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This Document Contains Chapters 10 to 12 Chapter 10 – The First European Farmers Multiple Choice Questions 1. The earliest food production in southern Europe occurred in __________ in 7000 B.C. A. Italy B. Luxemburg C. Bulgaria D. Greece Answer: D 2. It is traditionally theorized that agriculture spread into Europe from Anatolia around __________. A. 10000 B.C. B. 8000 B.C. C. 6000 B.C. D. 4000 B.C. Answer: C 3. Loess soils are __________. A. from glacial windblown dust B. relatively infertile C. difficult to till D. highly acidic and thus good for fruit production Answer: A 4. Recent research shows that __________. A. all plants and animals domesticated in Europe were introduced from Southwest Asia B. some plants and animals may have been domesticated in Southeast Europe C. all plants and animals utilized in Europe were domesticated there D. archaeologists are not sure when nor where any domestication occurred Answer: B 5. The European farming culture named for the linear-decorated pottery is __________. A. Karanovo B. Tripolye C. Bandkeramik D. Cardialware Answer: C 6. Due to the richly decorated graves of females in Bandkeramik sites it is thought that __________. A. they had matrilineages B. women only had a high status in death C. women were sacrificed for better crop yields D. kin groups traced their ancestry through the male line Answer: A 7. Communal burials in western Europe are believed to correspond to __________. A. villages B. status differences C. kin groups D. ethnic groups Answer: C 8. Individual graves occur in central and eastern Europe around 2800 to 2400 B.C. It is thought this change could be related to __________. A. matrilineages changing to patrilineages B. diseased individuals being buried alone C. a more individualistic relationship with the supernatural D. an emphasis on individual power and prestige Answer: D 9. The secondary products revolution is __________. A. the use of animals for more than just meat B. the use of cores for more than just one stone tool C. invention of items needed for agriculture: pottery and hoes D. associated with the Industrial Revolution Answer: A 10. The plow was introduced to Europe as early as __________. A. 700 B.C./A.D. 700 B. 1900 B.C./900 B.C. C. 3600 B.C./2600 B.C. D. 5000 B.C./4000 B.C. Answer: C 11. Social differences in European burials are thought to be linked to __________. A. crop specialization B. craft specialization and trade networks C. megaliths D. economic disparities due to status Answer: B 12. Megaliths are found as early as __________. A. 2000 B.C. B. A.D. 1000 C. 4500 B.C. D. 6000 B.C. Answer: C 13. Which of the following was NOT suggested in your book to explain megaliths? A. tombs for the living B. territorial markers that were signs of ancestral ownership of land C. a place of worship D. the internal structure of large palaces Answer: D 14. The Mesolithic hunters who flourished in Europe after 8000 B.C. until the introduction of food production __________. A. were well adapted to the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry B. we’re not preadapted to the new economies and vanished quickly C. lived mostly on reindeer D. lived on sea food when game animals were in short supply Answer: A 15. Agriculture and animal husbandry in southeast Europe probably developed __________. A. as a response to environmental pressures misunderstood by native Europeans B. because of the “drift” of domestic animals and cereals from the Near East C. due to changes in dietary preferences D. due to unusual climate changes Answer: B 16. The __________ documents the first settlement of southeast European farmers in the Middle Danube region of central Europe. A. Argissa-Maghula culture B. Bandkeramik complex C. München complex D. Swiss Lake complex Answer: B 17. __________ was/were adopted by early farmers of Europe. A. Pigs (Hogs) B. Maize C. Cereals D. Basketry Answer: C 18. The Mesolithic of central and western Europe __________. A. lasted for about 10,000 years B. ended with the introduction of farming C. displayed hardly any local variation D. was based on core-tool technology Answer: B 19. The Bandkeramik expansion created a “frontier” in many parts of Europe between farming communities and Mesolithic peoples. After the creation of this “frontier” __________. A. both hunter-gatherers and farming peoples stayed behind their boundaries and did not mingle with the other group B. for the most part, these groups were unaware of one another’s presence C. farmers and Mesolithic peoples interacted across the “frontier” through numerous contacts that were beneficial to both sides D. warfare was nearly constant until all Mesolithic peoples became farmers Answer: C 20. Plow agriculture __________. A. allows fewer people to work an acre of land B. has a tendency to consolidate an individual’s fields C. may result in expansion into lighter soils D. results in better, organic food production Answer: A Essay Questions 21. Discuss Robin Dennell’s argument for the introduction of food production in Europe. Answer: Robin Dennell, a prominent archaeologist and paleoanthropologist, has put forth a compelling argument regarding the introduction of food production in Europe. His perspective challenges traditional views and suggests a more nuanced understanding of how agriculture and food production spread across Europe during prehistoric times. Dennell's Argument: 1. Early Agriculture in Europe: • Dennell argues that agriculture did not spread uniformly across Europe as a result of migrations or invasions from the Near East (Anatolia and Mesopotamia). • Instead, he proposes that agriculture emerged independently in multiple regions of Europe, often through local innovation and adaptation rather than through large-scale migrations. 