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Chapter 9: Personality Disorders Multiple Choice 1. To meet the definition of a personality disorder in DSM-5, one must meet the criteria of a. personality traits never seen in normal people. b. an enduring pattern of behavior that differs considerably from one's culture. c. the presence of emotional symptoms that make one aggressive. d. the presence of psychotic symptoms. Answer: b. 2. The pattern associated with a personality disorder must be evident in two or more specific domains that include a. motor skills. b. emotional responses. c. intelligence. d. culture. Answer: b. 3. People diagnosed with a personality disorder exhibit behavior that is described as a. clustered and psychotic. b. inflexible and pervasive. c. acutely, not chronically problematic. d. more impaired than that associated with most other mental disorders. Answer: b. 4. A large part of the justification for defining personality disorders as mental disorders is that they involve a. social dysfunction. b. significant personal distress. c. loss of contact with reality. d. significant risk of suicide. Answer: a. 5. What is one of the reasons that the category of personality disorders is controversial? a. These disorders are difficult to identify reliably. b. These disorders were conceptualized for insurance purposes. c. These disorders are not associated with social or occupational impairment. d. These disorders are easily learned and unlearned, so they don't require therapy. Answer: a. 6. Which of the following plays an important role in justifying the inclusion of personality disorders in DSM? a. All of these disorders have similar genetic etiologies. b. The presence of pathological personality traits in adolescence is associated with the development of other mental disorders. c. All of these disorders are related to an early history of either sexual abuse or family problems. d. The personality characteristics are all reflections of either excesses or deficiencies in neurotransmitter levels. Answer: b. 7. Mental health professionals who are actively involved in treating people with mental disorders view personality disorders as important because personality disorders a. are the most common mental disorders that they treat. b. make it easier to treat people with other mental disorders. c. can interfere with the treatment of disorders such as depression. d. are more easily defined and easier to diagnose. Answer: c. 8. In the case of Tom, which is described in your textbook, what were some of the early indications that he would one day grow up to exhibit behaviors that meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder? a. Tom was often truant from school, stole items, and lied. b. Tom reported that he heard voices directing him to engage in actions that would cause trouble. c. Tom’s eating, sleeping, and motor behaviors were all sources of difficulty that required medical intervention. d. In order to prove that he was tough, Tom would deliberately engage in actions that would lead to serious physical punishment. Answer: a. 9. Tom's case, as described in your textbook, illustrates which of the following characteristics of personality disorders that would allow a clinician to differentiate his disorder from other disorders that are more episodic in nature? a. Tom’s problems were intense but very brief. b. Tom understood the nature for his problems and felt bad about them. c. Tom’s problems began early and were exhibited consistently over an extended period of time. d. Tom was able to recognize his need for help and participate actively in treatment. Answer: c. 10. During a case conference, one of the staff describes a patient as experiencing an "ego-dystonic" disorder. What is the most likely description of this patient? a. He is distressed by his symptoms. b. He views his symptoms as a moral failure. c. He does not view his disorder as a problem. d. He believes he can solve his own problems without a therapist's help. Answer: a. 11. Generally, personality disorders tend to be ego-syntonic in nature, which means that people with personality disorders a. have other disorders as well. b. do not see their disorders as problems. c. have tremendous insight into their problems. d. are distressed by and perhaps ashamed of their problems. Answer: b. 12. At a conference, a researcher reports prevalence rates for personality disorders. Several audience members conclude that these figures are lower than those reported in the literature. During a question-and-answer period, which of the following is likely to be viewed as a reason for this discrepancy? a. The researcher relied on a psychodynamic model of the etiology of personality disorders. b. The researcher failed to consider the impact of mental retardation on the prevalence of these disorders. c. The researcher failed to obtain records of physiological functions that can often reveal otherwise hidden pathology. d. The researcher used self-report instruments to estimate the prevalence of disorders seen in people with little awareness of their behavior. Answer: d. 13. Two of the most important motives for understanding human personality and personality disorders are a. escape from reality and escape from pain. b. acceptance of reality and acceptance of self. c. affiliation and power. d. dependence and nurturance. Answer: c. 14. In his perception of himself and others, Andy displays what a psychologist describes as paranoid beliefs. We can assume that Andy a. is highly anxious and sees himself as weak. b. feels inferior and sees others as his protectors. c. is out of contact with reality and delusional. d. believes that others are