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Chapter 12: Sexual Dysfunctions, Paraphilic Disorders, and Gender Dysphoria Multiple Choice 1. What was the major contribution made by William Masters and Virginia Johnson? a. classifying sexual perversions b. describing the human sexual response cycle c. outlining the effects of childhood sexual abuse d. documenting the diversity of normal sexual behavior Answer: b. 2. What was the basis of the descriptions of the human sexual response cycle offered by William Masters and Virginia Johnson? a. detailed interviews with thousands of adults b. observations of people engaging in sexual activities c. cross-cultural analysis of texts on human sexuality d. analogue studies of the sexual behavior of primates Answer: b. 3. What are the phases of the human sexual response cycle described by Masters and Johnson? a. id, ego, and superego b. pre-erotic, erotic, and post-erotic c. physiological, emotional, and eros d. excitement, orgasm, and resolution Answer: d. 4. Some of the most dramatic physiological changes during sexual excitement are due to vasocongestion, which refers to a. increased muscular tension. b. elevated respiration rates. c. engorgement of blood vessels. d. decreased neurotransmitter activity. Answer: c. 5. Kevin has just reached orgasm and finds that he is unable to get an erection again. Although this concerns him greatly, it is actually a normal phenomenon called a. a plateau. b. dyspareunia. c. vasocongestion. d. the refractory period. Answer: d. 6. What is the final phase of the human sexual response cycle? a. orgasm b. plateau c. resolution d. vasocongestion Answer: c. 7. What is the major difference between men and women in the sexual response cycle? a. Men do not have an excitement phase. b. Women do not have an excitement phase. c. Women may be able to respond to stimulation during the resolution phase. d. Men typically are able to respond to stimulation during the resolution phase. Answer: c. 8. How long does the resolution phase last? a. less than 1 minute b. about 5 minutes c. no more than 15 minutes d. 30 minutes or longer Answer: d. 9. What point concerning sexual problems was highlighted by the case of Bill and Margaret described in your textbook? a. Couples who are not truly in love have high rates of sexual dysfunction. b. Clinicians have tended to neglect the biological factors involved in human sexual behavior. c. The thoughts people have about the meaning of sexual behavior are extremely important. d. Usually one person is responsible for the disorder. Answer: c. 10. What new social attitude about sex led to the belief that sexual dysfunctions are a legitimate topic of psychological inquiry? a. that men enjoy sex more than women b. that sex is primarily for the purpose of procreation c. that sex fosters marital intimacy and is a source of pleasure d. that there is less tolerance for variations in sexual behavior Answer: c. 11. Which of the following was characteristic of the interviews Alfred Kinsey conducted between 1938 and 1956 about sexual behavior? a. They focused on subjective distress. b. They focused on experiences that resulted in orgasm. c. They were structured to make psychiatric diagnosis possible. d. They classified perversions as sadism, masochism, and fetishism. Answer: b. 12. The incredible diversity of sexual experiences reported by his subjects led Alfred Kinsey to a. reject the distinction between normal and abnormal sexual behavior. b. investigate the distinction between normal and abnormal sexual behavior. c. conclude that homosexuals and heterosexuals were fundamentally different. d. conclude that homosexuals and heterosexuals were identical in their responses. Answer: a. 13. What was one of Alfred Kinsey's conclusions based on interviews with 18,000 men and women between 1938 and 1956? a. Homosexuality was a perversion. b. Low sexual desire is a form of psychopathology. c. There is little diversity in normal sexual behaviors. d. Distinctions among sexual orientations were essentially meaningless. Answer: d. 14. You have come to the part of your Abnormal Psychology textbook that covers the sexual dysfunctions, where there are several case studies presented. Which of the following might well be the subject of one of those cases? a. someone who displays deviant sexual behavior b. someone with an anatomical defect that interferes with normal sexual behavior c. someone whose sexual desire is inhibited d. someone who has an excessive interest in sex Answer: c. 15. From the extensive information it collected concerning patterns of sexual activity, what did the National Health and Social Life Survey reveal concerning the achievement of orgasms by men and women? a. The rates of having orgasms are low for both men and women. b. A larger percentage of men than women report that they always have an orgasm. c. Women are able to achieve orgasm more often than men, although they do not report this to their partners. d. Men and women did not differ significantly in either the frequency or the satisfaction related to orgasms. Answer: b. 16. From the extensive information