Preview (11 of 35 pages)

Preview Extract

This Document Contains Chapters 16 to 18 Chapter 16 – Egypt, Nubia, and Tropical Africa Multiple Choice Questions 1. The area of Egypt encompassing the Nile Delta and Mediterranean coast and the Nile River as far upstream as modern Cairo is termed __________. A. Lower Egypt B. Minor Egypt C. Upper Egypt D. Major Egypt Answer: A 2. The area of Egypt that extended upstream as far south as the First Cataract, just above the modern town of Aswân is termed __________. A. Lower Egypt B. Minor Egypt C. Upper Egypt D. Major Egypt Answer: C 3. Egyptologist Barry Kemp likens the individuals and villages of ancient Egypt taking advantage of their favorable locations to __________. A. Sorry! B. Monopoly C. Life D. Clue Answer: B 4. Which of the following is NOT one of the three pre-Dynastic chiefdoms that flourished in Upper Egypt in about 3500 B.C.? A. Nekhen B. This C. Saqqara D. Naqada Answer: C 5. At this pre-Dynastic chiefdom dating to about 4000 B.C. the inhabitants opened up large tracts of agricultural lands, which could have supported between 760 to 1520 farming and non-farming people per square kilometer. A. Nekhen B. This C. Saqqara D. Naqada Answer: D 6. This site, also known as Hierankopolis, dates to 3800 to 3000 B.C., had many wealthy individuals entombed in a nearby cemetery, and was the location where Plum Red pottery was made. A. Nekhen B. Maadi C. Saqqara D. Naqada Answer: A 7. This site lies on the outskirts of modern Cairo and was a key link in a major trade network that brought commodities from the eastern Mediterranean coastal region. A. Nekhen B. Maadi C. Saqqara D. Naqada Answer: B 8. The Narmer palette, which commemorates King Narmer’s victory over a northern ruler in about 3000 B.C., was found in __________. A. Nekhen B. Maadi C. Saqqara D. Naqada Answer: A 9. Writing became fully developed in Egypt in __________. A. 3700 B.C. B. 3500 B.C. C. 2500 B.C. D. 3100 B.C. Answer: D 10. Egyptian hieroglyphs are a combination of pictographs and __________. A. phonetics B. morphemes C. symbols D. phonographs Answer: A 11. The most well-known ancient Egyptian writing came in the form of __________. A. hieratic script B. hieroglyphs C. shorthand D. Sanskrit Answer: B 12. Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt occurred around __________. A. 2700 B.C B. 3100 B.C.B C. 3500 B.C. D. 3900 B.C. Answer: D 13. Prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt was first united under the rulers of __________. A. Naqada B. Saqqara C. Maadi D. Nekhen Answer: D 14. Traditional Egyptian pharaonic rule came into being with __________. A. Rameses I B. Narmer C. Seti I D. Akhenaten Answer: B 15. The site where the First and Second Dynasty kings were buried is __________. A. Giza B. Saqqara C. Abydos D. Thebes Answer: C 16. The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, which dates to 2650 B.C., was built for __________. A. Khufu B. Djoser C. Rameses D. Khafre Answer: B 17. The Great Pyramid at Giza, which dates to 2528 B.C., was built for __________. A. Djoser B. Rameses C. Khufu D. Khafre Answer: C 18. __________ was the concept of order and justice in Egypt that became a symbol of pharaonic status and eternity itself; it was the very embodiment of the Egyptian state. A. Ra B. Osiris C. Sed D. Ma’at Answer: D 19. Individuals in ancient societies that were among the literate people, who were trained to read and write, are termed __________. A. engravers B. scribes C. historians D. documentarians Answer: B 20. In Egyptian history there are two times in which there was a decline in the pharaoh’s control; each of these is termed a(n) __________ period. A. Intermediate B. Middle C. Transitional D. Influx Answer: A 21. The reign of __________ marked the reinstatement of pharaohship of the Middle Kingdom. A. Akhenaten B. Seti I C. Rameses II D. Mentuhotep II Answer: D 22. __________ is a Middle Kingdom workers’ town designed by the state where legal, medical, and census documents give detailed information about life in ancient Egypt. A. Thebes B. Cairo C. Kahun D. Saqqara Answer: C 23. The __________, which dates from 1530 to 1070 B.C., is called the greatest era in Egyptian History. A. Late period B. Second Intermediate period C. Old Kingdom D. New Kingdom Answer: D 24. Starting in 1353 B.C. with the reign of __________ Egyptian religion dramatically changed to make Aten a divine pharaoh. A. Rameses II B. Akhenaten C. Seti I D. Mentuhotep II Answer: B 25. The home of Amun, also known to the Egyptians as the “City,” or the “Estate of Amun” is __________. A. Amarna B. Abydos C. Thebes D. Nekhen Answer: C 26. During the process of mummification, a body became identified with the god __________. A. Ra B. Amun C. Aten D. Osiris Answer: D 27. From 730 to 663 B.C. pharaohs from __________ ruled over Egypt. A. Egypt B. Nubia C. Mali D. Ghana Answer: B 28. __________, in North Africa, became a dominant power by 400 B.C.; it was later destroyed. A. Amarna B. Coptos C. Carthage D. Kus Answer: C 29. The location of __________ in the extreme southwestern end of the Niger Delta made it an ideal location to barter savanna gold, iron, and agricultural products. A. Jenne-jeno B. Ghana C. Mali D. Songhay Answer: A 30. Between A.D. 500 and 1500, trade with Arabia along the East African coast helped to establish a blend of African and __________ cultures. A. Hindu B. Islamic C. Mennonite D. Christian Answer: B Essay Questions 31. Discuss the implications of the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Answer: The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, traditionally attributed to King Narmer (also known as Menes), around 3100 BCE, marks a crucial milestone in ancient Egyptian history with significant implications for the region's culture, politics, and society. Here are several key implications of this unification: Political Implications: 1. Centralized Authority: The unification brought together the rulers of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt under a single monarch. This centralized authority enabled better governance and coordination across the entire Nile Valley. 