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Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System 3.1 Multiple Choice 1) After her stroke, Ms. S. had difficulty in A) paying attention to her right side. B) moving her eyes. C) speaking. D) noticing objects on her left side. E) walking. Answer: D Rationale: After her stroke, Ms. S. had difficulty in noticing objects on her left side. 2) Early anatomists were able to examine the features of the brain using only their eyes. They named the observable features of the brain A) for their similarity to everyday objects. B) using a formal system of nomenclature. C) for themselves. D) in honor of the early gods. E) for their start and finish points in brain. Answer: A 3) The term neuraxis refers to A) the frontal portions of the brain. B) a plane that divides the two hemispheres into right and left halves. C) an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the forebrain. D) a plane that divides the brain into top and bottom halves. E) the diameter of the spinal cord. Answer: C 4) Another term for rostral is A) inferior. B) superior. C) anterior. D) lateral. E) medial. Answer: C 5) Another term for caudal is A) inferior. B) superior. C) anterior. D) lateral. E) posterior. Answer: E 6) The term "dorsum" means ________, while the term "ventrum" means ________. A) back; belly B) belly; back C) front; rear D) rear; front E) top; down Answer: A 7) Which term below refers to structures that are found on the same side of the body? A) horizontal B) contramedial C) ipsilateral D) bilateral E) contralateral Answer: C 8) Which term means "above" when referring to the brain? A) superior B) lateral C) medial D) contralateral E) inferior Answer: A 9) A brain region that is anterior and dorsal to the thalamus could also be described as ________ and ________ to the thalamus A) caudal; inferior B) lateral; medial C) ipsilateral; contralateral D) rostral; superior E) None of the above are correct. Answer: D Rationale: A brain region that is anterior and dorsal to the thalamus could also be described as rostral and superior to the thalamus. 10) Caudal is to rostral as A) contralateral is to antagonistic. B) medial is to superior. C) inferior is to lateral. D) lateral is to anterior. E) posterior is to anterior. Answer: E Rationale: Caudal is to rostra as posterior is to anterior. 11) Which of the following terms does NOT belong with the others? A) frontal B) sagittal C) horizontal D) transverse E) rostral Answer: E Rationale: The term rostral refers to a direction whereas the other terms refer to planes. 12) ________ refers to structures that are found on opposite sides of the body. A) Contralateral B) Contramedial C) Ipsilateral D) Bilateral E) Parasagittal Answer: A 13) Electrical stimulation of the right motor cortex elicits limb movements on the left side of the body, and vice versa. Which term below best describes this organization of the motor cortex and the muscles of the body? A) contralateral B) horizontal C) ipsilateral D) antagonistic E) parasagittal Answer: A 14) A ________ section made through a human brain divides the brain like a salami. A) transverse B) horizontal C) sagittal D) diagonal E) cranial Answer: A Rationale: A transverse section made through a human brain divides the brain like a salami. 15) A ________ section made perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis through a human brain divides the brain into two symmetrical halves. A) transverse B) horizontal C) midsagittal D) frontal E) diagonal Answer: C Rationale: A midsagittal section made perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis through a human brain divides the brain into two symmetrical halves. 16) A(n) ________ view of the brain would be most useful in visualizing the medial to lateral extent of a subcortical brain structure. A) dorsal B) frontal C) sagittal D) parasagittal E) ventral Answer: B Rationale: The medial to lateral extent of subcortical brain structures would be evident in a frontal section. 17) A ________ section is made through a human brain parallel to the ground. A) transverse B) horizontal C) sagittal D) frontal E) parasagittal Answer: B Rationale: A horizontal section is made through a human brain parallel to the ground. 18) Which structure is a part of the peripheral nervous system? A) ventricles B) brain C) spinal cord D) peripheral ganglia E) cerebellum Answer: D 19) The brain and spinal cord form the A) enteric nervous system. B) systemic nervous system. C) peripheral nervous system. D) somatic nervous system. E) central nervous system. Answer: E Rationale: The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system. 