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Chapter 17: Adjustment Disorders and Life-Cycle Transitions Multiple Choice 1. Donna has experienced what her therapist calls clinically significant symptoms of stress. However, they are not severe enough to warrant classification as one of the mental disorders associated with traumatic stressors. In order for her insurance carrier to pay for her therapy, the therapist must provide a diagnosis. What diagnosis will the therapist report? a. adjustment disorder b. acute stress disorder c. life-cycle transition d. posttraumatic stress disorder Answer: a. 2. Adult development is characterized by a. little change or growth. b. a sequence of time‑limited stages. c. coping with fairly predictable challenges. d. a series of qualitatively different stages. Answer: c. 3. Which of the following is characteristic of life-cycle transitions? a. They are the times when people move smoothly from one stage of life to another. b. They mark the acceptance of death that comes at the end of a long life. c. DSM-5 places them in the category of mental disorders. d. They are times when people often struggle as they move from one life stage to the next. Answer: d. 4. Erik Erikson suggested that diverse life-cycle transitions have ________ as a common theme. a. growth b. conflict c. adjustment d. stasis Answer: b. 5. In order to meet the DSM-5 definition of an adjustment disorder, two conditions must be met: (1) clinically significant symptoms occur in response to stress, and (2) a. these symptoms are not severe enough to be labeled a mental disorder. b. these symptoms are severe enough to be labeled a mental disorder. c. depression and/or anxiety must be present. d. symptoms of identity or role confusion must co-occur. Answer: a. 6. Which of the following characterizes Erik Erikson’s conceptualization of human development? a. Role confusion and identity are resolved by age 5. b. Each stage involves a crisis of the healthy personality. c. Psychosocial development is finished by young adulthood. d. Healthy people experience little conflict during adult development. Answer: b. 7. You need to look up the DSM-5 definition for “partner relational problem.” In what section should you look? a. adjustment disorders b. other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention c. stress disorders d. relational and other interpersonal disorders Answer: b. 8. In what section would you find housing and economic problems listed in DSM-5? a. causes of depression b. financial problems c. mental disorders d. other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention Answer: d. 9. DSM-5 groups adjustment disorders, acute stress disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder together because all are caused by stress. What makes adjustment disorder different from the other two? a. Adjustment disorder is a reaction to a very high degree of stressor that is not life-threatening. b. Adjustment disorder can be a reaction to a stressor of any severity. c. Adjustment disorder is much less severe and will always get better on its own. d. Adjustment disorder is much more severe and requires medical interventions. Answer: b. 10. Erik Erikson’s major contribution to a model of psychosocial development was a. identifying the developmental stages that occur in every human from birth to age 18. b. ordering developmental stages in infants and toddlers. c. recognizing that human development continues into adulthood. d. identifying adjustment disorders as a clinically significant mental disorder. Answer: c. 11. What struggle did Erik Erikson view as the major challenge of adolescence? a. integrity versus despair b. identity versus role confusion c. generativity versus stagnation d. intimacy versus self-absorption Answer: b. 12. According to Erik Erikson, the resolution of the identity crisis typically occurs in what developmental stage? a. childhood b. adolescence c. middle age d. old age Answer: b. 13. Erik Erikson viewed the primary life task of young adulthood to be a struggle between a. integrity and despair. b. role confusion and identity. c. generativity and stagnation. d. intimacy and self-absorption. Answer: d. 14. According to Erik Erikson, when does the struggle of generativity versus stagnation occur? a. adolescence b. young adulthood c. middle age d. old age Answer: c. 15. According to Erik Erikson, the last stage of psychosocial development involves the conflict between a. identity and role confusion. b. generativity and stagnation. c. intimacy and self-absorption. d. integrity and despair. Answer: d. 16. According to Erikson’s view of adult development, despair comes from a. remaining aloof from others. b. self-absorption. c. the impossible desire to change the past. d. accepting one’s life cycle as inevitable. Answer: c. 17. According to Daniel Levinson’s social model of adult development, the “midlife crisis” involves a. becoming less driven and more compassionate. b. conflict between generativity and stagnation. c. conflict between intimacy and self-absorption. d. moving away from family and assuming an adult role. Answer: a. 18. Your professor is telling the class that people need to develop social clocks. Thinking this is an odd phrase, you look it up in your textbook and discover that it refers to a. how people keep track of their social appointments. b. the idea that time is a social phenomenon. c. how people evaluate whether they are on time for age-related goals. d. the influence that others have on peoples' ability