ago D. 48,000 years ago Answer: D 5. Upper Paleolithic blade technology has been likened to a __________. A. set of steak knives B. set of silverware C. Swiss army knife D. pocket knife Answer: C 6. Cro-Magnon is the term used to refer to __________. A. Neanderthals in Europe B. early modern Homo sapiens in Europe C. australopithecines D. Homo erectus in Europe Answer: B 7. Upper Paleolithic cultures of Europe do NOT include __________. A. Magdalenian B. Aurignacian C. Gravettian D. Oldowan Answer: D 8. Most Upper Paleolithic sites in Europe are located near __________. A. a water source B. a mountain range C. tundra regions D. a permanent glacier Answer: A 9. During the Upper Paleolithic, social organization __________. A. became less complex B. became more complex C. remained unchanged D. was non-existent Answer: B 10. The earliest evidence of painted art comes from __________. A. Lascaux Cave, France B. Grotte de Chauvet, France C. Apollo Cave II, Africa D. Niaux, France Answer: B 11. James Adovasio and colleagues believe that __________ was/were used to hunt large numbers of rabbits and other small game at the sites of Dolní Vestonice and Pavlov. A. trapping B. bows and arrows C. snares D. cooperative hunting Answer: D 12. The Eastern Gravettian site that has the remains of five houses constructed of mammoth bones is __________. A. Dolní Vestonice B. Pavlov C. Mezhirich D. Kostenki Answer: C 13. People from the site of __________ were expert bone workers who carved female and animal figurines. A. Mal’ta B. Dolní Vestonice C. Kostenki D. Afontova Gora-Oshurkovo Answer: A 14. The only known late Ice Age site in northeast Asia, and possibly a source of the cultural traditions from which the culture of the first Americans derived, is __________. A. Mal’ta B. the Bering Strait C. Diuktai D. Clovis Answer: C 15. The Upper Pleistocene is characterized by a __________. A. constant glacial state B. climate much similar to today’s C. climate that was much warmer than today’s D. flux between glacial and interglacial periods Answer: D 16. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens spread from Africa into Southwest Asia by about __________. A. 5,000 years ago B. 20,000 years ago C. 80,000 years ago D. 100,000 years ago Answer: D 17. The tool technology associated with Neanderthals is the __________. A. Mousterian B. Magdalenian C. Aurignacian D. Gravettian Answer: A 18. Due to the constant changes in the climate, peoples of the Upper Paleolithic had to adapt so the best manner of subsistence would be __________. A. agriculture B. pastoralism C. hunting and gathering D. cannibalism Answer: C 19. The populations of large and small herbivores were likely __________ due to the longer growing season from 35,000 B.C. to 12,000 B.C. A. smaller B. larger C. about the same as previous times D. non-existent Answer: B 20. It is thought that the group size of Upper Paleolithic peoples would be much like that of modern __________. A. hunter-gatherers B. chiefdoms C. cities D. tribes Answer: A 21. Ornamentation in the form of beads, pendants, and perforated animal teeth are found between __________. A. 100,000 to 90,000 B.C. B. 80,000 to 70,000 B.C. C. 60,000 to 50,000 B.C. D. 40,000 to 30,000 B.C. Answer: D 22. Common themes in Upper Paleolithic cave art are __________. A. animals B. female figurines C. plants D. natural objects, like mountains Answer: A 23. Around 12,000 B.P., the Magdalenians seem to have stopped painting and engraving deep caves; instead they __________. A. painted on rocks found on the landscape B. painted on cave entrances and in rock shelters C. painted on portable rocks D. stopped painting all together Answer: B 24. The mammoth used by the Eastern Gravettian peoples for food, hides, and housing materials __________. A. likely died natural deaths or were killed by Gravettian peoples B. were of small stature compared to the mastodon C. were domesticated by the Gravettian peoples D. migrated in from more southerly latitudes Answer: D 25. A diminutive version of the blade used for manufacturing small barbs and scraping tools is called a __________. A. burin B. miniblade C. microblade D. miniknife Answer: C Essay Questions 26. Discuss the implications of Neanderthals and modern humans coexisting as has been found at sites such as Qafzeh and St. Césaire. Answer: The coexistence of Neanderthals and modern humans, as evidenced at sites like Qafzeh and St. Césaire, has significant implications for our understanding of human evolution, behavior, and interactions between different hominin species. Here are several key implications: 1. Interbreeding and Genetic Legacy: One of the most profound implications is that Neanderthals and modern humans interbred to some extent. This is supported by genetic evidence showing that non-African modern humans have Neanderthal DNA in their genomes. This interbreeding suggests that the two species were not completely reproductively isolated and were able to produce fertile offspring. This genetic legacy raises questions about the nature of these interactions—whether they were cooperative, competitive, or opportunistic. 2. Behavioral and Cultural Interactions: The coexistence of Neanderthals and modern humans implies some level of interaction in terms of behaviors and culture. This could include sharing of technologies, ideas, and possibly even social practices. Evidence from archaeological sites suggests that Neanderthals were capable of sophisticated behaviors, such as symbolic expression and complex tool making. Interaction with modern humans could have influenced the cultural evolution of both groups. 