trying to exploit or harm him. Answer: d. 15. Temperament refers to a. anger over abandonment. b. insight into one's problems. c. remorse over doing something wrong. d. a characteristic style of relating to the world. Answer: d. 16. Which of the following is part of the definition of a person's temperament? a. emotional reactivity b. guilt feelings c. ego development d. personality development Answer: a. 17. With regard to the number of basic dimensions of temperament and personality, experts a. believe there are only four or five. b. agree that there are at least 10. c. believe there are probably more than 30. d. disagree about how many there are. Answer: d. 18. The plant manager needs to fill a newly created position. He tells the Director of Human Resources that he wants someone who is well organized, reliable, dependable, and punctual. The director intends to screen applicants using scores on the five-factor model of personality. High scores on which factor should mark applicants as having the desired characteristics? a. openness b. neuroticism c. extraversion d. conscientiousness Answer: d. 19. In personality theory, neuroticism refers to a. conscientiousness. b. bizarre and unusual thinking. c. the expression of anxiety and depression. d. a low interest in interacting with other people. Answer: c. 20. A difficult temperament a. will always be maladaptive. b. will always be adaptive. c. can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on social circumstances. d. can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on whether it is genetically determined. Answer: c. 21. Based on the clusters of personality disorders listed in DSM-5, which of the following sets of characteristics is associated with paranoid personality disorder? a. anxious or fearful b. odd or eccentric c. out of contact with reality and delusional d. dramatic, emotional, or erratic Answer: b. 22. Which of the following defines one of the clusters of personality disorders in DSM-5? a. dissociative symptoms b. odd or eccentric behaviors c. neurotic/mood-disordered behaviors d. child abuse Answer: b. 23. What common thread runs through paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders? a. They are commonly mistaken for schizophrenia. b. They typically follow schizophrenic episodes. c. They sometimes precede the onset of full-blown schizophrenia. d. They are inherited disorders that often lead to dementia. Answer: c. 24. A patient at the mental health center talks in a vague and disjointed manner. His behavior, perceptions, and dress are considered odd. However, he does not report any delusions or hallucinations. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis? a. schizoid personality disorder b. avoidant personality disorder c. borderline personality disorder d. schizotypal personality disorder Answer: d. 25. A novelist wants to write a book centered on a character described as suspicious and on guard all of the time. The character has difficult relationships with friends and relatives as a result of a distrustful nature, he overreacts to minor events that may lead to aggression, and he is delusional. What advice would you give to the novelist? a. The symptoms that you describe are rarely seen in adults in this country. b. You have accurately described paranoid personality disorder, except that the disorder does not involve delusions. c. Your description does not seem to meet the criteria of any of the disorders found in DSM. d. You have captured the essence of a series of disorders that tend to be comorbid and untreatable. Answer: b. 26. Schizoid personality disorder is often characterized by a. delirium. b. inappropriate suspiciousness. c. indifference to other people. d. unusual perceptual experiences. Answer: c. 27. Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a. psychosis. b. peculiar thinking. c. irresponsible behavior. d. disinterest in human relationships. Answer: c. 28. Instability in mood, instability within relationships, and difficulty being alone are all characteristics of __________ personality disorder. a. avoidant b. schizoid c. antisocial d. borderline Answer: d. 29. A movie producer wants to make a film about the life of a person with borderline personality disorder. She asks you for some suggestions concerning possible titles. Which of the following titles would fit the diagnostic hallmark of this disorder? a. An Identity Disturbance b. Overwhelmed by My Superego c. Lost in My Delusional World d. Only the Lonely Know How I Feel Answer: a. 30. Which personality disorder is characterized by excessive emotionality, attention-seeking behavior, and inappropriate seductiveness? a. dependent b. histrionic c. schizotypal d. obsessive-compulsive Answer: b. 31. What etiological link has been suggested between histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder? a. lack of inhibition b. strong social ties c. tendency to commit suicide d. early parental abandonment Answer: a. 32. Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a(n) a. attachment to parents. b. need for admiration. c. feeling of social anxiety. d. intensity in close relationships. Answer: b. 33. A film critic’s description of a character in a film uses these phrases: a grandiose sense of self-importance, the inability to empathize with others, and a preoccupation with his own achievements and abilities. At the end of the description, the critic says the character needs therapy. If the character were to seek therapy, which diagnosis might be made? a. dependent personality disorder b. borderline personality disorder c. schizotypal personality disorder d. narcissistic personality disorder Answer: d. 34. At the drop of a hat, Pete will tell you, in as many ways as one can imagine, that he is the most talented salesperson in the company. He often boasts about his ability to "size up" customers and to close deals. He says he has not been promoted to manager because his work is not really appreciated. He resents those who have been promoted and views them as self-promoters. He expects others to meet his wishes, but he is insensitive to their needs. Pete's behavior represents ___________ personality disorder. a. schizoid b. paranoid c. borderline d. narcissistic Answer: d. 35. Roberta has been diagnosed as having avoidant personality disorder. She is timid, does not like to go to parties, and she is extremely anxious in most social situations. Why does Roberta feel this way? a. She is actually disinterested in other people. b. She wants to be liked but is afraid of criticism. c. She is preoccupied with understanding social rules. d. She prefers to be the center of attention, and retreats from groups when that is not possible. Answer: b. 36. A psychologist is describing the different personality disorders. When she comes to avoidant and schizoid personality disorders, the students look puzzled. How will she distinguish these two personality disorders? a. Avoidant personality disorder has closer etiological ties to mood disorders than schizoid personality disorder has. b. Those with schizoid personality disorder tend to become extremely dependent on others, while those with avoidant personality disorder manage to maintain their independence. c. Those with schizoid personality disorder prefer to be alone; those with avoidant personality disorder want to be liked by others but are afraid of even minimal signs of disapproval. d. Those with avoidant personality disorder are not distressed by their self-induced social isolation, while those with schizoid personality disorder are distressed by their lack of social skills. Answer: c. 37. The personality disorder in which individuals are fearful of any involvement with other people and are afraid of being publicly embarrassed is referred to as __________ personality disorder. a. paranoid b. avoidant c. borderline d. schizotypal Answer: b. 38. Chris is a painfully shy 24-year-old woman who usually stays at home and rarely interacts with others outside of her immediate family. At work she stays away from other people, preferring to remain in the stock room as often as possible. She rarely initiates conversations at work or at home. Chris seems to exhibit __________ personality disorder. a. paranoid b. avoidant c. borderline d. narcissistic Answer: b. 39. Avoidant personality disorder overlaps most closely with a. dependent personality disorder. b. social anxiety disorder. c. adaptive shyness. d. posttraumatic stress disorder. Answer: b. 40. What similarity would you expect to find in the behaviors of a person with dependent personality disorder and a person with avoidant personality disorder? a. They avoid closeness. b. They are preoccupied with rules. c. They seek advice and reassurance. d. They are easily hurt by criticism. Answer: d. 41. Which personality disorder is characterized by a fear of separation from others who are looked to for advice and reassurance? a. paranoid b. dependent c. borderline d. schizotypal Answer: b. 42. A psychologist has developed a series of personality inventories and wants to determine if they are valid. One of the scales measures perfectionism, so he asks a colleague for advice on how to establish the validity of this scale. The colleague tells him that if he were to find a sample of people with __________ personality disorder, these people would obtain high scores on a scale that measures perfectionism. a. avoidant b. histrionic c. antisocial d. obsessive-compulsive Answer: d. 43. Unlike obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves a. lack of guilt. b. excessive emotionality. c. dependency and advice‑seeking. d. intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behavior. Answer: d. 44. Which personality disorder is most strongly related to the dimension of conscientiousness in the five-factor model of personality? a. schizoid b. histrionic c. borderline d. obsessive-compulsive Answer: d. 45. You have a client who is diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. As a result, you are concerned because she is also at risk of developing a. schizophrenia. b. various mood disorders. c. various anxiety disorders. d. suicidal tendencies. Answer: c. 46. Which of the following is a frequent complaint about the categorical approach to diagnosis in DSM-5 that could be addressed by a dimensional approach? a. Many patients are misdiagnosed. b. The whole system is too psychoanalytic in nature. c. Many patients meet the criteria for more than one diagnosis. d. The diagnoses are confusing, since they involve several axes. Answer: c. 47. What is one criticism of the DSM classification of personality disorders as discrete categories rather than dimensional traits? a. Category names are arbitrary. b. A categorical approach does not explain etiology. c. The labels have created more problems than they solved. d. There are a lot of people with serious personality problems who do not fit the official DSM-5 subtypes. Answer: d. 48. The proposed dimensional model places primary emphasis on a. reducing stigma associated with a personality disorder diagnosis. b. explaining the etiology of personality disorders. c. reducing the number of personality disorder diagnoses. d. ratings of maladaptive traits. Answer: d. 49. What was one of the reasons why the categorical model remained the official approach to personality disorder diagnosis as