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Chapter 3: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Multiple Choice 1. Most mental health professionals today identify themselves with a. the psychodynamic paradigm. b. the cognitive-behavioral paradigm. c. the humanistic paradigm. d. no single paradigm. Answer: d. 2. Trying to determine whether and to what extent psychotherapy is effective requires a. psychotherapy process research. b. psychotherapy outcome research. c. eclectic psychotherapy research. d. epidemiological research. Answer: b. 3. A clinician who uses research to select the most effective form of treatment is practicing _________________ psychotherapy. a. eclectic b. outcome based c. evidence-based d. epidemiological Answer: c. 4. Which of the following best describes the evidence for how many people receive psychological help out of all those who need it? a. Most people will receive help. b. Only people with severe disturbances will receive help. c. Most people will not receive help. d. Only people with the most common disturbances will receive help. Answer: c. 5. Therapists representing the biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic orientations are discussing the case of Frances from the text. What common feature will these therapists see in this case of depression? a. All focus on her use of defense mechanisms. b. All note her tendency to blame herself for troubles in her relationships. c. All see how the basic cause of the depression can be traced to early childhood experiences. d. All focus on the influence of her family as a causative agent in the development of her depression. Answer: b. 6. In viewing the case of Frances presented in your text, a biologically oriented therapist would view her interpersonal problems as a. the cause of her depression. b. the result of her depression. c. irrelevant to her condition. d. a separate problem requiring another diagnosis. Answer: b. 7. What is the primary goal of psychodynamic therapy as presented in the case of Frances in the textbook? a. gaining insight into unconscious motivations b. encouraging acceptance of individual responsibility c. changing psychological experience with the use of medication d. applying psychological research to foster learning of new behaviors Answer: a. 8. Which form of treatment aims to gain insight into defenses and unconscious motivations and relies on the interpretation of defenses? a. behavioral b. humanistic c. biological d. psychodynamic Answer: d. 9. What is a cognitive-behavior therapist likely to do in treating Frances, whose battle with depression was described in the text? a. be very directive in getting her to look at her distorted thinking b. reward her each time she gets through the day without feeling depressed c. teach her a relaxation technique and slow breathing to help her deal with stress d. use role-playing to demonstrate healthy and unhealthy interactions Answer: a. 10. These are the notes of a therapist who is treating Frances, whose case of depression was described in the text: "Client assigned homework to monitor conflict with family and to try out new ways of relating to them." The orientation of this therapist is probably a. humanistic. b. cognitive-behavioral. c. biological. d. psychodynamic. Answer: b. 11. At a retreat for therapists, the group leader decides to use a few warm-up exercises to help everyone get to know each other. She says, "I want all of the therapists who view their roles as active and directive in the back of the room." When she looks at the back of the room she finds that most of the people back there follow which treatment approaches? a. cognitive-behavioral and humanistic b. cognitive-behavioral and biological c. psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral d. psychodynamic and biological Answer: b. 12. A therapist tells a patient that he is "not being genuine, not being himself." The therapist encourages the patient to make life choices based on his true feelings. What is the therapist's most likely theoretical framework? a. cognitive-behavioral b. humanistic c. biological d. psychodynamic Answer: b. 13. During therapy to treat the depression experienced by Frances as described in your text, which type of therapist would be nondirective but would focus the sessions on emotional issues? a. cognitive-behavioral b. biological c. humanistic d. psychodynamic Answer: c. 14. A straightforward example of an eclectic approach to the case Frances presented in your text would be to a. combine psychotherapy with medication. b. conduct outcome research. c. conduct process research. d. follow one specific paradigm of treatment. Answer: a. 15. Dr. Mallord empathizes with her patient, but is passive and nondirective in the sessions. She does encourage the development of emotional awareness. What general technique is Dr. Mallord using to treat her patient? a. biological b. humanistic c. cognitive-behavioral d. psychodynamic Answer: b. 16. _____ medication is used to treat many psychological conditions. It is generally effective, but it is not a “cure” for any disorder. a. Psychostimulant b. Analgesic c. Psychotropic d. Antimanic Answer: c. 17. Mental health professionals who strive to meet the mental health needs of members of various ethnic minority groups need to be sensitive to the challenge of acculturation, which refers to a. the preservation of each group's unique customs and values. b. how members of each group understand themselves in terms of their own culture. c. the process of learning and adopting the cultural patterns of the majority