20) A key function of the ______ is to provide physical protection for the brain. A) glial network B) skull C) blood-brain barrier D) pia mater E) scalp Answer: B Rationale: A key function of the skull is to provide physical protection for the brain. 21) The middle layer of the brain meninges is the A) dura mater. B) pia mater. C) dorsa mater. D) arachnoid membrane. E) midsagittal sinus. Answer: D 22) The ________ is a tough protective sheath that covers the brain and that lies closest to the skull. A) dura mater B) pia mater C) dorsa mater D) arachnoid membrane E) midsagittal sinus Answer: A 23) In the peripheral nervous system, the ________ and the ________ fuse together to form a single sheath that protects the spinal and cranial nerves and the autonomic ganglia. A) dura mater; pia mater B) pia mater; arachnoid membrane C) dorsa mater; pia mater D) arachnoid membrane; periosteum E) dura mater; Schwann cells Answer: A 24) The brain is cushioned by ________, which is contained within the ________. A) intracellular fluid; pia mater B) cerebrospinal fluid; subararachnoid space C) blood; cerebral arteries D) interstitial fluid; subararachnoid space E) extracellular fluid; central core of the spinal cord Answer: B 25) The ________ are formed by four hollow and interconnected spaces within the brain. A) choroid plexi B) subarachnoid spaces C) ventricles D) meninges E) aqueducts Answer: C Rationale: The ventricles are formed by four hollow and interconnected spaces within the brain. 26) CSF is produced from the ________ of the brain. A) choroid plexus B) subarachnoid spaces C) ventricles D) meninges E) cerebral aqueducts Answer: A 27) Which of the following is true of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)? A) CSF is produced within the venous sinuses. B) CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle. C) CSF is produced in the fourth ventricle and flows toward the fifth ventricle. D) CSF is a waste product generated by nerve cell activity. E) CSF production is sped up during a seizure. Answer: B Rationale: CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle. 28) The ________ interconnects the third and fourth ventricles. A) choroid plexus B) subarachnoid space C) corpus callosum D) arachnoid granulations E) cerebral aqueduct Answer: E Rationale: The cerebral aqueduct interconnects the third and fourth ventricles. 29) Which of the following is NOT correct regarding CSF? A) CSF is produced by the choroid plexus. B) CSF is reabsorbed into the blood supply. C) CSF functions to cushion the brain against abrupt movements of the brain within the skull. D) The total volume of brain CSF is about 400 ml. E) Loss of CSF would result in compression of brain material onto the ventral skull surface. Answer: D Rationale: The total volume of brain CSF is about 125 ml, not 400 ml. 30) CSF is reabsorbed into the blood supply via the A) subarachnoid space. B) choroid plexus. C) foramen of Magendie. D) nodes of Ranvier. E) cerebral aqueduct. Answer: A 31) Cells of the choroid plexus that produce CSF lie within the A) blood-brain barrier. B) third ventricle. C) cerebral aqueduct. D) lateral ventricles. E).4th ventricle. Answer: D 32) The total volume of CSF in the human brain is about ______ mls. A) 25 B) 75 C) 125 D) 250 E) 400 Answer: C 33) On the twenty-eighth day of embryonic development, the human brain most resembles A) a hollow tube. B) a shallow plate. C) a series of ridges. D) a series of increasingly larger rectangles. E) the shape of a fried egg. Answer: A 34) The term ________ means "interbrain." A) telencephalon B) diencephalon C) mesencephalon D) myelencephalon E) metencephalon Answer: B 35) Which of the following is a correct match between terms and meaning? A) telencephalon; "end brain" B) diencephalon; "marrowbrain" C) mesencephalon; "afterbrain" D) myelencephalon; "afterbrain" E) metencephalon; "end brain" Answer: A 36) Which of the terms below means "afterbrain"? A) telencephalon B) diencephalon C) mesencephalon D) myelencephalon E) metencephalon Answer: E 37) The cells that form the central nervous system originate from the _____ of the neural tube. A) basal plate B) ventricular zone C) cerebral cortex D) mesoderm layer E) arachnoid layer Answer: B 38) Which of the following is true of the adult human cerebral cortex? A) "Limb" is a rough meaning of the term cortex. B) The outer surface of cortex is smooth like a balloon. C) The cortex is about 3 mm in thickness. D) The size of human cortex, relative to body size, is smaller than that of any other species. E) Human cortex is composed of 9 distinct cell layers. Answer: C 39) Newly formed neurons travel to their final locations in the brain along A) the cerebral aqueduct. B) ventricular zone