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Chapter 15: Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders Multiple Choice 1. You are watching the film Rain Man and, based on your course work in abnormal psychology, you recognize that an appropriate diagnostic category for the character Raymond, portrayed by Dustin Hoffman, is a. Rett's disorder. b. fetal alcohol syndrome. c. neurosis. d. autism spectrum disorders. Answer: d. 2. Which of the following is a similarity between intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders? a. Both begin late in life. b. Each leads to difficulties within a narrow range of life functioning. c. Academic aptitude is impaired with both. d. Both are initially a shock to parents. Answer: d. 3. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), as well as DSM-5, use the term ________ for what was previously called "mental retardation." a. intellectually challenged b. savantism c. intellectual disability d. learning disability Answer: c. 4. Which of the following is a DSM-5 criterion for intellectual disability? a. unconfirmed (based on clinical judgment) limitation in intellectual functioning b. significant limitation in adaptive functioning c. significant perceptual impairment d. onset after age 21 Answer: b. 5. According to DSM-5 criteria, a person can only be diagnosed as having intellectual disability if he or she has an IQ that is below approximately a. 25. b. 50. c. 70. d. 90. Answer: c. 6. In the United States, the term “mental retardation” has been replaced by the term “intellectual disability” by a. law. b. some psychologists. c. DSM-5 only. d. all citizens for the last three decades. Answer: a. 7. 29-year-old Brenda has an IQ of 67, yet she finished fourth grade. She lives with her boyfriend, pays her bills with money she earns as a factory worker, and is able to live without supervision. What is Brenda's most likely diagnosis in terms of the DSM-5 classification of intellectual disability? a. intellectual disability, because of low IQ b. not intellectual disability, because she is over 18 c. intellectual disability, because of low educational status d. not intellectual disability, because she is functioning adaptively Answer: d. 8. Al is 64 years old; he is currently a patient at a local hospital where a psychological battery revealed that he has subaverage intelligence and related deficits. Physicians and psychologists believe that his condition is the result of a degenerative brain disease. What is Al's most likely diagnosis? a. dementia b. delirium c. emotional trauma d. Asperger's disorder Answer: a. 9. Both the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and DSM-5 recognize that a. IQ scores define intelligence. b. intelligence is more than an IQ score. c. conceptual skills are part of IQ scores. d. IQ measures social intelligence. Answer: b. 10. What system was used in early intelligence tests to compute an IQ? a. comparing a score to group norms b. dividing chronological age by mental age c. dividing mental age by chronological age d. translating a score into standard deviations Answer: c. 11. What is the mean and standard deviation of most intelligence tests? a. mean of 85, standard deviation of 15 b. mean of 100, standard deviation of 30 c. mean of 100, standard deviation of 15 d. mean of 115, standard deviation of 30 Answer: c. 12. Many human characteristics, such as height, are distributed so the majority of scores fall in the middle of the distribution, with fewer extreme scores. What do we call this type of distribution? a. bimodal curve b. standardized curve c. normal distribution d. expected distribution Answer: c. 13. The cutoff score for intellectual disability is approximately two standard deviations below the mean. If IQ scores were normally distributed, this would mean that approximately _____ percent of the population would fall below this cutoff? a. 0.5 b. 2 c. 9 d. 15 Answer: b. 14. Which child is most likely to show a significant change in IQ score if retested five years later? a. Anne, who is three years old b. Bob, who is ten years old c. Cara, who is thirteen years old d. Darla, who is seventeen years old Answer: a. 15. A potential problem for the interpretation of IQ scores is the observation that IQ scores in general are rising across generations. The phenomenon is known as the a. IQ effect. b. Flynn effect. c. regression to the mean effect. d. “We’re Getting Smarter” effect. Answer: b. 16. A psychologist has collected some data on the number of friends that college students report they have. The data set follows: 6, 4, 3, 2, 7, 3, 8, 5. If the psychologist reports 3 as a measure of central tendency, which measure was used? a. mode b. mean c. median d. standard deviation Answer: a. 17. What do we call the midpoint of a frequency distribution? a. mode b. norm c. mean d. median Answer: d. 18. IQ scores are derived from standard scores, and to calculate a standard score, you need to know a. the mode. b. the normal distribution. c. the mean and standard deviation. d. the mode and the median. Answer: c. 19. In statistical calculations, the square root of the variance is called the a. standard