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Chapter 10: Emotion 10.1 Multiple Choice 1) Mr. V. failed to appreciate the emotional significance of the loss of ________ after his stroke. A) verbal intelligence B) movement of the left side of his body C) the capacity to recall recent events D) the ability to speak E) tactile sensation on the right side of his body Answer: B Rationale: Mr. V. failed to appreciate the emotional significance of the loss of movement of the left side of his body after his stroke. 2) Which of the following is true of emotion? A) Emotion involves feelings but not behaviors. B) Emotion involves behaviors but not feelings. C) Emotion involves patterns of physiological responses and species-typical behavior. D) Emotion involves prolonged mood states. E) Most emotion studies examine happiness. Answer: C 3) The text author asserts that ________ have key consequences for survival and reproduction. A) emotional behaviors B) moods C) internal, stirred-up states D) emotional feelings E) depressed mood states Answer: A Rationale: The text author asserts that emotional behaviors have key consequences for survival and reproduction. 4) According to the text author, which of the following is a recent evolutionary development? A) emotional behaviors B) emotional feelings C) the capacity to recognize emotional behaviors D) hormonal changes during emotion E) the experience of positive emotions Answer: A 5) The components of an emotional response include A) autonomic activity, moods, and behaviors. B) behaviors and moods. C) hormonal secretions and cognitions. D) behavior, autonomic activity, and hormonal secretions. E) feelings and behaviors. Answer: D 6) A key function of the autonomic component of an emotional response is to A) mobilize energy for vigorous movement. B) promote digestion of nutrients. C) turn off the stress axis. D) restore physiological balance after an emotional experience. E) control the absorption of nutrients from the gut. Answer: A 7) The hormonal secretions that accompany an emotion act to A) increase blood flow to the muscles. B) control the absorption of nutrients from the gut. C) form glycogen within the muscles. D) increase blood flow to the digestive organs. E) suppress pain reactivity. Answer: A 8) Physiological studies of emotions have focused on A) those associated with reproductive behaviors. B) those associated with the experience of success. C) happiness and euphoria. D) anger and fear. E) those experienced after eating a good meal. Answer: D Rationale: Physiological studies of emotions have focused on anger and fear. 9) Individual neurons within the amygdala are activated by A) all classes of sensory signals. B) texture cues within the environment. C) detection of emotionally relevant stimuli. D) motor signals arising from the caudate nucleus. E) ascending tactile signals. Answer: C Rationale: Individual neurons within the amygdala are activated by detection of emotionally relevant stimuli. 10) The ________ integrates the components that comprise the emotion of fear. A) amygdala B) medial hypothalamus C) orbitofrontal cortex D) thalamus E) reticular activating system Answer: A 11) A neuron within the amygdala is likely to be activated by A) the sight of a syringe used previously to place glucose into the mouth. B) the sound of rain. C) the sight of grass. D) the smell of wood chips. E) the odor of dirt. Answer: A Rationale: A neuron within the amygdala is likely to be activated by the sight of a syringe used previously to place glucose into the mouth. 12) Damage to the ________ would be expected to disrupt the integration of fear. A) thalamus B) medial hypothalamus C) orbitofrontal cortex D) amygdala E) reticular activating system Answer: D Rationale: Damage to the amygdala would be expected to disrupt the integration of fear. 13) The amygdaloid complex is A) important for the planning of motor behaviors. B) comprised of five key nuclei. C) located within the frontal lobes. D) located within the temporal lobes. E) comprised of three nuclei that process emotion. Answer: D 14) The ________ nucleus of the ________ receives odor and pheromone signals. A) dorsomedial; thalamus B) lateral; amygdala C) medial; thalamus D) central; amygdala E) postero-lateral; thalamus Answer: B 15) The _______ is critical for the ______ of emotion. A) lateral nucleus of the amygdala; expression B) central nucleus of the amygdala; expression C) medial basal forebrain; experience D) hippocampus; experience E) insular cortex; expression Answer: B 16) The ________ nucleus of the ________ is important