to achieve their goals in a timely manner. Answer: c. 19. How would Erik Erikson describe the period of moratorium? a. intimacy with a sexual partner b. hard work and financial independence c. uncertainty and experimentation with different roles d. balance between independence and closeness with parents Answer: c. 20. According to Erik Erikson, why do teens need to experiment with different roles? a. to avoid moratorium b. to find a unique niche in society c. to ease their separation from their parents d. to distract parents from their own conflicts Answer: b. 21. What question seems to summarize the conflict of adolescence as viewed by Erik Erikson? a. “Who am I?” b. “Is life worth living?” c. “Is there meaning to life?” d. “How much money can I accumulate?” Answer: a. 22. According to ego psychologist Karen Horney, why do adolescents experience conflict with their parents? a. They are in a developmental stage of despair. b. They have not yet achieved a stable identity. c. They are insecurely attached to their parents. d. They experience competing needs with respect to their parents. Answer: d. 23. Researchers used beepers to signal adolescents and adults at various times to assess their emotional states. They found that, compared to adults, young people between the ages of 13 and 18 tend to experience a. more stable moods than adults. b. more intense moods than adults. c. less intense moods than adults. d. similar emotional experiences to adults. Answer: b. 24. Which of Marcia’s proposed categories of identity conflicts is described as “young adults who never questioned themselves or their goals but instead proceed along the predetermined course of their childhood commitments”? a. identity diffusion b. identity foreclosure c. identity moratorium d. identity achievement Answer: b. 25. How would we describe a teen with identity diffusion? a. In the middle of a profound identity crisis b. Not actively seeking new adult roles c. Actively searching for new adult roles d. Never questioned his childhood identity Answer: b. 26. At age 10, Joseph decided to become a priest. By age 20, he had the same goal, never having considered any other options and never having questioned his earlier decision. Which of the following terms describes Joseph’s identity category? a. identity diffusion b. identity moratorium c. identity achievement d. identity foreclosure Answer: d. 27. Rebecca is a college graduate who has made decisions about her long-term goals, although her goals are quite different from her parents’ expectations for her. What does research tell us about where she may be in terms of Erikson’s view of development? a. Rebecca probably is an identity achiever who is confident in social interactions. b. Rebecca is probably in an identity moratorium and will therefore remain there until she finds a job. c. Rebecca has probably reached a level of identity characterized by a high degree of generativity. d. Like most college students, Rebecca has delayed the establishment of an identity, and it shows in her impulsive behavior. Answer: a. 28. An identity __________ is a young person who most likely comes from a rejecting and distant family. a. achiever b. forecloser c. refuser d. diffuser Answer: d. 29. Many consider the identity crisis to be a necessary and inevitable part of transitioning to adulthood. Nevertheless, we should remember that the way any person responds to parental authority is influenced by a. gender. b. mental stability. c. culture. d. age. Answer: c. 30. In 2008, approximately _____ percent of African-American youth between the ages of 16 and 24 were neither in school nor employed. a. 5 b. 10 c. 20 d. 30 Answer: c. 31. Critics of Erik Erikson’s views on adult psychosocial development believed that men form identities based on work and that women form identities based on ________. In recent years, however, gender roles are changing for both sexes. a. education b. innate ability c. relationships d. intuition Answer: c. 32. What treatment approach do many clinicians suggest for those experiencing distress associated with transitions to adult life? a. psychoanalytic b. behavioral c. supportive and nondirective d. challenging and confrontational Answer: c. 33. Family transitions are major changes in family life and family relationships that frequently involve a. coping with some type of mental disorder. b. the addition or loss of members of a family household. c. a need to change the communication patterns within the family. d. major changes in the personality structure of members of the family. Answer: b. 34. Social scientists often see family change in terms of the ________, or the developmental course of family relationships. a. family stages b. family life cycle c. psychosexual stages d. reciprocity struggle Answer: b. 35. What did research by Gorchaff, John, and Helson reveal about the relationship between having children and marital satisfaction? a. Marital satisfaction increases with each additional child born. b. Marital satisfaction increases with the birth of children and decreases when the children leave home. c. Marital satisfaction declines with the birth of children and rises when the children leave home. d. The joy of having children overrides any affect on marital satisfaction. Answer: c. 36. Psychologists are not so much interested in the content of family struggles as the process. One of the most consistent findings concerns ________, or social exchange of cooperation and conflict. a. mutuality b. remuneration c. intimacy d. reciprocity