group. d. depreciating of the customs and values of the majority group. Answer: c. 18. The discovery of both a specific biological cause and an effective cure for general paresis a. has been followed by many more similar successes. b. has not been followed by similar success stories. c. was never achieved despite decades of scientific study. d. was finally achieved just within the past few years. Answer: b. 19. When biological treatments are used for various mental disorders without knowing the specific cause of the problem, such treatments focus on a. prevention. b. discovering the cause. c. establishing the correct diagnosis. d. symptom alleviation. Answer: d. 20. Which form of treatment for certain mental disorders produces retrograde amnesia? a. free association b. systematic desensitization c. electroconvulsive therapy d. forced cold baths Answer: c. 21. What erroneous assumption led to the development of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)? a. Schizophrenia prevented epileptic seizures. b. Epileptic seizures prevented schizophrenia. c. Schizophrenia resulted from failure to use both hemispheres. d. ECT would result in memory loss that would cure schizophrenia. Answer: b. 22. Agnes has been recently diagnosed as suffering a particularly severe form of depression. She was admitted to the hospital and given the typical recommended electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment. What will her medical chart reveal about her treatment? a. She was given one major unilateral treatment. b. She was given mild shocks throughout two days of treatment. c. A series of 6 to 12 ECT sessions was given over a few weeks. d. A series of 15 to 25 sessions was given in a week followed by psychosurgery. Answer: c. 23. What is the major consideration in deciding whether to use unilateral versus bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for a patient suffering from severe depression? a. patient's age b. reducing memory loss c. patient's family history of mental illness d. reduction in patient's white cell blood count Answer: b. 24. Compared to its use in the middle of the last century, today electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a. used far less frequently. b. used far more frequently. c. never used because of its severe side effects. d. only used to treat schizophrenia. Answer: a. 25. What was one of the severe side effects of prefrontal lobotomies? a. epilepsy b. manic behavior c. increased anxiety d. absence of emotional responsiveness Answer: d. 26. A medical records clerk was reviewing patient files when he came across one that had the name of a procedure he did not recognize: cingulotomy. When he looked up the procedure he found that it is a surgical procedure used in cases in which the diagnosis is a. schizophrenia. b. major depression. c. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. antisocial personality disorder. Answer: c. 27. What is the major effect of antipsychotic medications given to people who do not suffer from schizophrenia? a. The drugs have no effect. b. The people become addicted. c. The drugs send them into a long, groggy sleep. d. The drugs cause delusions and hallucinations. Answer: c. 28. When you walk into your next class you see the term “psychotropic medications” written on the blackboard. You never know when such information might come in handy, so you look it up and find that it refers to a. special placebo pills used in drug research. b. chemical substances that affect our psychological state. c. chemical substances that cause psychedelic experiences. d. special drugs designed to "turn off" genes thought to cause mental disorders. Answer: b. 29. While reading a medical article you come across the category of minor tranquilizers. The writer then gives the term “benzodiazepine” as an example of the chemical group of drugs. What type of drugs is being described? a. antimanic b. antianxiety c. antipsychotic d. antidepressants Answer: b. 30. For an assignment you are asked to look up a group of drugs known as major tranquilizers. You consult a drug handbook and find that another term for these drugs is a. antianxiety. b. antipsychotic. c. antidepressant. d. sedative hypnotic. Answer: b. 31. You are reading a case study of a patient who has been prescribed the following: Haldol, Clozaril, and Thorazine. You recognize these drugs as belonging to the category called a. antimanic. b. antianxiety. c. antipsychotic. d. antidepressant. Answer: c. 32. Ted wants to learn about the effects of the drug Prozac. Under what category of medications would he find the drug listed? a. antimanic b. antianxiety c. antipsychotic d. antidepressant Answer: d. 33. Current evidence on the effects of psychotropic medications indicate that they a. are effective cures for many disorders. b. are effective cures only for mild disorders. c. offer symptom relief but not a cure. d. are not very effective and usually cause serious side effects. Answer: c. 34. Joseph Breuer's method of catharsis provided relief for psychological symptoms by helping patients to a. release previously unexpressed feelings. b. overcome their anxiety through using systematic desensitization. c. open up under the influence of "truth serum." d. assess the irrational basis of their beliefs. Answer: a. 35. Free association refers to a. the effectiveness of psychoactive medications. b. a defense mechanism seen in personality disorders. c. talking freely about whatever thoughts cross the mind. d. the right of patients to associate with other patients. Answer: c. 36. What did Sigmund Freud