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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 3 Chapter 1 – Introducing World Prehistory Multiple Choice Questions 1. Archaeology is __________. A. the study of ancient species like dinosaurs B. concerned only with rulers of ancient societies C. the study of modern societies D. the study of ancient human societies using material remains to reconstruct human behavior Answer: D 2. __________ is/are the archives of the past made up of surviving finds resulting from ancient human behavior. A. Middens B. The archaeological record C. Written records D. Hieroglyphs Answer: B 3. Historical records can be used to date archaeological sites as far back as __________. A. 10,000 years ago B. about 3,000 B.C. C. the B.C./A.D. boundary D. about 1,000 years ago Answer: B 4. Which of the following materials CANNOT be used in radiocarbon dating? A. charcoal B. wood C. volcanic rock D. human remains Answer: C 5. The only source of unbiased information is __________. A. oral histories B. written records C. archaeological records D. non-existent in the archaeological context Answer: D 6. A concept developed by anthropologists to describe the distinctive adaptive system used by human beings is __________. A. culture B. invention C. diffusion D. prehistory Answer: A 7. Cultural systems don’t include __________. A. tools B. burial customs C. religious beliefs D. DNA replication Answer: D 8. Cultural processes in the past and present include all of the following EXCEPT __________. A. invention B. mutation C. diffusion D. migration Answer: B 9. An example of climate affecting an ancient society comes from the __________ that lived on the north coast of Peru. A. Inca B. Egyptians C. Moche D. Maya Answer: C 10. Which of the following is NOT true about unilinear cultural evolution? A. it was influenced by Darwin’s theory of biological and natural selection B. it is applied to the analysis of societies today C. it suggested that human societies evolved from simple (barbarism) to more complex (civilization) D. it had biases regarding the superiority of one society over another Answer: B 11. Which of the following is true about multilinear cultural evolution? A. it does not apply to societies today B. cultural ecology is at the core of this theory C. societies can’t be divided into bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and state-organized D. there is controversy over the classification in multilinear cultural evolution Answer: B 12. An approach to studying hunter-gatherer societies that is based on the assumption that people will use the most efficient foraging strategies relative to considerations of energy and time expended is __________. A. post-processualism B. the contingency model C. optimal foraging strategy D. processualism Answer: C 13. Some kind of innovation, material or otherwise, produced by a person or group at one place at a single moment in time is a(n) __________. A. discovery B. invention C. midden D. diffusion Answer: B 14. __________ refers to the biological (male or female), whereas __________ is culturally constructed. A. Gender; sex B. Sex; orientation C. Orientation; sex D. Sex; gender Answer: D 15. Important aspects of ancient trade include __________. A. obtaining raw or finished materials that are unavailable locally B. impersonal interactions C. transmission of writing styles D. the types of materials used in the construction of ancient ships Answer: A 16. The ancient Maya elites exercised their power over the populace by __________. A. creating economic monopolies B. creating symbolic models of the Maya universe in the centre of their cities C. sacrificing dissenters D. controlling the agricultural base Answer: B 17. A simple form of human social organization that flourished for most of prehistory and consists of a family or series of families with 20 to 50 people is a __________. A. band B. tribe C. state D. chiefdom Answer: A 18. A form of social organization that has evolved some form of leadership structure and some mechanisms for distributing goods and services throughout the society is a __________. A. band B. tribe C. state D. chiefdom Answer: D 19. A group of bands unified by age-sets or secret societies and governed by a council of representatives from the bands is a __________. A. mega-band B. tribe C. state D. chiefdom Answer: B 20. A socially stratified society with a strongly centralized government, social complexity, and writing is a __________. A. band B. tribe C. state D. chiefdom Answer: C Essay Questions 21. Discuss the difference between the two types of archaeology – text-aided archaeology and prehistoric archaeology. Answer: Text-aided archaeology and prehistoric archaeology are two distinct branches within the broader field of archaeology, differing primarily in their focus and methods due to the availability of textual sources. 1. Text-aided archaeology: • Definition: Text-aided archaeology, also known as historical archaeology, refers to the study of past societies that have written records. It relies heavily on textual sources in addition to material remains. • Focus: This branch of archaeology typically examines periods and cultures where written records exist. These records could include manuscripts, inscriptions, historical documents, administrative records, and other forms of written communication. • Methods: Text-aided archaeology integrates the analysis of material culture (artifacts, architecture, etc.) with textual sources. Archaeologists use texts to contextualize and interpret archaeological findings, providing insights into aspects of daily life, socio-political structures, economic activities, and religious practices. • Examples: Ancient civilizations like Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, and Medieval Europe are examples where text-aided archaeology plays a crucial role in understanding these societies alongside archaeological discoveries. 