cells. C) growth cones. D) radial glial cells. E) oligodendrocytes. Answer: D 40) A key function of apoptosis is A) to form new neurons. B) to guide new neurons to their final position in the brain. C) to spur the growth of dendritic branches. D) to terminate neuron development by causing progenitor cells to die. E) to mold the final shape of an adult nerve cell. Answer: D Rationale: A key function of apoptosis is to terminate neuron development by causing progenitor cells to die. 41) A key factor for ending the period of asymmetrical division involves A) activation of apoptosis genes. B) capacity of the cell to form a synaptic contact. C) capacity of the cell to respond to radial glial cells. D) presence of a chemical signal from a postsynaptic cell. E) activation of symmetrical division Answer: A 42) Recent studies indicate that neurogenesis in the ________ is suppressed by ________. A) olfactory bulb; novel odors B) hippocampus; stress C) ventricular zone; antidepressant drugs D) hippocampus; novel odors E) olfactory bulb; stress Answer: B Rationale: Recent studies indicate that neurogenesis in the hippocampus is suppressed by stress. 43) ________ refers to the recent production of neurons in an adult brain. A) Apoptosis B) Mutagenesis C) Mitogenesis D) Neurogenesis E) Microgenesis Answer: D 44) The word “cortex” means A) “almond.” B) “knee.” C) “smooth.” D). bark.” E) “grayish.” Answer: D 45) The ______ separates the somatosensory cortex from the primary motor cortex. A) lateral fissure B) clacarine fissure C) central sulcus D). ventral sulcus E) lateral gyrus Answer:C 46) A ________ is a large groove in the surface of the human cortex. A) fissure B) ventricle C) cerebral aqueduct D) gyrus E) sulcus Answer: A 47) A ________ is a bulge located between adjacent grooves in the surface of the human cortex. A) ventricle B) gyrus C) cerebral aqueduct D) fissure E) sulcus Answer: B 48) Which cortical lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex? A) occipital B) frontal C) temporal D) insular E) parietal Answer: E 49) The primary auditory cortex is located within the _____ cortical lobe. A) occipital B) frontal C) temporal D) insular E) parietal Answer: C 50) Primary visual cortex is located within the ________ cortical lobe. A) occipital B) frontal C) temporal D) limbic E) parietal Answer: A 51) The human cerebral cortex has a grayish-brown appearance because A) the cortex contains many small blood vessels. B) of the large number of dendrites contained in the cortex. C) brain nerve membrane is uniformly gray in appearance. D) many glial cells are located in the cortex. E) the cortex contains many neuron cell bodies. Answer: E Rationale: The human cerebral cortex has a grayish-brown appearance because the cortex contains many neuron cell bodies. 52) For which sensory system is there a pathway from sense organ to a distinct region of the cortex? A) vision, audition, and the somatosensory system B) taste and hearing C) vision and audition D) pain and temperature E) vision, pain, and taste Answer: A 53) Destruction of primary visual cortex results in A) stuttering. B) total deafness. C) memory disorder. D). deficient tactile perception. E) total blindness. Answer: E Rationale: Total blindness follows destruction of the primary visual cortex. 54) Regions of the cortex that are NOT directly concerned with sensation or movement are termed the ________ cortex. A) homuncular B) association C) nonspecific D) projection E) undifferentiated Answer: B 55) Which of the following would be expected as a result of damage to the somatosensory association cortex? A) problems in recognizing an object by sight B) difficulty in playing a tune on a piano C) difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see) D) problems in naming a song they knew before sustaining brain damage E) an inability to recognize body odor Answer: C Rationale: Difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see) would be expected after damage to the somatosensory association cortex. 56) Which of the following would be expected as a result of damage to the visual association cortex? A) problems in recognizing an object by sight B) an inability to recognize a familiar odor. C) difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see) D) problems in naming a song they knew before sustaining brain damage E) difficulty in playing a tune on a piano Answer: A Rationale: Problems in recognizing an object by sight would be expected as a result of damage to the visual association cortex. 