believe was the "true benefit" of free association? a. induces hypnosis b. increases drive levels c. reveals aspects of the unconscious mind d. encourages conversations concerning taboo topics Answer: c. 37. According to Freudian psychoanalysis it is sufficient to cure mental illness if the therapist were to a. break down a person's defenses. b. bring unconscious material into conscious awareness. c. train patients to become more hypnotizable. d. help patients accept themselves. Answer: b. 38. What is the meaning of the term “interpretation” from psychoanalysis? a. a method used to induce catharsis in difficult cases b. a general guideline for the therapist that is not shared with the patient c. material the therapist shares with patients to help them understand their own behavior d. statements the patient shares with the therapist that explain the troubling behavior Answer: c. 39. A psychoanalyst might suggest that Frances, whose case was presented in the text, is demonstrating ______________ if she begins to treat the analyst in ways that suggest she feels about him the way she felt about her father. a. free association b. transference c. countertransference d. resistance Answer: b. 40. Therapeutic neutrality is viewed as a key component of a. psychoanalysis. b. client-centered therapy. c. in vivo desensitization. d. rational-emotive therapy. Answer: a. 41. Which of the following best exemplifies the psychoanalytic idea of countertransference? a. Catharsis brings emotional healing. b. A patient begins to use healthier defenses. c. A therapist begins to feel angry with the patient. d. A patient who is angry at his mother becomes angry at the therapist. Answer: c. 42. In psychoanalytic therapy, what is supposed to happen to a patient's defenses? a. They should be eliminated. b. They should be left alone. c. The healthier ones should be strengthened. d. They should be replaced with resistance. Answer: c. 43. Which of the following is most accurate with regard to the outcome research on psychoanalysis? a. Most outcome research has demonstrated the effectiveness of this form of therapy. b. Very little research has been conducted looking at the outcome of this therapy. c. When compared to other forms of therapy this one is usually found to be more effective. d. The most effective form of therapy has been found to be psychoanalysis with drug therapy. Answer: b. 44. For an assignment you are asked to create a poster that shows the similarities and differences between psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy. When you are finished, your poster shows that psychodynamic therapy is a. more directive. b. more focused on the id. c. likely to take longer to complete treatment. d. likely to focus on original Freudian theory. Answer: a. 45. The innovation in Freudian theory that emphasizes the person's way of dealing with reality is known as a. ego analysis. b. transference therapy. c. countertransference therapy. d. behavior therapy. Answer: a. 46. If Harry Stack Sullivan could comment on the case of Frances presented in your text, he would probably focus on a. both her relationship with her mother and her feelings about her mother. b. her relationship with her mother, but not her feelings about her mother. c. her feelings about her mother, but not her relationship with her mother. d. her sexual feelings for her father. Answer: a. 47. The theorist who elevated the need for warm, close relationships to the status of a basic human need was a. Sigmund Freud. b. Erik Erikson. c. Karen Horney. d. John Bowlby. Answer: d. 48. Which of the following is an essential feature of the experimental method? a. hypothesis b. confounding variable c. correlation d. theoretical derivation Answer: a. 49. John B. Watson's behaviorism can be seen as the forerunner of modern a. classical conditioning therapy. b. cognitive-behavior therapy. c. new psycodynamic therapy. d. attachment therapy. Answer: b. 50. What is a major difference between a psychoanalytic approach and a cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy? a. Psychoanalytic approaches have been better researched. b. Psychoanalytic therapy focuses on direct education of the patient. c. Cognitive-behavior therapy focuses on change without offering a theory of human personality. d. The course of cognitive-behavior therapy depends on theoretical assumptions about the nature of the pathology. Answer: c. 51. Which therapy emphasizes empirical evaluation and the application of psychological science to treating clinical problems? a. ego analysis b. cognitive-behavior therapy c. humanistic therapy d. psychoanalytic therapy Answer: b. 52. In an experiment, a researcher gives some patients psychotherapy, gives others medication, and puts others on a waiting list. The researcher then measures how depressed the patients are feeling after six months. What is the independent variable in this experiment? a. number of patients b. time span of six months c. improvement in depression d. kind of treatment received Answer: d. 53. In an experiment, a researcher gives some patients psychotherapy, gives others medication, and puts others on a waiting list. The researcher then measures how depressed the patients are feeling after six months. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? a. number of patients b. time span of six months c. improvement in depression d. kind of treatment received Answer: c. 54. Random assignment is important to an experiment to ensure that a. any differences found between the groups are caused by the independent variable. b. any differences found between the groups are caused by the dependent variable. c. the subjects in a study are a good representation of the larger population. d. experimenter bias does not contaminate the results. Answer: a. 55. In most psychology experiments a research finding is considered to be statistically significant if the a. hypothesis was supported. b. participants were randomly assigned. c. result would occur no more than 5 percent of the time by chance. d. independent variable changed substantially during the experiment. Answer: c. 56. A research finding that does not generalize to circumstances different from those of the experiment is lacking a. internal validity. b. external validity. c. random assignment. d. statistical significance. Answer: b. 57. Under which of the following circumstances would a study of the effectiveness of different forms of psychotherapy have high internal validity? a. The results are statistically significant. b. The independent variable is confounded with other factors. c. The findings can be generalized to other types of patients. d. Patient improvement can be attributed to the psychotherapy and not to other factors. Answer: d. 58. Which of the following is one of the three key elements of systematic desensitization? a. progressive muscle relaxation b. constructing a hierarchy of needs c. operant conditioning in the presence of the object of fear d. learning to relax while forgetting about the feared stimulus Answer: a. 59. Systematic desensitization is based on the principles of a. operant conditioning. b. classical conditioning. c. imitation learning. d. cathartic learning. Answer: b. 60. The technique of flooding in the treatment of phobia uses what learning principle? a. gradual exposure b. extinction c. contingency management d. relaxation Answer: b. 61. Sid wants to end his habit of smoking three packs of cigarettes a day; Ted wants to stop his serious drinking problem. Which treatment might be used for both individuals? a. aversion therapy b. flooding c. in vivo desensitization d. systematic desensitization Answer: a. 62. Rewarding a patient when he/she performs desired behaviors and withholding rewards when he/she performs undesired behaviors in a psychiatric hospital is an example of a. contingency management. b. survival of the fittest. c. dependency among patients. d. supply and demand to therapy activities. Answer: a. 63. Contingency management involves changing the relationship between a. one behavior and another. b. a behavior and the stimulus that triggers it. c. a behavior and its consequences. d. what one thinks and how one acts. Answer: c. 64. Assertiveness training and social problem solving are examples of a. teaching clients new ways of behaving that are likely to be rewarded. b. teaching clients new ways of thinking that are likely to be more rational. c. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. d. in vivo desensitization. Answer: a. 65. What is an attribution? a. a personality trait b. a defense mechanism c. the perceived cause of something d. a change that occurs over the course of psychotherapy Answer: c. 66. What is the major purpose of Meichenbaum's self-instruction training? a. to help adults become more assertive b. to teach depressed persons to change their attributions c. to encourage patients to engage in collaborative empiricism d. to assist children in learning to internalize rules of appropriate behavior Answer: d. 67. Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy was developed specifically as a treatment for a. anxiety. b. depression. c. impulsivity. d. schizophrenia. Answer: b. 68. If a cognitive therapist trained by Beck were treating Frances, whose depression was presented in your text, the therapist would probably a. use role playing to help her acquire some new behaviors. b. challenge her tendency to blame herself. c. teach her deep breathing and how to relax. d. try to uncover her hidden motivations. Answer: b. 69. You are asked to compare Ellis's rational-emotive therapy (RET) and Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy. After comparing the two you note that one difference is that the therapist in RET is likely to a. use operant conditioning techniques. b. require the client to keep a dream log. c. directly challenge the rationality of the client's beliefs. d. accept the client's irrationality. Answer: c. 70. Which is a treatment for borderline personality disorder that includes an emphasis on “mindfulness,” an increased awareness of your feelings, thoughts, and motivations? a. dialectical behavior therapy b. cognitive-behavior therapy c. neo-psychodynamic therapy d. focused humanistic therapy Answer: a. 71. An argument that humanists have against psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological therapists is that these other therapists a. overlook the individual's ability to make choices. b. place too much emphasis on free will. c. do not put the needs of their clients first. d. are too cold and judgmental in their dealings with their clients. Answer: a. 72. Rogers viewed three qualities as essential in a therapist. Which of the following is one of those qualities? a. knowledge about different therapies b. empathy c. intelligence d. sympathy Answer: b. 73. A unique technique that Carl Rogers suggested for humanistic psychotherapists was a. therapist self-disclosure. b. client self-disclosure. c. the use of positive reinforcement. d. the use of thought analysis. Answer: a. 74. Client-centered therapy is closely associated with the concept of a. empathy. b. interpretation. c. countertransference. d. operant