2. Establishment of Dynastic Rule: The unification laid the foundation for Egypt's dynastic period, where successive rulers from the same royal lineage governed the unified kingdom. This stability contributed to the longevity and continuity of Egyptian civilization. 3. Expansion and Control: With a unified kingdom, Egyptian rulers could more effectively project power and authority beyond their original territories. This allowed for territorial expansion into Nubia (to the south) and into parts of the Levant and Sinai Peninsula (to the northeast). Cultural and Religious Implications: 1. Cultural Synthesis: The unification facilitated the merging of cultural practices, traditions, and religious beliefs from Upper and Lower Egypt. This synthesis contributed to the development of a cohesive Egyptian identity that persisted throughout the civilization's history. 2. Religious Unification: Egyptian religion, which was polytheistic and centered around numerous local deities, saw a process of syncretism where gods and goddesses from Upper and Lower Egypt were integrated into a unified pantheon. This process helped to establish a religious framework that underpinned Egyptian society and governance. Social and Economic Implications: 1. Economic Integration: The unification likely led to improved economic integration and trade between Upper and Lower Egypt. The Nile River, which served as the lifeline of Egyptian civilization, became a unified transportation and trade route, facilitating commerce and exchange of goods. 2. Urbanization and Infrastructure: Unified governance likely spurred urban development and the construction of infrastructure such as irrigation systems, harbors, and administrative centers. This laid the groundwork for the growth of cities like Memphis (near modern Cairo) as important political and economic hubs. Long-Term Legacy: 1. Enduring Civilization: The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt established a foundation upon which one of the most enduring and influential civilizations in human history would thrive. Egyptian culture, art, architecture, and religious beliefs would continue to evolve over the millennia, leaving a lasting legacy on subsequent civilizations in the Near East and Mediterranean. 2. Symbolism and Iconography: The imagery of the unification, such as the Narmer Palette and other artifacts, became powerful symbols of Egyptian kingship and unity. These symbols would be perpetuated and reinterpreted by later pharaohs to reinforce their legitimacy and authority. In conclusion, the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt was not only a pivotal moment in ancient Egyptian history but also had profound implications for the region's political, cultural, and socio-economic development. It laid the groundwork for a centralized state, facilitated cultural integration, and contributed to the enduring legacy of Egyptian civilization. 32. According to Egyptologists, what was the purpose of the pyramids that were built during the Old Kingdom? Answer: According to Egyptologists and scholars who study ancient Egyptian civilization, the purpose of the pyramids that were built during the Old Kingdom primarily served as monumental tombs for the pharaohs. Here are the main purposes attributed to the pyramids: 1. Royal Tombs for Pharaohs: • The pyramids were constructed as elaborate tombs to house the mortal remains of the pharaohs, who were believed to be divine rulers and intermediaries between the gods and the people. • The pyramid structure symbolized the pharaoh's ascent to the heavens and their eternal connection with the gods after death. 2. Ensuring Pharaoh's Afterlife: • Egyptians believed in an afterlife where the deceased pharaoh would continue to rule and enjoy a paradise-like existence. • The pyramids were designed to protect the pharaoh's body and possessions (including treasures and goods needed for the afterlife) from tomb robbers and natural decay. 3. Symbol of Royal Power and Authority: • The construction of massive pyramids required substantial resources, labor, and organizational skills, demonstrating the pharaoh's wealth, power, and ability to mobilize the state for monumental projects. • The grandeur and scale of the pyramids served to solidify the pharaoh's authority and divine status among the Egyptian people. 4. Religious Significance: • Pyramids were closely associated with religious beliefs and rituals concerning death, resurrection, and the journey to the afterlife. • The pyramid shape itself was considered sacred and imbued with spiritual meaning, reflecting the primordial mound that emerged from the waters of chaos at the beginning of creation. Examples of Pyramids from the Old Kingdom: • Step Pyramid of Djoser: Built by the architect Imhotep at Saqqara for King Djoser, it is considered the first pyramid and represents an early experimentation in pyramid construction. • Pyramids at Giza: Including the Great Pyramid of Giza, built for King Khufu (Cheops), the Pyramid of Khafre (Chephren), and the Pyramid of Menkaure (Mycerinus). These are the most famous and monumental pyramids, demonstrating the pinnacle of pyramid-building during the Old Kingdom. In summary, the primary purpose of the pyramids during the Old Kingdom was to serve as monumental tombs for pharaohs, ensuring their eternal afterlife and reinforcing their divine status and authority. These structures not only reflect the religious beliefs and funerary practices of ancient Egypt but also represent significant achievements in architecture, engineering, and state organization. 