2. Local Innovation and Adoption: • According to Dennell, indigenous European populations began experimenting with plant cultivation and animal husbandry independently, prompted by local environmental conditions and cultural developments. • This process of local innovation led to the gradual adoption and spread of agriculture across different parts of Europe over an extended period of time. 3. Gradual Transition: • Dennell emphasizes that the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe was a gradual process spanning several millennia, rather than a sudden change brought about by the arrival of agriculturalists from the Near East. • This gradual transition allowed for the integration of agricultural practices with existing cultural and subsistence strategies. 4. Evidence from Archaeology: • Archaeological evidence supports Dennell's argument by showing a mosaic of agricultural practices and timelines across Europe: • Linear Pottery Culture (LBK): Traditionally, the LBK was thought to represent the earliest wave of agriculturalists moving from the Near East into Central Europe around 5500 BCE. However, recent studies have highlighted regional variations within LBK settlements, suggesting that local factors influenced the adoption and adaptation of agriculture. • Multiple Centers of Innovation: Archaeological findings indicate that agriculture emerged independently in various regions of Europe, such as the Mediterranean, Central Europe, and the Balkans, among others. Each region developed its own agricultural practices suited to local environmental conditions and cultural contexts. • Long-Term Development: Rather than a single introduction event, agriculture in Europe evolved over millennia through interactions between indigenous hunter-gatherer populations and incoming agriculturalists. This interaction fostered a gradual process of cultural exchange and adaptation. Implications: Robin Dennell's argument challenges the traditional diffusionist perspective that agriculture in Europe was primarily brought by migrating agriculturalists from the Near East. Instead, he emphasizes the role of local innovation and adaptation in the spread of agriculture across Europe. This perspective shifts the focus towards understanding the diverse pathways and timings of agricultural development within Europe itself. By highlighting the variability and complexity of agricultural origins in Europe, Dennell's argument contributes to a richer understanding of how human societies transitioned from hunting and gathering to farming. It underscores the importance of local environmental contexts, cultural practices, and long-term interactions in shaping the agricultural landscape of prehistoric Europe. 22. Discuss the characteristics of the Bandkeramik cultures. Answer: The Bandkeramik culture, also known as the Linear Pottery culture (LBK), was a significant Neolithic culture that emerged in Central Europe during the early 6th millennium BCE. Here are the key characteristics of the Bandkeramik cultures: Settlements and Housing: 1. Linear Band Pottery: • The name "Bandkeramik" derives from their distinctive pottery, characterized by linear bands of decoration. These ceramics were typically made using the coil and paddle technique. 2. Permanent Settlements: • Bandkeramik settlements were often established in fertile river valleys and plains. They practiced sedentary agriculture, relying on domesticated plants and animals. • Settlements consisted of rectangular houses built from timber and wattle-and-daub construction. Houses were often aligned in rows, suggesting organized planning. Subsistence and Economy: 1. Agriculture: • Agriculture was central to the Bandkeramik economy. They cultivated crops such as wheat, barley, millet, and legumes (e.g., lentils, peas). • Evidence suggests they practiced slash-and-burn agriculture initially, transitioning to more intensive forms over time. 2. Domestication of Animals: • They domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Livestock provided meat, dairy products, and materials like wool and hides. 3. Hunting and Gathering: • While primarily agricultural, they also supplemented their diet through hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants. Social and Cultural Aspects: 1. Technology and Craftsmanship: • Bandkeramik people were skilled potters, producing ceramics with intricate linear patterns. They also crafted tools and ornaments from bone, antler, and flint. 2. Burial Practices: • They practiced burial of the dead within or near settlements. Burials were typically in extended positions, sometimes accompanied by grave goods like pottery vessels and tools. 3. Trade and Exchange: • Evidence of long-distance trade networks exists, including the exchange of raw materials and finished goods like flint tools and decorative items made from exotic materials. Decline and Legacy: 1. Expansion and Decline: • The Bandkeramik culture expanded rapidly across Central Europe during the Early Neolithic but began to decline by the mid-5th millennium BCE. • Possible factors contributing to their decline include environmental changes, social pressures, and interactions with other neighboring cultures. 2. Legacy: • The Bandkeramik culture laid the foundations for later Neolithic cultures in Europe, influencing agricultural practices, settlement patterns, and cultural developments in subsequent periods. • Their agricultural innovations and organized settlements were crucial in the transition from mobile hunter-gatherer societies to more complex, sedentary agricultural societies in Europe. In summary, the Bandkeramik culture represents a significant early Neolithic culture characterized by its distinctive pottery, advanced agricultural practices, organized settlements, and cultural achievements. They played a pivotal role in the Neolithic expansion across Central Europe and left a lasting impact on the cultural and economic development of the region. 