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Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders of Childhood Multiple Choice 1. What is the major contribution of a developmental psychopathology perspective on children's problems? a. Developmental psychopathology offers greater focus on genetic factors. b. Developmental psychopathology suggests ways that biological processes account for these types of problems. c. Developmental psychopathology provides norms across the lifespan that can be used to determine whether a behavior is abnormal. d. Developmental psychopathology highlights the importance of environmental differences across different socioeconomic groups. Answer: c. 2. DSM-5 reorganized its classification of psychological problems usually diagnosed first among children in an effort to a. make a clear distinction between childhood disorders and adult disorders. b. make developmental considerations a part of all disorders. c. provide a consistent means of diagnosis for the best health insurance coverage. d. replicate the system used in earlier editions of the DSM. Answer: b. 3. A child with which of the following would likely be diagnosed as having an externalizing disorder? a. excessive anxiety b. depressed mood c. somatic complaints d. serious misconduct Answer: d. 4. A child with which of the following would likely be diagnosed as having an internalizing disorder? a. excessive anxiety b. depressed mood c. somatic complaints d. serious misconduct Answer: a. 5. Externalizing behavior is more problematic when it is part of a ________, or cluster of problems, than when it occurs in isolation. a. system b. symptom c. syndrome d. synod Answer: c. 6. Externalizing problems that begin ________ are more likely to persist into adult life. a. during adolescence b. in the late 20s and early 30s c. before adolescence d. in early adulthood Answer: c. 7. Jeremy is an eight-year-old boy whose case is described in your textbook. Based on a recommendation from his teacher, he was evaluated by a psychologist. Which of the following findings would be significant in planning a treatment program for Jeremy? a. Jeremy has a sibling who was mentally retarded and autistic. b. He had an older sister who expressed herself better verbally than did Jeremy. c. Although Jeremy had an IQ of 108, his achievement test scores were a grade behind his current grade. d. Jeremy’s mother took him to the psychologist only reluctantly because she did not believe he had a problem. Answer: c. 8. Many externalizing disorders are characterized by a. overcontrolled behavior. b. symptoms of sadness and anxiety. c. violations of age-appropriate social rules. d. expression of worry through physical symptoms. Answer: c. 9. The PTA invited a speaker to address the topic of crime among adolescents. What information might the speaker cite in this talk to parents of young people? a. The rate of crime committed by young people is increasing in spite of intervention efforts. b. The worst five percent of juvenile offenders account for about half of all juvenile arrests. c. Most of the crimes committed by young people are committed against schools and are generally taken as signs of rebellion. d. Young people under the age of 18 frequently engage in serious, violent crimes. Answer: b. 10. Evidence for a syndrome of externalizing behavior problems has been demonstrated by statistical analysis of a. arrest reports. b. clinicians’ diagnoses of children. c. children’s descriptions of their own behavior. d. checklists on which adults rate children’s psychological symptoms. Answer: d. 11. Six-year-old Nick’s parents have been called to school repeatedly during the past two years for a variety of problems ranging from disobeying teachers to bullying classmates. Their position is that, like any other boy his age, Nick is testing the limits. Which of the following correlates to how school officials should respond if they take a developmental psychopathology perspective? a. All children test the limits, but the only way they become adults is to stop that testing. b. Although it is normal for children to test the limits, your son's limit testing is not appropriate for his age. c. We just want to make you aware of your son’s behavior; we do expect that he will outgrow this stage soon. d. Testing the limits is a sign of a deeply rooted psychological disturbance that needs to be treated. Answer: b. 12. Adolescents often engage in rule violations, so it is essential to distinguish between _________ and _________ antisocial behavior. a. externalized / internalized b. biologically-based / psychologically-based c. adolescent-limited / life-course-persistent d. intentional / unintentional Answer: c. 13. Based on recent research, to predict antisocial personality disorder, you would focus on the variable of ________ in the child. a. callousness b. anxiety c. persistence d. intelligence Answer: a. 14. Chris begins to show externalizing and antisocial behaviors at age 6. Doug begins to show these behaviors at age 16. What would a clinical psychologist conclude concerning the differences in the problems these two individuals present? a. Chris’s problems are less disruptive to other people. b. Chris’s problems are likely to persist throughout life. c. Chris’s problems will probably have a shorter duration. d. Chris’s problems will be more related to physical health issues. Answer: b. 15. Compared to boys, girls are more likely to engage in ________, actions designed to hurt others in subtle ways, such as put downs, gossip, and social exclusion. a. relational aggression b. passive aggression c. intentional hostility d. caring hostility Answer: a. 16. Hyperactivity is most notable in a. unfamiliar places. b. a