33. Discuss the differences between the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom. Answer: The Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom represent distinct periods in ancient Egyptian history, each characterized by unique developments in politics, culture, religion, and society. Here are the key differences between these two important eras: Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2181 BCE): 1. Political Organization: • Centralized Monarchy: The Old Kingdom was characterized by a strong centralized monarchy where the pharaoh held absolute authority as both the political and religious leader. • Nomarchs: Local governance was delegated to nomarchs, provincial governors who administered regions of Egypt on behalf of the pharaoh. 2. Economic Focus: • Agriculture: The economy of the Old Kingdom was largely based on agriculture, particularly the cultivation of wheat and barley along the fertile banks of the Nile River. • Trade: Egyptians engaged in trade with neighboring regions for luxury goods such as timber, metals, and precious stones. 3. Architectural Achievements: • Pyramids: The Old Kingdom is renowned for the construction of monumental pyramids at sites like Giza, Saqqara, and Dahshur, built as tombs for pharaohs. • Funerary Complexes: Alongside pyramids, elaborate funerary complexes were built, including mortuary temples and causeways. 4. Religious Beliefs: • Polytheism: Egyptians worshipped a pantheon of gods and goddesses who controlled natural forces and aspects of human life. • Funerary Practices: Beliefs in the afterlife were prominent, with elaborate burial rituals and tomb provisions to ensure the deceased's journey to the afterlife. New Kingdom (c. 1550-1070 BCE): 1. Political Organization: • Military Expansion: The New Kingdom was marked by aggressive military campaigns under pharaohs like Thutmose III and Ramses II, resulting in an empire that extended into Nubia (modern Sudan), Syria, and the Levant. • Bureaucratic Administration: The administration became more bureaucratic, with appointed officials overseeing different aspects of governance, including taxation and justice. 2. Economic Focus: • Trade and Tribute: The New Kingdom saw increased trade with neighboring regions and the establishment of diplomatic relations with foreign powers. • Wealth from Conquests: Tribute and spoils from military conquests enriched the Egyptian state and funded monumental building projects. 3. Architectural and Cultural Achievements: • Temples and Monuments: Temples such as Karnak and Luxor in Thebes (modern-day Luxor) were constructed or expanded, showcasing grandeur and artistic sophistication. • Tombs in the Valley of the Kings: Pharaohs and nobles were buried in elaborate rock-cut tombs in the Valley of the Kings, reflecting evolving funerary practices. 4. Religious Beliefs: • Syncretism: Religious beliefs were characterized by syncretism, where Egyptian gods and foreign deities were integrated, particularly during periods of international diplomacy and military conquests. • State Religion: The pharaoh remained the central figure in religious practices, believed to be a divine ruler with authority over both mortal and divine realms. Key Contrasts: • Political: The Old Kingdom was more centralized with strong pharaonic authority, while the New Kingdom saw expansionist policies and a more complex administrative structure. • Economic: The Old Kingdom relied heavily on agriculture and internal trade, whereas the New Kingdom prospered from external trade and tribute from conquered territories. • Cultural: The Old Kingdom is renowned for monumental pyramid construction, whereas the New Kingdom is known for its military prowess, monumental temples, and cultural renaissance. • Religious: While both periods maintained a strong emphasis on religious beliefs and rituals, the New Kingdom saw greater religious syncretism and the development of elaborate temple complexes. In summary, the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom represent distinct phases in ancient Egyptian history, each characterized by unique political, economic, architectural, and cultural achievements that contributed to the richness and longevity of Egyptian civilization. 34. Discuss the importance of trade for Great Zimbabwe. Which countries traded with Great Zimbabwe? Answer: Great Zimbabwe, a significant archaeological site located in present-day Zimbabwe, was an important center of trade, commerce, and political authority in southern Africa during its peak from the 11th to 15th centuries. Trade played a crucial role in the development and prosperity of Great Zimbabwe, influencing its economy, culture, and political dynamics. Importance of Trade for Great Zimbabwe: 1. Economic Prosperity: • Trade provided Great Zimbabwe with access to valuable goods such as gold, ivory, copper, iron, and agricultural products. • The exchange of these commodities not only enriched local elites but also facilitated the accumulation of wealth and the development of a specialized artisan class. 2. Cultural Exchange: • Trade routes connected Great Zimbabwe to distant regions, fostering cultural exchanges and the spread of ideas, technologies, and artistic influences. • This cultural interaction is reflected in the architecture, pottery styles, and artifacts found at Great Zimbabwe, showing influences from various African and Indian Ocean cultures. 3. Political Influence: • Control over trade routes and commodities bolstered the political authority of Great Zimbabwe's rulers. • The accumulation of wealth through trade enabled the construction and maintenance of monumental stone structures, reinforcing the authority and prestige of the ruling elite. Countries and Regions Traded with Great Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe was strategically located to facilitate trade with various regions across eastern and southern Africa, as well as beyond. Some of the key countries and regions that traded with Great Zimbabwe include: 1. Coastal Cities of East Africa: • Great Zimbabwe traded extensively with the Swahili coastal cities such as Kilwa, Sofala, and Mozambique Island. • These cities acted as intermediaries, facilitating trade between Great Zimbabwe and the Indian Ocean trade networks, which connected to Arabia, Persia, India, and China. 