23. Analyze the importance of the introduction of the plow. Explain the economic impact of this farm tool and its connection with the concept of agricultural surplus. Answer: The introduction of the plow was a transformative innovation in agriculture that had profound economic and social impacts, particularly in ancient and medieval societies. Here’s an analysis of its importance and connection to agricultural surplus: Importance of the Plow: 1. Efficiency in Farming: • The plow allowed farmers to till and prepare soil more effectively than previous manual methods like digging with hoes or sticks. • By turning over and aerating the soil, the plow increased soil fertility and improved the conditions for planting crops. 2. Expansion of Arable Land: • With the ability to plow more efficiently, farmers could expand cultivation onto previously marginal or less fertile lands. • This expansion of arable land increased agricultural productivity and supported growing populations. 3. Increased Crop Yields: • The use of the plow enabled farmers to plant larger areas of crops in a shorter period, leading to higher yields per unit of land. • This surplus production was critical for feeding expanding populations and supporting non-agricultural sectors of society. Economic Impact of the Plow: 1. Agricultural Surplus: • The plow played a crucial role in the development of agricultural surplus — the production of more food than needed for immediate consumption. • Surplus production allowed for: • Trade and Commerce: Farmers could sell or exchange surplus crops for other goods and services, fostering economic specialization and trade networks. • Population Growth: With a stable and reliable food supply, populations could grow beyond subsistence levels, leading to larger communities and urban centers. • Social Complexity: Agricultural surplus supported the emergence of specialized roles such as artisans, merchants, and rulers, contributing to the development of complex societies. 2. Development of Urban Centers: • Agricultural surplus provided the foundation for the growth of towns and cities. Urban centers emerged as hubs of economic activity, administration, and cultural exchange. • Surplus food production allowed some individuals to engage in occupations other than farming, leading to the development of diverse economies. 3. Technological and Social Advancements: • The need to manage and distribute agricultural surplus spurred technological innovations such as storage techniques (e.g., granaries), irrigation systems, and improved transportation networks. • Socially, surplus food enabled the formation of hierarchical societies with differentiated social classes and centralized political structures. Connection with Agricultural Surplus: • Agricultural surplus is directly linked to the efficient production enabled by the plow. The ability to cultivate larger areas and increase yields meant that farmers could produce more food than required for immediate consumption. • This surplus not only supported population growth but also laid the economic foundations for societal complexity, trade, urbanization, and cultural development. • The surplus of agricultural production became a critical driver of economic and social progress in ancient and medieval societies, marking a significant shift from subsistence farming to surplus-driven economies. In conclusion, the introduction of the plow was a transformative event in agricultural history, enhancing productivity, expanding arable land, and facilitating the development of agricultural surplus. This surplus was pivotal in driving economic growth, supporting population expansion, fostering urbanization, and laying the groundwork for the complex societies that emerged in human history. Chapter 11 – First Farmers in Egypt and Tropical Africa Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Nile flows __________. A. north B. south C. east D. west Answer: A 2. The Qadan culture, a broad-based hunter-gatherer group from central Europe, dates to __________ and is best known from microlithic tools from riverside camps along the Nile. A. 6000 B.C. B. 8000 B.C. C. 10,000 B.C. D. 12,000 B.C. Answer: C 3. The find of __________ indicates to archaeologists that the Qadan culture had some reliance on gathering wild grains. A. stone sickles B. grinding equipment C. little hunting equipment D. pottery for grain storage Answer: B 4. Drought cycles became longer and lakes shrank rapidly after __________. A. 1000 B.C. B. 11000 B.C. C. 3000 B.C. D. 6000 B.C. Answer: D 5. Agriculture was introduced to Africa (Nile Valley) from __________. A. Europe B. Southeast Asia C. Southwest Asia D. nowhere; agriculture developed in Africa Answer: C 6. Early agricultural settlements in Africa were __________. A. permanent B. sedentary C. temporary D. seasonal due to rainfall Answer: C 7. The earliest agricultural settlements in the Nile Valley date between __________. A. 10000 to 9000 B.C. B. 5000 to 3300 B.C. C. 7700 to 6700 B.C. D. 1200 to 200 B.C. Answer: B 8. The wild species of Bos primigenius could be one source for domesticated __________ in Africa. A. sheep B. goats C. chickens D. cattle Answer: D 9. An animal herder, who subsists predominantly off domesticated animals, is also known as a __________. A. pastoralist B. transhumance C. sedentary D. sorghum Answer: A 10. The __________, which carries trypanosomiasis, affects the distribution of cattle throughout the African continent. A. mosquito B. tsetse fly C. locust D. killer bee Answer: B 11. A method of growing wild root crops like yams by cutting off the tops and planting them is __________. A. swidden agriculture B. transhumance C. root farming D. vegeculture Answer: D 12. Cattle were either