for the expression of emotional responses to aversive stimuli. A) postero-lateral; hypothalamus B) medial; thalamus C) lateral; amygdala D) central; amygdala E) medial; hypothalamus Answer: D 17) Activation of the ________ elicits various behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses. A) nucleus accumbens B) central nucleus of the amygdala C) orbitofrontal cortex D) medial geniculate nucleus E) posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus Answer: B Rationale: Activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala elicits various behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses. 18) Imagine that you are suffering from overly intense emotional reactions that conventional therapies do not alleviate. Based on the evidence cited in your text, which brain region would be considered as a target for inactivation to provide relief for your intense emotional reactions? A) central nucleus of the amygdala B) ventromedial hypothalamus C) medial nucleus of the amygdala D) corpus callosum E) the hypothalamic complex Answer: A Rationale: Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdale would be expected to provide relief for your intense emotional reactions. 19) Which of the following supports the contention that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CE) integrates emotional responses? A) Destruction of the CE enhances emotional responses. B) Electrical stimulation of the CE suppresses fear and anxiety. C) Conditioned emotional responses are not learned by rats sustaining CE damage. D) The CE projects to brain regions that in turn control digestion. E) Inactivation of the CE does not alter emotional experiences. Answer: C Rationale: The fact that conditioned emotional responses are not learned by rats sustaining CE damage supports the contention that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CE) integrates emotional responses. 20) The central nucleus of the amygdala can be automatically activated by A) loud, unexpected noises. B) the perception of height. C) deodorant. D) the approach of an insect. E) a drink of water while thirsty. Answer: A 21) Which of the following would fail to automatically produce fear reactions in a human? A) snakes B) loud unexpected noises C) certain odors D) sudden movement E) detection of body odor Answer: E 22) Which of the following would be expected in a rat after infusion of glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala? A) behavioral signs of fear B) reduced secretion of gastric acids into the stomach C) the rat would be more tame when handled by humans D) lower levels of stress hormones in the blood E) euphoria and sedation Answer: A Rationale: Behavioral signs of fear would be expected in a rat after infusion of glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala. 23) For animals exposed to stress, damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala would be expected to A) increase signs of fear. B) induce gastric ulcers. C) reduce blood levels of stress hormones. D) increase signs of agitation. E) suppress pain reactivity, Answer: C 24) A conditioned emotional response involves the pairing of a ________ with a(n) ________. A) tone; food B) neutral stimulus; aversive emotion-inducing stimulus C) light; injection of lithium chloride D) neutral stimulus; food E) aversive stimulus; aversive stimulus Answer: B 25) In a typical experiment on classically conditioned emotional responses, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by A) shock. B) a motor response. C) an 800-Hz tone. D) a heat stimulus. E) electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus. Answer: A Rationale: In a typical experiment on classically conditioned emotional responses, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by shock. 26) Rats previously exposed to a tone followed by a brief electrical shock will show ________ when subsequently exposed to the tone (without shock). A) grooming behavior B) reduced fear C) reduced plasma levels of stress hormones D) behavioral arrest (freezing) E) an unconditional emotional response Answer: D 27) An example of a species-typical defensive response for a rat is A) freezing of motor movements. B) sniffing. C) approach. D) eating and drinking. E) grooming. Answer: A 28) An animal with damage to the ________ will fail to display a conditioned emotional change in blood pressure but will display increased respiration. A) orbitofrontal cortex B) lateral nucleus of the amygdala C) lateral hypothalamus D) medial nucleus of the amygdala E) periaqueductal gray matter Answer: C 