3. Ecological and Competitive Dynamics: Neanderthals and modern humans likely competed for similar resources in the environments they inhabited. The fact that modern humans eventually replaced Neanderthals in most regions where they overlapped raises questions about the nature of this competition. It could have been driven by technological, social, or environmental factors that favored one species over the other. 4. Adaptation to Environmental Changes: The coexistence of Neanderthals and modern humans at different times and places suggests that both species were able to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions. This adaptability is reflected in their ability to survive in diverse habitats ranging from cold, Ice Age environments to more temperate regions. 5. Implications for Human Identity and Diversity: The discovery of interbreeding challenges simplistic notions of human identity and lineage. It highlights the complexity of human evolutionary history and suggests that our species' genetic diversity may have been influenced by interactions with other hominin groups. Understanding these interactions contributes to a richer understanding of human diversity and the factors that shaped it. In conclusion, the coexistence of Neanderthals and modern humans at sites like Qafzeh and St. Césaire provides a window into a dynamic period of human prehistory marked by interaction, adaptation, and eventual replacement. It underscores the complexity of human evolution and the ongoing quest to understand the relationships between different hominin species and their contributions to the genetic and cultural heritage of modern humans. 27. Discuss the site of Grotte de Chauvet, France. What is important about this site? What do the various dates reveal about this site? Answer: The Grotte de Chauvet, located in southern France, is an important archaeological site primarily known for its remarkable cave paintings. Here are the key aspects that make this site significant: 1. Age and Dating: The cave paintings in Chauvet Cave are among the oldest known examples of prehistoric cave art in the world. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples and other materials associated with the paintings suggests that they were created between approximately 30,000 to 36,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. This places them in the Aurignacian culture, making them contemporaneous with other famous Paleolithic sites like Lascaux and Altamira. 2. Artistic Sophistication: The paintings in Chauvet Cave are renowned for their artistic sophistication and realism. They depict a variety of animals including mammoths, rhinoceroses, lions, bison, and horses, rendered in a naturalistic style with careful attention to anatomical detail and movement. The artists used techniques such as shading and perspective to create vivid and dynamic images. 3. Preservation and Discovery: Unlike many other Paleolithic cave art sites, Chauvet Cave was remarkably well-preserved due to a rockfall that sealed its entrance around 20,000 years ago. It remained untouched until its rediscovery in 1994 by speleologists Jean-Marie Chauvet, Eliette Brunel Deschamps, and Christian Hillaire. This pristine preservation has provided a unique opportunity for scientists to study ancient art and gain insights into the lives and beliefs of Upper Paleolithic humans. 4. Cultural Significance: The paintings at Chauvet Cave provide valuable clues about the cultural and symbolic practices of early humans. The presence of detailed animal depictions, often in association with other symbolic elements like dots and geometric shapes, suggests that these artworks may have had ritual, spiritual, or communicative purposes within the context of Upper Paleolithic societies. 5. Technological and Social Context: The presence of such elaborate art at Chauvet Cave indicates that Upper Paleolithic humans had developed sophisticated artistic techniques and likely had complex social and symbolic systems. This challenges earlier assumptions that such advanced cultural expressions emerged much later in human prehistory. In summary, the Grotte de Chauvet is important not only for its age and the artistic quality of its cave paintings but also for what these artworks reveal about the cultural, social, and cognitive abilities of early humans during the Upper Paleolithic period. The site has contributed significantly to our understanding of prehistoric art and the evolution of human culture. 28. What kinds of animal resources were exploited during the Upper Paleolithic? How did people obtain these resources? Answer: During the Upper Paleolithic period, which spanned from approximately 50,000 to 10,000 years ago, humans exploited a variety of animal resources for survival. These resources included: 1. Large game animals: This category included species like mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, bison, horses, and reindeer. These animals provided meat, hides for clothing and shelter, bones for tools and weapons, and sinews for cords. 2. Small game animals: This included animals like rabbits, hares, birds, and smaller mammals. They provided additional sources of meat and fur. 3. Fish and shellfish: Near coastal areas or freshwater sources, fish and shellfish were an important part of the diet, providing protein and fats. They were obtained through fishing, trapping, or scavenging along shorelines. 