physician's office. c. structured settings, such as classrooms. d. unstructured situations, such as on playgrounds. Answer: c. 17. The continuous performance test is used to measure a. sustained attention. b. hyperactivity. c. neurological abnormalities. d. academic achievement. Answer: a. 18. DSM-5 classifies attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as ________ disorder, a diagnostic grouping that includes intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and specific learning disorder. a. neurological b. intellectual deficit c. neurodevelopmental d. behavioral Answer: c. 19. General “spaciness,” frequent shifts from one uncompleted activity to another, careless mistakes, and poor organization are descriptors for a. impulsivity. b. attention deficits. c. conduct disorders. d. hyperactivity. Answer: b. 20. Which of the following is one of DSM-5’s criteria for hyperactivity and impulsivity in a child with ADHD? a. often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities b. often runs about or climbs in situations where it is inappropriate c. often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace d. often loses things necessary for tasks or activities Answer: b. 21. What is the key difference between ADHD and ODD? a. ADHD is a psychological problem, while ODD is biological. b. ADHD is a biological problem, while ODD is psychological. c. ADHD is an internalized problem, while ODD is externalized. d. ADHD behavior is unintentional, while ODD behavior is intentional. Answer: d. 22. The symptoms of _________ are frequently index offenses, which are crimes against people or property. a. oppositional defiant disorder b. conduct disorder c. relational aggression d. adult-onset ADHD Answer: b. 23. How would a psychologist describe the relationship of the symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? a. They are independent symptoms. b. Hyperactivity causes attention problems. c. The attention problems cause hyperactivity. d. They are two ways of identifying the same set of symptoms. Answer: a. 24. A psychologist is evaluating a child by first trying to determine if the child loses his temper, if he argues with adults, and if he is often spiteful and vindictive. To which disorder does the focus of the psychologist's evaluations lead? a. conduct disorder b. Tourette's syndrome c. oppositional defiant disorder d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Answer: c. 25. What is the current consensus regarding the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD)? a. The two disorders are essentially the same. b. ODD tends to resolve itself with time, while ADHD is more often a lifelong problem. c. The two disorders are fundamentally different. d. The two are separate but frequently comorbid. Answer: d. 26. Which part of the brain controls executive functions, including attention, inhibition, and emotion regulation, and is being studied as a possible biological factor in ADHD? a. corona radiata b. paraventricular nucleus c. prefrontal cortical–striatal network d. ventral posterior lateral nucleus Answer: c. 27. Tim has been diagnosed as having oppositional defiant disorder; Vince has been diagnosed as having conduct disorder. What is the major difference between these two boys? a. Tim is older than Vince. b. Compared to Tim, Vince has a much better prognosis. c. Vince has engaged in more serious forms of rule violations than has Tim. d. They demonstrate the same symptoms, but Tim is more likely to be mentally retarded. Answer: c. 28. Everyone in the sixth grade and throughout the entire school knows Carl is a bully. He likes his reputation and calls himself “the enforcer.” He gets a kick out of being cruel to small animals and has used a baseball bat as a weapon. He was referred to the mental health center for an evaluation. When the report is returned to the school, what diagnosis is likely to have been made? a. conduct disorder b. juvenile delinquency c. oppositional defiant disorder d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Answer: a. 29. Which of the following is a criterion for diagnosing oppositional defiant disorder, according to DSM-5? a. often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed b. scores above the mean on the verbal portion of the IQ test but below the mean in reading c. often argues with authority figures or, for children and adolescents, argues with adults d. has committed at least two index offenses Answer: c. 30. Your friend is looking over your shoulder while you are reading in your abnormal psychology textbook about conduct disorders. Your friend says, ”Conduct disorder just sounds like another term for juvenile delinquency.” Is your friend correct or incorrect? a. Correct: these two terms describe the same condition. b. Incorrect: people with conduct disorders do not usually break the law. c. Incorrect: conduct disorder is diagnosed in children, not adolescents. d. Incorrect: juvenile delinquency is a legal classification, not a psychological diagnosis. Answer: d. 31. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that almost ___ percent of children in the United States had a lifetime diagnosis of ADHD. a. 1 b. 5 c. 10 d. 15 Answer: c. 32. What is the purpose of Michael Rutter's Family Adversity Index? a. identifies six family predictors of behavior problems among children b. counts the number of arguments within a family during a specified period of time c. records the number of family members who have ever experienced any mental disorder in the past d. indicates the likelihood that family members are genetically predisposed to develop mental disorders Answer: a. 33. Research psychologists typically use convenience samples—groups of people who are easily recruited and studied. A ________ sample would be most accurate because it consists of a larger group of the population of interest. a. representative b. specific c. cross-sectional d. easily measured Answer: a. 34. A researcher who wanted to determine the effects of a particular treatment on children with ADHD could use which kind of research tool? a. a small convenience sample b. a large representative sample c. data on the whole population of interest d. information from interviews and other global measures Answer: a. 35. What did Michael Rutter find in the study of the association between family adversity and externalizing disorders? a. There were no externalizing problems if there were no family problems. b. There was no association between family problems and externalizing disorders. c. The presence of one adversity factor was associated with a much higher rate of externalizing disorders. d. The presence of two adversity factors was associated with a much higher rate of externalizing disorders. Answer: d. 36. Jack lives in a small apartment with his mother, father, and four brothers and sister. The family struggles to pay the rent and put food on the table. His mother has been quite depressed. Which of the following speaks to Jack’s future? a. Jack is at high risk for developing Down syndrome. b. Jack is at high risk for an externalizing problem. c. Jack is at high risk for an internalizing problem. d. Jack is at high risk for developing an eating disorder. Answer: b. 37. Inborn behavioral characteristics such as activity level, emotionality, and sociability are known as a. genotype. b. personality. c. temperament. d. abilities. Answer: c. 38. What is the general conclusion of researchers who have investigated the influence of genetic factors on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? a. Genetic factors strongly contribute to this disorder. b. The concordance rate for MZ twins is high, but symptoms appear to be reactions to other mental disorders. c. Genetic factors seem to play no role in the development of this disorder. d. The concordance rate among dizygotic twins is higher than it is for monozygotic twins. Answer: a. 39. Genetic factors explain ________ percent of the variance in ADHD symptoms, a much higher proportion than for most behavior disorders. a. 5 b. 25 c. 50 d. 90 Answer: d. 40. Which of the following describes the temperaments classified by Chess and Thomas as slow-to-warm-up? a. distant and unfriendly b. unpredictable and challenging c. friendly and obey rules d. shy and withdrawn Answer: d. 41. Which of the following appears to play a role in the continuity between early-onset ODD and adult antisocial behavior? a. genes b. authoritative parenting style c. high fever during infancy d. socialization Answer: a. 42. In a hospital corridor, you overhear physicians discussing a patient’s soft signs. You ask your own physician what they meant and find that they were referring to a. neurological symptoms, such as delays in fine motor coordination. b. symptoms that only appear in evidence from low-tech types of testing equipment. c. indications that suggest a low level of a certain neurotransmitter is present. d. an area of the brain that experienced a direct blow that causes seizure-like symptoms. Answer: a. 43. In a large sample of males followed from birth into adulthood, child maltreatment predicted significantly more adolescent conduct problems if the boys were genetically predisposed to __________ activity. a. high MAOA b. low MAOA c. low dopamine d. high dopamine Answer: b. 44. The process of shaping children’s behavior and attitudes to conform to the expectations of parents, teachers, and society as a whole is known as a. shaping. b. behavior modification. c. parenting style. d. socialization. Answer: d. 45. Developmental psychologists classify parenting into four styles based on warmth and discipline. Which is most likely to produce well-adjusted children? a. neglectful b. indulgent c. authoritarian d. authoritative Answer: d. 46. The people next door emphasize obedience through the enforcement of their guidelines and the use of punishment. For example, when their 14-year-old was five minutes late returning from a basketball game last weekend, they immediately grounded the youngster for two weeks. What style of parenting has been described? a. indulgent b. neglectful c. authoritarian d. authoritative Answer: d. 47. Children with serious conduct problems often have parents who are a. indulgent. b. neglectful. c. authoritarian. d. authoritative. Answer: b. 48. Which of the following most clearly captures how Gerald Patterson uses the term coercion? a. An interaction in which parents negatively reinforce a child’s misbehavior by ignoring it. b. An interaction in which parents negatively reinforce a child’s misbehavior by overreacting to it. c. An interaction in which parents negatively reinforce a child’s misbehavior, and the child responds by positively reinforcing the parent’s neglect. d. An interaction in which parents and children reciprocally reinforce child misbehavior and parent capitulation. Answer: d. 49. One way to break a pattern of misbehavior without capitulating to it is to institute a brief period of isolation after the misbehavior called a a. coercion. b. time-out. c. detachment. d. negative attention. Answer: b. 50. Which of the following situations illustrates the concept of negative attention and its potential consequences? a. When a child misbehaves, he is sent out of the class for a specified period of time known as a time-out. b. The parents of a two-year-old pay no attention to the child until she is quiet for least two minutes. c. The second-grade teacher says the entire class must