conditioning. Answer: a. 75. In client-centered therapy the bond between therapist and client that is seen as central to the process of therapy is known as the a. therapy relationship. b. transference relationship. c. therapeutic bond. d. therapeutic alliance. Answer: d. 76. What is a meta-analysis? a. a case study b. a form of psychoanalysis c. a way of measuring changes in observable behaviors d. a statistical technique for combining the results of many studies Answer: d. 77. Which of the following most accurately summarizes the results of outcome research on different forms of psychotherapy? a. Despite decades of research there is little evidence that psychotherapy is effective. b. Psychotherapy is effective, and many types of psychotherapy share key “active ingredients.” c. Psychoanalytic treatment tends to be superior to other treatments because it is the only one that seeks to uncover underlying causes of disorders. d. Various forms of psychotherapy are so radically different that it is not possible to offer definitive conclusions concerning their effectiveness. Answer: b. 78. The textbook lists several ways in which different forms of psychotherapy can harm clients and includes which of the following? a. false accusations of child abuse b. removal of false memories c. reduced substance abuse d. increased criminal recidivism Answer: a. 79. How does the effect size (listed in your text as standard deviation units) of psychotherapy compare to the effect size of the use of chemotherapy in reducing the mortality associated with breast cancer? a. The effect sizes are similar and small. b. The effect sizes are similar and large. c. The effect size for chemotherapy is larger. d. The effect size for psychotherapy is larger. Answer: d. 80. Spontaneous remission refers to a patient getting a. worse with therapy. b. better with therapy. c. worse without therapy. d. better without therapy. Answer: d. 81. Therapy outcome studies typically have a no-treatment control group, but results from such studies can be difficult to interpret because a. people waiting for therapy often seek counseling and advice from others. b. it is not possible to randomly assign people to that group. c. the control group patients usually improve more than the treated patients. d. nobody wants to wait for therapy. Answer: a. 82. Which of these is an example of a placebo in medicine? a. a test to diagnose a disorder b. a pill with inactive ingredients c. the beneficial effects of treatment d. a medication designed to treat a disease Answer: b. 83. Which best summarizes the views of the authors of the text about the placebo effect? a. The placebo effect is itself a treatment—one that heals psychologically. b. Using the placebo effect in psychotherapy would be considered unethical. c. The placebo effect is benign, but never effective. d. The placebo effect is a dangerous interference with the process of psychotherapy. Answer: a. 84. Why are double-blind studies of medication effectiveness necessary? a. A placebo is not a treatment. b. If expectancies are too high, treatment might fail. c. Physicians' expectations can influence patients' expectations. d. Patients can't tell if a medication is real. Answer: c. 85. Your friend told you that she was a member of the placebo group in a recently completed study of a new drug. What is your friend likely to have experienced? a. She showed no improvement. b. She received no treatment or was put on a waiting list. c. She received a treatment specifically designed for her disorder. d. She received a treatment not thought to be specifically effective in treating her disorder. Answer: d. 86. What occurs in a double-blind study of medication? a. Any placebo effect can be seen as a hoax. b. There is a higher risk of expectation effects. c. The doctor, but not the patient, knows if the medication is a placebo. d. Neither the patient nor the doctor knows if the medication is a placebo. Answer: d. 87. According to the text, what is the best estimate of the number of people with a mental disorder who improve without any professional treatment? a. one-tenth b. one-third c. one-half d. three-quarters Answer: b. 88. When we ask whether the results of therapy outcome research under carefully controlled conditions will be the same as the results that people experience in the real world, we are taking into account the difference between a. success and failure. b. experimental groups and control groups. c. treated and untreated groups. d. efficacy and effectiveness. Answer: d. 89. Which of the following describes allegiance effects in psychotherapy? a. Psychotherapists tend to use the form of therapy they encountered first in training. b. Psychotherapists tend to use the form of therapy for which they are reimbursed by insurance companies. c. Patients tend to seek out those therapists who will give them "a break" when they bill for their time. d. Psychotherapy researchers tend to find evidence that their preferred form of therapy is more effective than other forms. Answer: d. 90. A reporter for the local newspaper is deciding on a headline for an article describing the Consumer Reports study of psychotherapy. Which of the following titles would most effectively capture the findings? a. "Psychotherapy: Consumer Rip-off" b. "Psychotherapy: Consumers Generally Satisfied" c. "The Success of Psychotherapy: It Takes Years" d. "Consumers Pay for Friendship in Psychotherapy" Answer: b. 91. Your friend is considering seeking psychotherapy and asks your advice on the type of therapist she should consider. Based on the results of