4. Birds: Birds were hunted for meat, feathers, and sometimes eggs. 5. Marine mammals: In regions where they were available, marine mammals such as seals were hunted for their meat, blubber (fat), and bones. 6. Insects: Although less commonly discussed, insects were likely part of the diet in some regions, providing additional sources of protein and fat. People obtained these resources through various hunting and gathering techniques, adapted to their environments: • Hunting: This involved strategies like ambush hunting, where hunters would strategically position themselves to surprise large game animals. Persistence hunting, where animals were chased over long distances until they exhausted, was also practiced. • Trapping: Techniques included pit traps, where animals would fall into dug-out holes, or snares made from natural materials to capture smaller game. • Fishing: This involved using nets, hooks, and possibly even spears or traps to catch fish and other aquatic species. • Gathering: Gathering involved collecting eggs, edible plants, and nuts that were available in their environments. The Upper Paleolithic marked a significant advancement in hunting techniques, with the development of specialized tools like spears with stone points, harpoons for fishing, and the use of bone tools for processing animal materials. These advancements allowed humans to efficiently exploit a wide range of animal resources, contributing to their survival and adaptation across diverse landscapes. Chapter 6 – The First Americans: Around 14000 B.C. to Modern Times Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT a controversy surrounding the debate of the peopling of the New World? A. what toolkit they brought with them and what their life way was B. when humans first settled the New World C. what the ancestry of the first Native Americans is D. that migrations from Siberia were taken to reach the Americas Answer: D 2. The land mass that people crossed to enter the Americas is called __________. A. Siber-alaskia B. Chukchi C. Beringia D. Anadyr Answer: C 3. Sites in Alaska that date to the time of the first settlements of the Americas do NOT include __________. A. Clovis Point B. Broken Mammoth C. Dry Creek D. Walker Road Answer: A 4. According to Christy Turner’s research of dental morphology, Native Americans are __________. A. sundadonts B. microdonts C. sinodonts D. macrodonts Answer: C 5. Turner and Greenberg think there were __________ groups who migrated into the New World. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: B 6. The oldest site in North America is believed to be __________. A. Clovis B. Folsom C. Meadowcroft D. Koster Answer: C 7. The oldest site in South America is believed to be __________. A. Monte Verde B. Caverna de Pedra Pintada C. TehuacánValley D. Naco Answer: A 8. Using computer modelling, it was found that it would take __________ years for new hunter gatherer populations to inhabit the New World. A. 500 B. 2,000 C. 5,000 D. 1,000 Answer: B 9. Clovis culture is known mainly from which kinds of sites from western North America? A. settlements B. temporary camps C. kill sites D. for aging areas Answer: C 10. The Clovis tradition across North America __________. A. is rather uniform B. is strikingly different from place to place C. contains typical fluted points, but the rest of the toolkit varies D. replaces earlier Inuit traditions Answer: A 11. Which of the following is NOT a hypothesis for the big-game extinctions? A. disease and viruses among the animals B. changing environments C. variation in mean temperature D. intensive hunting by Paleo-Indians Answer: A 12. Archaeological Plains sites dating to after 10,500 B.C. show that __________ became the dominant species exploited by Paleo-Indians. A. deer B. mammoth C. bison D. rabbits Answer: C 13. Which of the following is true about the site of Koster, Illinois? A. it chronicles human activity from 7500 B.C. to 1200 B.C. B. the Paleo-Indian settlements were permanent C. the Archaic settlements were temporary and exploited less of the natural resources D. it chronicles human activity from 7500 B.C. to A.D. 1200 Answer: D 14. During the Archaic, long distance exchange was evident in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. Which of the following was NOT a traded item listed in your textbook? A. copper B. hematite C. bird feathers D. seashells Answer: C 15. The Arctic Small Tool tradition is thought to be the origin of __________. A. modern Aleut tools B. modern Inuit tools C. Paleo-Indian tools D. Archaic tools Answer: B 16. Differences between Aleut and Inuit seem to be primarily __________. A. cultural B. environmental C. language group (as defined by Joseph Greenberg) D. genetic Answer: A 17. Which of the following is NOT a tradition associated with the Inuit or Aleut? A. Thule B. Halibut C. Norton D. Arctic Small Tool Answer: B 18. During the time of the Bering land bridge the world sea levels were as much as __________ meters lower than today. A. 10 B. 50 C. 100 D. 250 Answer: C 19. The site in Siberia thought to have been a staging area for the first Native Americans is __________. A. Diuktai B. Anadyr C. Chukchi D. Clovis Answer: A 20. The route(s) of settlement into the New World came via __________. A. the ice-free corridor B. seacoasts C. open ocean voyage D. Polynesia Answer: A 21. At the site of Monte Verde the most important raw material was __________. A. stone B. wood C. bones D. sinew Answer: B 22. What is the Clovis site in Arizona where people killed mammoth and bison? A. Murray Springs B. Meadow Croft C. Monte Verde D. Folsom Answer: A 23. The Plains