opposed to implementing the dimensional model? a. There are not adequate data to support the switch. b. There is nothing wrong with the categorical approach. c. The dimensional model has been found to be inaccurate. d. There is no support for the dimensional model. Answer: a. 50. Comparing borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the dimensional approach shows the two disorders are distinguished by the fact that a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder would also include a. high levels of traits involving negative affectivity. b. high levels of traits involving psychoticism. c. high levels of traits involving detachment. d. high levels of traits involving antagonism. Answer: a. 51. Epidemiologists have a difficult time pinning down the prevalence of personality disorders because a. there is considerable overlap among categories in these disorders. b. there are too many dimensions to be measured. c. there is no agreement on the criteria for personality disorders. d. they are so rare. Answer: a. 52. In studies of community-based samples of adults, the overall lifetime prevalence rate for at least one personality disorder of any type is approximately a. 1 percent. b. 5 percent. c. 10 percent. d. 20 percent. Answer: c. 53. What percent of people who qualify for a personality disorder diagnosis also meet criteria for a syndrome such as major depression, substance dependence, or an anxiety disorder? a. 1 b. 25 c. 50 d. 75 Answer: d. 54. The personality disorder with the lowest prevalence rate is a. antisocial. b. narcissistic. c. psychopathy. d. obsessive-compulsive. Answer: b. 55. Comorbidity of personality disorders, where people meet the diagnostic criteria for more than one personality disorder, a. is a rare occurrence. b. occurs at least half the time. c. occurs in almost every instance. d. occurs often because there is a common genetic basis. Answer: b. 56. Dr. Patel has just determined that his new client meets the criteria for a personality disorder. What would you tell Dr. Jones about the possibility that there could be a comorbid diagnosis involving some other kind of mental disorder? a. Comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders are very common. b. He is only likely to find evidence of a mood disorder. c. It is unlikely that there will be a comorbid diagnosis. d. There might well be a comorbid diagnosis, but it would not have any connection to the personality disorder. Answer: a. 57. The rate of antisocial personality disorder in men and women is a. equal. b. 5 percent for men; 2 percent for women. c. 5 percent for women; 1 percent for men. d. impossible to determine. Answer: b. 58. There is some evidence to support the idea that __________ personality disorder is more prevalent in women than in men. a. schizotypal b. borderline c. antisocial d. psychopathic Answer: b. 59. What is the most common personality disorder found among persons in inpatient and outpatient treatment settings? a. dependent personality disorder b. antisocial personality disorder c. borderline personality disorder d. schizotypal personality disorder Answer: c. 60. The class is reading a case history of an individual whose reaction to the death of a loved one is described. The individual writes that he hears the voice of a dead relative. The class is asked for a diagnosis, and everyone agrees this is an example of dysfunctional behavior. However, when the instructor disagrees, everyone is puzzled. What aspect of this case history could have led the instructor to his opinion? a. Hearing the voices of a dead relative is a metaphor for the bereavement process. b. The experience was probably drug induced and thus would not meet the criteria for a mental disorder. c. The individual is a Native American, and in their culture, they expect to hear from the spirits of dead relatives. d. The individual in question does not recognize that the symptoms are actually dysfunctional and thus would not seek therapy. Answer: c. 61. You walk into your next class and see the following written on the board: "Differences are not disorders." You find out that the class that met in this classroom was a psychology class. Which of the following was probably the point of that class’s lecture? a. We should avoid culturally biased interpretations. b. The mentally ill deserve the same rights as the rest of the population. c. Laws restricting the ability of the mentally disabled to marry are misguided. d. We should not look down upon those whose level of intellectual functioning is below ours. Answer: a. 62. You are arguing with another student about whether personality disorders occur more frequently in women. Which of the following is the most accurate position to take? a. The overall prevalence is approximately equal. b. Cluster A personality disorders are more common in women. c. Cluster B personality disorders are more common in men. d. The overall prevalence is higher for men. Answer: a. 63. __________ personality disorder has a relatively high recovery rate following early detection and therapy. a. Avoidant b. Antisocial c. Borderline d. Schizotypal Answer: c. 64. __________ personality disorder in adulthood is predicted by conduct disorder in childhood. a. Avoidant b. Antisocial c. Schizotypal d. Narcissistic Answer: b. 65. Based on a longitudinal study conducted by Robins, what was one factor that predicted which boys would receive a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood? a. history of child abuse b. a sibling with a criminal record c. extremely harsh punishment from parents d. history of theft or aggressive behavior Answer: d. 66. What did Cohen and colleagues find when they