the Consumer Reports survey, what would you tell her? a. Clinical psychologists were viewed as most effective because of their broad training. b. Consumer satisfaction was equal with the three major types of mental health professionals. c. Psychiatrists were viewed as most effective due to their ability to prescribe medication. d. Social workers who emphasize family dynamics were generally viewed as the most effective. Answer: b. 92. What were the findings of the Consumers Reports survey of psychotherapy effectiveness concerning medications in treatment? a. Medication adds little to psychotherapy. b. Medication was superior to psychotherapy in treating clients. c. Medication added significantly to the effectiveness of psychotherapy. d. The use of medication detracted from the overall effectiveness of the psychotherapy. Answer: a. 93. What factor best predicts when treatment is more or less likely to be effective? a. the experience of the therapist b. the orientation of the therapist c. the nature of the client's problems d. how much therapy the client can afford Answer: c. 94. According to research, what types of clients are most likely to improve? a. the most disturbed clients, after several years b. the most disturbed clients, in the first few months c. intelligent, successful people, after several years d. intelligent, successful people, in the first few months Answer: d. 95. Many studies show that different forms of treatment often appear to work equally well; this point can be attributed to the fact that a. most people want to get better. b. most people get better with or without treatment. c. different treatments still share many common factors. d. the research studies are very poorly done. Answer: c. 96. Research comparing behavioral and psychoanalytic therapies has found that a. behavior therapists offer fewer interpretations. b. therapists' empathy only matters in psychoanalytic therapy. c. psychodynamic therapy is more effective with severe cases. d. clients see the therapist-client relationship as most important to outcome in both types of therapy. Answer: d. 97. Which of the following is related to positive outcomes across different approaches to therapy? a. therapist supportiveness b. not limiting goals to just a few areas c. a well-developed theoretical perspective d. discouragement of the therapeutic alliance Answer: a. 98. Which of the following did Jerome Frank see as essential to the process of the persuasion that he suggested was an essential part of therapy? a. listening b. instilling hope c. making a diagnosis d. involving family members Answer: b. 99. What interesting finding has emerged from the analysis of tapes of therapy sessions conducted by Carl Rogers? a. Much of the session focused on early childhood experiences. b. Several specific behavioral procedures were used during the sessions. c. Despite his opposition to psychoanalytic techniques, he used dream analysis extensively. d. Although he advocated a nondirective approach, he was subtly directive by empathizing with some client statements but not others. Answer: d. 100. The fact that researchers have found that clients tend to adopt beliefs similar to those of their therapists is evidence that psychotherapy is a form of a. social influence. b. brain-washing. c. faith healing. d. collaborative enterprise. Answer: a. 101. You are attending a convention of therapists and hear one of them talking about "improving communication and negotiation skills." What is the most likely form of therapy this person practices? a. couples therapy b. Gestalt therapy c. a token economy d. stress reduction training Answer: a. 102. During a couple therapy session with Frances and her husband, the therapist suggests that she has been using "mind reading" again and that it is not helping her in improving communication. Which of the following is an example of what the therapist thinks needs work? a. She has a tendency to put words in the mouths of others. b. She fails to tell her husband of her wants in the hope that he will just know. c. She uses too many nonverbal gestures when she speaks, which is distracting to listeners. d. She often offers interpretations of her own behavior before the therapist has a chance to speak. Answer: b. 103. Parent management training is designed to a. provide support for teen mothers. b. provide child care for mentally ill parents. c. teach parents new skills for rearing troubled children. d. educate professionals about the demands of parenting. Answer: c. 104. What is a common goal in systems approaches to family therapy? a. to train parents in behavior management b. to strengthen the alliance between parents c. to encourage family members to express emotion d. to point out how family behavior can cause psychopathology Answer: b. 105. What is a widely held view among current theorists of family therapy? a. Family relationships cause mental disorders. b. Altering family functioning can improve the mental health of family members. c. The child has to be a major focus of treatment. d. Family therapy should not be used in conjunction with individual therapy. Answer: b. 106. Jason is attending a group in which he is learning specific information and skills that are designed to improve his psychological well-being. Jason is probably attending a(n) a. Gestalt therapy group. b. psychoeducational group. c. encounter group. d. self-help group. Answer: b. 107. Which term describes efforts to improve the environment in order to prevent new cases of mental illness from developing? a. social ecology b. primary prevention c. tertiary