2. Interior Regions of Africa: • Trade routes extended into the interior of Africa, connecting Great Zimbabwe to regions such as the Zambezi River valley, the Limpopo River valley, and the Kalahari Desert. • Goods traded included gold, ivory, copper, iron, animal skins, and agricultural produce like grains and livestock. 3. Indian Ocean Traders: • Merchants from the Indian Ocean world traded directly with Great Zimbabwe, bringing luxury goods such as beads, textiles, glassware, and ceramics. • These items not only served as prestige goods but also influenced local craftsmanship and artistic styles. Trade Routes and Networks: • East African Coast: Connected Great Zimbabwe to the Swahili coast and Indian Ocean trade routes. • Interior Africa: Linked Great Zimbabwe to hinterland regions rich in resources and agricultural products. • Southern Africa: Trade extended southward into present-day South Africa and Botswana, influencing regional economies and cultural exchanges. In summary, trade was fundamental to the rise and prosperity of Great Zimbabwe, fostering economic growth, cultural exchange, and political influence. The strategic location of Great Zimbabwe at the crossroads of major trade routes facilitated interactions with a diverse array of regions and civilizations, enriching its society and contributing to its prominence as a preeminent center in southern Africa during its zenith. Chapter 17 – Early States in South and Southeast Asia Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Bay of Bengal surround the __________. A. Iranian Plateau B. Fertile Crescent C. Baluch Peninsula D. Indian Subcontinent Answer: D 2. Domesticated plants that come from indigenous Indian cultigens as well as west Asian species occur __________. A. around 6400 B.C. B. around 5200 B.C. C. around 3300 B.C. D. the date of domestication is unknown Answer: D 3. The best-known early farming settlement, located in Pakistan 200 km west of the Indus River, is __________. A. Bombay B. Chanhudaro C. Harappa D. Mehrgarh Answer: D 4. Cotton cloth first appears at the Harappan city of __________ in the 3rd millennium B.C. A. Nindowari B. Mohenjodaro C. Mehrgarh D. Bombay Answer: B 5. According to the text, some scholars believe that Harappan culture developed as a response to __________. A. irrigation agriculture B. an encompassing ruler C. an increase in long-distance trade D. increased sedentism Answer: C 6. The largest Harappan city was __________. A. Mohenjodaro B. Dhoraji C. Kalibangan D. Harappa Answer: A 7. The textbook lists all of the following as trading partners with the Harappan civilization EXCEPT __________. A. the Persian Gulf B. the Arabian coast C. northern Afghanistan D. Italy Answer: D 8. Which of the following is true about the script of the Harappan civilization? A. It was deciphered in the 1960s and has been found to be solely about record keeping. B. It was found to be about the rulers’ power and their establishment of new trading routes. C. It consists of poetry, mythology, and religious texts. D. It has yet to be deciphered. Answer: D 9. Figurines and seals from Harappa and Mohenjodaro bear resemblance to gods and symbolism present in modern __________. A. Islam B. Hinduism C. Christianity D. Judaism Answer: B 10. The __________, a compilation of hymns of the Rigveda, describes the spread of Indo-Aryan speaking peoples into the Indian subcontinent in the second millennium B.C. A. Angkor B. Genesh C. Samhita D. Ganges Answer: C 11. The Mauryan Empire, from 269 to 232 B.C., was established in the wake of conquests by __________. A. Genghis Khan B. Alexander the Great C. Jayavarman II D. Khmer Answer: B 12. __________, of the Mauryan Empire, attempted to unify its diverse people with a welldefined moral and ethical code based on Buddhist principles. A. Asoka B. Tamluk C. Chandragupta Maurya D. Darius Answer: A 13. There is debate as to whether a(n) __________ group invaded the subcontinent of India or if it developed within the subcontinent. A. Indo-European B. Proto-European C. Indo-Aryan D. Mon-Khmer Answer: C 14. Bronze metallurgy became important in Southeast Asia during __________, with ironworking being introduced later. A. 2500 to 2000 B.C. B. 200 B.C. to A.D. 200 C. 4000 B.C. to 3000 B.C. D. 1500 to 500 B.C. Answer: D 15. The site of __________ in a valley of northeastern Thailand dating from 400 B.C. to A.D. 300 shows a dramatic increase in the amount of effort expended on burying the dead. A. Ban Na Di B. Dong Son C. Noen U-Loke D. Asoka Answer: C 16. Rice cultivation in waterlogged fields, called __________, was much more productive than dry rice farming. A. marshes B. swamps C. milpas D. paddies Answer: D 17. The moist climate of Vietnam’s Red River valley allows __________ rice crops a year. A. one B. two C. three D. four Answer: B 18. The Angkor State began in A.D. 802 with the reign of __________. A. Angkor B. Suryavarman II C. Jayavarman II D. Khmer Answer: C 19. The temple of Angkor Wat is a representation of __________. A. the king’s palace at Angkor Thom B. the teachings of the Quran C. a Buddhist meditative chamber D. the Hindu universe Answer: D 20. In __________ parts of Southeast Asian trade routes came under Islamic control and the people quickly adopted Islam. A. A.D. 500 B. the thirteenth century C. A.D. 1050 D. the sixteenth century Answer: B Essay Questions 21. Discuss the importance of trade in the Harappan civilization. Include in your answer some of the places the Harappan peoples traded with. Answer: Trade was of significant importance in the Harappan civilization, which flourished around 2600 to 1900 BCE in the the Indus River Valley (present-day Pakistan and northwest India). This ancient civilization engaged in extensive trade both within its own territory and with distant regions, playing a crucial role in its economic prosperity and cultural exchange. Importance of Trade in the Harappan Civilization: 1. Economic Growth: Trade allowed the Harappan civilization to access valuable resources that were not locally available, such as precious metals (gold, silver, copper), semi-precious stones (lapis lazuli, carnelian), and timber. These resources were essential for crafting goods and ornaments, enhancing economic activities and social status. 