it collected concerning patterns of sexual activity, what did the National Health and Social Life Survey reveal concerning the physical and emotional satisfaction of men and women? a. The rates of satisfaction are low for both men and women. b. A much larger percentage of men than women report being satisfied. c. A much larger percentage of women than men report being satisfied. d. Men and women did not differ significantly in their satisfaction. Answer: d. 17. The National Health and Social Life Survey found that the percentage of a. women who always achieve orgasm during sex is relatively small, yet the percentage who report being extremely physically satisfied is relatively high. b. men who always achieve orgasm during sex is relatively small, yet the percentage who report being extremely physically satisfied is relatively high. c. women who always achieve orgasm during sex is relatively high, yet the percentage who report being extremely physically satisfied is relatively low. d. men who always achieve orgasm during sex is relatively high, yet the percentage who report being extremely physically satisfied is relatively low. Answer: a. 18. Based on the results of the National Health and Social Life Survey, which of the following is accurate? a. A low percentage of men had experienced oral sexual activities. b. Masturbation was very common in women. c. Less than 10 percent of women had ever engaged in oral intercourse. d. Most sexual activity occurred outside monogamous relationships. Answer: b. 19. With regard to DSM-5, failure to achieve orgasm a. is a specific diagnostic category. b. is never considered indicative of a disorder. c. may be considered indicative of a disorder if an individual's partner considers it so. d. may be considered indicative of a disorder if the person in question is distressed by it. Answer: d. 20. According to DSM-5, it is possible for a person to be uninterested in sex or to have difficulty engaging in sexual relations and yet not be diagnosed with any sexual dysfunction because a. sexual dysfunctions require deviant sexual behavior. b. the person might not experience any distress or interpersonal difficulty. c. the person would probably pretend to be interested and to deny any difficulty. d. sexual dysfunctions are only diagnosed when a major personality disorder is also present. Answer: b. 21. Hypoactive sexual desire refers to a(n) a. low sex drive. b. excessive sex drive. c. situational sexual dysfunction. d. sexual attraction to unusual objects. Answer: a. 22. After gathering data on the typical individuals who seek treatment for hypoactive sexual desire, how will researchers describe these individuals? a. They are confused about sexual identity. b. They are likely to have been abused as children. c. They are likely to have other mental and medical disorders. d. They are overwhelmed with guilt and anxiety concerning sexual activity. Answer: c. 23. Mary has been experiencing pain during intercourse. Mary’s psychologist is likely to refer to that persistent genital pain as a. dyspareunia. b. hypoactive sexual desire. c. inhibited sexual arousal. d. orgasmic disorder. Answer: a. 24. A client was recently diagnosed as having erectile dysfunction. What would you conclude about this man? a. He is by definition experiencing dyspareunia. b. He cannot obtain an erection because he is not subjectively aroused. c. He ejaculates immediately upon insertion during intercourse. d. He may be subjectively aroused, but blood does not flow to his penis. Answer: d. 25. The condition in women that is characterized by sexual desire that is not accompanied by physiological responses necessary to achieve intercourse, such as vaginal lubrication, is known as a. inhibited sexual desire. b. inhibited sexual arousal. c. premature sexual satisfaction. d. hypoactive sexual arousal. Answer: b. 26. Identifying the boundaries for defining premature ejaculation has been problematic for clinicians. What is the preferred way to address this difficulty? a. measure the amount of elapsed time to orgasm b. determine if orgasm occurs before the person wishes it c. determine if the couple achieves mutual orgasm d. measure the partner's satisfaction Answer: b. 27. Why do psychologists consider sexual arousal to be a hypothetical construct? a. It cannot be measured directly. b. Its definition differs across cultures. c. It has such diverse expression across individuals. d. It can be objectively measured for research purposes. Answer: a. 28. An operational definition is based on a. theoretical ideas, not observable data. b. measurable characteristics of a phenomenon. c. conventional ideas, not scientific measurement. d. treatment guidelines for psychiatric disorders. Answer: b. 29. A vaginal photometer and a penile plethysmograph can be used as measures of a. orgasm. b. sexual arousal. c. sexual satisfaction. d. blood flow to the vagina or penis. Answer: b. 30. Which of the following characterizes a woman whose orgasmic impairment is generalized? a. She has never achieved orgasm by any means. b. She can reach orgasm only through masturbation. c. She is