Preview (8 of 26 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 13: Human Communication 13.1 Multiple Choice 1) Imagine that you could interview Mr. S., the central character of the communication chapter prologue. Which of the following would be true of his capacity to interact with you? A) He would be unable to hear non-speech sounds. B) He would be unable to answer verbal questions. C) He would be unable to recall information he learned prior to his stroke. D) His short-term memory would be impaired. E) He could not answer written questions. Answer: B Rationale: If you could interview Mr. S., the central character of the communication chapter prologue, he would be unable to answer verbal questions. 2) The key function of human verbal behavior is to A) have behavioral effects on others. B) allow us to protect our property from others. C) allow us to hide our emotions.. D) convey information about our environment.. E) locate objects in space. Answer: A Rationale: The key function of human verbal behavior is to have behavioral effects on others. 3) A key source of our knowledge about the physiology of language is studies of A) blood flow to language areas in intact, normal people while they are talking. B) non-human primates. C) people who have suffered brain damage. D) patients with brain tumors. E) changes in verbal behavior after the consumption of drugs such as alcohol. Answer: C 4) ______ reflects a(n) ______ in the production or comprehension of speech. A) Agraphia; deficit B) Aphasia; enhancement C) Alexia; enhancement D) Alexia; enhancement E) Aphasia; deficit Answer: E 5) Which of the following is a primary disturbance in comprehension or production of speech that is often caused by brain damage? A) alexia B) dysgraphia C) aphasia D) agraphia E) autism Answer: C 6) Which of the following would not be considered to be an example of aphasia? A) Speech production difficulty after brain damage. B) A stroke involving the left hemisphere impairs speech production. C) Impaired language comprehension after years of excessive alcohol consumption. D) Impaired language comprehension in a college sophomore after a single night of drinking during spring break. E) Speech difficulty produced by paralysis of the vocal cords. Answer: D Rationale: Impaired language comprehension in a college sophomore after a single night of drinking during spring break is not an example of aphasia. 7) The most recent source of information about the physiology of language is from A) studies of autistic children. B) functional imaging of brain activity during verbal behavior in normal subjects. C) studies of persons with stroke. D) studies of verbal behavior in persons with brain lesions. E) studies using electrical stimulation on verbal behavior in seizure patients. Answer: B 8) Which of the following is a reliable means by which to determine which side of the brain is dominant for speech? A) Ask whether an individual is left-handed or right-handed. B) Watch the direction of eye movement when a person thinks of a purely linguistic question. C) Assess changes in cerebral blood flow during verbal behavior. D) Administer a CT scan. E) Note in which hand the person holds a book while reading aloud. Answer: C 9) Which of the following is true of handedness and hemispheric speech dominance? A) Over 90 percent of the population shows right-hemisphere dominance for speech. B) Left-hemisphere speech dominance is noted in 50 percent of right-handed people. C) Left-hemisphere speech dominance is noted in 50 percent of ambidextrous people. D) Over 90 percent of the population shows left-hemisphere dominance for speech. E) Right hemisphere damage does not alter speech in left-handed people. Answer: D 10) Verbal behavior is said to be a lateralized function of the left hemisphere in that A) most language problems are noted after damage to the right rather than the left hemisphere. B) most language problems are noted after damage to the left rather than the right hemisphere. C) right-handed persons are more likely to have their language center located within the right hemisphere. D) electrical stimulation of the left hemisphere has a smaller effect on language than does similar stimulation of the right hemisphere. E) most persons show a greater movement of the lips on the right side of their mouth during speech. Answer: B Rationale: Verbal behavior is said to be a lateralized function of the left hemisphere in that most language problems are noted after damage to the left rather than the right hemisphere. 