2. Prehistoric archaeology: • Definition: Prehistoric archaeology focuses on societies and cultures that did not have a writing system or written records. It primarily relies on material culture and scientific methods for interpretation. • Focus: This branch of archaeology studies human societies before written records existed. It includes the study of Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age cultures, among others. • Methods: Prehistoric archaeologists analyze artifacts, ecofacts (environmental remains like pollen or seeds), features (structures or remains of structures), and landscapes to reconstruct past lifeways, social structures, subsistence patterns, technological advancements, and cultural developments. • Examples: Prehistoric archaeology is often associated with ancient hunter-gatherer societies, early agricultural communities, and the study of human evolution. Key Differences: • Availability of Texts: The fundamental difference between these two types of archaeology lies in the availability of written records. Text-aided archaeology utilizes texts to complement archaeological findings, while prehistoric archaeology relies solely on material evidence. • Interpretation: Text-aided archaeology allows for more nuanced interpretations of historical societies due to direct textual references, whereas prehistoric archaeology requires more speculative interpretations based on indirect evidence. • Chronological Scope: Text-aided archaeology often focuses on more recent periods of human history, while prehistoric archaeology covers a broader timespan, from early human ancestors to the emergence of writing systems. In summary, while both text-aided and prehistoric archaeology aim to understand past human cultures, they differ significantly in their sources of evidence, methods of analysis, and the chronological periods they primarily investigate. 22. Discuss the characteristics of bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. Answer: In anthropology and sociology, bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states are classifications used to categorize and understand different types of societies based on their socio-political organization, size, and complexity. These classifications are based on the work of anthropologists like Elman Service and Morton Fried, who developed these categories to describe the evolution and organization of human societies. Here are the characteristics of each: 1. Bands: • Size: Small, consisting of a few dozen to a few hundred individuals. • Organization: Typically egalitarian, with no formal leadership or permanent political structure. • Social Structure: Kinship ties are strong, and decision-making is often based on consensus among adults. • Economy: Often hunter-gatherer societies, relying on natural resources for subsistence. • Mobility: Nomadic or semi-nomadic, moving with the availability of resources. • Examples: Some modern-day hunter-gatherer societies, such as the San people of Southern Africa or some Aboriginal Australian groups. 2. Tribes: • Size: Larger than bands, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand individuals. • Organization: Often kinship-based, with leadership by elders or informal leaders. • Social Structure: More complex than bands, with some degree of social hierarchy and division of labor. • Economy: Primarily subsistence-based, combining hunting, gathering, and simple agriculture or pastoralism. • Territory: Semi-sedentary, with defined territories that may overlap with neighbouring tribes. • Examples: Many indigenous societies around the world, such as the Native American tribes before European colonization. 3. Chiefdoms: • Size: Larger populations than tribes, often several thousand to tens of thousands of people. • Organization: Centralized leadership under a chief or paramount chief, who holds authority over multiple communities. • Social Structure: Hierarchical, with clear distinctions between social classes or ranks. • Economy: Surplus production and redistribution systems emerge, supporting more complex social structures. • Authority: Chiefs derive authority from both kinship ties and control over resources. • Examples: Historical Polynesian societies, some ancient Native American societies like the Mississippian culture. 4. States: • Size: Large populations, typically tens of thousands to millions of people. • Organization: Centralized political authority with formal government institutions, bureaucracy, and laws. • Social Structure: Highly stratified, with distinct social classes and specialized occupations. • Economy: Diversified economy with advanced agricultural techniques, trade networks, and often urban centres. • Authority: Power is centralized in a sovereign government, which monopolizes the use of force and taxation. • Examples: Ancient civilizations like Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China; modern nation-states around the world. Key Points of Comparison: • Political Organization: Bands and tribes are generally decentralized, while chiefdoms and states have centralized political structures. • Social Complexity: Complexity increases from bands to states, reflected in social hierarchy, economic specialization, and political institutions. • Economic Systems: Bands and tribes rely on subsistence strategies, while chiefdoms and states often have surplus production and trade. • Territorial Control: Bands and tribes have flexible territorial boundaries, whereas chiefdoms and states maintain more fixed territories. These classifications help anthropologists and historians understand how societies evolve in terms of political organization, social structure, economic complexity, and cultural development. They are useful for comparing different societies across time and geography, providing insights into the diversity of human social systems. 