hunting cultures also had large kill sites in __________, Colorado. This is where approximately 200 bison of all ages were stampeded into a deep, narrow arroyo. A. Garnsey B. Hogup C. Olsen-Chubbock D. Gatecliff Answer: C Essay Questions 24. Discuss the controversies surrounding the peopling of the New World. Answer: The peopling of the New World, specifically the Americas, has been a subject of intense debate and controversy among archaeologists, anthropologists, and geneticists for decades. Here are some of the key controversies surrounding this topic: 1. Timing and Route of Migration: One of the earliest and most contentious debates is about when and how humans first migrated to the Americas. The traditional theory suggested migration across the Bering Land Bridge (Beringia) around 15,000-20,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age. However, new evidence such as early archaeological sites (e.g., Monte Verde in Chile) and genetic studies suggest that humans may have arrived earlier, possibly by 20,000-30,000 years ago or even earlier. 2. Pre-Clovis vs. Clovis First: The Clovis culture, characterized by distinctive stone tools (Clovis points), was long considered the earliest widespread culture in the Americas, dating around 13,000-12,600 years ago. The "Clovis First" hypothesis proposed that these were the first people in the Americas. However, discoveries of pre-Clovis sites challenge this idea, suggesting that humans arrived earlier and possibly by different routes. 3. Solutrean Hypothesis: This controversial theory suggests that some of the first Americans came from Europe, specifically from the Solutrean culture of the Upper Paleolithic. Proponents argue for similarities in stone tool technology between Solutrean and Clovis cultures, but this hypothesis lacks strong supporting evidence and is widely criticized by mainstream archaeologists. 4. Genetic Evidence: Studies of modern and ancient DNA have provided insights into the ancestry and migration patterns of Native American populations. Genetic evidence supports multiple waves of migration into the Americas, with a predominant ancestry from Siberian populations. However, the exact timing and routes of these migrations continue to be refined as new genetic data become available. 5. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: The Americas exhibit incredible cultural and linguistic diversity among Indigenous peoples, reflecting thousands of years of adaptation and development. Understanding how and when different cultural groups spread across the continents is challenging and requires interdisciplinary research integrating archaeology, genetics, linguistics, and anthropology. 6. Political and Cultural Sensitivities: Research into the peopling of the Americas is not only scientific but also carries significant cultural and political implications. Issues such as Indigenous rights, sovereignty, and the legacy of colonialism influence how research is conducted and interpreted. In summary, the controversies surrounding the peopling of the New World highlight the complexity of human migration and adaptation in ancient times. Ongoing research, incorporating diverse scientific disciplines and respecting Indigenous perspectives, is crucial for unravelling the full story of how the Americas were populated. 25. Discuss the biological and linguistic evidence for the first Americans. Answer: The study of the first Americans involves examining both biological (genetic) and linguistic evidence to understand the origins and migrations of Indigenous peoples into the Americas. Here’s an overview of both types of evidence: Biological Evidence 1. Genetic Studies: • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): Studies of mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited maternally, have provided insights into the ancestry of Native American populations. The common ancestor of Native American mtDNA haplogroups is believed to have originated in Asia, particularly in Siberia, suggesting a migration across the Bering Land Bridge. • Y Chromosome DNA: Analysis of Y chromosome haplogroups in Native American populations also supports a Siberian origin, indicating that males from these populations were part of the migration to the Americas. • Ancient DNA: Advances in ancient DNA techniques have allowed researchers to analyze genetic material from ancient skeletal remains. This has provided direct evidence of genetic continuity and population movements in the Americas over thousands of years, confirming multiple waves of migration and genetic diversification. 2. Genetic Diversity: • Modern Native American populations exhibit genetic diversity reflecting different migration waves and regional adaptations. For example, populations in South America may show genetic contributions from different sources compared to those in North America. 3. Genetic Admixture: • Studies of admixture between Native American populations and later arrivals such as Europeans and Africans following European colonization provide insights into population dynamics and genetic exchanges after initial settlement. Linguistic Evidence 1. Language Families: • Linguistic studies have identified several major language families among Indigenous languages in the Americas, which are grouped into larger language phyla. Examples include: • Eskimo-Aleut: Spoken by Indigenous peoples in the Arctic regions of North America. • Na-Dene: Found in North America, including Athabaskan languages spoken by various Indigenous groups. • Hokan-Siouan: Includes languages spoken across North America. • Amerind: Includes languages spoken across Central and South America. • These language families provide clues about historical connections, migrations, and cultural interactions among different Indigenous groups. 