Answer: d. 37. As a couples therapist, you know that ________ interactions predict future marital dissatisfaction. a. intimacy struggle b. demand and withdrawal c. familial withdrawal d. unbalanced parent-child Answer: b. 38. A psychologist is trying to understand the level of cooperation and conflict evident in the social exchanges of a family. This psychologist is focusing on a. reciprocity. b. boundaries. c. roles. d. rules. Answer: a. 39. You are a family therapist in a first interview with a couple. You note a style of communication that has been seen in couples who are basically unhappily married. This indicator is their a. expression of anger to each other. b. tendency to blame their conflict on each other’s personality. c. tendency to blame their conflict on circumstances. d. desire to resolve conflicts in their own favor. Answer: b. 40. Marital conflict and distress tend to be associated with an increased risk for __________, especially among women. a. depression b. bipolar disorder c. dissociative fugue d. generalized anxiety Answer: a. 41. Frank and Consuela are happily married, while Tyrone and Amanda are unhappily married. Both couples have been having some disputes lately. Frank and Consuela are likely to blame their disputes on ________, while Tyrone and Amanda blame their disputes on ________. a. the other's personality / temporary circumstances b. temporary circumstances / the other's personality c. their children / their finances d. their finances / their children Answer: b. 42. Which of the following is an example of a scapegoating pattern of family relationships? a. One family member is blamed for all the family problems. b. One family member bullies another family member out of jealousy. c. One family member complains of problems that are denied by other family members. d. One family member takes on all the responsibility for solving the family's problems. Answer: a. 43. Some psychologists question the basic assumption made by DSM-5 that diagnoses ________ rather than ________. a. individuals / disorders b. relationships / individuals c. disorders / individuals d. individuals / relationships Answer: d. 44. In 2007, almost ________ percent of births in the United States were to unmarried women. a. 10 b. 20 c. 40 d. 60 Answer: c. 45. Why have divorce rates declined since the early 1980s? a. The average age of the population is getting older. b. The people most prone to divorce are less likely to get married. c. State governments have mandated marriage counseling to reduce the divorce rates. d. Married couples are getting along better thanks to improvements in premarital counseling. Answer: b. 46. Out of a sample of 100 marriages occurring today, how many would be expected to end in divorce? a. 20 b. 40 c. 60 d. 80 Answer: b. 47. A researcher wants to discover whether a particular behavior is caused by genetic background or by environmental factors. This can be complicated by the ________, the fact that environmental experience is itself affected by genetic background. a. gene-environment correlation b. nature-nurture concordance c. evolutionary adaptation d. genetic behavioral concordance Answer: a. 48. What is one of the limitations in the use of a heritability ratio? a. It cannot be generalized to the whole population. b. It reflects only theoretically diverse environments. c. Its calculation ignores environmental variance in a sample. d. It can only be used to describe biological characteristics. Answer: a. 49. John Gottman, a researcher on marital interaction, has described one pattern of problematic communication called stonewalling. How would he describe this pattern? a. One spouse is consistently isolated and withdrawn. b. One spouse is consistently insulting to the other spouse. c. One spouse attacks the other's personality rather than actions. d. One spouse denies responsibility for marital difficulties. Answer: a. 50. Based on observations of marital interactions, John Gottman classified four problematic communication styles. How would he describe the problem labeled as contempt? a. A spouse shows disinterest in the marriage. b. A spouse is consistently isolated and withdrawn. c. A spouse hurls angry insults at the other spouse. d. A spouse denies responsibility for the marital problem. Answer: c. 51. Research has shown that, compared to more traditional unions, marriages in which both spouses are androgynous are a. happier and less distressed. b. virtually no different in regard to stress or communications. c. less happy and more distressed. d. less stressful initially, but the level of stress eventually rises dramatically. Answer: a. 52. Which of the following statements supports genetic influences on divorce? a. Twins rarely divorce. b. Divorced couples produce fewer offspring. c. Genes influence personality traits associated with divorce. d. Unmarried couples reproduce at lower rates than married couples. Answer: c. 53. ________ does not change the fact that mental disorders are influenced by genes, but it may help us think more broadly, creatively, and accurately about possible genetic mechanisms. a. Biological science b. Critical thinking c. Psychobiology d. Genetic research Answer: b. 54. Researchers responsible for the study of the genetic factors on divorce have been invited to share their research at a conference that you are attending. As you listen to lectures on their studies, you must remember that a. most studies in this area are experiments that tell you very little about correlation. b. most studies in this field