23. Discuss the importance of “engendering” the past. Use the example of the role of Aztec women in different aspects of Aztec life and society from the book. Answer: "Engendering" the past refers to the practice of integrating gender analysis into historical and archaeological studies to understand the roles, experiences, and contributions of women in past societies. This approach challenges traditional narratives that often overlook or marginalize women's roles, focusing instead on male-dominated perspectives. In the context of the Aztec civilization, engendering the past is crucial because it allows us to uncover the multifaceted roles played by Aztec women in various aspects of life and society. The book "Aztec Women and Goddesses: A Journey into the Past" by Patricia Rieff Anawalt provides valuable insights into the diverse roles of Aztec women, beyond just being wives or mothers, highlighting their contributions to politics, economy, religion, and culture. 1. Political and Social Roles: • Aztec women were actively involved in political life, particularly as rulers and as wives of rulers. They could hold positions of power and influence, participating in decision-making processes alongside men. • An example from the book might detail the role of Aztec queens (Tlatoani) who wielded significant political authority and played crucial roles in diplomacy and statecraft. 2. Economic Contributions: • Women in Aztec society were integral to the economy, engaging in activities such as agriculture, trade, and craft production. They contributed to household economies and often played key roles in market transactions. • The book might discuss specific examples of women engaged in agricultural practices or skilled artisans producing textiles or pottery. 3. Religious and Ritual Roles: • Aztec religion involved complex rituals and ceremonies where women played essential roles as priestesses, performing rituals, conducting ceremonies, and serving as intermediaries between the human and divine realms. • The book could highlight the significance of goddesses in Aztec mythology and the veneration of female deities, illustrating how these beliefs shaped gender roles and societal perceptions of women. 4. Cultural Influence: • Women in Aztec society influenced cultural practices through their roles as artists, poets, and musicians. They contributed to the production of art and literature, preserving and transmitting cultural knowledge and traditions. • An example might be the portrayal of women in Aztec art, reflecting their social status, roles, and cultural significance. Importance of Engendering the Past: • Representation: Engendering the past ensures that women's experiences and contributions are not overlooked or misrepresented in historical narratives. It provides a more complete understanding of the diversity and complexity of past societies. • Challenge to Stereotypes: By highlighting the active roles of Aztec women in political, economic, religious, and cultural spheres, engendering the past challenges stereotypes that portray women solely as passive or subordinate. • Intersectionality: Engendering the past acknowledges the intersections of gender with other aspects of identity such as class, ethnicity, and status, revealing how these factors shaped individuals' lives in historical contexts. In conclusion, engendering the past, as exemplified by the roles of Aztec women in various aspects of Aztec life and society from books like Patricia Rieff Anawalt's work, enriches our understanding of history by uncovering the diversity of women's roles and contributions. It fosters a more inclusive and accurate portrayal of past societies, highlighting the agency and significance of women in shaping cultural, social, and political dynamics. Chapter 2 – Human Origins: 7 Million to 1.9 Million Years Ago Multiple Choice Questions 1. __________ was the first to question the nature of the relationship between humans and their relatives, the chimpanzees and gorillas. A. Stephen Jay Gould B. Louis Leakey C. Charles Darwin D. Thomas Huxley Answer: D 2. __________ are periods during the Pleistocene where the climate was as warm or warmer than that of today. A. Heat waves B. Interglacials C. Glaciers D. Global Warmings Answer: B 3. Fluctuations in the earth’s climate during the Pleistocene are thought to be due to __________. A. astronomical changes B. methane gases C. chlorofluorocarbons D. volcanic eruptions Answer: A 4. Which of the following primates are included in the anthropoid suborder? A. tarsiers B. humans, apes, and monkeys C. lemurs D. indris Answer: B 5. Aegyptopithecus dates to the __________ epoch. A. Oligocene B. Pleistocene C. Holocene D. Miocene Answer: A 6. Proconsul and Kenyapithecus date to the __________ epoch. A. Oligocene B. Pleistocene C. Holocene D. Miocene Answer: D 7. It has been shown that chimpanzees share __________ percent of their genetic makeup with humans. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 99 Answer: D 8. Adaptive problems faced by early hominids include all of the following EXCEPT __________. A. competition from predators B. being large mammals C. being terrestrial primates D. living in a savanna environment Answer: A 9. The hominid found dating between 6 and 7 mya with a mix of ape-like and human-like characteristics is __________. A. Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï) B. Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) C. Ardipithecus ramidus D. Australopithecus anamensis Answer: A 10. The important fossil nicknamed Lucy is a(n) __________ dating to 3.18 mya. A. Australopithecus anamensis B. Homo erectus C. Australopithecus afarensis D. Homo habilis Answer: C 11. At the site of __________ in northern Tanzania, there is evidence of bipedalism preserved in volcanic ash dating to 3.75 – 3.9 mya. A. Olduvai B. Koto Toro C. Laetoli D. Hadar Answer: C 12. Around 3 million years ago, the Australopithecus line split into two distinct lineages. The __________ australopithecines had small, delicate features and were found only in South Africa. A. female B. gracile C. robust D. garhi Answer: B 13. Around 3 million years ago, the Australopithecus line split into two distinct lineages. The __________ australopithecines were found in both East and South Africa and had a heavy build with specialized teeth. A. gracile B. male C. robust D. anamensis Answer: C 14. The find associated with bones displaying cut marks suggests meat eating by the __________ may have occurred earlier than previously thought. A. Sahelanthropus tchadensis B. Australopithecus afarensis C. Homo erectus D. Australopithecus garhi Answer: D 15. The first member of the Homo lineage was __________. A. Homo erectus B. Homo sapiens C. Homo neanderthalensis D. Homo habilis Answer: D 16. Which of the following is an explanation for concentrations of bones and stone tools dating to the time of Homo habilis? A. central places where hominids would return to eat, sleep, make tools, and socialize B. formation of elaborate hunting parties C. all of the bones are found in animal dens or caves D. reduction in brain size leading to less social intelligence Answer: A 17. The stone tool industry associated with early Homo is __________. A. Mousterian B. Acheulian C. Upper Paleolithic D. Oldowan Answer: D 18. According to __________, the flakes were more important in Oldowan technology than the cores. A. Leakey B. Toth C. Roche D. Walker Answer: B 19. By examining living primates, Robin Dunbar was able to determine that __________ was related to brain size. A. group size B. climate C. tool use D. degree of sexual dimorphism Answer: A 20. Most archaeological evidence for Homo habilis indicates they lived near __________. A. permanent water sources B. mountains C. ice sheets D. rain forests Answer: A 21. Advantages of large group size in Homo habilis include __________. A. protection against carnivores and the ability to cover a larger area in searching for food B. the ability to provide physical defense against carnivores while searching for food C. more individuals to babysit while females hunted D. better protection by some group members sitting watch in trees Answer: A 22. In the 1960s, the Gardeners taught a chimpanzee named __________ how to communicate via American Sign Language (ASL). A. Kanzi B. Washoe C. Nim Chimpski D. Koko Answer: B 23. One way to determine the position of the larynx in fossils is by the __________. A. length of the neck B. size of the hyoid bone C. shape of the base of the skull D. shape of the lower jaw Answer: C 24. Due to a longer period of brain growth, infant dependency of Homo habilis would have been __________ that of chimpanzees. A. the same as B. greater than C. shorter than D. less than Answer: B Essay Questions 25. Discuss the skeletal and archaeological lines of evidence that suggest that Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) was bipedal. Answer: Australopithecus afarensis, famously represented by the fossil specimen known as "Lucy," is an important hominin species believed to have lived approximately 3.9 to 2.9 million years ago in Eastern Africa. One of the significant debates and findings in paleoanthropology revolves around the locomotion of Australopithecus afarensis, particularly whether they were primarily bipedal like modern humans or still retained significant arboreal (tree-climbing) abilities. Here are the skeletal and archaeological lines of evidence that suggest Australopithecus afarensis, including Lucy, was bipedal: 1. Pelvic Structure: • The pelvic structure of Australopithecus afarensis shows adaptations indicative of bipedalism. The shape and orientation of the pelvis help in stabilizing the body during bipedal locomotion by supporting the weight of internal organs and allowing efficient movement. • Specifically, Lucy's pelvis (represented by the AL 288-1 specimen) shows a broad ilium (hip bone), a relatively short and broad sacrum (part of the pelvis connected to the vertebral column), and a bowl-shaped pelvis. These features are more aligned with bipedal locomotion for efficient weight-bearing and stride length. 2. Spinal Column: • The vertebral column of Australopithecus afarensis, including the curvature of the lower spine, suggests adaptations for bipedalism. The lumbar region (lower back) shows a curvature that helps in maintaining balance during walking on two legs, which is characteristic of bipedalism. 3. Lower Limb Bones: • The lower limb bones of Australopithecus afarensis provide strong evidence for bipedal locomotion. Features such as the angle of the femoral neck (where the femur meets the hip) and the shape of the knee joint indicate efficient weight transfer and stabilization during walking. • Lucy's knee joint, represented by the AL 129-1 specimen, shows a relatively extended femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) alignment, which are adaptations for bipedalism. 4. Foot Anatomy: • The foot anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis, particularly the structure of the footprints found at Laetoli in Tanzania (dated to approximately 3.7 million years ago), shows a well-developed longitudinal arch and a non-divergent big toe (hallux). • These foot characteristics are more consistent with bipedal locomotion for weight distribution and forward propulsion, resembling the human foot more than that of chimpanzees or gorillas. 