averse to all forms of sexual expression. d. She can reach orgasm with her lover, but not with her husband. Answer: a. 31. Dyspareunia refers to a. sexual aversion. b. premature ejaculation. c. sexual attraction to unusual objects. d. genital pain associated with sexual intercourse. Answer: d. 32. What is vaginismus? a. a male's desire to be female b. a form of pseudohermaphroditism c. involuntary muscle spasms that prevent intercourse d. an infection caused by a sexually transmitted disease Answer: c. 33. What can we conclude about the epidemiology of dyspareunia? a. It occurs only in men. b. It occurs only in women. c. It is much more common in men. d. It is much more common in women. Answer: d. 34. Traditional definitions of dyspareunia and vaginismus focus exclusively on problems that occur during intercourse, but some experts suggest a. these disorders do not exist. b. other mental disorders are the cause. c. these disorders should be viewed as genital pain disorders rather than forms of sexual dysfunction. d. these disorders should be defined as always resulting from abuse. Answer: c. 35. Martha has been diagnosed as having vaginismus. Besides intercourse, in what other scenario would Martha experience the difficulty associated with this condition? a. urination b. masturbation to orgasm c. a vaginal examination d. sexual arousal by men Answer: c. 36. A proposal was submitted, and ultimately rejected, to add __________ to DSM-5. Among other features, individuals present symptoms such as reckless and uncontrolled sexual behavior. a. sexual behavior disorder b. hypersexual disorder c. hypoactive sexual behavior d. sexual desire disorder Answer: b. 37. What is the most frequent form of male sexual dysfunction? a. dyspareunia b. erectile disorder c. premature ejaculation d. male orgasmic disorder Answer: c. 38. Which of the following describes the sexual performance of men between the ages of 70 and 74? a. Very few men this age obtain an erection. b. Over 60 percent of these men are sexually active. c. Less than 50 percent of these men are sexually active. d. Erection is rarely a problem, but premature ejaculation usually is a problem. Answer: b. 39. As a woman gets older, how does her physiological response to sexual stimulation change? a. slower rate of lubrication b. increased risk of vaginismus c. less responsiveness in the clitoris d. increased blood flow to the vaginal walls Answer: a. 40. Which of the following characterizes the effect of very low levels of testosterone in males? a. painful urination b. attraction to homosexual stimuli c. lack of erection when viewing erotica d. inhibited response to sexual fantasies Answer: d. 41. Which of the following characterizes the association between testosterone levels and men's levels of sexual appetite? a. There is no association. b. Very low levels of testosterone predict inhibited desire. c. Very high levels of testosterone predict excessive interest. d. There is a nearly one-to-one ratio between testosterone levels and sexual desire. Answer: b. 42. Which of these behaviors has a tendency to increase risk for erectile dysfunction? a. taking aspirin b. smoking cigarettes c. eating a high fat diet d. sleeping more than eight hours a night Answer: b. 43. The abuse of alcohol and other drugs can lead to a. inhibited orgasm in men but not women. b. inhibited orgasm in both men and women. c. inhibited sexual desire in men but not women. d. inhibited sexual desire in both men and women. Answer: b. 44. In sharing her history, your client makes several remarks that indicate that her parents had quite negative attitudes regarding sexual behavior. As you continue to explore issues of sex with this client, you will be on the look out for indications of a. drug-induced sexual dysfunctions. b. nystagmus. c. hyperactive sexual desire. d. hypoactive sexual desire. Answer: d. 45. What is one of the most important psychological factors that can contribute to impaired sexual arousal? a. the need for control b. depression c. performance anxiety d. guilt Answer: c. 46. What did Bach and his colleagues find concerning sexual dysfunction in men? a. Their excessive interest in erotica interfered with normal sexual relationships. b. They experienced high levels of disgust related to most forms of sexual expression. c. They experienced negative emotions when aroused in the presence of erotic stimuli. d. They experienced arousal in response to stimuli outside of personal relationships. Answer: c. 47. Which best summarizes the treatment program for sexual dysfunction devised by Masters and Johnson that became very popular and successful? a. better late than never b. practice makes perfect c. see no evil d. an eye for an eye Answer: b. 48. What is the rationale for sensate focus in sex therapy? a. Couples need to focus on erotic sensations rather than performance demands. b. Couples need to understand their intrapsychic conflicts. c. Receiving support from other couples with similar problems is a key to successful treatment. d. Successful treatment requires ruling out other possible medical or physical causes of sexual