domesticated from a wild species in Africa or introduced from __________. A. Southwest Asia B. Southeast Asia C. Europe D. Australia Answer: A 13. Which of the following was NOT a crop grown by the Saharan peoples? A. millet B. wheat C. cacao D. barley Answer: C 14. By __________, cereal agriculture was widespread throughout the savanna belt south of the Sahara. A. A.D. 500 B. 500 B.C. C. 1000 B.C. D. 1500 B.C. Answer: D 15. Pastoral peoples settled in the East African highlands by __________. A. 1000 B.C. B. 2000 B.C. C. 3000 B.C. D. 4000 B.C. Answer: C 16. Prior to the introduction of the plow to Africa, people used __________ to allow for cereal farming. A. shifting agriculture B. vegeculture C. transhumance D. intensive agriculture Answer: A 17. Pastoralists subsist __________. A. solely on the animals they herd B. on the animals they herd and cereal crops C. on the animals they herd and hunting D. on hunting and gathering; the animals only provide wool and skins Answer: B 18. Iron working was introduced into the Sahara by __________. A. 2000 B.C. B. 700 B.C. C. A.D. 1000 D. 3000 B.C. Answer: B 19. __________ was one catalyst for the spread of farming throughout sub-Saharan Africa. A. A drought B. Pastoralism C. Iron technology D. Vegeculture Answer: C Essay Questions 20. What were the environmental constraints and influences of the domestication of plants and animals in Africa? Answer: The domestication of plants and animals in Africa was shaped by various environmental constraints and influences, which played a significant role in the development of agricultural practices and the emergence of complex societies. Here are some key environmental factors that influenced the process of domestication in Africa: Environmental Constraints: 1. Climate Variability: • Africa exhibits a wide range of climates, from the Mediterranean-like climate of North Africa to the tropical rainforests of Central Africa and the arid deserts of the Sahara and Kalahari. • Climate variability posed challenges for agriculturalists, requiring adaptation of crops and livestock to local conditions such as temperature fluctuations, rainfall patterns, and soil types. 2. Water Availability: • Water scarcity in many regions of Africa, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, limited the expansion of agricultural practices. • Early agricultural communities had to develop techniques for water management, such as irrigation systems, to support crop growth during dry periods. 3. Disease and Pest Pressure: • African ecosystems host a diversity of pests and diseases that can impact both wild and cultivated plants and animals. • Domestication involved selecting species that were less susceptible to local pests and diseases, as well as developing agricultural practices to minimize their impact. 4. Geographical Factors: • Africa's diverse geography, including mountains, plateaus, savannas, and forests, influenced the distribution and suitability of plant and animal species for domestication. • Early agriculturalists had to navigate these varied landscapes to identify suitable areas for settlement and cultivation. Environmental Influences: 1. Biodiversity: • Africa is rich in biodiversity, with a wide array of wild plant and animal species that were potential candidates for domestication. • The presence of diverse species provided early farmers with a broad genetic pool to select for desirable traits such as yield, size, and adaptation to local conditions. 2. Wild Plant and Animal Species: • Many staple crops and domesticated animals in Africa have their origins in local wild species. For example, crops like sorghum, millet, yams, and cowpeas were domesticated in different regions of Africa from their wild ancestors. • Domestication involved a gradual process of selecting and adapting these wild species to human needs, such as improved taste, larger seeds, or easier harvestability. 3. Cultural Practices and Knowledge: • Indigenous knowledge systems and cultural practices among African communities played a crucial role in the domestication process. • Practices such as seed selection, crop rotation, and soil management were developed over generations to enhance agricultural productivity and sustainability in diverse environments. 4. Trade and Exchange: • Early agricultural communities in Africa engaged in trade networks that facilitated the exchange of crops, livestock, and agricultural knowledge across regions. • Trade routes, such as those across the Sahara Desert or along river systems like the Nile, promoted cultural interactions and the spread of domesticated species. Conclusion: The domestication of plants and animals in Africa was influenced by a complex interplay of environmental constraints and influences. While challenges like climate variability, water scarcity, and disease pressure posed barriers to agricultural development, Africa's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems provided opportunities for experimentation and adaptation. The process of domestication in Africa contributed to the emergence of agricultural economies, societal complexity, and cultural diversity, shaping the course of human history on the continent. 21. Explain the geography of the Nile River as it runs northward some 4800 kilometres to the Mediterranean. Include a description of the seasonal flooding and how this factor led to the development of agriculture. Answer: The geography of the Nile River, particularly its unique characteristics and seasonal flooding, played a crucial role in the development of agriculture and the rise of ancient civilizations in Egypt. Here’s a detailed explanation: Geography of the Nile River: 1. Flow and Length: • The Nile River is the longest river in the world, flowing northward for approximately 6,650 kilometres (about 4,130 miles). • It originates from two main tributaries: the White Nile, which begins at Lake Victoria in Uganda, and the Blue Nile, which starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. These tributaries meet in Sudan near Khartoum before continuing northward through Egypt. 