5. Archaeological Context: • The archaeological context, such as the discovery of footprints at Laetoli, provides direct evidence of bipedal locomotion in Australopithecus afarensis. These footprints show a clear bipedal gait pattern, with evidence of heel-striking and toe-off, similar to modern humans. Conclusion: The combination of skeletal evidence from pelvic structure, spinal anatomy, lower limb bones, and foot morphology, along with archaeological evidence from footprints, strongly supports the hypothesis that Australopithecus afarensis, including Lucy, was bipedal. While debates continue about the extent of their arboreal capabilities and how bipedalism evolved within the Australopithecus lineage, the overall consensus among paleoanthropologists is that Australopithecus afarensis represents an important transitional form in the evolution of bipedalism, marking a significant step toward the locomotor patterns seen in modern humans. 26. List the four criteria used to assign a fossil into the genus Homo. Are any of these criteria controversial? Why? Answer: Assigning a fossil into the genus Homo involves several criteria that reflect specific anatomical and behavioral characteristics. The four main criteria used to classify a fossil as belonging to the genus Homo are: 1. Increased Brain Size: Fossils assigned to Homo typically exhibit an increase in brain size compared to earlier hominins. This increase suggests a trend towards greater cognitive abilities and possibly more complex social behaviors. 2. Reduced Dentition: Homo fossils generally show a reduction in the size of the teeth, particularly the molars and premolars, compared to earlier hominins like Australopithecus. This reduction is indicative of dietary changes and possibly the use of tools for food processing. 3. Cultural and Technological Advancements: The presence of stone tools or evidence of tool-making capabilities is often considered indicative of the genus Homo. These tools suggest increased technological sophistication and adaptation to diverse environments. 4. Bipedal Locomotion: While bipedalism is not unique to Homo (as earlier hominins like Australopithecus also exhibited bipedal traits), the genus Homo typically shows further adaptations for efficient bipedal locomotion, which may include changes in the pelvis, legs, and feet. Controversies: 1. Brain Size Threshold: The criterion of increased brain size to classify a fossil as Homo has been somewhat controversial because the exact threshold for brain size increase that defines Homo is debated. Some argue for a specific brain size cutoff, while others emphasize the relative increase compared to earlier hominins. 2. Tool Use: While the presence of stone tools is often associated with the genus Homo, the interpretation of tool-making capabilities in earlier hominins (like Australopithecus) challenges the exclusivity of tool use as a defining criterion for Homo. The debate centers on whether tool-making was a unique characteristic of Homo or if it emerged earlier in the hominin lineage. 3. Variability in Dental Features: The reduction in dental size and complexity is a criterion for Homo, but there is variability among fossils in terms of dental characteristics. Some fossils classified as Homo may show retention of more primitive dental features, blurring the distinction between early Homo and Australopithecus. 4. Bipedal Adaptations: While bipedalism is generally considered a criterion for Homo, some argue that bipedalism evolved earlier in the hominin lineage (e.g., Australopithecus afarensis) and therefore may not be sufficient on its own to define Homo. In conclusion, while the four criteria (increased brain size, reduced dentition, cultural advancements, and bipedal locomotion) provide a framework for classifying fossils into the genus Homo, there are ongoing debates and controversies surrounding each criterion. These debates reflect the complex nature of human evolution and the challenges in defining and categorizing fossil hominins based on limited fossil evidence and varying interpretations. 27. Discuss the differences in tool use between chimpanzees and Homo habilis. Answer: Tool use represents a significant behavioral and cognitive adaptation in hominins and chimpanzees, each demonstrating unique approaches and capabilities. Here’s a comparison of tool use between chimpanzees (representing non-human primates) and Homo habilis (one of the earliest members of the genus Homo): Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): 1. Tool Use Complexity: • Chimpanzees are known for using a variety of tools, including sticks, stones, and leaves, for different purposes such as foraging, hunting, and social interactions. • They exhibit both natural and manufactured tool use. Natural tools involve minimal modification (e.g., using a twig to extract termites from a mound), while manufactured tools involve more complex modifications (e.g., stripping leaves to fashion a tool for grooming). 2. Cultural Transmission: • Tool use among chimpanzees often involves cultural transmission, where specific tool-using behaviors are passed down through social learning and observation from older individuals to younger ones. • Different chimpanzee communities may have distinct tool-use behaviors, reflecting cultural diversity within populations. 3. Purpose of Tool Use: • Chimpanzees primarily use tools for extracting food resources. For example, they use sticks to fish for termites or ants, stones to crack open nuts, and leaf sponges for drinking water. • Tools are also used in social contexts, such as displaying or manipulating objects during social interactions. 4. Tool Manufacture: • Chimpanzees are capable of modifying and manufacturing tools, although their manufacturing processes are generally less complex compared to early hominins. • Tool-making involves basic techniques like selecting and modifying materials rather than deliberate shaping or systematic manufacturing. Homo habilis: 1. Tool Use Complexity: • Homo habilis, considered one of the earliest tool-using hominins, exhibits more deliberate and systematic tool use compared to chimpanzees. • They are associated with Oldowan stone tools, which are among the earliest known stone tool technologies. These tools include simple flakes and cores, typically used for cutting, chopping, and processing animal carcasses and plant materials. 