11) In the study of handedness and hemispheric speech lateralization, what measure was used to determine hemispheric dominance? A) changes in cerebral blood flow B) accumulation of radioactive 2-DG in neurons C) PET scans of brain activity D) MRI scans of brain activity E) EEG studies of brain activity Answer: A 12) The left hemisphere is better than the right hemisphere at A) recognizing the emotional tone in a voice. B) assembling a narrative of what we want to say. C) perceiving spatial relationships. D) production and analysis of speech. E) controlling speech sounds that comprise prosody. Answer: D Rationale: The left hemisphere is better than the right hemisphere at production and analysis of speech. 13) Damage to the right hemisphere would likely interfere with which function? A) moving the right hand B) understanding speech C) producing speech D) reading complex written instructions E) reading a map Answer: E Rationale: Damage to the right hemisphere would likely interfere with reading a map. 14) Damage to the right hemisphere would likely interfere with which function? A) producing speech B) understanding speech C) moving the right hand D) reading complex written instructions E) using prosody cues in speech to communicate your emotional state to others Answer: E Rationale: Damage to the right hemisphere would likely interfere with using prosody cues in speech to communicate your emotional state to others. 15) A person with damage to the right hemisphere would have the most difficulty in A) reading complex written instructions. B) understanding the emotional state of a speaker. C) producing speech. D) moving the right hand and the right leg. E) spelling complicated technical words. Answer: B Rationale: A person with damage to the right hemisphere would have the most difficulty in understanding the emotional state of a speaker. 16) Speech starts with decisions as to what will be said and can involve our current or past perceptions. The brain regions that are responsible for having something to say would be those located A) in the primary motor cortex. B) distal to the hippocampus. C) in the posterior portions of the occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes. D) on either side of the corpus callosum. E) in the anterior portions of the cerebral hemispheres. Answer: C Rationale: The brain regions that are responsible for having something to say would be those located in the posterior portions of the occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes. 17) People with Broca's aphasia have difficulty A) writing words on paper. B) spelling simple words. C) understanding speech. D) producing speech. E) recognizing the emotional content of speech. Answer: D 18) ________ are examples of function words, while ________ are examples of content words. A) "Some" and "the"; "apple" and "fail" B) "Throw" and "heave"; "some" and "the" C) "Apple" and "fail"; "some" and "the" D) "Person" and "difficult"; "a" and "in" E) "Some" and "the"; "a" and "in" Answer: A Rationale: "Some" and "the" are examples of function words, while "apple" and "fail"are examples of content words. 19) A person suffering from Broca's aphasia would be expected to A) show great difficulty in articulating words. B) easily articulate words like "cigarette." C) show fluent, articulate speech. D) be unable to answer yes or no questions about object functions. E) be unable to read. Answer: A 20) People with Broca's aphasia would have the most difficulty A) spelling content words. B) saying function words. C) reading a map. D) recognizing complex geometrical forms. E) saying content words. Answer: B Rationale: People with Broca's aphasia would have the most difficulty saying function words. 21) The KE family is remarkable in that their speech disorder has been linked to A) a single gene on chromosome 7. B) abnormal neural development of the posterior association cortex. C) abnormal neural development of the right frontal cortex. D) the use of recreational drugs such as cocaine and alcohol. E) a single gene on chromosome 21. Answer: A 22) The key brain regions involved in Broca's aphasia is/are A) portions of the planum temporale. B) left posterior cerebral cortex. C) the arcuate fasciculus. D) inferior right frontal lobe. E) inferior left frontal lobe. Answer: E 23) Which of the following is a central feature of aphasia? A) averbia B) speech comprehension difficulties C) difficulty in using action words D) anomia E) spelling disorder Answer: D 24) A person who has difficulties in the use of word order, use of function words, and selection of appropriate word endings would be said to have A) averbia. B) anosmia. C) agrammatism. D) articulation disorder. E) anomia. Answer: C Rationale: A person who has difficulties in the use of word order, use of function words, and selection of appropriate word endings would be said to have agrammatism. 