be quiet before the students can leave for recess. Any sounds from the class delay or reduce recess time, so the class remains quiet on cue from the teacher. d. The parents of an 8-year-old boy tend to punish his misbehaviors in front of his siblings, who find his antics during the punishment hilarious. Answer: d. 51. Ricky’s mother tends to scold him when he fights with other children, while Ricky’s father encourages him to fight. This type of inconsistent discipline has been linked to a. internalizing disorders. b. externalizing disorders. c. higher levels of anxiety. d. higher levels of depression. Answer: b. 52. Researchers have given children either psychostimulant drugs or placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. They are interested in how the mothers will react to their children. What do they find? a. Parent behavior seems to be the primary cause of much of a child’s hyperactivity. b. When their children are on medication, mothers are less negative and less controlling. c. Based on the response of parents, the effects of psychostimulants can be attributed to a placebo effect. d. Parents do not seem to respond any differently to children when they are on or off psychostimulant medication. Answer: b. 53. A family with a young son decides to move from a poor, inner-city neighborhood to a small town because their first-grade son is wanting to dress like the “gangstas” he sees on his street and at school. Is this an effective strategy? a. No, because moving creates instability, which leads to a greater risk of externalizing problems. b. No, because a tendency to externalizing problems is completely genetic. c. Yes, because kids in these kinds of neighborhoods are at greater risk of developing externalizing problems. d. Yes, because kids in these kinds of neighborhoods are at greater risk of developing internalizing problems. Answer: c. 54. Which of the following is likely to characterize children with externalizing disorders? a. detachment b. hallucinations c. anaclitic depression d. inability to delay gratification Answer: d. 55. A group of children previously identified as aggressive were put in a social situation and observed. Based on Dodge’s research, observers are likely to see these children a. ignore the behavior of other children. b. overinterpret the aggressive intentions of their peers. c. contribute a high level of positive energy to the group. d. tend to be preoccupied with their own behavior and its effects on others. Answer: b. 56. One reason why a child might turn out well-behaved despite growing up in difficult family circumstances involves what temperament theorists call a. goodness of fit. b. age-appropriate accommodation. c. life-course persistence. d. the internalization of an externalized disorder. Answer: a. 57. Psychostimulant medication shows improvement in behavior for about ________ percent of children treated for ADHD. a. 5 b. 30 c. 75 d. 90 Answer: c. 58. How do psychostimulant drugs affect normal children? a. induce a period of depression b. increase energy but decrease alertness c. have no observable effects on normal children d. improve attention and decrease motor activity Answer: d. 59. Ted’s pediatrician has prescribed Ritalin for the fourth-grader. Which of the following is the most likely prescribed dosage regime? a. Ted will take a single dose every morning before school. b. Ted will take one dose each day when he feels the need to concentrate. c. Ted will take one dose per week throughout the year and into his adolescent years. d. Ted will take one dose in the morning and another at lunchtime, with a possible third dose after school. Answer: d. 60. Eight-year-old Julio attends an elementary school where a lot of children are taking Ritalin. After his teacher suggested that his parents take him to a pediatrician for an evaluation, Julio was put on Ritalin. If Julio has a typical response to the drug, what is likely to happen? a. Julio has a minor improvement in his hyperactivity. b. Julio responds positively to the medication, and his hyperactivity decreases. c. Julio has strong side effects and must be taken off the drug immediately. d. Julio experiences the paradoxical effect, and his behavior actually gets worse. Answer: b. 61. Studies of the long-term benefits of psychostimulant medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show a. significant improvement in both learning and behavior. b. no significant improvement in learning or behavior. c. improved learning but no improvement in behavior. d. improved behavior but no improvement in learning. Answer: b. 62. The parents of a child who has just been put on Ritalin are given a pamphlet describing some of the benefits and side effects of the drug. What types of side effects might the parents expect to see? a. itching and rashes b. nausea and vomiting c. depression and anxiety d. decreased appetite and sleeping difficulties Answer: d. 63. The parents of an eight-year-old boy are talking to the pediatrician who has just prescribed Ritalin for their son. The pediatrician wants to make sure that the parents are aware of the possible side effects and will report them if and when they occur. Which of the following side effects might occur? a. hallucinations and nervousness b. heart palpitations and enuresis c. suicidal thoughts and agitation d. slowed physical growth and motor tics Answer: d. 64. Compared to use in Europe, Canada, and Australia, psychostimulant use in the United States is a. about equal. b. about half the rate. c. 3 to 10 times higher. d. almost 100 times higher. Answer: c. 65. If a child diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder does not respond to psychostimulant drugs, which of the following categories