prevention d. secondary prevention Answer: b. 108. Programs designed to focus on the early detection of emotional problems in order to keep them from becoming more serious are forms of a. primary prevention. b. secondary prevention. c. tertiary prevention. d. holistic prevention. Answer: b. 109. As a community psychologist you have been hired to design a violence prevention program for a local school district. Your target population includes teenagers who have been convicted of violent crimes. Therefore your program will, by necessity, involve a. primary prevention. b. secondary prevention. c. tertiary prevention. d. forensic prevention. Answer: c. 110. Many prevention programs in the field of mental health face an insurmountable obstacle in the field's a. unwillingness to spend money on prevention programs. b. lack of a specific understanding of the cause of most mental disorders. c. control by one group of theorists who do not believe in prevention. d. inability to make a decision as to which mental illness to target first. Answer: b. 111. Several women who have been victims of rape establish a crisis line for rape victims. What type of prevention program does this crisis line represent? a. primary b. reactive c. secondary d. fundamental Answer: c. 112. What term is used to describe programs intended to reduce the adverse, indirect consequences of mental illness? a. primary prevention b. tertiary prevention c. quartile prevention d. secondary prevention Answer: b. 113. The authors of your text express their strong belief that the choice of treatment should a. be based on the therapist's years of experience. b. be determined by the client's problems. c. favor new experimental approaches. d. not be an issue, because almost anything works. Answer: b. Short Answer 114. With regard to psychotherapy, all ethnic minorities face the challenge of __________, the process of learning or adopting the cultural patterns of the majority group. Answer: acculturation 115. The most promising form of biological treatment in use today is __________, the use of medications to treat mental disorders. Answer: psychopharmacology 116. The form of psychotherapy used by Sigmund Freud himself was called Answer: psychoanalysis. 117. The experimenter's prediction about the outcome of a given experiment is known as the Answer: hypothesis. 118. In an experiment to compare the effects of a treatment to no treatment, the group receiving the treatment is known as the __________ group. Answer: experimental 119. Joseph Wolpe developed an effective form of treatment for phobias designed to break the link between the object of fear and the experience of fear. His therapy is known as systematic Answer: desensitization. 120. The main goal of __________ training is to teach clients new ways of behaving that are both desirable and likely to be rewarded in everyday life. Answer: social skills 121. According to Albert Ellis emotional disorders are caused by __________ beliefs. Answer: irrational 122. According to the text recent years have witnessed the development of a __________ wave of CBT based on broad principles such as acceptance and mindfulness. Answer: third 123. Humanistic psychotherapy was conceived of as a __________ force to counteract flaws in psychodynamic and cognitive-behavior therapies. Answer: third 124. Carl Rogers suggested that three qualities made for a good therapist: warmth, genuineness, and particularly Answer: empathy. 125. __________ prevention tries to improve the environment or social situation so fewer new cases of a mental problem get started. Answer: Primary 126. A statistical procedure that allows researchers to combine the results from several studies on a similar topic in a standardized way is known as Answer: meta-analysis. 127. Prevention efforts that aim to improve the overall environment in order to reduce the incidence of new cases of mental disorders in called what type of prevention? Answer: primary Essay 128. Discuss some of the major issues in the use of psychotropic drugs to treat mental disorders. Answer: (1) There is considerable evidence that indicates that various drugs are safe and effective treatments for particular mental disorders. (2) These drugs offer symptom relief, but they do not offer a cure for the underlying pathology. (3) All drugs have side effects, which is one of the major reasons that many patients do not take their medications. (4) Many drugs must be taken for long periods of time. It may be necessary to take the drugs for months, years, or sometimes for a lifetime. 129. Describe the technique of systematic desensitization. Answer: Systematic desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe, has three key elements. The first is relaxation training (usually progressive muscle relaxation) and is used to induce a calm state through the contraction and relaxation of all of the major muscle groups. The second component is the construction of a hierarchy of fears ranging from very mild to very frightening stimuli. The third part is the learning process, namely, the pairing of the feared stimulus with the relaxation response. Wolpe had his clients carry out the pairing in their imagination. Evidence supports the effectiveness of this treatment for fears and phobias, although the specific mechanism that leads to the fear reduction is not clear. 