surveyed adolescents to study the prevalence of personality disorders? a. Personality disorders were almost non-existent. b. The most common personality disorder in the sample was antisocial personality disorder. c. Fewer than half the adolescents who originally met the diagnostic criteria still met the same criteria two years later. d. If strictly applied, the criteria would lead to a diagnosis for almost every adolescent in the sample. Answer: c. 67. A newspaper reporter is given the job of reporting on the survey of adolescents designed to determine the prevalence and stability of personality disorders. Which of the following would be the best headline for the reporter’s story? a. “Adolescents' Personality Disorders: Rare and Not Stable” b. “Adolescents' Personality Disorders: Not Rare and Not So Stable” c. “Do All Adolescents Meet the Criteria for Personality Disorders?” d. “Adolescence: A Period of Stress Causes A High Rate of Personality Disorders” Answer: b. 68. Which personality disorders are associated with the poorest long-term prognosis? a. paranoid and antisocial b. schizotypal and schizoid c. borderline and histrionic d. antisocial and avoidant Answer: b. 69. The realistic concerns of minority groups and recent immigrants about oppression could be misinterpreted and lead clinicians to make incorrect diagnoses of __________ personality disorder. a. paranoid b. schizoid c. borderline d. narcissistic Answer: a. 70. What is DSM's position regarding the role of culture in the diagnosis of personality disorders? a. Cultural standards for appropriate behavior are not taken into account. b. Cultural standards for appropriate behavior must be taken into account. c. The criteria for personality disorders are culturally universal. d. Cultural standards are only taken into account for Cluster C disorders. Answer: b. 71. Making cross-cultural comparisons to determine how rates of personality disorders might differ around the world is difficult because a. personality disorders do not exist in most cultures. b. researchers from one culture might misinterpret the differences they find in other cultures. c. There is not enough variability between cultures to make valid comparisons. d. the rates do not vary very much. Answer: b. 72. What did the term schizotypal originally mean? a. an abbreviation for schizophrenic phenotype b. an abbreviation for schizophrenic subtype that is not specified in DSM c. a form of schizophrenia that is induced by a virus d. a set of symptoms that occur in reaction to environmental stress Answer: a. 73. What have family studies of the first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients revealed about these individuals? a. They rarely show schizotypal personality disorder. b. They almost always show schizotypal personality disorder. c. They have higher than average rates of schizotypal personality disorder. d. They have lower than average rates of schizotypal personality disorder. Answer: c. 74. Which personality disorder is characterized by odd beliefs, thinking, behavior, and appearance? a. schizoid b. paranoid c. borderline d. schizotypal Answer: d. 75. What is one of the problems in treating patients with personality disorders? a. high drop out rates b. low intellectual ability c. related physical problems d. high distress about problems Answer: a. 76. At a treatment planning conference, a psychologist is describing a new client who has been diagnosed with a personality disorder. The psychologist is emphasizing the ego-syntonic nature of the client's problems because a. treatment will have to focus on the client's weak ego. b. the client might not be motivated for treatment. c. the client is an excellent candidate for treatment. d. the problems are psychotic in nature. Answer: b. 77. What impulse control disorder is defined by aggressive behaviors resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property? a. pyromania b. kleptomania c. intermittent explosive disorder d. borderline personality disorder Answer: c. 78. In reference to borderline personality disorder, splitting is a. a lack of impulse control. b. seeing people as all good or all bad. c. a brain dysfunction causing attention deficit. d. imagining that what one wants is actually true. Answer: b. 79. The definition of __________ personality disorder was heavily influenced by psychodynamic views about the origins of personality traits. a. borderline b. antisocial c. schizotypal d. obsessive-compulsive Answer: a. 80. Miguel feels pleasure and relief after deliberately setting a fire. Why would Miguel’s behavior be considered impulsive, rather than compulsive? a. The goal of impulsive behavior is to experience pleasure. b. The goal of impulsive behavior is to reduce anxiety. c. The goal of impulsive behavior is motivated by anger and vengeance. d. The goal of impulsive behavior is to satisfy delusional beliefs. Answer: a. 81. Repetitive behaviors can be described as either compulsive or impulsive, depending on whether the original goal was a. to express anger or anxiety. b. rational or irrational. c. adaptive or maladaptive. d. to experience pleasure or avoid anxiety. Answer: d. 82. You are reading for a part in a play. The description of the part describes the character as exhibiting a pervasive pattern of intense and unstable interpersonal relationships, an unstable self-image, and repeated suicidal gestures. You conclude that this character would meet the criteria for __________ personality disorder. a. schizoid b. dependent c. borderline d. antisocial Answer: c. 83. Which disorder commonly occurs with borderline personality disorder? a. phobia b. depression c. schizophrenia d. generalized anxiety disorder Answer: b. 84. Various forms of abuse and frequent witnessing of domestic violence have been reported by adolescent girls diagnosed with a. schizophrenia. b. hypochondria. c. borderline personality disorder. d. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Answer: c. 85. What characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder make it especially difficult to treat them with psychotherapy? a. They are indifferent to others. b. They are psychotic and need medication. c. They are generally of very low intelligence. d. They don't easily form relationships with their therapists. Answer: d. 86. To treat borderline personality disorder patients, dialectical behavior therapy helps patients to a. makes use of philosophical arguments. b. seek a balance between the client's contradictory needs. c. use confrontation as its major technique. d. remember to take their medication. Answer: b. 87. At a conference on the treatment of borderline personality disorder, a group of psychiatrists is discussing the available drug treatment options. What is the consensus on drug treatment of this disorder? a. The entire spectrum of psychoactive medications has been used, but no substantial evidence marks any one of them as effective to holistically treat the disorder. b. Antidepressants seem to be the preferred choice. c. Since there are many symptoms involved in this disorder, powerful antipsychotics seem to be the wisest treatment choice. d. These patients are not likely to agree to take any medications that could alter their behavior. Answer: a. 88. Out of all personality disorders, __________ personality disorder has been studied the most thoroughly and for the longest period of time. a. paranoid b. histrionic c. borderline d. antisocial Answer: d. 89. Which of the following is part of Cleckley's description of the psychopath? a. dependent, anxious, unstable b. psychotic, delusional, schizoid c. deceitful, intelligent, unreliable d. confused sexual identity, guilt-ridden, impotent Answer: c. 90. The description of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in DSM‑III was made more reliable by focusing on observable behaviors, such as failure to conform to social norms. What aspect of this change was criticized? a. It focused too much on the lack of remorse. b. It did not take into account substance abuse. c. It blurred the distinction between criminality and ASPD. d. It relied too much on the presence of childhood conduct disorder. Answer: c. 91. You are reading the records of Paul, a 28-year-old who has been diagnosed as exhibiting ASPD. The records describe his background, history, and treatments since age 8. According to the research of Lee Robins and her follow-up research, which of the following disorders is most likely to be among those given to him at some time in his 28 years? a. conduct disorder b. mental retardation c. schizoid personality disorder d. schizotypal personality disorder Answer: a. 92. Mark has a longstanding pattern of deceitful and manipulative behaviors. He has an arrest record that traces back to his high school days. He has been arrested for driving while intoxicated, for using cocaine, and for petty larceny. Each time he has been arrested, he has been able to explain his behavior in such a way that he has been put on probation. However, those who know him well are certain that he has no real remorse for his actions. If Mark received a diagnosis, which of the following is most likely? a. schizoid personality disorder b. antisocial personality disorder c. borderline personality disorder d. narcissistic personality disorder Answer: b. 93. How does Terrie Moffitt view the antisocial behavior of adolescents? a. as usually time-limited and often adaptive b. as usually time-limited but always maladaptive c. as the adolescent version of conduct disorder d. as almost always leading to adult antisocial behavior Answer: a. 94. Which of the following is typical of Terrie Moffitt's category of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior? a. Equal numbers of women and men are included in this category. b. This category of behavior is rarely associated with antisocial personality disorder. c. People whose behavior fits this category express their antisocial personality through different problem behaviors at different ages. d. This type of behavior is much more common than adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. Answer: c. 95. Long-term studies of antisocial behavior in psychopaths suggest that these behaviors tend to a. decrease in middle age. b. remain constant throughout adulthood. c. increase over time throughout adulthood. d. fluctuate depending on levels of testosterone. Answer: a. 96. Studies of antisocial personality disorder in biological and adoptive families have found that the highest rates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are found in children a. who are raised in adverse environments. b. whose adoptive parent had ASPD. c. whose biological parent had ASPD. d. who are raised in adverse environments and whose biological parents had ASPD. Answer: d. 97. Why is it thought that children with a difficult temperament are more likely to end up showing life-course-persistent antisocial behavior? a. They have a certain defective gene. b. They have grown up under adverse circumstances. c. They evoke maladaptive reactions from their parents. d. Their brains are unable to form new neural pathways. Answer: c. 98. In laboratory studies, individuals are asked to learn a sequence of responses in order to receive a reward or punishment. How do the responses of psychopaths compare to the responses of normal control groups? a. Psychopaths