of drugs would most likely be prescribed? a. antimanic b. antianxiety c. antipsychotic d. antidepressant Answer: d. 66. Behavioral family therapy seems to be promising as a treatment for a. conduct disorder. b. oppositional defiant disorder. c. antisocial personality disorder. d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Answer: b. 67. Which of the following is a key element of behavioral family therapy? a. teaching parents to systematically reward positive behavior and ignore or mildly punish misbehavior b. teaching both parents and their children to use the techniques of progressive relaxation training c. contacting a negotiator immediately when there is any hint that a serious situation is about to erupt d. encouraging both parents and their children to go to “neutral corners” for at least 30 minutes following any confrontation Answer: a. 68. What has research shown concerning the association between diet and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? a. Sugar increases hyperactivity. b. Preservatives increase hyperactivity. c. Food additives increase hyperactivity. d. There is no relationship between diet and hyperactivity. Answer: d. 69. What is a central process for many behavioral family therapists in treating adolescents with conduct disorder? a. getting the parents to be less authoritative b. promoting adolescent's involvement in deciding the rules c. helping the parents gain more control over the adolescent d. fostering empathic understanding rather than behavior management Answer: b. 70. What did a 13-year follow-up study find about the effect of multisystemic therapy (MST) on recidivism rates among seriously troubled youth? a. MST increased rates when compared to those not receiving the treatment. b. MST decreased rates, but overall rates were still quite high. c. MST decreased rates significantly. d. MST had no effect on recidivism rates. Answer: b. 71. What has research shown concerning residential programs, such as Achievement Place? a. long-term reductions in aggression b. few results while teens are still in the group home c. lower rates of recidivism once teens leave the program d. effective results only while teens are living in the group home Answer: d. 72. An expert on problem behaviors in adolescents tells a gathering of professionals the following: “The primary goal of treating these young people should be diversion.” If the group then goes out and follows this suggestion, what will they try to accomplish? a. They will develop more after-hours programs for young people. b. They will develop more family-based treatment programs. c. They will work to keep youngsters out of the juvenile justice system. d. They will develop occupational programs for young people in the juvenile justice system. Answer: c. 73. What is the long-term prognosis for children who have oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder into adulthood? a. About half will have problems with antisocial behavior in adulthood. b. There is a high probability of full recovery of normal functioning in the majority of cases. c. Some of their symptoms will decrease unless they also have ADHD. d. There is a high rate of development of a wide range of pathologies from anxiety disorders to psychotic disorders. Answer: a. 74. Which of the following would be considered a symptom of an internalizing disorder? a. irritable mood b. antisocial behavior c. aggression d. somatic complaints Answer: d. 75. Which of the following is an example of an internalizing symptom? a. sadness b. fighting c. talking back d. hyperactivity Answer: a. 76. Which of the following is true of the way that DSM-5 identifies internalizing disorders in children? a. DSM-5 includes the separate category of internalizing disorders of childhood because depressive and anxiety disorders in children are significantly different than in adults. b. DSM-5 includes no separate category of internalizing disorders of childhood, but it indicates that children may qualify for “adult” diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. c. DSM-5 includes separate categories for children with depression but not with anxiety disorders. d. DSM-5 includes separate categories for children with anxiety disorders, but children with depression are included as a subsection of the adult depression diagnostic criteria. Answer: b. 77. A psychologist is reluctant to use parents’ observations of their children in determining levels of their children’s depression. However, parents often insist on being consulted. What is the psychologist likely to find when parents are asked to evaluate their children’s levels of depression? a. Parents tend to underestimate the extent of depression reported by their children. b. Parents frequently mistake the symptoms of depression as signs of a developing psychotic process. c. Parents tend to overreact to minor symptoms and overestimate the severity of the depression. d. Whenever parents are involved in such data collection, they immediately put themselves in the role of the therapist and begin treatment, often with disastrous results. Answer: a. 78. All of the following children are eight years old. Which of them is likely to be free of the major symptoms of their disorders by late adolescence? a. Dean, who has a fear of water b. Jill, who has severe depression c. Juan, who has an obsessive-compulsive disorder d. Jack, who has attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Answer: a. 79. Which fear is prevalent between ages 5 to 8? a. darkness b. school-related fears c. separation from parents d. enclosed spaces Answer: b. 80. The main difference between children’s fears and anxiety is that a. fear is a reaction to a real and immediate danger. b. anxiety