2. Linguistic Diversity: • The Americas are linguistically diverse, with hundreds of distinct languages and dialects. This diversity reflects the complex histories of migration, adaptation, and cultural evolution among Indigenous peoples. 3. Loanwords and Borrowings: • Linguistic analysis includes the study of loanwords and linguistic borrowings, which can indicate historical interactions between different language groups. For example, loanwords from European languages in Indigenous languages reflect cultural exchanges after European contact. Integration of Biological and Linguistic Evidence • Population Movements: Genetic studies provide insights into when and from where populations migrated into the Americas, while linguistic studies help trace cultural and linguistic connections between different groups. • Regional Variation: Both genetic and linguistic diversity in the Americas vary regionally, reflecting localized histories of migration, adaptation, and cultural development. • Interdisciplinary Approach: The combination of genetic, linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological research is essential for reconstructing the complex history of the first Americans, their origins, migrations, and interactions over millennia. In conclusion, biological and linguistic evidence complement each other in reconstructing the peopling of the Americas, providing insights into the diverse origins, migrations, and cultural developments of Indigenous peoples across the continents. 26. Explain the factors that lead to social differentiation in the Eastern Woodlands during the Archaic. Answer: Social differentiation in the Eastern Woodlands during the Archaic period (8000-1000 BCE) was influenced by several key factors, which varied over time and across different regions. Here are the primary factors that contributed to social differentiation during this period: 1. Subsistence Strategies: The Eastern Woodlands region offered diverse ecological zones, including river valleys, uplands, and coastal areas. Different groups within the region adapted to these environments through various subsistence strategies such as hunting, gathering, fishing, and later, horticulture. • Resource Control: Groups that controlled key resources such as fertile river valleys, abundant game, or strategic locations for trade routes could accumulate surplus resources. This control allowed them to support larger populations and develop more complex social structures. 2. Technology and Material Culture: Advances in technology, particularly in tool-making and resource extraction, contributed to social differentiation. For instance, groups that developed more efficient tools for hunting or farming could increase their productivity and wealth. • Craft Specialization: Some individuals or groups may have specialized in crafting specific items such as pottery, textiles, or ceremonial objects. This specialization not only facilitated trade and exchange but also enhanced social status and prestige. 3. Environmental Factors: Changes in climate and ecological conditions influenced settlement patterns, resource availability, and social interactions. • Adaptation to Climate Change: Periodic shifts in climate and environmental conditions may have required communities to adapt their subsistence strategies, leading to social reorganization or migration. 4. Trade and Exchange: Interactions through trade networks allowed for the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultural practices. • Network Formation: Communities involved in long-distance trade networks or situated along major trade routes could accumulate wealth and prestige through control over trade routes or valuable commodities. 5. Cultural Factors: Beliefs, rituals, and social customs also played a role in social differentiation. • Religious Leadership: Individuals or groups who held religious or ceremonial roles often wielded significant influence and authority within their communities. • Social Hierarchies: Certain customs or traditions may have promoted social hierarchies based on lineage, age, or achieved status, further contributing to differentiation. 6. Population Dynamics: Demographic factors such as population size, growth rates, and migration patterns influenced social dynamics. • Population Pressure: Increased population density in certain regions may have intensified competition for resources, leading to the emergence of social inequalities and hierarchies. 7. Interaction with Outside Groups: Encounters and interactions with neighbouring groups or societies contributed to cultural exchange and sometimes conflict. • Conflict and Alliance: Competition over resources or differences in cultural practices could lead to conflict or alliances, influencing social structures and power dynamics. In summary, social differentiation in the Eastern Woodlands during the Archaic period was shaped by a combination of environmental, technological, economic, and cultural factors. These factors interacted in complex ways, leading to the development of diverse social structures and hierarchies within and between communities across the region. Test Bank for People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory Brian M. Fagan , Nadia Durrani 9780205968022

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