are biased by conflict of interest. c. correlational studies are the best source of information about what causes what. d. correlational studies do not give you information about what causes what. Answer: d. 55. McGue and Lykken found that, for divorce, the concordance rates were a. higher for DZ twins than MZ twins. b. higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins. c. very similar for DZ and MZ twins. d. impossible to calculate with any accuracy for twins. Answer: b. 56. Ted and Ned are monozygotic twins in their early 40s. They are both divorced. Which of the following is a genetic factor that might have influenced both twins to divorce? a. personality b. economic status c. age d. conflict resolution style Answer: a 57. The Premarital Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) involves couples meeting in small groups to discuss marital relations and to learn communication skills. What has research revealed concerning the effectiveness of this program? a. Couples that go through this program report higher marital satisfaction after three years than do couples in the control group. b. Couples that go through this program report less marital satisfaction three years later than do couples in the control group. c. Couples that go through this program report more satisfaction, but they also report more conflict than do the couples in the control group. d. Couples that were randomly assigned to this program reported less marital satisfaction after three years than did couples who made the decision on their own to participate. Answer: a. 58. Typically, a couple or family therapist acts as an objective outsider who helps the couple to a. identify and voice disagreements. b. save their marriage and avoid divorce. c. address one partner’s problem behavior. d. avoid disagreements and focus on the positive. Answer: a. 59. Systematic research on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) indicates what kind of results? a. higher divorce rates for participating couples after 5 years b. less effective than individual therapy for 90 percent of participating couples c. significant improvements in about half the participating couples d. very significant short and long term improvement for 70 percent of participating couples Answer: c. 60. What is the focus of cognitive behavioral couple therapy? a. changing one partner’s psychopathology b. improving the couple's moment-to-moment interactions c. talking about the marriage in individual therapy d. changing how parents act toward their troubled child Answer: b. 61. Your friend has been having some psychological problems, and he tells you that he and his wife are seeing a couple therapist. You are surprised that he is receiving couple therapy, since he is the one with problems. When you ask your psychology professor about this, she explains that a. the therapist gets paid twice as much for couple therapy. b. research suggests that an improved relationship helps in alleviating individual disorders. c. couple therapy is less threatening than individual therapy for reluctant patients. d. your friend's problems must actually be marital problems, not his individual problems. Answer: b. 62. The term “ageism” refers to a. changes as one grows older. b. prejudice against the elderly. c. the study of aging and the elderly. d. the incorporation of age norms in research. Answer: b. 63. How is personality affected by aging? a. Older adults tend to be less inwardly focused than when they were younger. b. Older adults are more stubborn, bossy, and irritable than when they were younger. c. Older adults are greatly affected by depression and anxiety. d. Older adults have personalities that are consistent with earlier stages of their adulthood. Answer: d. 64. The cessation of menstruation is called a. menarche. b. menopause. c. moratorium. d. maturation. Answer: b. 65. Hormone (estrogen) replacement therapy during menopause is effective for reducing a. depression. b. infertility. c. the risk for cancer. d. physical symptoms. Answer: d. 66. How are estrogen levels during menopause related to depression? a. Depression depletes estrogen levels. b. Decreased estrogen begins a long chain of biological changes that lead to depression. c. Lower levels of estrogen lead to the symptoms of depression. d. Estrogen levels and depression are not related. Answer: d. 67. Which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from osteoporosis? a. Jill, who is 24 years old b. Jack, who is 56 years old c. Betty, who is 71 years old d. Diane, who is 18 years old Answer: c. 68. You are a psychologist assigned to assess older individuals in a community centre. Informed by research, you will be looking for predictors of psychological well-being, such as a. signs of Erikson's concept of integrity. b. positive relationships. c. comfort with living alone. d. apprehension about retirement. Answer: b. 69. Your textbook presents the case of Mrs. J, who had great difficulty accepting the loss of her husband. Mrs. J believed her husband died due to the inadequacy of his care in a nursing home. She was experiencing great anger over this and thought about it frequently. Which of the following best describes her condition? a. Mrs. J. was experiencing pathological depression. b. Mrs. J’s reaction was seen as normal grieving. c. Mrs. J was diagnosed as clinically grieving. d. Mrs. J was diagnosed with grief compounded by OCD. Answer: b. 70. Which of the following is a specific form of grieving in response to the death of a loved