dysfunction. Answer: a. 49. Maria and Juan go to a therapist because they consistently have difficulty accomplishing intercourse. The therapist recommends a procedure called sensate focus, which means that Maria and Juan will be asked to a. explore their painful emotions in therapy. b. spend time together relaxing and holding hands. c. go to a physician, to rule out medical problems. d. attempt to have intercourse every night for a week. Answer: b. 50. In their therapy for sexual dysfunctions, Masters and Johnson thought that, in addition to sensate focus, it was also important to include a. appropriate medications. b. substance abuse counseling. c. communication training. d. treatment of underlying medical problems. Answer: c. 51. A physician prescribes Viagra to treat a patient's erectile dysfunction and advises him to be aware of possible side effects such as a. insomnia and muscular pain. b. headaches and altered vision. c. hallucinations and body rashes. d. constipation and rapid heartbeat. Answer: b. 52. Which of the following is characteristic of a man with a paraphilia? a. inhibited sex drive b. aversion to his own sexuality c. physically incapable of having an erection d. sexual interest other than sexual interest in genital stimulation Answer: d. 53. The compulsive and inflexible features of paraphilias make them similar to a. mood disorders. b. addictions. c. sexual dysfunctions. d. antisocial personality disorder. Answer: b. 54. What is the central problem in paraphilias? a. inhibited sexual desire b. physiological problems prevent arousal c. the individual feels guilt about the behavior d. sexual arousal is detached from a reciprocal, loving adult relationship Answer: d. 55. Paraphilias have been compared to addictions because both of these problems involve a. illegal activity. b. feelings of compulsion. c. a genetic predisposition. d. neurotransmitter imbalances. Answer: b. 56. Which of the following situations is an example of necrophilia? a. A man has sexual contact with a corpse. b. A young man is sexually attracted to a woman's neck. c. A woman is attracted to certain body parts of a man. d. A woman has an interest in unusual sexual practices with men. Answer: a. 57. Dean finds it impossible to reach orgasm unless he is holding and kissing a woman's shoe. This problem is a paraphilia known as a. fetishism. b. pedophilia. c. frotteurism. d. transvestic disorder. Answer: a. 58. Sam is looking for a job to earn money and put him near the stimuli he uses to achieve sexual excitement. He is offered what he views as the "ideal job" at a shoe store; but he is fired when his interactions with customers provide evidence that he has a paraphilia known as a. voyeurism. b. fetishism. c. klismaphilia. d. exhibitionism. Answer: b. 59. Which of the following is characterized by sexual arousal when dressing in clothing of the opposite gender? a. transsexualism b. pseudohermaphroditism c. transvestic disorder d. gender identity disorder Answer: c. 60. The sexual interest of a person diagnosed with partialism would focus on a. one specific part of the body. b. one specific article of clothing. c. touching non-consenting others. d. obscene phone calls. Answer: a. 61. A drag queen who is gay and who cross-dresses would probably not be diagnosed with transvestic disorder because a. a person with transvestic disorder will only hold, but not dress in, clothing of the opposite sex. b. people with transvestic disorder will only dress in clothing of other people of the same sex. c. the drag queen will not be sexually aroused by cross-dressing. d. people who are gay cannot be diagnosed with any mental disorder. Answer: c. 62. Which of these individuals would most clearly fit the DSM diagnostic criteria for transvestic disorder? a. Carl, who collects women's boots and shoes and masturbates while holding these objects b. Danny, a gay man, who is known among members of the gay community as a drag queen c. Dennis, who dresses in women's clothing as part of his job in a Las Vegas nightclub act d. Barry, a heterosexual, who dresses in women's clothing for the purpose of sexual arousal Answer: d. 63. Ted dreams and daydreams about being humiliated during sexual encounters. He finds the fantasies to be quite arousing. If Ted experiences subjective distress or interpersonal difficulty as a result of these daydreams, what diagnosis would be made in his case? a. Ted would qualify for the diagnosis of fetishism. b. Ted would not meet the criteria of masochism because he enjoys the fantasies. c. Ted would not meet the criteria of masochism because he does not act on his fantasies. d. Ted would qualify for the diagnosis of sexual masochism. Answer: d. 64. Which of the following individuals is most likely to engage in masochistic sexual activity? a. Helen, who works as a nursing assistant at the local nursing home b. Iris, who just graduated from a small state college and loves to collect military items c. Frank, who is a paramedic and is frequently the first one on the scene of a terrible accident d. Gary, who is highly educated and whose social activities are often described