2. Purpose of Tool Use: • Homo habilis used tools primarily for obtaining and processing food. They used stone flakes to butcher animal carcasses and process meat, and possibly to access plant materials as well. • Tool use among Homo habilis likely contributed to enhanced dietary quality and access to new resources, influencing their survival and adaptation. 3. Cognitive Implications: • Tool use in Homo habilis suggests enhanced cognitive abilities, including the ability to plan, anticipate needs, and manipulate materials intentionally. • The development of stone tools required the ability to recognize suitable raw materials, apply appropriate techniques for flaking, and maintain tools for repeated use. 4. Technological Innovation: • The use of Oldowan tools by Homo habilis represents a significant technological innovation in hominin evolution, marking a shift towards more sophisticated tool-making capabilities compared to earlier hominins and non-human primates. Key Differences: • Complexity and Systematic Use: Homo habilis shows a more systematic and intentional use of tools compared to the opportunistic and diverse tool use observed in chimpanzees. • Technological Evolution: Tool use in Homo habilis reflects a step towards more advanced technologies, setting the stage for subsequent tool-making advancements in later Homo species. • Purpose and Adaptation: Tool use in chimpanzees primarily revolves around foraging and social behaviors, while in Homo habilis, it played a crucial role in dietary expansion and adaptation to diverse environments. In summary, while both chimpanzees and Homo habilis demonstrate tool-using behaviors, Homo habilis stands out for its more systematic and deliberate approach to tool use, which played a pivotal role in early human evolution and technological advancement. Chapter 3 – Archaic Humans: Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, and Homo heidelbergensis: 1.9 Million to 150,000 Years Ago Multiple Choice Questions 1. The climatic changes of the __________ are believed to be partially responsible for the rapidity of human biological and cultural changes. A. Eocene B. Miocene C. Holocene D. Pleistocene Answer: D 2. Homo erectus moved out of Africa into Europe and Asia during the __________. A. Lower Pleistocene B. Middle Pleistocene C. Upper Pleistocene D. never; Homo erectus was confined to Africa Answer: A 3. The earliest East African Homo ergaster specimens come from the __________ region of northern Kenya. A. Hadar B. Lake Turkana C. Lake Olduvai D. Zhoukoudian Answer: B 4. The skeleton found at Nariokotome is of an 11 year old __________. A. Australopithecus afarensis B. Homo habilis C. Homo ergaster D. Homo sapiens Answer: C 5. The skeleton of the Nariokotome boy indicates that our postcranial anatomy likely evolved into its modern form __________ the crania. A. after B. at the same rate as C. before D. separately from Answer: C 6. The Nariokotome boy was __________ modern 12 year olds. A. shorter than B. the same height as C. taller than D. much shorter than Answer: C 7. __________ is thought to have radiated out of Africa when other mammals left the continent. A. Australopithecus afarensis B. Homo ergaster C. Homo sapiens D. Australopithecus africanus Answer: B 8. Fossil evidence from Indonesia dates Homo erectus remains to the same timeframe as those found in __________. A. Europe B. Asia C. Africa D. the Americas Answer: C 9. To have populated as far as Southeast Asia in 100,000 years, H. erectus could have travelled as little as __________ miles per year. A. 5 to 10 B. 20 to 30 C. 100 to 200 D. 1000 to 1500 Answer: B 10. A discovery of a Homo erectus cranium from Ethiopia that has both African and Asian features suggests that African and Asian Homo erectus __________. A. were completely different species B. were more similar than once thought C. were never in contact with one another D. would never interbreed Answer: B 11. __________ is believed by anthropologists to be the first to control fire. A. Homo sapiens B. Homo neanderthalensis C. Homo habilis D. Homo ergaster Answer: D 12. __________ is a well-known Middle Pleistocene cave site dating from 460,000 to 230,000 years ago which contained the remains of 40 individuals. A. Narmada B. Longgupo C. Zhoukoudian D. Lant’ien Answer: C 13. The toolkit associated with Homo ergaster and Homo erectus is the __________. A. Oldowan B. Mousterian C. Acheulian D. Upper Paleolithic Answer: C 14. The oldest wooden implements dating to the time of Homo erectus are wooden spears from __________. A. Schoningen, Germany B. Zhoukoudian, China C. Gran Dolina, Spain D. Boxgrove, England Answer: A 15. It is thought that materials like __________ were used as tools by early Asian Homo erectus populations. A. stone B. wood, bamboo, and fiber C. wool and cotton D. metal Answer: B 16. The most prevalent tool in the Acheulian toolkit was the __________. A. scraper B. knife C. arrow D. hand ax Answer: D 17. The __________ technique greatly increased the amount of usable stone obtained from a stone sample. A. knapping B. prepared core C. Oldowan D. hammer stone Answer: B 18. Evidence of butchery and big-game hunting is NOT at which of the following sites? A. Torralba, Spain B. Ambrona, Spain C. Boxgrove, England D. Dordogne, France Answer: D 19. The elephant bones from Torralba and Ambrona are found within clays that indicate a(n) __________ was present in the past. A. river B. ocean C. marsh D. lake Answer: C 20. The most well-known archaic Homo sapiens are __________. A. Homo erectus