2. Divisions: • In Egypt, the Nile River is divided into two main branches: the White Nile, which flows through the Nile Delta region to the west, and the Blue Nile, which flows through the eastern part of Sudan and Egypt, meeting the White Nile at Khartoum 22. Explain the environmental adaptations to the desert environment that the hunter-gatherers of the Nile River made in order to survive. Answer: The hunter-gatherers living along the Nile River in ancient times, particularly in the desert environments of Egypt, developed various environmental adaptations that enabled them to survive and thrive in these challenging conditions. Here are some key adaptations: Water Management: 1. Access to the Nile River: • The Nile River provided a vital water source in an otherwise arid landscape. Hunter-gatherer groups would have settled along the riverbanks or in nearby oases to have regular access to water for drinking, cooking, and other essential needs. 2. Seasonal Migration: • Some groups practiced seasonal migration between the Nile Valley and the surrounding desert areas. During the annual flooding of the Nile, which deposited nutrient-rich silt on the floodplain, they would move into the valley to gather resources and take advantage of the fertile soil for wild plant gathering. Food Procurement: 1. Hunting and Gathering: • Hunter-gatherer societies relied on a combination of hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants and fruits. • In the desert environment, they would hunt animals such as gazelles, wild goats, and birds that inhabited the arid regions. They used various hunting techniques adapted to the landscape, such as traps, snares, and communal hunting drives. 2. Utilization of Plant Resources: • Despite the aridity, desert plants provided valuable resources. Hunter-gatherers collected edible wild plants like desert grasses, tubers, and seeds that could withstand dry conditions. • They also utilized medicinal plants and plants for making tools, shelter, and other necessities. Shelter and Mobility: 1. Temporary Shelters: • Hunter-gatherer groups built temporary shelters using materials readily available in the desert environment, such as branches, reeds, and animal hides. • These shelters provided protection from the sun, wind, and occasional desert storms. 2. Nomadic Lifestyle: • Many desert-dwelling hunter-gatherers adopted a nomadic lifestyle, moving seasonally to follow food and water sources. This mobility allowed them to exploit different resources as they became available in various parts of the desert landscape. Cultural and Technological Adaptations: 1. Clothing and Protection: • Clothing was adapted to the desert climate, typically consisting of lightweight garments made from animal skins or woven fibres. These protected against sun exposure during the day and provided warmth at night. 2. Tool Use: • Hunter-gatherers developed specialized tools suited to the desert environment, such as stone tools for hunting and gathering, containers for water storage, and implements for processing plants and animals. Social Organization: 1. Knowledge Sharing: • Survival in the desert required extensive knowledge of the environment and its resources. Hunter-gatherer societies maintained oral traditions and shared knowledge of hunting techniques, plant identification, and water sources within their communities. 2. Cooperation and Community: • Cooperation within groups was crucial for survival. Hunter-gatherers worked together in hunting expeditions, gathering trips, and in the construction of shelters and tools. Conclusion: The hunter-gatherers along the Nile River adapted to the desert environment through a combination of behavioral, technological, and cultural strategies. Their adaptations allowed them not only to survive but also to thrive in the challenging conditions of the desert, forming the foundation for later agricultural societies that would emerge along the Nile Valley and Delta. These adaptations demonstrate the resilience and ingenuity of ancient peoples in adapting to diverse and often harsh environments. 23. What ideas does Andrew Smith propose about the beginnings of pastoralism in the Sahara in relationship to the wild ox (Bos primigenius)? Answer: Andrew Smith proposes intriguing ideas about the beginnings of pastoralism in the Sahara region, particularly in relation to the wild ox known as Bos primigenius (aurochs). Here’s an overview of his propositions: Relationship to Bos primigenius (Aurochs): 1. Domestication Hypothesis: • Smith suggests that the domestication of Bos primigenius played a pivotal role in the emergence of pastoralism in the Sahara. • The aurochs, a large wild bovine species, inhabited North Africa, including the Sahara, during the Holocene period. 2. Transition to Pastoralism: • According to Smith, pastoralism in the Sahara began with the taming and management of wild aurochs populations by early human groups. • This process involved capturing and gradually domesticating wild aurochs, possibly starting as early as the 7th millennium BCE. Ideas and Propositions: 1. Early Interaction: • Smith proposes that hunter-gatherer societies in the Sahara region initially interacted with wild aurochs as part of their subsistence strategies. • Over time, these interactions led to the development of techniques for managing and herding aurochs, marking the transition from hunting to early forms of pastoralism. 