deviation. b. standard variation. c. derived variation. d. compensatory variance. Answer: a. 20. The statistic in which the differences from the mean are squared (to eliminate negative numbers) before they are added together and divided by their total number is called the a. standard deviation. b. mean deviations. c. median. d. variance. Answer: d. 21. The statistic formulated by adding a group of scores together and then by dividing that sum by the total number of scores is called the a. median. b. mean. c. mode. d. variance. Answer: b. 22. A culture-fair IQ test a. is designed to be used with one particular culture. b. contains material equally familiar to people from diverse backgrounds. c. recognizes cultural differences in the definition of intelligence. d. is impossible to construct, which is why IQ testing is invalid. Answer: b. 23. Due to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that death constitutes “cruel and unusual punishment” for people with intellectual disabilities, an IQ score of 69 rather than 70 can mean a. death. b. retrial. c. treatment. d. exoneration. Answer: a. 24. What evidence do psychologists put forth in support of the validity of intelligence tests? a. The mean IQ score in the population is 100. b. IQ scores precisely measure the potential for school achievement. c. Estimates of the heritability of intelligence are approximately 50 percent. d. IQ scores in preschool years are moderately correlated with IQ scores based on tests administered at the end of high school. Answer: b. 25. IQ tests were originally designed to a. detect the extraordinarily gifted. b. assess level of adaptive functioning. c. rank people according to intelligence. d. measure the potential for school achievement. Answer: d. 26. In addition to an IQ test, which of the following instruments might be used to make a diagnosis of intellectual disability? a. Scholastic Aptitude Test b. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales c. Halstead Reitan Neuropsychological Battery d. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Answer: b. 27. Which of the following events is the most likely reason that a person formerly classified as having an intellectual disability would no longer be classified as such a few years later? a. The person turned 18. b. The person's IQ increased significantly. c. The person became financially independent. d. The demands of work are different than the demands of school. Answer: d. 28. Intellectual disability is defined ________ in more industrialized countries than in less industrialized countries. a. in broader terms b. less often c. differently d. more often by the parents Answer: c. 29. In 1866, what did the British physician Langdon Down describe for the first time? a. characteristics of autism b. a subgroup of intellectual disabilities c. the case of the "wild boy of Aveyron" d. the condition of pervasive developmental disorder Answer: b. 30. Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon developed the first intelligence test in 1905 in response to a request by the French government to identify a. men fit for the military. b. extraordinarily gifted individuals. c. civil service personnel needing further training. d. children in need of special educational services. Answer: d. 31. Jim has been diagnosed with intellectual disability. In her report, a social worker notes that Jim is likely to need close supervision for community living over a long period. What term has traditionally been used to describe the type of intellectual disability that would require this level of support? a. mild b. moderate c. severe d. profound Answer: c. 32. Even though more than 2.3 percent of people have IQs below the 70 cutoff, only about 1 percent of the population has an intellectual disability. The prevalence of intellectual disability is lower than the prevalence of low IQs because a. IQ tests are not reliable. b. most forms of intellectual disability have biological causes. c. many adults with low IQs have adequate adaptive skills. d. only people younger than age 18 can be diagnosed with intellectual disability. Answer: c. 33. Approximately ____ percent of intellectual disability cases can be attributed to known biological abnormalities. a. 5 b. 20 c. 50 d. 80 Answer: c. 34. What is the most common known biological cause of intellectual disability? a. PKU b. Down syndrome c. lead poisoning d. fragile X syndrome Answer: b. 35. Which of the following individuals with intellectual disability is most likely to be diagnosed with a form that is due to a known biological origin? a. Beverly, who has physical handicaps b. Edward, whose family lives in a poor neighborhood c. Sara, whose intellectual disability is in the mild range d. Robert, who was six years old when his intellectual disability was diagnosed Answer: a. 36. Trisomy 21 is another name for a. Down syndrome. b. Turner syndrome. c. Kanner's syndrome. d. fragile X syndrome. Answer: a. 37. A researcher has collected nationwide data for the age of mothers at the time they give birth and the incidence of Down syndrome. What relationship between maternal age and Down syndrome is this researcher likely to