25) Which of the following speech deficits is a common feature of all forms of aphasia? A) agrammatism B) articulation difficulties C) dysgraphia D) anomia E) Averbia Answer: D 26) People who have Broca's aphasia A) have difficulty comprehending speech meaning using word order. B) seem unaware of their difficulties. C) have sustained damage to their right frontal lobe. D) can pronounce words correctly, but slowly. E) produce fluent, but meaningless speech. Answer: A 27) Anomia refers to A) a difficulty in choosing the right word in a sentence. B) the primary symptom of Broca's, but not Wernicke's, aphasia. C) a difficulty in pronunciation of words in a sentence. D) poor word comprehension. E) an impairment in the spelling of words. Answer: A 28) A primary characteristic of Wernicke's aphasia is A) effortless production of meaningless speech. B) fumbling for the right word. C) labored and nonfluent speech. D) unemotional speech. E) mutism. Answer: A 29) An individual with Wernicke's aphasia A) is aware of her or his deficits in speech. B) has major difficulty in understanding speech. C) cannot use function words. D) cannot use prepositions. E) cannot convey emotion via prosody. Answer: B 30) Wernicke's aphasia is caused by damage to A) the frontal association cortex of the right hemisphere. B) Broca's area and the caudate nucleus. C) the superior temporal gyrus of the left hemisphere. D) the inferior occipital gyrus of the right hemisphere. E) the left parietal lobe. Answer: C 31) Damage to portions of the left temporal lobe produces a problem in A) hearing. B) recognizing non-speech sounds. C) reading lips. D) speaking. E) understanding speech. Answer: E 32) An example of a receptive aphasia is A) Broca's aphasia. B) apraxia. C) alexia. D) Wernicke's aphasia. E) orthographic dysgraphia. Answer: D Rationale: An example of a receptive aphasia is Wernicke's aphasia. 33) A person with pure word deafness can do all of the following except A) read lips. B) understand the emotion expressed in speech. C) read and write. D) recognize nonspeech sounds such as a dog barking. E).comprehend speech. Answer: E 34) The formal name for the disorder suffered by Mr. S. in the chapter prologue was A) Broca's aphasia. B) pure word deafness. C) alexia. D) Wernicke's aphasia. E) orthographic dysgraphia. Answer: B Rationale: The formal name for the disorder suffered by Mr. S. in the chapter prologue was pure word deafness. 35) A person with pure word deafness is unable to A) comprehend speech. B) read lips. C) speak. D) understand non-speech sounds. E) hear. Answer: A 36) Damage to the ________ causes transcortical sensory aphasia. A) posterior language area B) prefrontal cortex C) primary auditory cortex D) Broca's area E) Wernicke's area Answer: A 37) Someone who has transcortical sensory aphasia would be A) unable to understand speech. B) able to repeat what someone else said. C) able to produce his or her own spontaneous speech. D) unable to answer questions. E) able to follow verbal commands. Answer: B 38) One way to think about Wernicke's aphasia is that this syndrome is A) a mixture of transcortical sensory aphasia less pure word deafness. B) a mixture of Broca's disorder and alexia. C) a mixture of pure word deafness and transcortical sensory aphasia. D) a mixture of pure word deafness and alexia. E) produced by damage to the connections of the posterior language area. Answer: C Rationale: One way to think about Wernicke's aphasia is that this syndrome is a mixture of pure word deafness and transcortical sensory aphasia. 39) Which of the following is an important implication of transcortical sensory aphasia? A) Speech recognition comes after speech comprehension. B) The lateral temporal lobe is key for speech repetition. C) The periaqueductal gray matter is not important for speech repetition. D) Speech recognition and comprehension are different processes. E) Speech articulation and spelling words share a similar set of circuits in brain. Answer: D Rationale: An important implication of transcortical sensory aphasia is that speech recognition and comprehension are different processes. 