2. Cultural and Economic Significance: • Domestication of Bos primigenius provided early Saharan societies with a reliable source of meat, milk, hides, and possibly traction for agricultural activities. • This economic foundation facilitated sedentism and population growth, contributing to the development of more complex social structures and cultural practices. 3. Environmental Context: • The Sahara underwent significant environmental changes during the Holocene, transitioning from a more humid climate with savannas and lakes to the arid desert landscape seen today. • Smith suggests that the domestication of aurochs may have been a response to these environmental shifts, allowing human populations to adapt and thrive in changing conditions. Critique and Discussion: Smith’s ideas challenge traditional views that pastoralism in Africa primarily developed with the introduction of domesticated animals from the Near East. Instead, he posits that local environmental and cultural factors, including interactions with native species like the aurochs, played a crucial role in the origins of pastoralism in the Sahara. Conclusion: Andrew Smith’s propositions about the beginnings of pastoralism in the Sahara highlight the dynamic interactions between early human societies and local fauna such as the wild ox (Bos primigenius). His ideas suggest that the domestication of indigenous species like the aurochs was a significant step towards developing pastoral economies and sedentary lifestyles in the Sahara region during the Holocene period. These insights contribute to a broader understanding of the complex processes of cultural and environmental adaptation in ancient Africa. Chapter 12 – Asia and the Pacific: Rice, Roots, and Ocean Voyages Multiple Choice Questions 1. According to the text, one of the earliest plants domesticated in Southeast Asia and China was __________. A. rice B. soy beans C. wheat D. taro Answer: A 2. It is thought that the initial cultivation of rice took place __________. A. on a floodplain B. in a bog C. in an alluvial swamp D. on a mountain top Answer: C 3. The site of rice cultivation may be the __________ Valley region. A. Shang B. Xianrendong C. Hemudu D. Yangzi Answer: D 4. Rice domestication is thought to have occurred by at least __________. A. 10000 B.C. B. 7000 B.C. C. 3000 B.C. D. A.D. 500 Answer: B 5. The best known culture showing some of the earliest evidence of rice cultivation is the __________ culture. A. Hemudu B. Banpo C. Dapenkeng D. Cishan Answer: A 6. Starting around 3000 B.C. variation in grave goods becomes apparent with differences occurring between __________. A. young and old B. ethnic groups C. males and females D. farmers and nonfarmers Answer: C 7. In Northern China the main staple and earliest domesticate was __________. A. millet B. sorghum C. rice D. wheat Answer: A 8. Which of the following is true about the first sedentary villages in northern China? A. They first occurred in the Huang He Valley. B. The best known culture is the Xan. C. They ended their reliance on hunting and fishing. D. They used draft animals, the wheel, and porcelain axle bearings for superior technological performance. Answer: A 9. In the early years of the Jomon culture they subsisted on __________. A. algae cakes as a rescue food B. hunting and marine resources C. pine nuts and einkorn D. insects as a rescue food Answer: B 10. The Jomon culture was located in __________. A. northern China B. southern China C. Japan D. Taiwan Answer: C 11. The earliest pottery in the world comes from the __________ culture. A. Jomon B. Yangshao C. Yayoi D. Longshanoid Answer: A 12. The basis for what was to become traditional Japanese society formed during the __________ period. A. Yayoi B. Jomon C. Kyushu D. Khok Phanom Di Answer: A 13. The Princess of Khok Phanom Di __________. A. was likely an expert basket maker B. was buried with elaborate grave goods, including shell bead covered garments C. had a burial very similar to other burials unearthed at the site D. was probably egalitarian in her social approach according to the archaeological record Answer: B 14. Rice cultivation occurred in Southeast Asia __________. A. during the reign of the Princess of Khok Phanom Di B. between 2800 and 2500 B.C. C. around 1000 B.C. D. by 4000 B.C. Answer: B 15. In New Guinea agriculture was __________. A. mainly reliant on rice B. a secondary exploit to cattle farming C. based on indigenous plants, such as taro, yams, and bananas D. non-existent; they remained hunter-gatherers until the mid-19th century Answer: C 16. The Lapita culture is __________. A. associated with wheat farming B. found in Micronesia C. associated with a maritime technology D. known for its vast early cargo shipping network Answer: C 17. The Lapita culture dates to __________. A. 5000 B.C. and later B. A.D. 500 and later C. 1600 to 1000 B.C. and later D. A.D. 1000 to 1200 and later Answer: C 18. The kula ring observed by Bronislaw Malinowski had all BUT which of the following characteristics? A. trade of necklaces and bracelets B. trade occurred with people on the same island C. it was reciprocal D. had its ancestry in the Lapita culture Answer: B 19. Settlements of what culture are marked by characteristic stamp-decorated pottery and are often adorned with elaborate designs? A. Lapita B. Easter Island C. Jomon D. Khok Phanom Di Answer: A 20. The exchange network of the Lapita culture spanned an area __________. A. of a few hundred miles B. of only about 10 to 20 miles C. over 5,000 kilometers D. of about 2,000 miles Answer: C 21. Indigenous Pacific peoples navigated to distant islands by __________. A. seeing the islands on the horizon and sailing to them B. luck; they really had no idea where they were going C. following pods of dolphins D. using techniques such as the angles of rising and setting stars, ocean swells, and cloud formations Answer: D 22. The first settlement of New Zealand occurred between __________. A. 1000 B.C. and 500 B.C. B. 500 