find? a. a very weak relationship b. incidence of Down syndrome increases among those born to mothers who are older c. incidence of Down syndrome decreases among those born to mothers who are older d. incidence of Down syndrome increases among mothers under the age 35 Answer: b. 38. By their 30s, individuals with Down syndrome develop brain pathology that is similar to that found in a. Alzheimer's disease. b. Parkinson's disease. c. Huntington's disease. d. Korsakoff's syndrome. Answer: a. 39. Fragile X syndrome is characterized by a. an extra Y sex chromosome. b. an extra X sex chromosome. c. a missing X sex chromosome. d. an abnormality on the X sex chromosome. Answer: d. 40. A researcher is investigating the biological and psychological characteristics of a sample of individuals with XYY syndrome. Which of the following is he likely to find? a. They have criminal records. b. They experience delusions and hallucinations. c. Their mean IQ is about 10 points lower than average. d. Their behavior is likely to meet the criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. Answer: c. 41. Which of the following occurs only in females? a. XYY syndrome b. Turner syndrome c. fragile X syndrome d. Klinefelter syndrome Answer: b. 42. What can a caretaker do to diminish the intellectual disability associated with PKU? a. use long‑term behavior modification b. schedule monthly blood transfusions c. serve foods that are low in phenylalanine d. teach the child to communicate via sign language Answer: c. 43. Phenylketonuria, Tay-Sachs disease, Hurler syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome are all included in the same section of your textbook because they are all a. mild forms of intellectual disability. b. prevalent only in boys. c. caused by recessive gene pairings. d. linked to chromosome 21. Answer: c. 44. A mother’s infection rubella (German measles) can cause her child to be born with severe intellectual disability, especially if the mother contracts the infection in the _________ of pregnancy. a. first three months b. last three months c. second three months d. last few days Answer: a. 45. Which disease can cause intellectual disability in children when it is transmitted from the mother to the child during delivery? a. rubella b. encephalitis c. toxoplasmosis d. genital herpes Answer: d. 46. Which of the following causes of intellectual disability results from infection of the brain? a. encephalitis b. Turner syndrome c. Klinefelter syndrome d. fetal alcohol syndrome Answer: a. 47. Rubella, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and encephalitis are all included in the same section of your textbook because they are all a. caused by recessive gene pairings. b. infectious diseases that can cause intellectual disability. c. the most common forms of death for people with severe and profound intellectual disability. d. the result of per-natal and perinatal complications. Answer: b. 48. Which of the following symptoms are associated with fetal alcohol syndrome? a. severe intellectual disability and gaze aversion b. profound intellectual disability and sensory deficits c. mild intellectual disability and learning disabilities d. moderate intellectual disability and motor dysfunctions Answer: c. 49. According to the recommendation of the Surgeon General of the United States, what level of alcohol consumption is safe for pregnant women? a. 1 ounce per day b. 1 ounce per week c. 1 ounce per month d. zero alcohol Answer: d. 50. What is one common cause of lead exposure in children? a. insulation b. canned foods c. heating systems d. chipping lead-based paint Answer: d. 51. What is the problem in Rh incompatibility during pregnancy? a. Chromosomal abnormalities cause intellectual disability. b. Unmetabolized amino acids cause brain damage. c. Brain infection causes damaging cranial pressure. d. The mother's antibodies attack the blood cells of the fetus. Answer: d. 52. Which of these newborns represents the clearest example of a premature birth? a. Sal, who has PKU b. David, who weighs under 5 pounds c. Barbara, who is 20 inches long d. Eve, who was born after 40 weeks of gestation Answer: b. 53. A nurse in a pediatrician's office is instructing the new assistant. Together, they review files in order to help the assistant become familiar with the job and the terminology. When they review one file, they see the word “anoxia.” What can they conclude about the child based on the inclusion of this term in his file? a. The baby suffered oxygen deprivation and may have intellectual disabilities. b. The child prefers to play by himself rather than in social groups. c. The child has not developed language at the same rate as other children of his age. d. The baby has a rare genetic disorder that predisposes him to develop behavioral difficulties. Answer: a. 54. What types of intellectual disability are described by the term cultural-familial? a. those due to drug abuse during pregnancy b. those resulting from sexually transmitted diseases c. those that run in families and are linked to poverty d. those that are due to chromosomal abnormalities common in certain ethnic groups Answer: c. 55. Up