2. Cultural Exchange: Trade facilitated the exchange of ideas, technologies, and cultural practices with distant societies. This exchange is evident from the presence of Harappan artifacts found in Mesopotamia and the discovery of Mesopotamian artifacts in the Harappan cities. Such interactions enriched artistic styles, religious practices, and technological innovations. 3. Urban Development: The economic benefits of trade contributed to the growth of urban centers like Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, characterized by sophisticated town planning, advanced drainage systems, and standardized weights and measures. These cities served as hubs for trade activities, administrating the flow of goods within the civilization and beyond. 4. Maritime Trade: The Harappans engaged in maritime trade, evidenced by the discovery of a dockyard at Lothal (in present-day Gujarat, India). This dockyard facilitated trade with regions along the Arabian Sea, enabling the exchange of goods with ancient Mesopotamia and possibly regions as far as Egypt. Trade Routes and Contacts: The Harappan civilization had extensive trade contacts with several regions: • Mesopotamia: Harappan artifacts such as beads, pottery, and seals have been found in Mesopotamian cities like Ur and Susa. In return, Mesopotamia exported goods like silver, copper, and textiles to the Harappan cities. • Central Asia: Trade routes connected the Harappan civilization to regions in present-day Afghanistan and Turkmenistan, facilitating the exchange of goods such as lapis lazuli. • Persian Gulf: Coastal cities like Lothal traded with regions along the Persian Gulf, connecting the Harappan civilization to the Gulf states and possibly beyond. • South India: There was trade between the Harappan cities and regions in southern India, where goods like ivory, spices, and textiles were exchanged. Conclusion: Trade was not only crucial for the economic prosperity of the Harappan civilization but also played a pivotal role in its cultural dynamism and urban development. The exchange of goods and ideas through trade routes connected the Harappan cities with distant regions, fostering a diverse and vibrant society. This interconnectedness highlights the sophistication and significance of trade in the ancient world, laying the foundation for future economic and cultural exchanges across civilizations. 22. What do the temples of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom symbolize? What does the magnitude of these temples imply about the social organization of the Angkor state? Answer: The temples of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom, located in present-day Cambodia, symbolize both religious and political aspects of the Angkor state, which was at its peak during the Khmer Empire from the 9th to the 15th centuries. Angkor Wat: 1. Symbolism: Angkor Wat is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Vishnu, although it later became a Buddhist temple. Its architecture is a representation of Mount Meru, the mythical home of the gods in Hindu cosmology. The temple's layout reflects the Hindu universe, with concentric galleries and towers representing the mountain ranges and cosmic oceans. 2. Religious Significance: Angkor Wat served as a state temple and was a center of worship and pilgrimage. It was also a symbol of the divine authority of the Khmer kings, who were considered devarajas (god-kings) with a direct connection to the divine. Angkor Thom: 1. Symbolism: Angkor Thom, meaning "Great City," was the capital city of the Khmer Empire. It was built by King Jayavarman VII in the late 12th century and served as the center of his empire. 2. Political and Administrative Center: Angkor Thom was not just a religious center but also the administrative and political heart of the empire. It contained the royal palace, administrative buildings, and military structures, reflecting the centralized power of the Khmer kings. Social Organization and Magnitude of the Temples: 1. Social Hierarchy: The grandeur and scale of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom indicate the immense wealth and resources controlled by the Khmer Empire and its rulers. The construction of these massive temple complexes required vast labor and material resources, which were likely mobilized through a highly organized system of governance. 2. Centralized Authority: The ability to plan, finance, and construct such monumental temples suggests a strong centralized authority under the Khmer kings. This centralized power allowed for the mobilization of labor and resources on a large scale, indicating a hierarchical social organization where the ruling elite could command both human and material resources. 3. Divine Kingship: The temples, especially Angkor Wat, embody the concept of divine kingship, where the ruler was seen as a manifestation of the divine on Earth. The magnitude of these temples served to legitimize the authority of the king and reinforce his role as a religious as well as a political leader. In summary, the temples of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom symbolize the religious and political power of the Khmer Empire. Their magnitude reflects the centralized authority and hierarchical social organization of the Angkor state, where the ruling elite had the resources and authority to undertake massive construction projects for religious, administrative, and symbolic purposes. 