130. In what ways is humanistic therapy different from psychodynamic and behavioral therapies? In what ways is humanistic therapy similar to psychodynamic and behavioral therapies? Answer: Humanistic therapy was promoted originally to counteract what were seen as overly mechanistic and deterministic views of psychodynamic and behavioral approaches. Different: humanistic therapy focuses on a genuine, reciprocal relationship as the treatment, not as the means for delivering therapy. Similar to psychoanalytic: focus on uncovering hidden emotions. Similar to behavioral: focus on the present. 131. Discuss the problems associated with using no-treatment control groups in experimental research on treatment effectiveness. Answer: In experimental research on psychotherapy, some clients are assigned to a no-treatment control group. These people are part of a waiting list, so they will receive psychotherapy at some future time. While waiting for therapy, people in no-treatment control groups often seek counseling and advice from family members, friends, or religious leaders. Thus, any improvement in their condition may not be due to spontaneous remission, but may be due to receiving informal psychological help. 132. What is the placebo effect, why is it important, and how do researchers deal with it in outcome research? Answer: The placebo effect refers to the powerful healing that can be produced by apparently inert treatment. It is important because it has been repeatedly shown to be a factor that can produce many of the benefits associated with physical and psychological treatments, thus making it difficult to determine if an active ingredient in the treatments was effective. Researchers have to isolate these active ingredients to determine whether they have effects beyond what the placebo effect alone could account for. Researchers do this by including a placebo control group in their outcome studies, and then they use double-blind procedures so that neither the patient nor the person treating the patient knows whether the patient received the active ingredient or the placebo. 133. Describe the procedures used in the Consumer Reports study of psychotherapy. What are some of the major findings of this study? Answer: Consumer Reports surveyed nearly 3,000 respondents who had seen a mental health professional in the past three years. These respondents were generally satisfied with the treatment. For example, of those who were feeling "very poorly" at the beginning of treatment, 87 percent were feeling "very good," "good," or at least "so-so" when they were surveyed. The survey found that psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers were essentially equal in treatment effectiveness. People who had received psychotherapy alone reported similar outcomes as those who had received psychotherapy plus medication. 134. What are possible common factors in psychotherapy that might account for its effectiveness, and why is it important to know about them? Answer: Studies indicate that clients' ratings of therapist warmth, empathy, and supportiveness predicted successful outcomes. Several studies have found that the actual therapeutic procedures differ during therapy, but the outcomes do not. One possible explanation for this is that while it may appear that psychotherapies are different, the most significant therapeutic factors may be the same. Clients rate their personal relationship with their therapists as the single most important aspect of both behavior therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy. A therapist's supportiveness is related to positive outcomes across various approaches to treatment. It could be that no matter what the actual therapeutic procedures, the heart of the therapeutic endeavor is the relationship between client and therapist. Another possible common factor is that therapies all involve an element of social persuasion. No matter what the procedures, it is implied, by the therapist, that the client should behave and feel differently. Frank has defined psychotherapy as involving (1) a trained, socially sanctioned healer, whose healing powers are accepted by the sufferer and by his social group or an important segment of it, (2) a sufferer who seeks relief from the healer, (3) a circumscribed, more-or-less structured series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer, often with the aid of a group, tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer's emotional state, attitudes, and behavior. There is research evidence that the attitudes and beliefs of the client do begin to match those of the therapist as the therapy progresses. Knowing about common factors is important to help us to understand why many studies, like the Consumer Reports study, often do not show much difference in effectiveness among various treatment approaches. These common factors can also help us to understand why psychotherapy usually works. 135. Discuss the overall aims and strategies of community psychology. Answer: Community psychology is a branch of psychology that aims to reduce the incidence and severity of mental health problems by improving social conditions. This field believes that many social factors play a role in the cause of mental illness. Examples include poverty; the stress of prejudice, both racial and sexual; and social stress. Primary prevention programs, such a Head Start, aim at a wide social group before any problems are specifically identified. Secondary programs aim at target groups in which emerging social problems have been identified. Tertiary programs identify individuals who have already developed problems, but attempt to provide supports and social improvements that will likely reduce repeat problems. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

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