in the social column of the newspaper Answer: d. 65. Your textbook describes the masochistic behaviors of Daphne Merkin, but then the authors remark that Daphne might not necessarily qualify for a diagnosis of sexual masochism because a. she acknowledged her interests in masochistic sex. b. she married the people involved in her masochistic fantasies. c. it is not clear that she experienced subjective distress or social impairment. d. she never allowed herself to be seriously hurt. Answer: c. 66. Sexual sadism involves sexual arousal associated with a. exposing oneself. b. rubbing against someone. c. feeling pain and humiliation. d. hurting or humiliating someone else. Answer: d. 67. Another common term for exhibitionism is a. peeping. b. indecent exposure. c. S and M. d. stalking. Answer: b. 68. A female friend of yours is expressing great concern about the possibility that she might one day encounter an exhibitionist. To help her deal with her fears, you tell her that exhibitionists a. rarely touch or otherwise molest their victims. b. are only dangerous to people they know. c. are only dangerous to women who are in the company of young children. d. will always run away whenever their intended victim screams for help. Answer: a. 69. Which of the following represents a case of voyeurism? a. A man fondles a black boot while he masturbates. b. A man exposes his genitals to people in the subway. c. A man uses binoculars to watch his neighbors undress. d. A man rubs up against an unsuspecting young woman in a crowded department store. Answer: c. 70. A person with a paraphilia known as frotteurism is likely to do which of the following? a. expose himself to neighbors b. feel aroused when he is hit or kicked c. rub up against someone in a crowded bank d. feel a need to see a certain object to reach orgasm Answer: c. 71. A person with a paraphilia that entails recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a young child is suffering from a. rapism. b. pedophilia. c. necrophilia. d. voyeurism. Answer: b. 72. What can be concluded regarding the long-term effects of those who have been victims of early child sexual abuse? a. They almost always become abusers themselves. b. They almost always end up engaging in risky sexual behaviors. c. They might not necessarily suffer any pervasive or intense negative consequences. d. They become unable to establish any meaningful forms of reciprocal intimacy in a variety of situations and relationships. Answer: c. 73. Sexual activity between which of the following would be referred to as incest? a. a stepfather and his stepson b. a man and his young neighbor c. a father and his daughter’s friend d. a teacher and her student Answer: a. 74. Which of the following seems to fit the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia? a. Ten-year-old Dave, who sexually molested his younger sister in their home b. Twenty-year-old Barry, who had sexual intercourse repeatedly with a 16-year-old neighbor c. Twenty-five-year-old Dan, who masturbates while he holds baby rattles and bottles d. Alan, who has never molested any children but spends most of his day fantasizing about such contacts, which has made it impossible for him to date women his age Answer: d. 75. Many incest perpetrators would not be considered pedophiles because a. they have no sexually arousing fantasies. b. their victims are often postpubescent adolescents. c. they employ force, and they humiliate their victims. d. incest is a crime, not a mental disorder. Answer: b. 76. Why is rape not included as a paraphilia in DSM-5? a. Rape is not always sexually motivated. b. Rape is a legal, not psychological problem. c. The focus of the sex drive is not an inanimate object. d. Rape is too common a problem to be considered a paraphilia. Answer: a. 77. According to the results of a study on coercive sex, conducted by Edward Laumann and his colleagues, it was estimated that _____ percent of women had been forced to participate in a sexual act against their will. a. 1 b. 10 c. 20 d. 45 Answer: c. 78. "Crossing" of paraphilic behaviors refers to the fact that a. almost all paraphilias cross-dress. b. these behaviors are against cultural norms. c. people who exhibit one paraphilia often exhibit others. d. people with these problems are unsure of their sexual orientation. Answer: c. 79. Most paraphilias are exhibited by men, with the exception of a. masochism. b. fetishism. c. frotteurism. d. exhibitionism. Answer: a. 80. According to the classification scheme for sexual offenders developed by Knight and Guay, what category would describe a man who is preoccupied with nonviolent sexual fantasies, shows deficits in his ability to process social cues from women, and has feelings of inferiority? a. sadistic b. vindictive c. nonsadistic d. opportunistic Answer: c. 81. According to Knight and Guay’s categorical system of rape motivations, an individual who appears to be intent on directing violence exclusively toward women would be classified as what type of rapist? a. nonsadistic b. misogynist c. vindictive d. opportunistic Answer: c. 82. Which part of the brain has