57) Which of the following is the most likely consequence of damage positioned at the junction of visual, auditory, and somatosensory association cortex? A) difficulty in playing a tune on a piano B) problems in recognizing an object by sight C) difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see) D) problems in reading or writing E) an inability to recognize a familiar odor Answer: D Rationale: The most likely consequence of damage positioned at the junction of visual, auditory, and somatosensory association cortex would be problems in reading or writing. 58) The planning and execution of movements is a function performed by the association cortex in which cortical lobe? A) occipital B) frontal C) temporal D) insular E) parietal Answer: B 59) Motor association cortex is located A) caudal to the visual association cortex. B) just rostral to the primary motor cortex. C) just below the auditory association cortex. D) caudal to the primary motor cortex. E) caudal to the primary somatosensory cortex. Answer: B 60) Which of the following most accurately describes the general functions performed by the left and right hemispheres? A) The left hemisphere is adept at the serial analysis of information. B) The right hemisphere is adept at the serial analysis of information. C) The right hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information. D) The left hemisphere is adept in the synthesis of information. E) The two hemispheres perform identical functions. Answer: A Rationale: The left hemisphere is adept at the serial analysis of information. 61) An example of a serial analytic process would be A) drawing a sketch of a 3D object. B) reading a highway map. C) using tinkertoys to build a space fortress. D) tracing a shape in a mirror. E) reading. Answer: E Rationale: An example of a serial analytic process would be reading. 62) The association regions of the left and right hemispheres are interconnected via the axons of the A) stria terminalis. B) cingulate callosum. C) corpus callosum. D) medial commissure. E) fornix. Answer: C 63) Which of the neural structures below can be seen in a midsagittal view of the human brain? A) red nucleus B) corpus callosum C) lateral thalamic nuclei D) hippocampus E) central nucleus of the amygdala Answer: B Rationale: The corpus callosum can be seen in a midsagittal view of the human brain. 64) Damage to portions of the limbic cortex would be expected to alter A) emotion. B) job motivation. C) long-term memory. D) mating. E) fighting. Answer: A Rationale: Damage to portion of the limbic cortex would be expected to alter emotion. 65) According to MacLean, all but they ________ are considered to be a part of the limbic system. A) limbic cortex B) hippocampus C) caudate nucleus D) amygdala E) mammillary bodies Answer: C Rationale: The caudate nucleus is not a part of the limbic system. 66) The hippocampus is connected to the mammillary bodies via axons of the A) corpus callosum. B) cingulate callosum. C) medial commissure. D) stria terminalis. E) fornix. Answer: E 67) A key structure found within the basal ganglia is the A) putamen. B) globus pallidus. C) caudate nucleus. D) amygdala. E) hypothalamus. Answer: C Rationale: The caudate nucleus is a key part of the basal ganglia. 68) Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in A) speech perception. B) emotional experience. C) understanding social rules. D) motor movements. E) emotional memories. Answer: D Rationale: Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in motor movements. 69) The neuroanatomy term "nucleus" refers to A) the genetic material contained within the soma of a neuron. B) the inner portion of an atom. C) a collection of cell bodies found outside the central nervous system. D) a collection of neurons of a similar shape. E) a group of axons that interconnect the two hemispheres. Answer: D 70) Identify the correct pairing of a thalamic nucleus with its projection path to cortex. A) medial geniculate; projects to primary visual cortex B) ventrolateral nucleus; projects to primary visual cortex C) lateral geniculate; projects to primary visual cortex D) ventrolateral nucleus; projects to primary somatosensory cortex E) lateral geniculate; projects to primary motor cortex Answer: C 71) The ________ thalamic nuclei receive input from the ________ and project it to the primary motor cortex. A) medial geniculate; caudate nuclei B) ventrolateral; cerebellum C) lateral geniculate; caudate nuclei D) ventrolateromedial geniculate; E) dorsolateral geniculate; cerebellum Answer: B 72) The hypothalamus is involved in all of the following except A) fleeing. B) mating. C) feeding. D) fighting. E) memory. Answer: E Rationale: The hypothalamus is not involved in memory function. 