have a much more difficult time learning. b. Psychopaths show high aversion to anticipated punishment. c. Psychopaths show high intelligence and better overall performance. d. Psychopaths do not seem to be affected by the anticipated punishment. Answer: d. 99. A psychologist is studying individuals who have been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. The research involves hooking up physiological devices near the eye. What is this researcher investigating? a. signs of tiredness b. eye blink startle responses c. shiftiness of the eyes as an indication of deception d. rapid-eye-movements as indications of dreaming while awake Answer: b. 100. Which is a hypothesis put forward to explain the reduced startle response of psychopaths when presented with fear-inducing stimuli? a. The brainstem of this group has been damaged before birth. b. Their chronic alcoholism has produced brain deficits. c. They are emotionally impoverished. d. This is not a finding for psychopaths. Answer: c. 101. Which hypothesis offers an explanation for why psychopaths often do not respond normally to punishment? a. They are preoccupied with the potential for a successful outcome. b. They have never been punished. c. They have been punished too often. d. They lack the necessary cognitive skills to understand punishment. Answer: a. 102. Your neighbor, who has antisocial personality disorder, told you he is going to see a psychiatrist at the mental health clinic. You are surprised by his statement and conclude that he has been a. ordered by a judge to seek psychotherapy. b. involved with a religious movement and "seen the light." c. involved in a serious committed relationship and wants to alter his behavior. d. arrested several times and feels he has embarrassed his family enough with his behavior. Answer: a. 103. What is one of the factors that complicates treatment of antisocial personality disorder? a. poor verbal skills b. low level of overall intelligence c. high rates of comorbid alcoholism and other substance dependence d. strong emotional ties to therapists that represent parental figures Answer: c. 104. As a forensic psychologist working for a federal prison system, you have been asked to design a treatment for antisocial personality disorder. You are aware that most programs have limited success at best, but you also know that there are some positive findings with regard to a. psychoanalytic programs that would require an inmate to see a psychiatrist five times a week. b. behavioral programs originally designed for the treatment of deviant sexual crimes. c. humanistic programs that focus on learning empathy skills. d. programs that stress the importance of taking all of their prescribed medicine. Answer: b. Short Answer 105. In DSM-5, there are ________ personality disorder subtypes. Answer: 10 106. __________ refers to a person’s most basic, characteristic styles of relating to the world, especially those styles that are evident during the first year of life. Answer: Temperament 107. __________ personality disorder is defined in terms of a pervasive pattern of indifference to other people, coupled with a diminished range of emotional experience and expression. Answer: Schizoid 108. ______________ disorder is defined in terms of a persistent pattern of irresponsible and remorseless behavior that begins during childhood or adolescence and continues into the adult years. Answer: Antisocial personality 109. According to your textbook, the __________ disorders may be more related to cultural expectations than any other kind of mental disorder. Answer: personality 110. __________ psychology is the scientific study of ways that human behavior and mental processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. Answer: Cross-cultural 111. The DSM definition of __________ personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. Answer: schizotypal 112. ____________ is defined as stealing objects that are not needed for personal use or for their financial value, and theft is not motivated by anger or vengeance. Answer: Kleptomania 113. In psychodynamic therapy, the __________ relationship is defined as the way in which the patient behaves toward the therapist that reflects early primary relationships. In this type of therapy, this relationship is interpreted in order to improve the patients’ ability to experience themselves and other people in a more realistic and integrated way. Answer: transference 114. Cleckley and Hare investigate a disorder defined by egocentricity and lack of empathy that they call __________ . Answer: psychopathy 115. ____________ refers to enduring patterns of thinking and behavior that define the person and distinguish him or her from other people. Answer: Personality Essay 116. What do we mean when we say a disorder is ego-syntonic? Answer: Personality disorders are usually described as ego-syntonic, which means the ideas or impulses with which they are associated are acceptable to the person. These people do not see themselves as disturbed and do not have insight into their problems. Most other forms of mental disorder are ego-dystonic, which means the people that experience these disorders are distressed by their symptoms. 117. Describe the maladaptive traits someone scoring high or low on the neuroticism factor might experience. Answer: High scorers on the neuroticism scale may be extremely nervous, hypersensitive, easily angered, depressed, easily embarrassed, impulsive, or easily overwhelmed by stress. Low scorers on the neuroticism scale may lack appropriate anxiety, have an inability to express anger or appreciate losses, be indifferent to opinions of others, be restrained or restricted, or be oblivious to danger. 