been implicated in some paraphilias? a. thalamus b. cerebellum c. temporal lobes d. parietal lobes Answer: c. 83. According to Marshall and Seidman, the core feature of unusual sexual behavior is not deviant sexual arousal but a. a failure to achieve intimacy in adult relationships. b. deficient sexual arousal. c. aggression. d. the absence of career achievement. Answer: a. 84. Several background factors have been observed repeatedly among people who engage in atypical sexual behaviors, including a. lack of early church- or school-based sex education. b. early failures at intimate relationships. c. lack of a consistent parenting environment. d. high self-esteem. Answer: c. 85. Money described the development of paraphilias using a geographic metaphor for a mental picture representing a person’s ideal sexual relationship that he called a love a. handle. b. guide. c. map. d. GPS. Answer: c. 86. Under what set of circumstances do men with paraphilias usually enter treatment? a. voluntarily b. at the request of a loved one c. in order to receive a reduced sentence for a crime d. referral from marital therapists Answer: c. 87. Michael is ordered to undergo aversion therapy for pedophilia. What will this treatment entail? a. education about sexual norms b. confrontation by other men with similar problems c. therapy to increase insight to the consequences of pedophilia d. receiving electrical shock when sexually aroused by pictures of children Answer: d. 88. You are a cognitive behavioral therapist who has started to see a client suffering from a paraphilia. What are you likely to try to do with this client? a. investigate deep-seated conflicts about his sexuality b. provide training to help him overcome cognitive and social deficits c. help him to understand that his behavior is illegal and might lead to imprisonment d. refer him to a self-help group that will help him with his addiction Answer: b. 89. What do research results tell us about the effectiveness of psychological treatments for sexual offenders? a. Most offenders can be helped. b. Only the offenders who admit their guilt can be helped. c. In general, treatment is not very successful. d. Psychological treatment works best when combined with medications. Answer: c. 90. The California Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project (SOTEP) was designed for men convicted of either rape or child molestation. The treatment was comprehensive using cognitive behavioral therapy and several other interventions. In a carefully controlled study, the SOTEP results a. found no difference in subsequent sexual crimes between the treatment and the control group. b. suggest a 13 percent reduction in subsequent recidivism between the therapy group and the control group. c. found an actual increase in recidivism in the therapy group. d. found a significant increase in violent crime in both groups. Answer: a. 91. One approach to the treatment of paraphilias involves drugs that a. reduce the levels of testosterone. b. increase the levels of testosterone. c. reduce the levels of estrogen. d. increase the levels of estrogen. Answer: a. 92. Which of the following types of drugs have been used to treat paraphilias? a. benzodiazepines b. opiates c. amphetamines d. antianxiety drugs Answer: d. 93. Consistent with the therapy developed by Marshall is the theory that SSRIs reduce paraphilias because they reduce a. social anxiety. b. depression. c. libido or sex drive. d. anger. Answer: a. 94. The U.S. Congress and all 50 states have passed laws that are intended to protect society from people who have been convicted of violent or repeated sexual offenses. One set of laws, sometimes called Megan’s laws, are actually called a. community protection laws. b. child protection laws. c. community notification laws. d. Amber Alerts. Answer: c. 95. Sexual predator laws allow states to a. force a sexual predator to undergo a state-prescribed therapy. b. force a sexual predator to live in a specified location. c. force a sexual predator to wear a GPS tracking devise at all times. d. keep a sexual predator in either a prison or mental hospital for life. Answer: d. 96. Which of the following individuals is most likely to be diagnosed with gender identity disorder? a. Harry, who is sexually attracted to boys b. Mary, who looks like a female, but feels herself to be more like a male c. Marko, who likes to dress in women's clothes as he makes love to his wife d. Vivek, who identifies himself as gay Answer: b. 97. Which of the following is another name for gender identity dysphoria in adults? a. homosexuality b. transsexualism c. transvestic fetishism d. pseudohermaphroditism Answer: b. 98. People suffering from gender dysphoria are likely to dress up in the clothing of the opposite sex because a. the clothing represents a fetish. b. the clothing is sexually arousing. c. it helps them to adopt the role of the gender with which they identify. d. they want to make themselves more attractive to members of their own sex. Answer: c. 99. What can we conclude from the ease with which pseudohermaphrodites adopt a male gender identity