40) Which of the following can be used to test speech comprehension in Wernicke’s aphasia? A) Ask the person to use content words. B) Ask the person to use function words. C) Ask the person about his or her childhood memories. D) Ask the person to read a book. E) Ask the person to point to an object on a table. Answer: E 41) The meanings of words are most likely stored in A) the association cortex. B) Wernicke's area. C) the primary auditory cortex. D) Broca's area. E) the lateral temporal cortex. Answer: A 42) A direct neural connection between Broca's area and Wernicke's area is provided by the A) stria teminalis. B) anterior commissure. C) corpus callosum. D) fornix. E) arcuate fasciculus. Answer: E 43) A person who sustains damage to the ________ will be unable to ________. A) arcuate fasciculus; repeat nonwords B) posterior commissure; name objects C) arcuate fasciculus; comprehend speech D) right temporal pole; produce fluent spontaneous speech E) right temporal pole; name objects Answer: A Rationale: A person who sustains damage to the arcuate fasciculus will be unable to repeat nonwords. 44) Someone with conduction aphasia is unable to A) name proper nouns. B) repeat nonwords. C) repeat words that have familiar meanings. D) name objects. E) produce fluent spontaneous speech. Answer: B 45) Studies of patients with conduction aphasia have led to which of the following conclusions about the neural control of language? A) The parietal lobe analyzes the sounds of words. B) Wernicke's aphasia is not a form of receptive aphasia. C) There are different neural paths for sounds and for meanings of words. D) The meanings of words are stored in the right parietal cortex. E) The arcuate fasciculus sends information about the meaning of words to the frontal lobes. Answer: C Rationale: Studies of patients with conduction aphasia suggest there are different neural paths for sounds and for meanings of words. 46) Patients with pure anomia aphasia have difficulty in A) repeating words. B) producing fluent speech. C) comprehension. D) choosing the correct words to express an idea. E) repeating nonwords. Answer: D 47) The inability to remember the name for a particular action is A) alexia. B) dysgraphia. C) aphasia. D) dyslexia. E) averbia. Answer: E 48) A person who sustains damage to the ________ would be expected to show ________. A) insular cortex; averbia B) occipital cortex; hemiparesis C) frontal cortex; anomia D) frontal cortex near Broca's area; averbia E) right posterior parietal cortex; anomia Answer: D Rationale: Damage to the frontal cortex near Broca's area would be expected to induce averbia. 49) A person who is viewing and imitating sign language would be expected to show activation of A) Wernicke's area. B) the arcuate fasciculus. C) the hippocampus. D) Broca's area. E) the fornix. Answer: D Rationale: A person who is viewing and imitating sign language would be expected to show activation of Broca's area. 50) The normal rhythm and stress found in speech is called A) prosody. B) aural intonation. C) circumlocution. D) syntax. E) grammatical flow. Answer: A 51) Which of the following is NOT an example of prosody? A) changes in speech rhythm B) variation in the loudness of speech C) using a hand gesture to make a point while talking D) variation in the voice tone E) variation of voice pitch Answer: C 52) Damage to the right hemisphere impairs the production of prosody in that A) prosody involves spatial perception. B) the right hemisphere controls the vocal cords. C) prosody uses spatial cues to communicate meaning. D) prosody resembles singing and communicates emotion. E) the right hemisphere is specialized for the analysis of word meaning. Answer: D Rationale: Damage to the right hemisphere impairs the production of prosody in that prosody resembles singing and communicates emotion. 53) The inability to recognize the voice of another person is termed A) categorical aphasia. B) prosopagnosia. C) phonagnosia. D) somatopagnosia. E) autotopagnosia. Answer: C 54) The inability to recognize the face of another person is termed A) categorical aphasia. B) prosopagnosia. C) anomia. D) somatopagnosia. E) autotopagnosia. Answer: B 55) Damage to which of the following brain regions produces an inability to recognize the voice of another person?? A) left frontal lobe B) left parietal lobe C) primary visual cortex D) posterior language area E) right anterior superior temporal cortex Answer: E 56) Which of the following is true of stuttering? A) Stuttering is more common in women. B) Damage to speech motor programs produces stuttering. C) Stuttering affects 1 in 1000 people. D) Stuttering may involve faulty feedback of speech sounds on the auditory system. E) Stuttering is influenced by environmental factors. Answer: D 57) A person who has pure alexia A) cannot read, but can recognize words spelled aloud. B) is unable to write. C) would also have agraphia. D) is usually unable to choose appropriate words. E) suffers from a pure form of aphasia. Answer: A 58) Pure alexia refers to A) the inability to write. B) the inability to perceive words. C) word deafness. D) difficulties in spelling. E) pure word blindness. Answer: B 59) Pure alexia is most similar to A) Wernicke's aphasia. B) direct dyslexia. C) pure word deafness. D) Broca's aphasia. E) surface dyslexia. Answer: C Rationale: Pure alexia is most similar to pure word deafness. 