B. Neanderthals C. Cro-Magnon D. humans Answer: B 21. In which of the following areas did Neanderthals live? A. Europe and Eurasia B. Africa C. Eurasia D. South America Answer: A 22. The lithic technology associated with the Neanderthals is the __________. A. Oldowan B. Acheulian C. Lower Paleolithic D. Mousterian Answer: D 23. The Levallois and disk core techniques were used to produce __________ tools. A. Oldowan B. Acheulian C. Mousterian D. Lower Paleolithic Answer: C 24. Bordes believed that the variation in Mousterian toolkits was due to __________. A. different intelligence levels B. different groups C. different time periods D. reduction continuum Answer: B Essay Questions 25. Discuss the technological advances of Homo ergaster and Homo erectus that allowed them to leave the continent of Africa. Answer: The technological advances of Homo ergaster (often considered a subspecies of Homo erectus) and Homo erectus played a crucial role in their ability to migrate out of Africa and disperse into Eurasia. These advancements are indicative of significant cognitive and behavioral developments that enabled early humans to adapt to diverse environments and expand their geographical range. Here are the key technological advances associated with Homo ergaster and Homo erectus: 1. Acheulean Stone Tools: • Homo ergaster and Homo erectus are associated with the Acheulean stone tool industry, characterized by the production of large, bifacially flaked handaxes and cleavers. • Acheulean tools were more sophisticated than the earlier Oldowan tools used by earlier hominins. They required more planning, skill, and cognitive abilities to manufacture, suggesting advancements in cognitive capabilities. • These tools were versatile and could be used for various purposes such as butchering animals, woodworking, and possibly digging, reflecting a more complex tool-use repertoire. 2. Fire Control and Use: • There is evidence that Homo ergaster and Homo erectus were proficient in controlling and using fire. Fire provided warmth, protection from predators, and facilitated cooking food, which increased the digestibility and nutritional value of their diet. • The ability to control fire also extended the geographical range in which early humans could live, allowing them to inhabit colder climates and expand into new territories. 3. Hunting and Cooperative Strategies: • The development of Acheulean tools and the control of fire likely facilitated more effective hunting strategies among Homo ergaster and Homo erectus. • These early humans likely engaged in cooperative hunting, using tools to effectively hunt large game, which provided a reliable source of protein and contributed to their dietary diversity and nutritional intake. 4. Social Organization and Communication: • The ability to produce more complex tools, control fire, and engage in cooperative hunting suggests increased social organization and communication skills among Homo ergaster and Homo erectus. • These developments enabled early humans to live in larger groups, share resources more efficiently, and transmit knowledge and skills across generations, fostering cultural continuity and adaptation. 5. Adaptation to Diverse Environments: • The technological advancements of Homo ergaster and Homo erectus, coupled with their ability to control fire, allowed them to adapt to a wide range of environments beyond Africa. • They were able to colonize savannas, grasslands, woodlands, and eventually move into colder climates in Eurasia, demonstrating their adaptability and resilience in varying ecological settings. Significance for Migration out of Africa: • The combination of Acheulean tools, fire control, cooperative hunting, and social organization provided Homo ergaster and Homo erectus with the adaptive toolkit necessary to migrate out of Africa. • These technological advances allowed early humans to exploit new resources, navigate different landscapes, and survive in diverse environmental conditions encountered during their dispersal across Eurasia. In conclusion, the technological advances of Homo ergaster and Homo erectus, particularly the development of Acheulean tools and the control of fire, were instrumental in enabling them to leave Africa and establish populations across Eurasia. These advancements not only enhanced their survival skills but also laid the foundation for subsequent cultural and technological innovations in later hominin species. 26. Describe the prepared core technique and other advancements of the Acheulian tool industry. Answer: The Acheulian tool industry represents a significant advancement in stone tool technology associated primarily with Homo erectus and sometimes with earlier forms like Homo habilis. This industry is characterized by several key technological innovations, including the prepared core technique and other advancements: 1. Prepared Core Technique: • Definition: The prepared core technique involves the systematic shaping of a stone core to produce large, symmetrical bifacial tools, such as handaxes and cleavers. • Process: • A core (a large, often rounded stone) is carefully shaped and flaked on both faces (bifacially) to create a cutting edge around its perimeter. • This technique requires strategic planning, skillful percussion flaking, and careful shaping of the core to achieve a desired tool form. • Purpose: • Handaxes and cleavers produced through the prepared core technique were versatile tools used for a variety of tasks, including butchering animals, woodworking, and possibly digging. • They were likely multifunctional tools, aiding in the adaptation of early humans to different environments and lifestyles. 2. Standardization of Tool Shapes: • Acheulian tools exhibit a higher degree of standardization in terms of size and shape compared to earlier industries like the Oldowan. • This standardization suggests improved technological skills, possibly reflecting social learning and cultural transmission of tool-making techniques within early human groups. 