23. What were changes that occurred in Southeast Asia after the decline of the Harappan civilization? Answer: After the decline of the Harappan civilization around 1900 BCE, several changes occurred in Southeast Asia, although direct connections between the Harappans and Southeast Asia are debated. Nevertheless, the period following the decline of the Harappan civilization saw significant developments in Southeast Asia, including: 1. Cultural and Technological Changes: • Indigenous Developments: Local cultures in Southeast Asia continued to evolve, developing their own artistic styles, pottery techniques, and agricultural practices. • Metalworking: There was an advancement in metalworking techniques, particularly in bronze and iron production, which supported agricultural and societal developments. 2. Migration and Interaction: • Austronesian Expansion: The Austronesian-speaking peoples expanded throughout Southeast Asia, bringing with them agriculture, pottery, and maritime skills. This migration contributed to cultural diversity and interaction across the region. • Trade Networks: Maritime trade networks expanded, connecting Southeast Asia with regions like South Asia, China, and even East Africa. This facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies, enriching local cultures. 3. Political and Social Changes: • Emergence of Kingdoms: By around the 1st millennium BCE, early kingdoms began to emerge in Southeast Asia, characterized by centers of political power and hierarchical social structures. • Urbanization: Urban centers and port cities developed along coastal areas and river valleys, supported by trade and agriculture. Examples include the Kingdom of Funan in present-day Cambodia and southern Vietnam. 4. Religious and Cultural Influences: • Indian Influence: From around the 1st century CE onwards, Indian cultural and religious influences spread to Southeast Asia, particularly Buddhism and Hinduism. This influenced art, architecture, and societal norms in the region. • Chinese Influence: Trade with China introduced Confucianism, Daoism, and later Mahayana Buddhism to Southeast Asia, contributing to the region's religious diversity. 5. Art and Architecture: • Temple Construction: The construction of monumental temples and religious structures began, influenced by Indian architectural styles but adapted to local contexts. Notable examples include the Borobudur and Prambanan temples in Java, Indonesia. In summary, after the decline of the Harappan civilization, Southeast Asia experienced dynamic cultural, technological, and social changes. These included the development of indigenous cultures, the expansion of trade networks, the emergence of early kingdoms, and the adoption of foreign religions and architectural styles. These changes laid the foundation for the rich and diverse cultures that characterize Southeast Asia today. Chapter 18 – Early Chinese Civilization Multiple Choice Questions 1. By __________ population densities in China rose after agriculture was introduced. A. 5300 B.C. B. 2500 B.C. C. 3200 B.C. D. 4000 B.C. Answer: D 2. The population growth in China coincided with an expansion of __________ in lowland areas and in lush meadows where irrigation was easy. A. raised field farming B. millet farming C. wet rice farming D. soy bean farming Answer: C 3. The __________ culture of 4000 B.C. marks a period when north and south China became dependent upon one another for trade goods. A. Longshan B. Xia C. Liangzhu D. Ling Answer: A 4. The text says that the most significant of all Longshan innovations was the appearance of rectangular defensive enclosures, with walls known as hang tu, or __________. A. pounded dirt B. rammed earth C. smashed mud D. slammed soil Answer: B 5. The Longshan sites show evidence of the period being rather violent. Which of the following pieces of archaeological evidence was used to determine this? A. skulls with signs of wounds or scalping B. the writing of the Longshan peoples C. the vast amounts of weaponry found D. the large number of elites present Answer: A 6. Oracles in ancient China would divine using cracks made in which of the following materials? A. potsherds B. ox shoulder blades and tortoiseshells C. cow femurs D. chicken feathers and tea leaves Answer: B 7. It is thought that Chinese writing may have originated from __________. A. influences from Mesopotamia B. the need to interpret cracks in ox bones and pictograms C. cracks in tortoise shells D. influences from Japanese and Korean languages Answer: B 8. The archaeological record reveals that __________ -type remains are stratified on top of Longshan occupation levels at many places in northern China and that they represented a dramatic increase in the complexity of material culture and social organization. A. Qin B. Xia C. Shang D. Li Answer: C 9. The textbook concentrates on northern Chinese civilization because __________. A. the people in the southern parts of China did not have agriculture B. more is known about the archaeology of the Shang than any other early Chinese culture C. the people in southern China were nomadic and did not leave permanent residences D. the Shang kings obliterated any evidence of their southern neighbors through warfare Answer: B 10. A very sketchy outline of the early dynasties and the ways the Shang kings went about their business is revealed from __________. A. oracle bones and other historical sources B. pig entrails C. oral histories D. tea leaves Answer: A 11. Which society is largely known from its prestigious burials and black polished wares? A. Chen B. Shang C. Longshan D. Liangzhu Answer: D 12. Which was the all-important mark of Longshan elite status? A. ritual vessels B. jade figurines C. mummification D. bronze pectorals Answer: A 13. At which site