60) Impairment of reading in pure alexia results from damage to the ________ and the ________. A) posterior corpus callosum; right frontal cortex B) right visual cortex; anterior fornix C) left visual cortex; posterior corpus callosum D) right visual cortex; anterior corpus callosum E) amygdala; hippocampus Answer: C 61) Reading a word aloud requires A) that auditory input project to the right frontal lobe. B) that visual input project to the right frontal lobe. C) that visual input project though the anterior corpus callosum to the posterior right hemisphere. D) that visual input travel from the posterior corpus callosum to the posterior left hemisphere. E) crossover of visual information at the corpus callosum. Answer: D Rationale: Reading a word aloud requires that visual input travel from the posterior corpus callosum to the posterior left hemisphere. 62) A key difference between visual agnosia and pure alexia is that A) a person with visual agnosia can still read. B) alexia disrupts spelling but not reading. C) pure alexia impairs the ability to recognize objects. D) a person with visual agnosia is unable to read. E) pure alexia impairs the ability to name objects. Answer: A Rationale: A key difference between visual agnosia and pure alexia is that a person with visual agnosia can still read. 63) Pure alexia is produced by damage to pathways that carry ________ information to ________. A) auditory; Broca's area B) visual; the right extrastriate cortex C) visual; the left extrastriate cortex D) auditory; the right striate cortex E) auditory; Wernicke's area Answer: C 64) Dyslexia refers to A) faulty reading. B) a speech impediment. C) an inability to communicate via sign language. D) word blindness. E) poor penmanship. Answer: A 65) Acquired dyslexia refers to a reading difficulty that A) develops in utero. B) is caused by nutritional deficits. C) results from brain damage after the person has learned to read. D) involves genetic changes in brain circuitry. E) is produced by unsupportive and abusive parents. Answer: C 66) Individuals with surface dyslexia A) cannot read. B) have a deficit in whole-word reading. C) cannot understand the meaning of words. D) cannot recognize individual letters. E) cannot sound out words. Answer: B 67) Individuals with phonological dyslexia have difficulty A) reading for comprehension. B) in silent reading. C) reading unfamiliar words. D) reading aloud. E) in whole word reading, but can sound out familiar words. Answer: C 68) Which of the following is true of the Japanese language? A) Kanji symbols follow precise pronunciation rules. B) Kana symbols are a visual representation of a concept. C) Kanji symbols are a visual representation of a vowel or syllable. D) Kanji symbols are a visual representation of a concept. E) Difficulty in reading kana symbols is analogous to surface dyslexia. Answer: D 69) Whole-word reading involves activation of the ________ leading to the ________. A) dorsal stream; region of Broca's area B) ventral stream; fusiform gyrus C) ventral stream; region of Broca's area D) dorsal stream; fusiform gyrus E) right frontal lobe; corpus callosum Answer: B 70) A Japanese person who suffers from surface dyslexia would be expected to A) have difficulty in reading kanji symbols. B) be unable to name familiar objects. C) be unable to read at all. D) have difficulty in reading kana symbols. E) be unable to use prosody in their speech. Answer: A Rationale: A Japanese person who suffers from surface dyslexia would be expected to have difficulty in reading kanji symbols. 71) Patients with ________ dyslexia are able to read aloud, but do not understand what they are reading. A) spelling B) direct C) surface D) genetic E) whole-sentence Answer: B 72) Direct dyslexia is similar to ________, but involving ________. A) transcortical sensory aphasia; spoken words B) Broca's aphasia; spoken words C) transcortical sensory aphasia; written words D) Broca's aphasia; sounds E) Wernicke's aphasia; written words Answer: C Rationale: Direct dyslexia is similar to transcortical sensory aphasia, but involving written words. 