73) Damage to the hypothalamus would be expected to produce A) blindness. B) changes in eating. C) difficulties in understanding speech. D) Parkinson's-like motor symptoms. E) problems in face recognition. Answer: B Rationale: Damage to the hypothalamus would be expected to produce changes in eating. 74) The ________ is considered to be the body's "master gland." A) pineal body B) amygdala C) posterior hypothalamus D) anterior pituitary E) ventrolateral thalamus Answer: D Rationale: The anterior pituitary is considered to be the body’s “master gland.” 75) In mammals, the superior colliculi are involved in A) visual reflexes. B) emotions. C) taste reactivity. D) audition. E) language comprehension. Answer: A Rationale: In mammal, the superior colliculi are involved in visual reflexes. 76) The midbrain is comprised of the A) dorsal horn and ventral horn. B) tectum and tegmentum. C) pons and medulla. D) thalamus and hypothalamus. E) superior colliculus and inferior colliculus. Answer: B Rationale: The midbrain is comprised of the tectum and tegmentum. 77) Which of the following is true of the periaqueductal gray (PAG)?? A) The PAG is located within the tectum. B) Over 90 nuclei comprise the PAG.. C) The term "PAG" means "tiny ventricle." D) The PAG is involved in the control of sleep and arousal. E) Opiates bind to PAG receptors to diminish pain.. Answer: E Rationale: Opiates bind to periaqueductal gray receptors to diminish pain. 78) Damage to the substantia nigra would be expected to produce A) difficulties in emotional expression. B) changes in food preferences and body weight gain. C) blindness. D) Parkinson's-like motor symptoms. E) problems in speech perception. Answer: D Rationale: Damage to the substantia nigra would be expected to produce Parkinson’s-like motor symptoms. 79) The red nucleus and substantia nigra are located in the ________ and are involved in ________. A) diencephalon; the motor system B) tectum; sleep and arousal C) tegmentum; the motor system D) spinal cord; the autonomic nervous system E) reticular formation; pain perception Answer: C Rationale: The red nucleus and substantia nigra are located in the tegmentum and are involved in the motor system. 80) Which structures below comprise the metencephalon? A) thalamus and hypothalamus B) tectum and tegmentum C) pons and cerebellum D) dorsal horn and ventral horn E) superior colliculus and inferior colliculus Answer: C Rationale: The pons and cerebellum comprise the metencephalon. 81) A key function of the cerebellum is the A) capacity to reason. B) coordination of grammar. C) performance of coordinated motor movements. D) ability to read and write. E) expression of emotion. Answer: C Rationale: A key function of the cerebellum is the performance of coordinated motor movements. 82) The pons is located A) immediately ventral to the cerebellum. B) beneath the hypothalamus. C) caudal to the medulla. D) rostral to the frontal cortex. E) dorsal to the hypothalamus. Answer: A Rationale: The pons is located immediately ventral to the cerebellum. 83) A key function of the pons involves A) the expression of emotion. B) motor coordination. C) relaying taste information to the thalamus. D) the ability to read and write. E) control of sleep and arousal. Answer: E Rationale: A key function of the pons involves control of sleep and arousal. 84) The ________ is the most caudal portion of the brain stem. A) cerebellum B) spinal cord C) medulla oblongata D) pons E) metencephalon Answer: C Rationale: The medulla oblongata is the most caudal portion of the brain stem. 85) Damage to the ________ would most likely be fatal. A) hypothalamus B) cerebellum C) reticular formation D) medulla oblongata E) basal ganglia Answer: D Rationale: Damage to the medulla oblongata would most likely be fatal. 86) The ________ is an aperture in the vertebrae that contains the spinal cord. A) spinal foramen B) cauda equina C) spinal root D) dura mater E) spinal aqueduct Answer: A 87) Gray matter in the spinal cord is comprised of A) axon terminals. B) cell bodies and short, unmyelinated axons. C) projection fibers. D) glial cells. E) large myelinated axons. Answer: B 88) Injection of anesthetic drugs into the dural sac surrounding axons of the cauda equina would be expected to deaden pain sensation in the A) face. B) hands. C) pelvic region. D) middle chest. E) neck and upper chest. Answer: C Rationale: Injection of anesthetic drugs into the dural sac surrounding axons of the cauda equina would be expected to deaden pain sensation in the pelvic region. 