did archaeologists find dozens of cracked ox shoulder blades, which they identified as oracle bones? A. Shang B. Longshan C. Liangzhu D. Chengziya Answer: D 14. Which civilization was a loosely unified confederacy of competing small kingdoms that quarreled and warred incessantly? A. Longshan B. Chengziyai C. Shang D. Liangzhu Answer: C 15. The Shang rulers lived in at least seven capitals before finally moving their capital to a place named __________ in 1557 B.C. A. Anyang B. Ao C. Henan D. Zhoukoudian Answer: B 16. Which structure was NOT located inside the two square miles of earthen wall surrounding the vast precinct of Ao? A. craft workshops B. ancestral alters C. houses of rulers D. houses of nobles Answer: A 17. The Shang capital moved to __________ in approximately 1400 B.C., where it remained until the fall of the Shang more than 250 years later. A. Zhengzhou B. Anyang C. Chengziyai D. Yangzi Answer: B 18. Which items are found in association with the burials of Shang rulers? A. stone vessel ornaments B. no slave sacrifices C. sacrificed victims D. thousands of jade statues Answer: C 19. The prestigious metal for the Shang people was __________. A. copper B. bronze C. gold D. silver Answer: B 20. Where do most surviving Shang weapons come from? A. Shihuangdi burial mound B. solider burials C. royal tombs D. sacrificial chariot burials Answer: D 21. Which of the following was NOT part of the weaponry carried by every foot soldier? A. bow and arrows B. shield C. spear D. small knife Answer: C 22. Which of the following was NOT associated with the burial mound of Emperor Shihuangdi? A. scale models of palaces and pavilions B. sacrificed concubines and laborers C. drawings of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus D. a regiment of terra-cotta soldiers Answer: C Essay Questions 23. Describe the origins of Chinese civilization. Include in your answer some discussion of the Longshan and Liangzhu cultures. Answer: The origins of Chinese civilization trace back to several ancient cultures and periods that contributed to the development of early Chinese society, culture, and state formation. Two significant cultures that played crucial roles in the early stages are the Longshan and Liangzhu cultures. Longshan Culture: The Longshan culture existed during the late Neolithic period in China, roughly from around 3000 to 1900 BCE. It is known for its advanced pottery-making techniques, characterized by thin-walled black pottery that was produced using a wheel. This marked a significant advancement over earlier Neolithic cultures in China. Key Features and Contributions: 1. Settlements and Agriculture: Longshan culture settlements were primarily located in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley and its tributaries. Agriculture, particularly the cultivation of millet and rice, was central to their economy. 2. Advanced Pottery: Longshan pottery was renowned for its quality and craftsmanship. The use of pottery wheels allowed for the production of consistent and finely crafted vessels, indicating a level of technological sophistication. 3. Social Organization: Longshan sites exhibit evidence of social differentiation, suggesting the emergence of social hierarchies and possibly the early stages of centralized authority. 4. Cultural Exchange: The Longshan culture participated in cultural exchanges with neighboring regions, which influenced their pottery styles and possibly other aspects of material culture. Liangzhu Culture: The Liangzhu culture emerged around 3400 to 2250 BCE in the Yangtze River delta region, particularly around modern-day Shanghai and southern Jiangsu province. It is renowned for its advanced urban planning, social complexity, and impressive jade artifacts. Key Features and Contributions: 1. Urban Centers: Liangzhu sites, such as the city of Liangzhu itself, were among the earliest planned cities in China. They featured elaborate urban planning with defined residential and ceremonial areas. 2. Jade Culture: The Liangzhu culture is famously associated with the production and use of jade artifacts, including beautifully crafted jade bi discs and cong tubes. Jade had significant symbolic and ritualistic importance in Liangzhu society. 3. Social Complexity: The presence of large-scale water management systems and advanced urban planning suggests a complex societal organization, possibly with a ruling elite and specialized labor. 4. Cultural Legacy: The Liangzhu culture left a lasting legacy on subsequent Chinese civilizations, influencing later developments in art, technology, and social organization. Origins of Chinese Civilization: The origins of Chinese civilization are thus rooted in the agricultural advancements, technological innovations (such as pottery-making and jade carving), social complexity, and cultural achievements of these early Neolithic cultures like Longshan and Liangzhu. These cultures laid the groundwork for the emergence of the dynastic civilization that would characterize much of China's history, including the Shang, Zhou, and subsequent imperial periods. Overall, the origins of Chinese civilization can be understood as a gradual process of agricultural intensification, technological innovation, urban development, and cultural exchange, driven by the achievements and interactions of diverse Neolithic cultures across different regions of ancient China. 24. Compare and contrast the Xia and Shang dynasties. Include in your answer a brief description of the Shang burial practices. Answer: The Xia and Shang dynasties are crucial periods in early Chinese history, both contributing significantly to the cultural, social, and political development of ancient China. Here’s a comparative overview of the Xia and Shang dynasties, including a focus on Shang burial practices: Xia Dynasty: 1. Historical Context: The Xia Dynasty is traditionally considered the first dynasty in Chinese history, although its existence has been debated among historians due to the lack of concrete archaeological evidence. 