is a reaction to a real and immediate danger. c. fear involves the brain’s limbic system. d. anxiety involves the brain’s limbic system. Answer: a. 81. How should we characterize separation anxiety in a one-year-old child? a. a normal fear b. highly unusual c. a sign of pathology d. not upsetting for the child Answer: a. 82. What is a problematic consequence of separation anxiety disorder? a. delinquency b. hyperactivity c. school refusal d. fighting with peers Answer: c. 83. The peer sociometric method involves a. training children to make friends. b. teachers’ ratings of children’s friendships. c. children’s ratings of their peers’ popularity. d. sociologists' observations of children’s alliances. Answer: c. 84. Which of the types of children identified in peer sociometric studies is most likely to develop an externalizing disorder? a. average b. rejected c. neglected d. controversial Answer: b. 85. A researcher conducts a peer sociometric analysis of hundreds of children in the local school system. Several years later, the researcher checks the status of the children, including Amy, who was identified as a neglected child. If Amy developed a problem, which of the following is most likely? a. loneliness b. hyperactivity c. schizophrenia d. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Answer: a. 86. According to peer sociometric methods, which of the following groups of children has the highest rate of internalizing symptoms? a. average b. rejected c. neglected d. controversial Answer: c. 87. DSM-5 uses essentially the same diagnostic criteria for childhood disorders as for “adult” disorders because it views psychological problems in children as having a. discontinuity over time. b. homotypic continuity. c. heterotypic continuity. d. intermittent continuity. Answer: b. 88. DSM-5 includes _______ in the section for Tic Disorders. a. pica b. encopresis c. rumination disorder d. Tourette’s disorder Answer: d. 89. Which of the following people exhibits behavior that is most likely to lead to the diagnosis of Tourette’s disorder? a. Barry, who has motor and verbal tics b. Stephanie, who suffers epileptic seizures c. Manuela, who has difficulty moving her arms and legs d. Sid, who suffers frequent dissociative episodes Answer: a. 90. The authors of your textbook mention ________ disorder to illustrate their belief that “too often, DSM-5 turns normal ‘issues’ into mental disorders.” a. developmental coordination b. sensory processing c. specific learning d. sports deficit Answer: a. 91. Some experts have suggested that diagnosing individual children is misleading and misguided. Instead, children’s psychological problems could be classified within the context of key relationships, particularly within a. peer groups. b. neighborhoods. c. families. d. schools. Answer: c. 92. Research by Lewinsohn, Rohde, and Seeley indicate that ________ percent of young women experience at least one major depressive episode by the age of 19. a. 12 b. 19 c. 24 d. 35 Answer: d. 93. The parents of four-year-old Sam are concerned because their son wets his bed most nights. They have heard stories describing the future of children who wet their beds. They seek the advice of their physician who finds that Sam has no medical problems that might cause this bedwetting. What is the physician likely to say? a. Sam probably also meets the criteria for encopresis. b. Sam has not yet reached the age at which bedwetting is considered abnormal. c. Sam is probably just going through the beginning stages of oppositional defiant disorder. d. Sam probably suffers from autistic disorder, and the bedwetting reflects his immaturity. Answer: b. 94. Encopresis and enuresis typically are ________ psychological distress. a. reactions to b. causes of c. symptoms of d. unrelated to Answer: b. 95. The bell and pad device is used to treat a. pica. b. enuresis. c. selective mutism. d. Tourette's disorder. Answer: b. 96. What is one of the criticisms of DSM-5’s section on disorders of childhood? a. too few externalizing categories b. too many internalizing categories c. too few disorders affecting children d. too many disorders that are not mental disorders Answer: d. 97. Which of these disorders has been used as an example of the overinclusive listing of childhood disorders in DSM-5? a. isolated child syndrome b. reluctant school attender c. humor impaired personality disorder d. developmental coordination disorder Answer: d. 98. Which of the following characterizes the association between gender and internalizing disorders in adolescence? a. more common in boys b. more common in girls c. in both genders, rates decrease with age d. Equally prevalent among boys and girls Answer: b. 99. How do the changes with age of the prevalence rates for externalizing and internalizing disorders compare? a. Externalizing disorders increase with age, while internalizing disorders decrease. b. Externalizing disorders decrease with age, while internalizing disorders increase. c. Both increase with age. d. Both decrease with age. Answer: b. 100. Suicide is the ________ leading cause of death among teenagers. a. third b. second c. sixth d. eighth Answer: a. 101. In comparison to adult suicide attempts, suicide attempts by adolescents are a. less impulsive. b. less likely to require therapy. c. more likely to follow family conflict. d. more motivated by depression than anger. Answer: c. 102. Suicide rates for U.S. males between the ages of 15-24 were highest during which time period? a. 1960-1980 b. 1970-1990 c. 1930-1950 d. 1950-1970 Answer: b. 103. A child who fits Jerome Kagan’s description for the temperamental style he calls “inhibited to the unfamiliar” is placed in a room by herself; researchers observe the