at adolescence? a. Learning can override hormonal influences. b. Prenatal hormones affect later gender identity. c. Social reinforcement and norms dictate gender identity. d. Secondary sex characteristics determine gender identity. Answer: b. 100. What is one of the documented benefits of sex reassignment surgery? a. increased sex drive b. improved sensate focus c. reduced anxiety and depression d. decreased transvestic fetishism Answer: c. Short Answer 101. ____________ sexual desire is defined in terms of lack of sexual fantasies and lack of interest in sexual experiences. Answer: Hypoactive 102. ____________ sexual arousal in a woman means she can neither achieve or maintain genital responses, such as lubrication and swelling, that are necessary to complete sexual intercourse comfortably. Answer: Inhibited 103. _____________ validity is the extent to which specific measures produce results that are consistent with the theoretical idea of interest. Answer: Construct 104. _________ orgasmic difficulties occur when a woman is able to reach orgasm in some situations but not in others. Answer: Situational 105. The influence of male sex hormones on sexual behavior is thought to be on sexual __________ rather than on sexual performance. Answer: appetite 106. Changing the way in which people think about sex is called __________ restructuring. Answer: cognitive 107. Your female client has had her ovaries removed and, as a result, is feeling less interested in sex. Which hormone are you likely to prescribe for her? Answer: testosterone 108. For some people, sexual arousal is strongly associated with unusual things and situations, such as inanimate objects, sexual contact with children, exhibiting their genitals to strangers, or inflicting pain on another person. When a person is preoccupied with or consumed by these interests, we say they are suffering from a __________. Answer: paraphilia 109. The association of sexual arousal with nonliving objects is called __________. Answer: fetishism 110. “Acts involving nonconsensual sexual penetration obtained by physical force, by threat of bodily harm, or when the victim is incapable of giving consent by virtue of mental illness, mental retardation, or intoxication” is the legal definition of __________. Answer: rape 111. Our sense of ourselves as being either male or female is known as our __________ identity. Answer: gender Essay 112. Name and describe the phases of the sexual response cycle described by Masters and Johnson. Answer: (1) The excitement phase: increases continuously from initial stimulation to orgasm; may last from a few minutes to several hours. One of the most dramatic physiological changes during the phase is vasocongestion—the engorgement of blood vessels in various organs, especially the genitals. Sexual excitement also increases muscular tension, heart rate, and respiration rate. These physiological responses are accompanied by subjective feelings of arousal. (2) The orgasm phase: distinct from the gradual buildup of sexual excitement. This sudden release of tension is almost always experienced as intensely pleasurable. (3) The resolution phase: may last 30 minutes or longer; the person's body returns to its resting state. 113. What is the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS)? What are some of its key findings? Answer: The NHSLS surveyed 3,500 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 throughout the United States. Some key findings from the study are that masturbation is relatively common in men and women, that virtually all men and women experienced vaginal intercourse at some point in their lives, that most men and women had engaged in oral sex, and that most sexual activity occurs in the context of monogamous relationships. Also of note, there is a very large difference between men and women with regard to the experience of orgasm, with more men than women reporting they always have an orgasm. Men are also more likely to report their partners also always had orgasms. 114. The penile plethysmograph and the vaginal photometer measure physiological events directly related to sexual arousal, but they do not measure sexual arousal itself. Instead, these tools are said to offer reflections of a hypothetical construct called "sexual arousal." Using this example, explain the following terms: hypothetical construct, construct validity, and operational definition. Answer: A hypothetical construct is a theoretical idea that refers to something that can't be observed directly. For example, arousal involves a subjective feeling of being aroused, which cannot be directly observed. In order to use such an idea scientifically, it must be defined in terms of observable indicators, even if these indicators do not define the idea completely. These observable indicators are the operational definition. In the case of arousal, observable factors such as penile circumference and vaginal engorgement are used as indicators of arousal. If these indicators turn out to be related to other indicators of arousal, such as the person's subjective report, then the indicators are said to have construct validity. This means that they are thought to be valid, if incomplete, indicators of the hypothetical construct. 