B.C. and A.D. 500 C. A.D. 1000 and 1200 D. A.D. 1600 and 1800 Answer: C 23. A key element in Maori culture was __________. A. monumental structures, Moae B. pottery C. sailing D. warfare Answer: D Essay Questions 24. Describe the origins of rice cultivation in China and how it is related to the domestication of rice in Southeast Asia. Answer: The origins of rice cultivation in China and its relationship to the domestication of rice in Southeast Asia are intertwined and span a long period of agricultural history. Here’s an overview of how rice cultivation developed in these regions: Origins of Rice Cultivation in China: 1. Early Neolithic Period: • Rice cultivation in China dates back to the Early Neolithic period, around 7000-5000 BCE, primarily in the Yangtze River basin and southern China. • Archaeological evidence from sites such as Pengtoushan and Bashidang indicates that early inhabitants cultivated rice as part of their subsistence strategy. 2. Domestication Process: • Wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon) were initially harvested by early hunter-gatherer communities in China. Over time, through selective harvesting and cultivation, these wild varieties were domesticated. • The domestication process involved adapting rice plants to thrive in managed fields with controlled water levels, leading to the development of more productive and stable agricultural systems. 3. Technological Advancements: • Early rice cultivation in China was supported by technological innovations such as the construction of paddy fields, irrigation systems, and tools for planting and harvesting rice. • These advancements enabled farmers to increase yields and sustain larger populations in regions where rice became a staple crop. Relationship to Domestication of Rice in Southeast Asia: 1. Shared Domestication Pathways: • Rice cultivation in Southeast Asia has a parallel history to that of China, with evidence suggesting independent domestication processes. • Archaeological findings from sites like Spirit Cave in Thailand and Ban Chiang indicate that rice was domesticated independently in Southeast Asia, likely from the same wild progenitor species (Oryza rufipogon). 2. Spread and Exchange: • Over millennia, rice cultivation practices spread across Southeast Asia through cultural exchange, trade networks, and migration of agricultural communities. • Different varieties of rice adapted to diverse ecological niches, including upland and lowland environments, reflecting local adaptations and preferences. 3. Genetic Diversity: • Rice cultivation in both China and Southeast Asia contributed to the genetic diversity of cultivated rice species. • Varieties of rice developed in Southeast Asia, such as aromatic and glutinous rice, have distinct genetic traits that differentiate them from those cultivated in China. Cultural and Economic Impact: 1. Cultural Significance: • Rice cultivation became deeply integrated into the cultural and social fabric of both Chinese and Southeast Asian societies. • Rituals, festivals, and agricultural practices associated with rice underscore its importance as a staple food and cultural symbol. 2. Economic Foundations: • Rice agriculture formed the economic foundation for complex societies in both regions, supporting population growth, urbanization, and the development of trade and commerce. Conclusion: The origins of rice cultivation in China and its relationship to Southeast Asia highlight the parallel but distinct pathways of agricultural development in these regions. Both areas independently domesticated wild rice species, adapted cultivation techniques to local environments, and contributed to the diversity and importance of rice in global agriculture and cuisine. This shared agricultural heritage underscores the significance of rice as a staple crop that has shaped the history, culture, and economies of East and Southeast Asia for millennia. 25. Explain why the cultivation of root crops was important on the Southeast Asian Islands, such as New Guinea. Answer: The cultivation of root crops, particularly in regions like Southeast Asian islands such as New Guinea, played a crucial role in the development and sustenance of ancient societies. Here’s an explanation of why root crops were important in these areas: 1. Adaptation to Local Environments: 1. Suitability to Tropical Environments: • Root crops such as taro (Colocasia esculenta), yams (Dioscorea species), sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) are well adapted to the tropical climate and diverse soil conditions found in Southeast Asian islands like New Guinea. • These crops thrive in warm temperatures, high humidity, and varying levels of rainfall, making them reliable sources of food in environments where other crops may struggle. 2. Diversity of Varieties: • Southeast Asian islands boast a rich diversity of root crop varieties, each adapted to specific ecological niches and growing conditions. • This diversity allows for resilience against environmental fluctuations and provides flexibility in agricultural practices. 2. Nutritional Importance: 1. Dietary Staples: • Root crops are starchy and nutritious, providing essential carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals in the diet. • They serve as staple foods that can be stored for extended periods, providing a reliable source of energy throughout the year. 2. Complementary Nutrition: • Root crops are often complemented by other local foods such as fruits, vegetables, fish, and game, creating balanced diets rich in protein, fiber, and essential nutrients. 3. Agricultural Practices and Sustainability: 1. Traditional Farming Systems: • Cultivation of root crops in Southeast Asian islands often involves traditional farming systems that are sustainable and adapted to local ecological conditions. • Techniques such as agroforestry, intercropping, and terrace cultivation help optimize land use, prevent soil erosion, and maintain biodiversity. 