89) Which of the following is true of the spinal nerves? A) Incoming sensory signals arrive via the ventral roots of the spinal cord. B) The cell bodies of efferent fibers lie in the gray matter of the spinal cord. C) Outgoing motor signals travel via the dorsal roots of the spinal cord. D) The cell bodies of efferent fibers lie in the spinal cord white matter. E) The spinal nerves are wholly sensory. Answer: B 90) The only sensory system for which the cell bodies of the incoming axons are located inside the CNS is that of A) vision. B) audition. C) pain. D) kinesthesia. E) taste. Answer: A Rationale: The only sensory system for which the cell bodies of the incoming axons are located inside the CNS is that of vision. 91) ________ fibers send their information toward the brain. A) Afferent B) Efferent C) Projection D) Somatic E) Apolar Answer: A 92) ________ fibers "bear away from the brain." A) Afferent B) Efferent C) Projection D) Somatic E) Apolar Answer: B 93) The ________ cranial nerve is named for its wandering course in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. A) olfactory B) facial C) trigeminal D) vagus E) hypoglossal Answer: D Rationale: The vagus is named for its wandering course in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. 94) The ________ branch of the nervous system receives sensory information and controls muscle movements. A) central B) autonomic C) vagal D) sensory-motor E) somatic Answer: E 95) Which structures below form the autonomic nervous system? A) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions B) spinal and cranial nerves C) ventral and dorsal spinal roots D) dorsal and ventral divisions E) tectum and tegmentum Answer: A 96) A key function of the autonomic nervous system involves control of A) skeletal muscle. B) cardiac muscle and glands C) flow of sensory information to the brain. D) voluntary movements. E) control of visual reflexes. Answer: B 97) Motor neurons of the sympathetic division of the ANS project from the ________ to the ________. A) gray matter of the sacral spinal cord; sympathetic ganglia B) gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord; sympathetic ganglia C) gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord; final target organ D) 10th cranial nerve; muscles of the face E) cervical regions of the spinal cord; final target organs Answer: B Rationale: Motor neurons of the sympathetic division of the ANS project from the gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord to the sympathetic ganglia. 98) In the parasympathetic system, the terminal buttons of preganglionic fibers secrete ________, whereas the postganglionic fibers secrete ________. A) norepinephrine; acetylcholine B) glutamate; acetylcholine C) serotonin; norepinephrine D) acetylcholine; acetylcholine E) acetylcholine; norepinephrine Answer: D 99) The parasympathetic division of the ANS is involved in A) activities that expend energy. B) the inhibition of digestive function during a fight. C) activities that increase levels of stored energy within the body. D) acceleration of heart rate and increased blood flow to the muscles. E) the control of the voluntary muscles of the body. Answer: C Rationale: The parasympathetic division of the ANS is involved in activities that increase levels of stored energy within the body. 100) Unilateral neglect is associated with damage to the A) frontal cortex. B) caudate nucleus. C) right side of the brain. D) spinal cord. E) legs. Answer: C 101) A person with damage to their right parietal cortex would be expected to A) ignore sensory feedback from their left side. B) ignore sensory feedback from their right side. C) show problems in language ability. D) be blind for the left visual field. E) be unable to feel touch or temperature on the right side of their body. Answer: A Rationale: A person with damage to their right parietal cortex would be expected to ignore sensory feedback from their left side. 3.2 True-False 1) If structure X is caudal to structure Y, this means that X is behind Y. Answer: True 2) The term contrateral means that two structures lie on the same side of the body. Answer: False 3) The spinal nerves are part of the central nervous system. Answer: False 4) The arachnoid membrane forms a protective covering of the peripheral nervous system. Answer: False 5) Circulation of CSF begins with formation in the spinal cord and terminates with absorption in the lateral ventricles. Answer: False 6) The rostral end of the neural tube forms the human forebrain. Answer: True 7) Radial glia guide developing neurons to their final termination point within the brain. Answer: True 8) Neurogenesis involves genetically programmed cell death. Answer: False 9) The term cortex means “bark.” Answer: True 10) A sulcus is a groove on the surface of the human cortex. Answer: True 11) The left hemisphere is specialized for the analysis of sensory information. Answer: True 12) Damage to the right hemisphere can impair the