115. Discuss the approach to viewing the problem of uncontrolled sexual behavior as a form of addiction. Answer: Although DSM-5 includes unusually low sexual desire as a sexual dysfunction, it does not mention unusually high sexual desire. A proposal was submitted, and ultimately rejected, to include hypersexual disorder. Symptoms associated with this disorder would include seeking new sexual encounters out of boredom with old ones, frequent use of pornography, and legal problems resulting from sexual behaviors. Additional features include obsessive thoughts about sexual encounters, guilt resulting from problematic sexual behavior, and rationalization for continued reckless sexual behavior. There are several good reasons to be skeptical of this concept. Perhaps most important is the heterogeneous nature of excessive or uncontrolled sexual behavior. Failure to control sexual impulses can be associated with several other disorders, including paraphilic disorders, impulse control disorders, and bipolar disorder. Many people who admit to compulsive sexual behavior also suffer from major depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. The concept obviously includes a diverse set of behavioral problems. It also suffers from conceptual problems that have been raised with regard to impulse control disorders and behavioral addictions. For all of these reasons, the proposal for recognizing hypersexual disorder as a new diagnosis in DSM-5 was rejected. 116. Explain how paraphilias are usually viewed in terms of more than just deviant sexual behavior. Answer: DSM-5 requires that the erotic preoccupation must have lasted at least six months before the person would meet diagnostic criteria for a paraphilic disorder. Furthermore, the diagnosis of paraphilic disorder is made only if the person’s paraphilic urges lead to clinically significant distress or impairment. The person would be considered to be impaired if the urges have become compulsory, if they produce sexual dysfunction, if they require the participation of nonconsenting persons, if they lead to legal problems, or if they interfere with social relationships. 117. Explain why some paraphilias are considered by evolutionary psychologists to be "courtship disorders." Answer: For male primates, sexual behavior involves a sequence of three steps: location and appraisal of potential partners; exchange of signals of mutual interest; and tactile interactions that set the stage for sexual intercourse. Voyeurism, exhibitionism, and frotteurism in humans may represent aberrant versions of these basic processes. 118. Summarize the psychological treatments used to treat paraphilias and their efficacy. Answer: The treatments that are used for paraphilias have unique problems and limited success. Perhaps at the heart of the problem is that most individuals labeled as paraphilias do not feel that they are in need of therapy. They are being asked to undergo some very unpleasant procedures in order to forgo pleasurable behaviors. Often they are in therapy via court order. Several procedures known as aversion therapy illustrate this problem. Aversion therapies live up to their name. They are an attempt to pair unpleasant sensations, like nausea, with the stimuli that the client finds inappropriately attractive and sexually arousing, such a children. It is hoped that in future the stimuli, i.e., the children, will elicit the unpleasant sensation, like nausea, rather than sexual arousal. This goal is somewhat questionable ethically. Cognitive behavioral strategies have also been used as treatment for paraphilias. These procedures attempt to change both the clients’ attitudes and beliefs through logic and debate and to teach them social and interpersonal skills that they may be lacking through a straightforward process of education and practice. Unfortunately all procedures lack empirical evidence of efficacy. One large evaluation project, California’s SOTEP, is mentioned in the textbook; this was a controlled study that compared a comprehensive treatment program that included cognitive therapy, skills training, relaxation, relapse prevention, etc., with a control group. The results indicated no significant difference between the therapy group and the control group. 119. Explain what cases of pseudohermaphroditism tell us about what factors influence the development of gender identity. Answer: Pseudohermaphrodites are genetically male but are born with ambiguous genitalia. Prenatally, they are exposed to male hormones, but the effects of these hormones are not apparent until adolescence, when the individual begins to show male sex characteristics. Many of these people are raised as girls, but then make an easy transition to a male gender identity at adolescence. This suggests that prenatal sex hormones, rather than how the person is raised or socialized, determine later gender identity. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

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