child through a one-way mirror and also check physiological measures. What might they expect to find? a. The child's heart rate accelerates. b. The child looks around for an adult. c. The child's brain waves show a sleep-like pattern. d. The child runs around and moves his arms in stereotyped patterns. Answer: a. 104. Which of the following correctly describes the condition known as anaclitic depression? a. a form of depression that is related to weather b. a form of biologically induced depression that can be seen in young children c. the lack of social responsiveness that can occur when an infant does not have a consistent attachment figure d. what happens when young children model the behavior of their parents who have a history of depression Answer: c. 105. What is the typical outcome among nonhuman primates who are raised in isolation without a parent or substitute attachment figure? a. Their social development is normal. b. They show problems until adolescence. c. They show no problems until adolescence. d. They have dramatically troubled social relationships. Answer: d. 106. Infants who are wary of exploration, not easily soothed by the attachment figure, and angry or ambivalent about contact are displaying ________ attachment. a. anxious avoidant b. anxious resistant c. disorganized d. secure Answer: b. 107. What is predicted by insecure attachment in infancy? a. Anxious attachments are the primary risk factor for eating disorders. b. Anxious attachments are not as great a risk factor as was believed in the past. c. Such attachments are a general risk factor for a number of internalizing problems. d. Such attachments are a major risk factor for medical conditions due to poor child care. Answer: c. 108. According to Bowlby, children go through a four-stage process akin to grief when they are separated from or lose an attachment figure. The final stage is a. yearning and protest. b. disorganization and despair. c. numbed responsiveness. d. reorganization and detachment. Answer: d. 109. Research has not found a relationship between childhood loss and depression during adult life, which can probably be attributed to the a. reliance on retrospective research designs. b. resilience of children. c. tendency of adults to minimize early losses. d. failure to use representative samples. Answer: b. 110. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) found that a. biological treatments alone are the most effective with children and adolescents. b. antidepressant medication alone is effective in reducing the risk of suicide in children and adolescents. c. antidepressant medication alone produced a higher risk of suicide in children and adolescents than medication combined with CBT. d. CBT alone produced a higher risk of suicide in children and adolescents than medication combined with CBT. Answer: c. 111. What have researchers determined concerning the treatment of anxiety disorders in children? a. Psychodynamic therapy seems to be the most effective treatment. b. Drug treatments have been shown to be unhelpful in treating these problems. c. Cognitive behavior therapy and family therapy both have been successful. d. Family therapy seems to be the most effective long-term treatment because these are really family caused disorders. Answer: c. 112. A teacher is concerned about a student who seems depressed. She asks the school psychologist whether her student is likely to outgrow his current problems. How would the school psychologist respond? a. Children are resilient and usually outgrow their depression. b. Children who have experienced childhood depression are six times more likely to commit suicide as young adults. c. What looks like depression in young children is almost always a form of age-appropriate behavior. d. Depression in young girls may get worse with age, but with young boys, it usually gets better. Answer: b. Short Answer 113. Psychologists become concerned only when a child deviates substantially from developmental __________ . Answer: norms 114. ____________ disorders are characterized by children’s failure to control their behavior according to the expectations of parents, peers, teachers, and/or legal authorities. Answer: Externalizing 115. ________ disorders are characterized by a child’s feelings of anxiety, fear or prolonged sadness. Answer: Internalizing 116. “Adolescent limited“ problems tend to go away as the child develops. Other problems are more serious and long lasting and are labeled “__________ .” Answer: life-course persistent 117. The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity, attention deficit, and ________. Answer: impulsivity 118. A child who exhibits behaviors that could be characterized as negative, hostile, and defiant may get diagnosed with __________ disorder. Answer: oppositional defiant 119. A disorder that is more serious than ODD and is marked by serious rule violations and often by illegal behavior is called __________ disorder. Answer: conduct 120. Inborn behavioral characteristics, including activity level, emotionality, and sociability, are said by Thomas, Chess, and others to form a child’s __________ . Answer: temperament 121. Parenting that is both loving and firm is labeled __________ . Answer: authoritative 122. Gerald Patterson defines __________ as the process that happens when a parent positively reinforces a child’s misbehavior by giving into the child’s demands, and the child reinforces the parent’s poor decision by ceasing the misbehavior. Answer: coercion 123. Isolating a child briefly following misbehavior is the disciplinary technique known as __________ . Answer: time-out 124. __________ anxiety disorder is defined by symptoms, such as persistent and excessive worry for