2. Political Organization: It was ruled by hereditary monarchs, with Yu the Great being the most renowned ruler, credited with flood control and irrigation projects. 3. Cultural Contributions: The Xia Dynasty is associated with the development of bronze casting and early Chinese mythology and literature. 4. Social Structure: Society was likely organized along hierarchical lines, with elites controlling resources and labor. Shang Dynasty: 1. Historical Context: The Shang Dynasty succeeded the Xia Dynasty around 1600 BCE and is considered the first verified dynasty in Chinese history. 2. Political Organization: Centralized monarchy with a hierarchical bureaucracy and a complex system of governance. 3. Cultural Contributions: Known for significant advancements in bronze metallurgy, oracle bone inscriptions (early form of Chinese writing), and religious practices centered around ancestor worship and divination. 4. Social Structure: Society was stratified, with the king and nobility at the top, followed by artisans, merchants, and peasants. Comparison: • Political Structure: Both dynasties were feudal monarchies, but the Shang Dynasty had a more complex bureaucracy and centralized power. • Cultural Achievements: Both contributed to the development of early Chinese culture, but the Shang Dynasty’s advancements in metallurgy and writing were more pronounced. • Social Organization: Both societies were hierarchical, but the Shang Dynasty had a more elaborate social structure with distinct roles for different classes. Shang Burial Practices: Shang burial practices provide insights into their beliefs about the afterlife and the structure of their society: • Ancestor Worship: Central to Shang burial practices was the belief in ancestor worship. The tombs of Shang elites often contained sacrifices and goods believed necessary for the deceased to maintain their status and power in the afterlife. • Oracle Bone Inscriptions: Inscriptions found on oracle bones indicate that burial rituals were accompanied by divination practices, demonstrating a belief in communication with ancestors and deities. • Human Sacrifice: Some Shang burial sites have revealed evidence of human sacrifice, suggesting that the deceased elite might have been accompanied by servants or warriors in death, reflecting a belief in continuing service in the afterlife. In conclusion, while the Xia and Shang dynasties shared some similarities in their political and social structures, the Shang Dynasty is more extensively documented and known for its cultural achievements, particularly in metallurgy and writing. Shang burial practices, characterized by elaborate rituals and beliefs in ancestor worship and the afterlife, provide important insights into their worldview and societal structure. 25. What were ways the warlords maintained power and authority in ancient China? Answer: Warlords in ancient China maintained power and authority through various methods, leveraging their military strength, political maneuvering, and control over resources and territories. Here are several key ways they maintained their power: 1. Military Strength and Force: Warlords typically controlled private armies composed of loyal soldiers and mercenaries. They used these forces to enforce their authority, defend their territories, and expand their influence through conquest and warfare. 2. Control of Strategic Territories: Warlords often held sway over strategically important regions such as trade routes, agricultural lands, or key cities. Control over these areas allowed them to extract resources, taxes, and manpower from the local population. 3. Alliance Building: Warlords frequently formed alliances with other powerful individuals or factions, including noble families, military commanders, or influential bureaucrats. These alliances provided mutual support and strengthened their political and military position. 4. Political Patronage: Warlords cultivated relationships with officials, scholars, and local leaders who could provide legitimacy and administrative support. By appointing loyal followers to key positions and granting favors, warlords ensured political stability and control. 5. Propaganda and Ideology: Some warlords promoted specific ideologies or justified their rule through religious or philosophical doctrines. This helped to garner support among the populace and legitimize their authority as protectors or leaders chosen by divine will. 6. Economic Control: Controlling trade routes, agricultural production, or mining resources allowed warlords to amass wealth and distribute patronage. This economic power strengthened their grip over local populations and facilitated military campaigns. 7. Cultural and Social Influence: Warlords often patronized artists, scholars, and intellectuals, using culture and education to reinforce their authority and promote loyalty among elites. They also sponsored religious institutions and ceremonies to align themselves with spiritual authority. 8. Repression and Control: Harsh measures, such as punishments, executions, or mass purges, were employed to suppress dissent and eliminate potential rivals. Fear and intimidation helped to maintain obedience and discourage rebellion. Overall, warlords in ancient China relied on a combination of military prowess, political alliances, economic control, cultural influence, and repression to establish and sustain their power. The effectiveness of these methods varied depending on the historical context, local conditions, and the strength of competing warlords or central authorities. Test Bank for People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory Brian M. Fagan , Nadia Durrani 9780205968022

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Isabella Thomas View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right