ability of a person to read a map. Answer: True 13) A nucleus is defined as a collection of neurons of similar shape within the brain. Answer: True 14) The lateral geniculate thalamic nucleus projects to the primary visual cortex. Answer: True 15) Visual impairment is the primary effect of damage to the cerebellum. Answer: False 16) The somatic nervous system controls the voluntary muscles of the body. Answer: True 17) Acetylcholine is the transmitter secreted from both preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division of the ANS. Answer: True 3.3 Short-Answer Essay 1) Describe the three major sections or planes that are used to view the brain. Answer: The frontal section divides the brain like a salami; the horizontal section is parallel to the ground; and the sagittal section is perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis. 2) Describe two features that function to protect the brain from external injury. Answer: The brain is encased in a layer of bone (the skull). Several layers of meninges form a solid sheath around the brain. The brain floats within a pool of CSF, which cushions the brain against rapid acceleration/deceleration. 3) Explain the significance of the process of apoptosis for brain development. Answer: The brain overproduces neurons. Apoptosis serves to eliminate neurons that cannot make appropriate synaptic contacts. 4) Describe the processes involved in nerve cell production. Answer: Neurogenesis refers to the production of new nerve cells and involves two major processes. During symmetrical division, founder cells divide into two cells. During asymmetric division, the founder cells divide into another founder cell and a new neuron. 5) Explain the distinction between the primary and the association cortex. Answer: Sensory fibers arrive at the primary cortex, and damage to these regions greatly impairs sensory function. The association cortex serves to integrate signals from various senses. 6) Describe the primary functions performed by the left and right hemispheres. Answer: The left hemisphere is specialized for analysis of information while the right hemisphere is adept at the synthesis of information. Analysis involves serial processes whereas synthesis involves parallel processes. 7) Describe the structures that comprise the limbic system and briefly discuss the function of this system. Answer: The system includes the limbic cortex, the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the mammillary bodies. The regulation of emotional experience is the primary function of the limbic system. 8) Describe the structures that comprise the basal ganglia and explain the significance of this system for motor function. Answer: The basal ganglia include the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus. Damage to this system results in motor movement problems (e.g., Parkinson's disease). 9) Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the control of hormone secretion by the pituitary. Answer: The hypothalamus controls the secretion of oxytocin (which elicits milk letdown) and vasopressin (which regulates kidney urine output) from the posterior pituitary. The hypothalamic neurosecretory cells secrete releasing factors which are carried by a blood system to the anterior pituitary, which in turn causes this portion of the pituitary to secrete additional hormones (e.g., GRH from the hypothalamus causes the secretion of gonadotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary). 3.4 Essay 1) Describe the production, circulation, and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Answer: CSF is produced within the choroid plexus that lines the ventricles. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles through the third ventricle and through the fourth ventricle. CSF is eventually reabsorbed into the blood. 2) Describe the general functions attributed to the hypothalamus. Answer: The hypothalamus is involved in the control of the pituitary, the sympathetic division of the ANS, and motivated behaviors including feeding, fighting, fleeing, and mating. 3) Compare and contrast the anatomy and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. Answer: The divisions emerge from different levels of the spinal cord (thoracic and lumbar versus cervical/sacral); the sympathetic fibers terminate in ganglia just outside the spinal cord, use different transmitters (ACh for parasympathetic, ACh and norepinephrine for sympathetic), and show differing functions (parasympathetic is involved in increasing energy stores, sympathetic is involved in energy expenditure). Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

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