the safety of an attachment figure, fears of getting lost or being kidnapped, and refusal to be alone. Answer: Separation 125. School refusal, also known as school __________ , is characterized by an extreme reluctance to go to school and is accompanied by various symptoms of anxiety, such as stomach aches and headaches. Answer: phobia 126. ________ is a controversial new diagnosis in DSM-5 that is applied to severe, recurrent temper outbursts that are way out of proportion to the situation that provokes them and that begin before age 10. Answer: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder 127. Infants who are fearful about exploration and are not easily comforted by their attachment figures may be described as having developed ________ attachment? Answer: anxious 128. Emotion __________ is the process by which children learn to identify, evaluate, and control their feelings. Answer: regulation Essay 129. Describe any special problems associated with the assessment and diagnosis of children’s psychological problems. Answer: Few children or adolescents identify themselves as having an emotional or behavioral problem. Instead, some adult, often a parent or teacher, decides that the child has a problem. Sometimes, a child is unable to recognize or admit to his or her difficulties. Other times, however, the problem is as much the adult’s as the child’s. For example, a stressed parent may have trouble coping with normal misbehavior. This can make it challenging to figure out where the problem lies. 130. Mental health professionals sometimes use convenience samples of patients who have presented for treatment. Give an example of when this would not be a methodological problem and when it would be a methodological problem. Answer: The use of convenience samples is not a problem in studies where the convenience sample is the same as the population of interest, such as studies of the effectiveness of medication or therapy techniques for people in therapy. Such samples are problematic, however, when conclusions about causality are drawn and generalizations are made to larger populations. 131. Discuss if there is evidence to support the notion that genetic factors play a role in ADHD. Answer: A recent study of 4,000 Australian twins has provided evidence that strongly supports the view that genetic factors contribute to ADHD. The concordance rate for MZ twins was 80 percent; whereas the rate for DZ was 40 percent. These concordance rates are close to what one would expect for a purely genetic disorder. Genetic factors explain 90 percent of the variance of ADHD symptoms. At this point, however, a specific gene (or genes) responsible has not been isolated. 132. Discuss the current thinking regarding the “paradoxical effect” of psychostimulant medication on children with ADHD. Answer: For many years, researchers believed that psychostimulant drugs had a paradoxical effect of slowing down overactive children. Researchers at NMIH found that the psychostimulants affected normal children in the same way as ADHD children. The medication improved attention and decreased motor activity in both children and adults. There is no paradoxical effect of psychostimulants on children with ADHD. 133. Describe some of the side effects of psychostimulant medication. Answer: Some side effects are relatively minor, such as decreased appetite, increased heartbeat, and sleeping difficulties. Others are more serious, such as an increase in motor tics in a small percentage of cases. Some delays in growth have been noted but rebound after medication is discontinued. 134. Since children are not as able as adults to describe symptoms of depression, discuss signs child clinical psychologists look for to determine if children of different ages are depressed. Answer: When assessing children directly, child clinical psychologists are sensitive to different signs that may indicate depression at different ages: unresponsiveness to caregivers in infancy; sad expressions and social withdrawal in preschoolers; somatic complaints in young school-aged children; more direct admission of sad feelings or marked irritability in older school-aged children or early adolescents; and full-blown depression, including suicide risk, among adolescents. Depression in children also differs from depression in adolescents in its lower prevalence, equal frequency among boys and girls, stronger relation with family dysfunction, and less persistent course. 135. What are some of the reasons that more boys are treated for psychological problems than are girls, but more women are treated in therapy than are men? Answer: Externalizing problems are more common in boys, and for boys, these behaviors are more noticeable as a problem. The prevalence of externalizing behaviors decreases with age, whereas the prevalence of internalizing disorders increases with age. By adulthood, internalizing disorders (typically in women) are more common. 136. Describe the difference between an index offense and a status offense, and their relationship to conduct disorder. Answer: Most of the symptoms of conduct disorder involve index offenses—crimes against people or property that are illegal at any age. But conduct disorder is not identical to the concept of juvenile delinquency. A few symptoms are comparable to status offenses—acts that are illegal only because of the youth’s status as a minor, such as truancy from school. Adolescents who repeatedly break the law have conduct disorders whether or not they are arrested and convicted. Furthermore, one could be diagnosed with conduct disorder having never committed a crime. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

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