to _____ percent of the normal range of intelligence can be attributed to a genetic factor. a. 10 b. 25 c. 50 d. 75 Answer: d. 56. A researcher is describing a theory of the interaction of genes and the environment on intelligence and uses the term “reaction range.” Which of the following is an example of this concept? a. The effects of environment occur only at the lower ends of the distribution of intelligence scores. b. An individual who may have genes for lower IQ can reach a higher level of intelligence in an enriched environment. c. Psychologists are developing new tests of intellectual functioning that are thought to be more culture-free than previous tests. d. There is a very specific level of intelligence that can be affected by genetic factors; the rest is the result of the environment. Answer: b. 57. Which of the following pairs of individuals shows the highest correlation in IQ scores? a. an adoptive parent and child b. a biological parent and child c. monozygotic twins reared together d. biological siblings reared together Answer: c. 58. Why does cultural-familial mental disability occur more frequently among the poor? a. Poor nutrition causes PKU. b. Impoverished environments can be less intellectually stimulating. c. Chromosomal abnormalities are more common in the lower classes. d. Sexually transmitted diseases are more common in the lower classes. Answer: b. 59. Which of the following is an example of the eugenics movement in the United States? a. the selective breeding of people with high IQs b. the investigation of the human genome c. the forced sterilization of people with intellectual disabilities d. the establishment of Head Start programs Answer: c. 60. Between 1927 and 1979, more than ______ citizens of Virginia were forcibly sexually sterilized. a. 1,000 b. 4,000 c. 8,000 d. 80,000 Answer: c. 61. Which of the following is an example of the primary prevention of a biological cause of intellectual disability? a. vaccinations for rubella b. medical screening for PKU c. programs such as Sesame Street d. enrollment of toddlers in Head Start programs Answer: a. 62. What is amniocentesis? a. an untreatable brain infection b. a failure of amino acids to bind c. an inability to metabolize phenylalanine d. a procedure for detecting genetic abnormalities of a fetus Answer: d. 63. What has research on the effectiveness of Head Start revealed? a. long-term increases in IQ levels b. no reduction in cultural-familial intellectual disability c. short-term increases in IQ and academic achievement d. improved health but no differences in academic performance Answer: c. 64. What would be the goal of a tertiary prevention program for people with intellectual disability? a. to prevent pregnant women from abusing alcohol b. to deal with the various social and motional difficulties faced by people with intellectual disability c. to encourage the use of amniocentesis d. to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases that can cause intellectual disability Answer: b. 65. Insuring that handicapped children are provided with educational opportunities in the least restrictive environment possible, generally in a regular classroom, is termed a. regularizing. b. residential schooling. c. public schooling. d. mainstreaming. Answer: d. 66. Which of the following characterizes the physical appearance of children with ASD? a. uncoordinated movements b. small head circumference c. normal physical appearance d. "mongoloid" facial features Answer: c. 67. Which of the following is one of the classic symptoms of ASD? a. "mongoloid" facial features b. delayed physical development c. impaired communication ability d. inability to metabolize phenylalanine Answer: c. 68. You are attempting to design ways of observing young children that predict an increased risk for autism. Based on recent NIMH research, you would look for a. exceptional artistic ability. b. infants who orient to their names less than do others. c. infants who use more gestures than other children use. d. exceptional mathematical ability. Answer: b. 69. A common problem with ASD is where the subtleties of speech production are unusual: speech is disturbed in rate, rhythm, and intonation. The child or adult with ASD sounds unusual to the normal listener, even when the speech content is normal. These disruptions are referred to as a. aphonia. b. dysprosody. c. dysrythmia. d. anhedonia. Answer: b. 70. What do psychologists mean when they say that an autistic individual lacks a theory of mind? a. The individual's brain is so damaged there is no mind there. b. These individuals fail to appreciate that other people have a point of reference that differs from their own. c. The disorder is so devastating that there is no chance of recovery, and it affects the mental health of other family members. d. The inability to bond to caretakers has left these individuals in an existential vacuum, without a way of explaining the complexity that surrounds them. Answer: b. 71. Uttering phrases back is known as a. dysprosody. b. normalization. c. a motor coordination problem. d. echolalia. Answer: d. 72. Temple Grandin was diagnosed as autistic when she