one? a. sadness b. loss c. bereavement d. reactive depression Answer: c. 71. Which is one of the reasons that older people have fewer friendships? a. They become more irritable and demanding. b. They have lost most of the people they once cared about. c. They become more selective in their companions. d. They spend more time with their families. Answer: c. 72. The emotional and social process of coping with a separation or a loss is called a. clinical depression. b. bereavement. c. grief. d. moratorium. Answer: c. 73. Mrs. Pallagio’s husband died at age 70. For the next year, she finds herself thinking about him constantly. Every night she talks out loud to his photo. How would a clinical psychologist describe these behaviors? a. normal grieving b. delusional thinking c. abnormal obsession d. normal obsession Answer: a. 74. What element is important in both the Bowlby and Kübler-Ross models of bereavement? a. anger b. bargaining c. moratorium d. identity crisis Answer: a. 75. Which of the following indicates that the model of bereavement proposed by Kübler-Ross does not tell the whole story regarding how people grieve? a. There are actually more stages than proposed by Kübler-Ross. b. Many people do not go through the stages in the sequence proposed, and some show no signs of any of the stages. c. Men, but not women, seem to proceed through the stages in different orders and at different speeds. d. The bargaining stage does not occur very often because most people realize the futility of such a response. Answer: b. 76. The concept of off time loss suggests that if you had a patient who just lost a loved one, you would be most concerned about an adverse reaction if that patient had lost a. a parent. b. a spouse. c. a child. d. a close friend. Answer: c. 77. Which of the following is most accurate in regard to the rate of affective disorders in younger and in older Americans? a. Affective disorders are more common in older adults than they are in younger adults. b. Affective disorders are more common in younger adults than they are in older adults. c. Younger adults and older adults experience affective disorders at about the same rate. d. The rates are about the same for the two age groups except for older males, who have a very high rate of affective disorders. Answer: b. 78. An epidemiologist has received a grant to study rates of suicide in the overall population. Which group will she find has the highest rate of completed suicides? a. adolescents b. young adults age 20-29 c. adults over age 30 d. adults over age 65 Answer: d. 79. Many experts view the increase in suicide among older adults as not only a consequence of emotional problems, but also as a result of a. loneliness after the loss of a spouse. b. chronic pain, disease, or long-term illness. c. anger caused by ageism. d. depression and anxiety. Answer: b. 80. The multidisciplinary study of aging is known as a. ageism. b. gerontology. c. moratorium studies. d. life-cycle studies. Answer: b. 81. Based on age and health status, most elderly people fall into which category? a. young-old b. middle-old c. old-old d. oldest-old Answer: a. 82. How do gerontologists define individuals who fall within the classification called young-old? a. over age 55 b. young adults in nursing homes c. age in the 60s and 70s, in good health d. age 50-65 with health problems usually seen in older people Answer: c. 83. The “silver tsunami” expected into the middle of the 21st century is primarily due to a. the aging of the “baby boom” generation. b. medical advances increasing the number of older and frail adults. c. immigration of young families resulting in a younger population. d. divorce and remarriage resulting in more children and a younger population. Answer: a. 84. The proportion of the population of the United States age 65 and older is predicted to peak in ________, at which point one in every five Americans will be age 65 or older. a. 2015 b. 2020 c. 2030 d. 2050 Answer: c. 85. Census statistics show that 72 percent of older men live with a spouse, while only 42 percent of older women remain living with their spouses. What is one consequence of this gender difference? a. Poverty rates decline for older Americans in part because both spouses contribute to retirement income through Social Security and pension plans. b. Poverty rates are higher for older Americans in part because of the lower economic status of widowed women. c. Older men live longer if there is a wife in the home to take care of them. d. Older men are 30 percent more likely to remarry after the loss of a spouse. Answer: b. 86. The percentage of older Americans living in poverty a. increases with advancing age. b. decreases with advancing age. c. is equivalent to the number of single middle-aged women living in poverty. d. levels off once the person is on a fixed income. Answer: a. 87. The most important biological contribution to psychological well-being in later life is a. cognitive behavioral counseling. b. cancer surgery. c. good physical health. d. good mental health. Answer: c. 88. Among men over 70, which of the following is most frequently listed as making a positive contribution to their quality of lives? a. financial security b. good health c. an active lifestyle d. relationships with family and friends Answer: d. 89. Which social factor is thought to moderate the ill effects of bereavement, particularly for men? a. remarriage within two years of a spouse’s death b. moving into a new home c. religious affiliation and involvement d. family