118. DSM-5 describes personality disorders in terms of discrete categories. Discuss the limitations of this approach. Answer: Use of discrete categories leaves no way of describing people with traits who don't meet the criteria for a disorder. Because of common overlap in personality disorders, the final diagnosis (either using one diagnosis or two) doesn't provide an accurate description of individual traits. The dimensional approach is more complete, especially for individuals on the boundary of two disorders. The dimensional approach retains six of the 10 specific types of PD from the categorical system, which retains some continuity with the categorical system while allowing ratings of traits to replace the currently used diagnostic criteria. 119. Discuss the importance of understanding a patient’s culture when making a diagnostic decision. Answer: The personality disorders may be more closely tied to cultural expectations than any other kind of mental disorder. In DSM-5, personality disorders are defined in terms of behavior that “deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture.” In setting this guideline, the authors of DSM-5 recognized that judgments regarding appropriate behavior vary considerably from one society to the next. Some cultures encourage restrained or subtle displays of emotion, whereas others promote visible, public displays of anger, grief, and other emotional responses. Behavior that seems highly dramatic or extraverted in the former cultures might create a very different impression in the latter cultures. Cultures also differ in the extent to which they value individualism as opposed to collectivism. Someone who seems exceedingly self-centered and egotistical in a collectivist society, such as Japan, might appear to be normal in an individualistic society like the United States. 120. Discuss the results of studies of the prevalence of personality disorders based on community and clinical samples. Answer: Community-based samples of adults have yielded lifetime prevalence rates of having at least one personality disorder at about 10 percent. The highest prevalence rates are for antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, and avoidant personality disorders. Narcissistic personality disorder seems to be the least common. Borderline personality disorder seems to be the most common in both inpatient and outpatient settings. 121. Discuss the etiology of borderline personality disorder. Answer: Genetic factors are clearly involved in the etiology of borderline personality disorder when it is viewed in terms of the syndrome that is defined in DSM-5. Furthermore, the fundamental personality traits that serve to define the disorder, such as neuroticism and impulsivity, are also influenced by genetic factors. Some investigators have argued that borderline patients suffer from the negative consequences of parental loss, neglect, and mistreatment during childhood. Adolescent girls with borderline personality disorder report a pervasive lack of supervision, frequent witnessing of domestic violence, and being subject to inappropriate behavior by parents and other adults, including verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. 122. Describe some of the key characteristics of Hervey Cleckley's description of psychopathy? What are the key characteristics of the DSM definition of antisocial personality disorder? Answer: In his book, The Mask of Sanity, Hervey Cleckley described psychopaths as impulsive, self-centered, pleasure-seeking individuals who seemed to lack emotions such as anxiety, shame, and guilt. These individuals were also seen as intelligent and superficially charming, but also chronically deceitful, unreliable, and incapable of learning from experience. Psychopathy, as a diagnostic approach, places primary emphasis on emotional deficits and personality traits. The characteristics in Cleckley’s definition were difficult to diagnose reliably. Consequently, DSM-III placed special emphasis on observable behaviors and repeated conflicts with authorities, including a failure to conform to social norms. Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder are two different attempts to define the same disorder. However, they are sufficiently different in that they do not identify the same people. According to critics, DSM-III blurred the distinction between antisocial personality and criminality. However, Cleckley was clear on this point: all criminals are not psychopaths, and all psychopaths are not convicted criminals. DSM-5 criteria require the presence of the symptoms of conduct disorder prior to age 15. In addition, the individual must exhibit at least three of seven signs of irresponsible and antisocial behavior after age 15. 123. Explain how genetic factors, family processes, and the social environment interact in the etiology of antisocial behavior. Answer: Children with a difficult temperament may be especially irritating to their parents. Their resistance to disciplinary efforts may discourage parents from maintaining persistent discipline, and this type of child might be most likely to evoke maladaptive reactions from parents who are poorly equipped to deal with this kind of behavior. As a result, parents might be driven either to use unusually harsh punishments or to abandon any attempt at discipline. This interaction fosters the development of poorly controlled behavior, which is then perpetuated when the person selects friends who share similar antisocial interests and problems. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

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