73) The motor aspects of writing are controlled by the A) ventral parietal lobe. B) dorsal parietal lobe. C) orbiofrontal cortex. D) insular cortex. E) inferior temporal cortex. Answer: B 74) The general term used to refer to an impairment of writing is A) dysgraphia. B) dystypia. C) orthographia. D) dyslexia. E) alexia. Answer: A 75) ________ refers to a deficit in ________. A) Direct dysgraphia; phonetically based reading B) Direct dyslexia; phonetically based reading C) Phonological dysgraphia; visually based writing D) Semantic dysgraphia; symbol recognition E) Orthographic dysgraphia; visually based writing Answer: E 76) Developmental dyslexia involves A) a genetic disorder. B) a difficulty in acquiring language skills. C) decreases in gray matter in many brain areas. D) a loss of cells in the magnocellular visual system. E) All of the above are correct. Answer: E 77) The information conveyed in a spoken word resides in its A) timing. B) pitch. C) emphasis. D) tempo. E) prosody. Answer: A Rationale: The information conveyed in a spoken word resides in its timing. 78) The key aspect of sound that allows a person to recognize a word resides in A) the pitch of the voice. B) the short-duration starts and stops of speech sounds. C) slow changes in speech rhythm. D) tone of the speech. E) prosody cues. Answer: B 13.2 True-False 1) A key function of language is the communication of knowledge from one generation to another. Answer: True 2) Speech is lateralized in the right hemisphere in the majority of left-handed people. Answer: False 3) Over 90 percent of the population shows left-hemisphere dominance for speech. Answer: True 4) Damage to the left hemisphere can impair the ability to use a map. Answer: False 5) The right hemisphere is specialized for the recognition of emotion in the tone of voice. Answer: True 6) A person with Broca's aphasia is more likely to use content words than function words. Answer: True 7) Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by fluent, meaningless speech. Answer: True 8) Anomia is a primary symptom of all forms of aphasia. Answer: True 9) People with pure word deafness are deaf and therefore cannot understand language. Answer: False 10) Conduction aphasia is characterized by fluent, meaningful speech. Answer: True 11) Prosody in speech appears to be primarily a left hemisphere function. Answer: False 12) The ability to use prosody in perceiving the emotional state of another speaker is a talent of the right hemisphere. Answer: True 13). Stuttering is characterized by frequent pauses in speech. Answer: True 14). Stuttering is characterized by frequent pauses in speech. Answer: True 15) A person with pure alexia can write but not read. Answer: True 16) Pure alexia involves the loss of the ability to read. Answer: True 17) A person who suffers from pure alexia also suffers from visual agnosia. Answer: False 18) Japanese kanji are a visual representation of a concept. Answer: True 13.3 Short-Answer Essay 1) Explain why verbal behavior is considered to be lateralized within the brain. Answer: Damage to the left hemisphere is more likely to produce language disturbance than will similarly damage to the right hemisphere. In general, the right hemisphere appears to be adept at spatial analysis, whereas the left hemisphere is adept at sequential analyses; language represents a series of auditory changes that occur over time. 2) Describe the changes in speech production that accompany Broca's aphasia. Answer: Damage to the left frontal lobe rostral to the primary motor cortex produces difficulties with the motor memories of speech. The primary characteristics of Broca's aphasia include agrammatism, anomia (word choice), and difficulty in articulation. 3) Define aphasia and explain why anomia is a key symptom of all forms of aphasia. Answer: Aphasia is a fundamental disturbance of the production and comprehension of speech that is associated with brain damage. Anomia ("without name") refers to a difficulty in choosing words or using the wrong word in place of the correct word. All forms of aphasia include varying degrees of anomia. 4) Define transcortical sensory aphasia and explain how this syndrome differs from that of Wernicke's aphasia. Answer: Damage to Wernicke's area and to the posterior language area produces an aphasia syndrome that includes poor speech comprehension, poor repetition, and the production of fluent but meaningless speech. Damage to the posterior language area only produces poor speech comprehension and poor speech production. 