members encouraging self-sufficiency Answer: c. 90. You have decided to enter the field of health psychology and behavioral medicine for the elderly. Your chosen discipline would be the growing field of a. cognitive-behavioral analysis of aging. b. gerontological psychology. c. behavioral gerontology. d. geropsychology. Answer: d. 91. Because the current life expectancies are probably close to the biological limit for humans, some feel the overriding goal of geronotology should be to a. ease the transition from home life to nursing home living for older adults. b. help older people accept the inevitability of decline and negative quality of life. c. increase the biological limit for the human lifespan. d. increase the number of older years that are vigorous and healthy. Answer: d. 92. What are legal documents that direct health care professionals to refrain from performing certain procedures that would keep a terminally ill or severely disabled patient alive? a. wills b. death wills c. living wills d. terminal wills Answer: c. Short Answer 93. If you are experiencing significant psychological symptoms in response to stress, but those symptoms aren’t severe enough to warrant a diagnosis as a mental disorder, DSM-5 has a classification for you under __________ disorders? Answer: adjustment 94. For Erik Erikson, getting some sense of who you are brings resolution to a(n) __________ crisis? Answer: identity 95. Erik Erikson suggested that young people need a period of time that involves uncertainty about themselves and their futures, which he labeled a(n) __________ . Answer: moratorium 96. In genetic studies, the formula variance due to genetic factors/total variance is called the __________ ratio. Answer: heritability 97. A nonrandom association between inborn propensities and environmental experience is referred to as the __________ correlation. Answer: gene-environment 98. Social misunderstanding and prejudice against older individuals is labeled __________ . Answer: ageism 99. ____________ is the cessation of menstruation in women. Answer: Menopause 100. Hormone replacement therapy in women generally involves replacing depleted supplies of __________ . Answer: estrogen 101. Researchers have just begun to study the phenomenon of ________, or remembering and recounting experiences from the distant past, which is common among the elderly. Answer: reminiscence 102. ____________ is the multidisciplinary study of aging. Answer: Gerontology Essay 103. Discuss the primary stages of adult development and the major life-cycle transitions associated with moving from one stage to another. Answer: There are fairly predictable challenges that occur during adult life in relationships, work, life goals, and personal identity. Several theorists divide adult development into three periods: early, middle, and later life. Consistent with this division, we highlight three major life-cycle transitions struggles in moving from one stage of adult development to the next. The transition to adult life is a time for grappling with the major issues related to identity, career, and relationships. Family transitions in the middle adult years may include very happy events like the birth of the first child, or very unhappy ones, like a difficult divorce. The transition to later life may involve major changes in life roles such as retirement, grief over the loss of loved ones, and inner conflicts about aging, mortality, and the life one has lived. 104. Explain how cross-cultural considerations affect the idea of adolescent identity crisis. Answer: Cross-cultural considerations suggest that the “storm and stress” of the transition to adult life is a consequence of the affluence, education, and independence of young people in Western, industrialized societies. In other cultures, an individual’s life course may be determined by parental authority or economic necessity, neither of which allows for an identity crisis. In the not-too-distant past, people also assumed adult roles at much younger ages in the United States. In some families and socioeconomic groups, they still do. 105. Describe the type of emotional reciprocity found in families with happy relationships compared to the type found in families with troubled relationships. Answer: Happy families reciprocate each other’s positive actions and overlook one another’s negative behavior. Families with troubled relationships get caught in negative cycles of interaction. They ignore positive actions but reciprocate negative ones. A particular problem in intimate relationships is the demand and withdrawal pattern, where one partner becomes increasingly demanding and the other withdraws further and further. Other evidence shows that conflicts in troubled families are more likely to continue over time and spill over into other family relationships. 106. Discuss the argument put forward by some theorists for classifying troubled relationships instead of just classifying troubled individuals, as is the case with DSM’s current classification. Answer: DSM-5 bases its diagnostic categories on the assumption that psychological problems reside within individuals. However, some psychologists question this assumption. They view human beings as relational beings and see human problems as existing in relation to something or someone else. Various individuals and groups have proposed systems for making relational or interpersonal diagnoses. Some relational classifications focus on categories, like “partner relational problem.” Other classifications are more theoretical. Psychologist Timothy Leary proposed the still influential “interpersonal circumplex,” which grouped personality types around the two dimensions of power and love. Still other systems are based on interaction patterns, on patterns like demand–withdraw, or patterns of blaming a family scapegoat. These are patterns that unite dysfunctional family members together. Unfortunately, the appeal of any current system for classifying troubled relationships is pretty much limited to intuition. No system for classifying relationships is well-supported empirically, and the more interesting systems require us to somehow discern causality in relationships. 