was young. What aspect of her life has been of special interest to psychologists? a. She has given birth to children who show no signs of autism. b. She has managed to live longer than most individuals with autism. c. She earned a Ph.D. in animal science and has developed widely used techniques for animal management. d. Her experience with autism has allowed her to become a clinician who has expertise in treating autistic children. Answer: c. 73. Why does Temple Grandin describe herself as "an anthropologist on Mars"? a. Her autism has left her with difficulties in understanding normal human emotions, so she must rely on deliberate observations to infer others' feelings. b. She can communicate with other autistic individuals using a code that she has developed. c. Like most people with autism, she has unusual beliefs, including a belief that she has had a past life as an alien. d. Like an anthropologist, the search for clues to understand the causes of autism requires digging deeply into one's past. Answer: a. 74. Approximately _____ percent of children with classic autism remain mute. a. 5 b. 10 c. 25 d. 50 Answer: d. 75. A parent of an ASD child may remember that the child was ________ as a baby. a. too easy b. very interested in cuddling c. very difficult d. greatly interested in attention and stimulation Answer: a. 76. What basic problem is reflected in the communication difficulties and impaired social relationships of ASD children? a. motor impairments b. perceptual impairment c. depression and sleeplessness d. lack of social imitation and reciprocity Answer: d. 77. How would a psychologist describe the behavior of children with ASD? a. psychotic b. restrictive and repetitive c. manipulative and antisocial d. dependent and emotionally needy Answer: b. 78. What might explain the self-stimulation behavior of children with ASD? a. It is probably a form of death wish. b. It may help to make a terrifying world more constant and predictable. c. There is really no explanation. d. It is an effort to overcome social isolation. Answer: b. 79. Why are the apparent sensory deficits seen in some people with ASD referred to as "apparent"? a. There is no impairment in the sense organ, but the individual's response makes it appear otherwise. b. There is no way to assess the sensory functioning of children with ASD. c. What appears to be a deficit is often a form of willful behavior. d. Parents incorrectly perceive these children as having deficits. Answer: a. 80. What is savant performance? a. extreme sociability b. self-injurious behavior c. very high IQ and superior intelligence d. an exceptional skill in a specific area Answer: d. 81. Which of the following statements is true about ASD? a. Savant performance is common among people with ASD. b. Nearly 75 percent of people with classic autism have IQs above 100. c. Most people with ASD do not show savant performance. d. Over 90 percent of people with ASD show savant performance involving mathematical skills. Answer: c. 82. Recent studies of the IQs of children with ASD indicate that approximately _____ percent of these children might also qualify for a diagnosis of intellectual disability. a. 10 b. 25 c. 50 d. 75 Answer: c. 83. Approximately how many children suffer from ASD, according to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates? a. 4 in 10,000 b. 90 in 10,000 c. 200 in 10,000 d. 850 in 10,000 Answer: c. 84. Which of the following statements is correct about the autism spectrum? a. With the autism spectrum given in DSM-5, all diagnostic ambiguities have been clarified. b. Psychologists are in the middle of a diagnostic upheaval. c. Childhood schizophrenia probably accounts for much of ASD. d. In DSM-5, ASD must be diagnosed before age 12. Answer: b. 85. What is the gender distribution of ASD? a. Four times as many boys as girls have ASD. b. Four times as many girls as boys have ASD. c. The gender distribution is about 50-50. d. At present, the gender distribution is unknown. Answer: a. 86. ASD is much more common among siblings of someone who has ASD, which suggests ________ causes. a. gender-linked b. genetic c. poor parenting-related d. vaccination-related Answer: b. 87. Your family is discussing autism because a neighbor was recently diagnosed as suffering from ASD. Most of the members of the family say they are not surprised, because autism occurs in better-educated families. You recognize that this is not true, so you tell your family that their false correlation is a result of a referral bias. They look at you with puzzlement and ask you to explain. What do you say? a. Better educated families with autistic children tend to demand more of therapists. b. Better educated families are more likely to seek diagnosis and treatment for their children at specialty clinics. c. These families tend to blame themselves for their child's autism and often are the source of media reports on autism. d. These families tend to be sought out by researchers seeking individuals to study in research on autism. Answer: b. 88. Who is most likely to suffer from ASD? a. Jane, an eight-year-old, from a middle class family b. Jill, a five-year-old, from a lower