2. Long-Term Resilience: • Root crops contribute to the resilience of agricultural systems by providing food security during periods of environmental stress or seasonal variability. • Their ability to grow in diverse conditions and their storability make them valuable assets in mitigating risks associated with climate fluctuations. 4. Cultural and Social Significance: 1. Cultural Heritage: • Root crops hold cultural significance in many Southeast Asian societies, often featuring prominently in rituals, ceremonies, and traditional cuisines. • They are integral to local identities and agricultural practices passed down through generations. 2. Economic Importance: • Root crops serve as economic commodities in local and regional markets, contributing to livelihoods through trade and exchange. • Their cultivation supports rural economies and provides income opportunities for farming communities. Conclusion: In conclusion, the cultivation of root crops in Southeast Asian islands such as New Guinea was important for multiple reasons: it provided a reliable food source adapted to local environmental conditions, ensured nutritional diversity and security, sustained traditional agricultural practices, and held cultural and economic significance. Root crops continue to play a vital role in the resilience and sustainability of agricultural systems in the region, highlighting their enduring importance in both historical and contemporary contexts. 26. Detail the Lapita culture. What role did trade play in their culture? Answer: The Lapita culture represents an ancient archaeological complex associated with the ancestors of modern Polynesians, Micronesians, and Melanesians. Active during the period from around 1600 BCE to 500 BCE, the Lapita culture is notable for its distinctive pottery and its significant role in the peopling of the islands across the western Pacific Ocean. Here’s a detailed overview of the Lapita culture and the role of trade within their society: Overview of the Lapita Culture: 1. Origin and Spread: • The Lapita culture originated in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea around 1600 BCE. From there, they spread eastward and southward across the western Pacific, reaching as far as Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. • Their expansion marked the beginning of the Austronesian expansion, which eventually led to the settlement of Polynesia, Micronesia, and parts of Melanesia. 2. Pottery and Artifacts: • The Lapita culture is known for its distinctive pottery, characterized by dentate-stamped designs and intricate geometric patterns. • They also produced shell and stone tools, ornaments, and artifacts made from local materials, reflecting their skilled craftsmanship and cultural expressions. 3. Subsistence and Economy: • Lapita societies practiced mixed subsistence strategies, including fishing, hunting, gathering, and horticulture. • They cultivated crops such as taro, yams, bananas, and coconuts, which were domesticated in Southeast Asia and introduced into the Pacific islands by the Lapita people. Role of Trade in Lapita Culture: 1. Exchange Networks: • Trade played a crucial role in the Lapita culture, facilitating the exchange of goods, raw materials, and prestige items over long distances. • They engaged in inter-island trade networks that connected different island groups within the Pacific. These networks promoted cultural exchange and interaction. 2. Exchange of Commodities: • Lapita trade involved the exchange of commodities such as obsidian, volcanic glass, pottery, shell ornaments, and specialized tools. • Obsidian, in particular, was highly valued for making cutting tools and was traded over long distances, indicating established trade routes and networks. 3. Social and Cultural Interaction: • Trade not only provided access to essential resources but also fostered social relationships and cultural exchanges among different Lapita communities. • It allowed for the transmission of technological knowledge, artistic styles, and religious beliefs, contributing to the cultural cohesion and diversity of the Lapita world. 4. Prestige Goods and Status: • Certain goods obtained through trade, such as exotic shells, fine pottery, and rare stones, may have served as prestige items or symbols of social status within Lapita societies. • Access to these goods through trade networks could enhance an individual's or community's prestige and influence. Legacy and Influence: 1. Expansion and Settlement: • The Lapita culture’s expansion and settlement of remote Pacific islands laid the foundation for subsequent Polynesian, Micronesian, and Melanesian cultures. • Their voyages across vast stretches of ocean demonstrate advanced navigational skills and maritime technology. 2. Continued Trade Networks: • Trade continued to be a vital aspect of Pacific Island cultures following the decline of the Lapita culture. It played a role in shaping economic systems, political alliances, and cultural identities across the region. Conclusion: The Lapita culture represents a significant chapter in the prehistory of the Pacific Islands, marked by their distinctive pottery, subsistence strategies, and extensive trade networks. Trade was instrumental in connecting diverse island communities, facilitating the exchange of goods and ideas, and contributing to the cultural and economic vitality of the Lapita world. Their legacy continues to resonate in the cultural practices and heritage of contemporary Pacific Island societies. Test Bank for People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory Brian M. Fagan , Nadia Durrani 9780205968022

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