107. Discuss the research findings on the issue of reminiscence in older adults. Answer: Reminiscence, sometimes called life review or nostalgia, is a common phenomenon among older adults. Researchers Wong and Watt outlined six categories of reminiscences. Integrative reminiscence is an attempt to achieve a sense of self-worth, coherence, and reconciliation with the past through discussion and acceptance of past conflicts and losses. Instrumental reminiscence reviews goal-directed activities and attainments, reflecting a sense of control and success in overcoming life’s obstacles. Transitive reminiscence passes on cultural heritage and personal legacy, including direct moral instruction and stories with clear moral implications. Escapist reminiscence glorifies the past and deprecates the present, yearning for the “good old days.” Obsessive reminiscence is preoccupied with failure, guilt, bitterness, and despair. Narrative reminiscence is descriptive rather than interpretive. It does not serve clear intrapsychic or interpersonal functions. Integrative and instrumental reminiscence are related to successful aging. Obsessive reminiscence is associated with less successful adjustment in later life. Reminiscence can be positively or negatively related to better mental health. It remains to be seen if reminiscence can be structured or guided in such a way that it helps older adults review and come to terms with their lives 108. Describe the four basic communication problems John Gottman found in his research on marital communication. Answer: Gottman’s four basic communication problems are criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling. Criticism involves attacking someone’s personality rather than his or her actions: for example, “You’re boring!” instead of “Can we do something different?” Contempt is an insult that may be motivated by anger and is intended to hurt the other person: for example, “I never loved you!” Defensiveness is a form of self-justification: for example, “I was only trying to help, but I guess my feelings don’t matter!” Stonewalling is a pattern of isolation and withdrawal: for example, verbally or nonverbally saying, “I don’t want to talk about this anymore!” 109. Explain how heritability might play a role in divorce, and give an example. Answer: Twin studies show that the concordance rates for divorce are higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins, indicating that divorce may be partly explained by genetic factors. Even though divorce is commonly assumed to be determined purely by psychological and social factors, family events such as divorce do not occur at random. The gene-environment correlation means that environmental experience is itself correlated with genetic background. To the extent that background, personality, or physical characteristics are influenced by genes, the family experience is also correlated with those genes. For example, a divorce may be partly determined by impulsivity, which, in turn, is influenced by genes. McGue and Lykken speculated that divorce may be a consequence of personality factors that are partially shaped by genetics: for example, a tendency toward thrill-seeking, relative insensitivity to social sanctions, or early puberty that could lead to attention for traits unrelated to character and attract less committed mates. So, while any individual divorce cannot be directly attributed to a “divorce gene,” genetic heritage affects the environment in ways that can affect the stability of an individual marriage. 110. Describe the five stages of bereavement outlined by Elizabeth Kübler-Ross and discuss one of the criticisms of this approach. Answer: Elisabeth Kübler-Ross developed a popular model of bereavement, based on her work with the terminally ill, that describes grief as occurring in five stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Researchers have questioned whether bereavement follows any clear-cut series of stages. Few people seem to experience grief in a fixed sequence of stages; many individuals experience some of the stages but not all and in different orders, and some individuals experience none of the stages as outlined by Kübler-Ross. 111. Define a living will and discuss its purpose in relation to older adults. Answer: A living will is a legal document allowed in some states that instructs health care professionals not to carry out certain life-saving procedures on terminally ill or severely disabled individuals. The purpose of a living will is to help the older adult maintain integrity in both life and death. Older adults often are much better at accepting death than are younger people, and living wills and other efforts to humanize dying allow dignity to be maintained through the end of life. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

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