3. Use of Levallois Technique: • Towards the later stages of the Acheulian period, some populations of Homo erectus and related species began to develop the Levallois technique. • This technique involves the preparation of a core to produce flakes of predetermined shape and size, often with a characteristic tortoise-shell shape. • The Levallois technique represents a further refinement in stone tool production, allowing for more efficient use of raw materials and producing flakes that could be used as tools themselves or further shaped into more specialized implements. 4. Increased Complexity in Tool Functionality: • Acheulian tools exhibit greater complexity in their functionality compared to earlier tool industries. • The ability to produce large, symmetrical handaxes and cleavers suggests enhanced cognitive abilities and planning skills among Homo erectus. • These tools were likely used not only for basic tasks like cutting and scraping but also for more specialized activities such as woodworking, hunting, and processing plant materials. 5. Technological Innovation and Adaptation: • The Acheulian tool industry marks a significant technological innovation in hominin evolution, demonstrating the ability of early humans to adapt to diverse environments and exploit a wider range of resources. • The development of sophisticated tools like handaxes and cleavers facilitated the expansion of early human populations into new habitats across Africa, Asia, and possibly Europe. In summary, the Acheulian tool industry represents a major advancement in stone tool technology during the Lower Paleolithic, characterized by the prepared core technique, standardization of tool shapes, adoption of the Levallois technique in later stages, increased tool functionality, and overall technological innovation. These advancements played a crucial role in the adaptive success and cultural evolution of early members of the genus Homo, particularly Homo erectus. 27. Discuss the skeletal differences between Neanderthals and modern humans. Answer: Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) and modern humans (Homo sapiens) are closely related hominin species that coexisted during the Late Pleistocene. They exhibit several skeletal differences, reflecting both their evolutionary history and adaptations to different environmental and ecological contexts. Here are the key skeletal differences between Neanderthals and modern humans: 1. Cranial Features: • Cranial Capacity: Neanderthals generally have larger cranial capacities than modern humans, averaging around 1,400 to 1,600 cubic centimeters (cc) compared to the average of approximately 1,200 to 1,400 cc in modern humans. This suggests Neanderthals had larger brains on average. • Cranial Shape: Neanderthal skulls are characterized by a distinctive morphology, including a long and low cranial vault (the top part of the skull), a prominent brow ridge (supraorbital ridge), and a face that protrudes forward (mid-face projection). In contrast, modern human skulls typically have a more globular cranial shape, reduced brow ridges, and a flatter face. 2. Facial Features: • Mid-Facial Protrusion: Neanderthals have a pronounced mid-facial projection, with the middle part of the face (nasal region) protruding forward. This gives their face a more prognathic (projecting) appearance compared to the flatter faces of modern humans. • Nose Shape: Neanderthals have large nasal cavities and nasal openings, suggesting adaptation to cold climates. In contrast, modern humans generally have narrower nasal passages and a more varied nose shape. 3. Dental Features: • Teeth Size and Shape: Neanderthals typically have larger and more robust teeth compared to modern humans. Their incisors, canines, and molars are larger, suggesting adaptations related to diet and chewing. • Retromolar Space: Neanderthals often have a larger retromolar space (behind the third molar) compared to modern humans, which is a distinctive dental trait. 4. Postcranial Skeleton: • Robusticity: Neanderthals exhibit a robust skeletal structure with thicker bones, particularly in the limbs and joints, indicating greater muscular strength and adaptation to cold climates. • Body Proportions: Neanderthals generally had shorter limbs compared to modern humans, which is thought to be an adaptation to conserve body heat in colder environments. 5. Pelvis and Birth Canal: • Neanderthal females had a broader pelvis compared to modern humans, likely reflecting adaptations for childbirth in a population with larger infants. This broader pelvis is consistent with a more robust overall skeleton. Interpretation of Differences: The skeletal differences between Neanderthals and modern humans reflect adaptations to different environments and ecological niches. Neanderthals, adapted to the cold climates of Europe and Western Asia during the Late Pleistocene, developed robust features such as a larger body size, large nasal passages for warming cold air, and larger brains possibly adapted for complex survival strategies. In contrast, modern humans, originating in Africa and later spreading globally, exhibit a more gracile cranial and skeletal morphology, possibly reflecting adaptations to warmer climates and different ecological challenges. These skeletal differences underscore the distinct evolutionary paths and adaptive strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans, highlighting the complex interplay between biology, environment, and cultural factors in human evolution. Test Bank for People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory Brian M. Fagan , Nadia Durrani 9780205968022

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