socioeconomic family c. Jack, a nine-year-old whose brother has autistic disorder d. Jim, a 13-year-old whose brother has been diagnosed as having intellectual disability Answer: c. 89. Known causes of ASD include a. infant defense against maternal hostility. b. obvious brain abnormalities. c. environmental toxins. d. fragile-X syndrome. Answer: d. 90. Some research has suggested that when compared to the brains of individuals who do not have the disorder, the brains of people diagnosed with autism are a. larger. b. smaller. c. less active. d. consume more glucose. Answer: a. 91. What has research revealed about the parents of autistic children? a. They are cold and distant. b. They are physically abusive. c. They use child-rearing styles that are similar to those used by other parents. d. They are usually highly intelligent and of the upper class. Answer: c. 92. ________ fire when a person performs an action and also when the person observes somebody else performing the action. a. Endorphins b. Mirror neurons c. Certain genes d. All neurons. Answer: b. 93. What has research on twins revealed concerning a possible genetic etiology for autistic disorder? a. High MZ concordance rates suggest a strong role for genetic factors. b. Similar concordance rates for MZ and DZ twins point to the significant role of the environment. c. Concordance rates have been low and inconsistent, suggesting little, if any, role for genetic factors. d. Analysis of the concordance rates suggests that a predisposition to dementia is the primary etiological factor. Answer: a. 94. Some theorists propose that autism is related to elevated levels of a. education. b. praise. c. endorphins. d. serotonin Answer: c. 95. What is the typical course of autism? a. a lifelong disorder b. resolves itself at puberty c. resolves itself by age five or six d. improves itself in young adulthood Answer: a. 96. Which of the following six-year-old children with autism has the best prognosis? a. Sally, who has unusual mathematic abilities b. Tommy, who has unusual musical abilities c. Andy, who has developed some language skills d. Tammy, who does not engage in any self-injuring behavior Answer: c. 97. You are advising a school about the adoption of programs for their ASD students. Several treatment options are presented, but one caught your attention. It is a program that is still used despite clear evidence from the APA that it is ineffective. You will advise against the use of a. facilitated communication. b. risperidone. c. applied behavior analysis. d. any therapy. Answer: a. 98. What is the current evidence regarding the value of secretin as a treatment for autism? a. Results continue to be very promising. b. It shows no benefit. c. This medication can significantly improve communication. d. This medication is effective with Asperger's but not with autism. Answer: b. 99. The most promising approach in the treatment of autism involves a. secretin. b. facilitated communication. c. applied behavior analysis. d. psychodynamic psychotherapy. Answer: c. 100. Slapping the ASD child, or applying a mild electric shock, is used by a. applied behavior analysis. b. all behavioral therapies. c. psychologists in states where it has not been outlawed. d. no form of therapy; psychologists would not find it ethically justifiable. Answer: a. 101. The findings of a study of autistic children conducted by Lovaas found that a. using American Sign Language produced the strongest results. b. there were no differences between three groups observed. c. the group receiving intensive behavior modification did the best in school. d. the group of children receiving empathy training did the best in school. Answer: c. 102. Which of these would be the most effective reinforcer for changing specific behaviors associated with autism? a. a pat on the head b. the child's favorite food c. a smile and the comment "great!" d. getting to play a game with a parent Answer: b. 103. Behavior modification to reduce self-injurious behaviors has been most successful in programs that rely on the use of a. extinction. b. punishment. c. response cost. d. positive reinforcement. Answer: b. 104. Research indicates that the highly structured intensive behavior therapy techniques developed by Ivor Lovaas and his colleagues a. can be very effective within very short periods of time. b. only work when combined with antipsychotic medications. c. lead only to temporary improvements. d. can be effective but only when they are provided many hours a week and for many years. Answer: d. Short Answer 105. Modern intelligence tests yield a score that is indicative of intelligence known as an intelligence ________. Answer: quotient 106. In calculating a deviation IQ, it is assumed that intelligence follows what type of distribution? Answer: normal (or bell-shaped) distribution 107. IQ scores are designed so that they have a standard deviation of 15 and a mean (average) of Answer: 100. 