5) Explain how the emotional content of a verbal message is conveyed to a listener. Answer: Words are formed by brief duration sounds, whereas longer duration sounds convey emotional content. The latter include pitch and melody of speech as well as slower changes in rhythm. 6) Define what is meant by pure alexia and explain how this syndrome relates to pure word deafness. Answer: Pure alexia involves the loss of the ability to read, but not the ability to recognize words that are spelled out to them. Pure alexia is produced by damage to the brain that prevents visual information from reaching the extrastriate cortex of the left hemisphere. The syndrome is similar to that of pure word deafness, in which a patient cannot recognize words that are conveyed by audition. 7) Differentiate between whole-word and phonetic reading. Answer: In phonetic reading, a person uses his or her knowledge of the individual letters (and their associated sounds) to sound out a new word. After considerable experience with a word, the brain perceives the word as a unit that is readily pronounced. 8) Compare the difficulties in writing that appear in persons with phonological dysgraphia versus orthographic dysgraphia. Answer: Dysgraphia refers to a difficulty in writing. Phonological dysgraphia refers to a difficulty in sounding out and writing new words. Such a person, however, can imagine and write familiar words. In contrast, in orthographic dysgraphia, the person can sound out a word but has difficulty with visually based writing. 13.4 Essay 1) What sources of information have formed the basis for our understanding of the physiology of language? Answer: The most common source is the study of persons who have experienced brain lesions caused by stroke or accidental brain damage. Language mechanisms can be studied using electrical stimulation of brain tissue accomplished using depth electrodes under local anesthesia for seizure patients. Functional imaging devices allow for the study of language processes in normal and brain-damaged persons. 2) Compare and contrast the symptoms noted in Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia. Answer: Broca's aphasia entails difficulty in speech articulation, word choice (anomia), and using grammar. A person suffering from Broca’s aphasia is better able to comprehend speech than to produce speech. In contrast, Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by fluent speech that is meaningless, and this form of aphasia—unlike Broca's—is characterized by poor speech comprehension. Moreover, a person with Wernicke's aphasia seems unaware of his or her speech deficits. Broca's aphasia is produced by damage to tissue in and around Broca's area, whereas Wernicke's is produced by damage to the superior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere. 3) Describe pure word deafness and transcortical sensory aphasia. How are they related to Wernicke's aphasia? Answer: Pure word deafness (PWD) is a syndrome produced by damage to the left temporal lobe in which a person can hear but is unable to recognize/understand the words that are heard. A PWD patient can read and write and is able to recognize the emotional content of speech even if he or she cannot understand the meaning of the words. Damage to the posterior language area only produces poor speech comprehension and poor speech production. Damage to Wernicke's area and to the posterior language area produces an aphasia syndrome that includes poor speech comprehension, poor repetition, and the production of fluent but meaningless speech. In short, Wernicke's syndrome is a combination of the two syndromes. 4) Define the elements of prosody and cite evidence which suggests that prosody is a function of the right hemisphere. Answer: Prosody refers to the rhythmic, emphatic, and melodic aspects of speech that are used to communicate emotional information. Prosody is greatly disrupted by damage to Broca's area, but not by damage to Wernicke's area. Damage to the right hemisphere impairs the recognition of prosody as well as the production of prosody. Prosody reflects longer duration sounds that form rhythms, whereas the right hemisphere is important for musical skills and the detection/production of emotion. 5) Describe three types of acquired dyslexias. Answer: Surface dyslexia refers to a deficit in whole-word reading, whereas phonological dyslexia involves the inability to sound out words while retaining the ability to read whole words. Direct dyslexia involves the ability to read aloud, but not the capacity to understand what is being read. Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Lucas Hernandez View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right