108. One potential problem with deviation IQ scores is that research suggests that IQ scores are rising with each successive generation. This is called the __________ effect. Answer: Flynn 109. If your client has an IQ score between 20 and 40, he or she is likely to be described as suffering from __________ intellectual disability. Answer: severe 110. The most common form of intellectual disability with a known biological cause is the chromosomal disorder known as Answer: Down syndrome. 111. The genetic disorder in which a female is missing one X chromosome (an XO individual) is known as __________ syndrome. Answer: Turner 112. Intellectual disability has been associated with several recessive gene pairings. One causes an absence of or an extreme deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme that metabolizes phenylalanine. The acronym (initials) for this disorder are Answer: PKU 113. ____________ is the name of a movement designed to genetically “improve” the human race through legislated breeding rules. Answer: Eugenics 114. Drawing amniotic fluid and testing the fetal DNA for possible genetic abnormalities is a procedure called Answer: amniocentesis. 115. The process of devising ways to accommodate people with intellectual disability so that their lives are as much as possible like other members of society is called Answer: normalization. 116. ____________ disorder begins early in life and involves severe impairments in relationships, communication, and behaviors. Answer: Autism spectrum 117. People with autism are said to lack a theory of __________, in that they fail to appreciate that other people have a point of reference that differs from their own. Answer: mind 118. Historically, the diagnosis of ASD exploded after the introduction of ____________ disorder. Answer: Asperger's 119. Recent theorizing as to the cause of ASD has looked at the functioning of __________ neurons that fire both when an individual performs an action and when the individual observes another performing the same action. Answer: mirror Essay 120. What are the requirements for making the diagnosis of intellectual disability? Answer: The requirements for making the diagnosis of intellectual disability are (1) deficits in intellectual functions, (2) deficits in adaptive functioning, and (3) onset before age 18. 121. Describe the controversy around the issue of whether IQ tests are culture-fair. Answer: On average, the IQ scores of African Americans and Latino Americans are lower than those of Caucasians and Asian Americans, and the rates of intellectual disability are also higher in these former groups. Some of these differences have been attributed to bias in the composition of intelligence tests, which may be geared toward the majority group. 122. Even though more than 2.3 percent of the population has IQs below 70, only about 1 percent of people are diagnosed as having intellectual disability at any one point in time. Explain this discrepancy. Answer: Many young children with intellectual disability are not identified as such because it is difficult to obtain a reliable IQ score from people this age. Also, many adults who have IQs under 70 function adaptively, and therefore, they are not considered as having an intellectual disability. 123. Describe the concept of a reaction range and how it relates to intelligence level. Answer: Genes and environment interact to produce intelligence. The concept of a reaction range holds that heredity establishes the upper and lower limits of possible IQ, but environmental factors determine where an individual's IQ falls within that range. 124. What are the typical symptoms seen in ASD? Answer: The three defining symptoms of ASD are impaired social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviors. Also sometimes seen are sensory deficits, self-injurious behavior, and savant performance. 125. What is meant by a "theory of mind" as it applies to autism, and how can it be illustrated? Answer: The theory is that people with autism fail to appreciate that other people have a point of reference that differs from their own. In the "Sally-Ann task," the child is shown two dolls, Sally who has a basket, and Ann who has a box. While Sally is gone, Ann takes a marble out of Sally's basket and puts it in her box. The child is then asked where will Sally look for the marble when she returns. Sally, of course, should look for the marble in her basket, because that is where it was when she left, and she did not see Ann hide it in the box. However, children with autism, lacking a theory of mind, fail to appreciate Sally's perspective and say Sally should look in the box because that is what they saw. 126. What evidence suggests that there is a genetic component to the etiology of ASD? Answer: The prevalence of ASD is much greater among siblings of a child with ASD. Researchers have also found higher concordance rates among MZ than among DZ twins. In the largest twin study to date, concordance rates were 60 percent for MZ twins and 0 percent for DZ twins. For a broader spectrum of disturbances, concordance rates were 92 percent for MZ pairs and 10 percent for DZ pairs. Other research has suggested that a combination of different genes, or even spontaneous genetic mutations, may be involved. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

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