29) The physical changes responsible for conditioning of emotional responses take place in the A) orbitofrontal cortex. B) lateral nucleus of the amygdala. C) medial nucleus of the amygdala. D) lateral hypothalamus. E) periaqueductal gray matter. Answer: B 30) Neurons within the ______ are important for the extinction of a CER. A) hippocampus B) basal ganglia C) cingulum bundle D) ventromedial prefrontal cortex E) substantia nigra Answer: D 31) Which of the following is a career option in which a person with damage to the amygdala would have a selective advantage? A) textbook author B) high-wire artist working on the 4th of July C) college professor D) copy editor for a newspaper E) movie critic Answer: B Rationale: A person with damage to the amygdala would have a selective advantage as a high-wire artist working on the 4th of July. 32) Electrical stimulation of the ________ induces a feeling of fear in humans. A) nucleus accumbens B) thalamus C) periaqueductal gray matter D) amygdala E) reticular activating system Answer: D 33) After damage to her ______, Patient I.R. showed impaired ability to _______. A) left basal forebrain; read a map B) auditory association cortex; perceive musical melody C) hippocampus; recognize words D) periaqueductal gray matter; read a map E) primary visual cortex; perceive musical melody Answer: B Rationale: After damage to her auditory association cortex, Patient I.R. showed impaired ability to perceive musical melody. 34) Damage to the human amygdala A) produces intense feelings of fear. B) impairs the acquisition of a CER. C) leads to behavioral freeing. D) impairs the ability to read a map. E) results in profound depression. Answer: B 35) Aggressive behaviors A) include actual attacks against another organism. B) are often associated with child birth. C) are limited to verbal actual attacks. D) exclude those involved in self-defense. E) are controlled by the cerebellum. Answer: A 36) Which of the following drugs would be expected to inhibit aggression? A) amphetamine B) cocaine C) methysergide D) fluoxetine (Prozac) E) haloperidol Answer: D Rationale: The drug fluoxetine (Prozac) would be expected to inhibit aggression. 37) Animal studies indicate that the effect of serotonin on aggression may reflect a more general effect of serotonin on A) cognitive function. B) risky behaviors. C) threat behavior. D) maternal behavior. E) learning and memory. Answer: B 38) Damage to the ________ neurons of the forebrain would be expected to ________ aggressive attack. A) dopamine; facilitate B) serotonin; facilitate C) dopamine; suppress D) serotonin; suppress E) cholinergic; suppress Answer: B Rationale: Damage to the serotonin neurons of the forebrain would be expected to facilitate aggressive attack. 39) Activation of the ________ neurons of the forebrain would be expected to ________ aggressive attack. A) cholinergic; suppress B) serotonin; facilitate C) dopamine; suppress D) serotonin; suppress E) dopamine; facilitate Answer: D Rationale: Activation of the serotonin neurons of the forebrain would be expected to suppress aggressive attack. 40) Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of 5-HIAA in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information? A) Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels will be more aggressive than those with high levels. B) Low 5-HIAA levels will be associated with good exam performance. C) High 5-HIAA levels will be associated with poor sleep patterns in males. D) Male classmates with high 5-HIAA levels may not be alive 10 years from now. E) Those with low 5-HIAA levels will be the thinnest persons in the class. Answer: A Rationale: Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels would be expected to be more aggressive than those with high levels. 41) A child who has a ________ level of ________ in their CSF will be expected to be more likely to have the potential for crimes such as assault, arson, and murder. A) elevated; 5-HIAA B) reduced; GABA C) reduced; 5-HIAA D) elevated; GABA E) elevated; opiates Answer: C Rationale: A child who has a reduced level of 5-HIAA in their CSF will be expected to be more likely to have the potential for crimes such as assault, arson, and murder. 42) Rats and silver foxes selectively bred for increased brain levels of ______ and _____ are more tame than expected. A) dopamine; DOPAC B) serotonin; 5-HIAA C) GABA; glutamate D) dopamine; HVA E) serotonin; HVA Answer: B 43) The violent outbursts noted in Joshua were eventually controlled by A) gene therapy that restored the function of his 5-HT1b receptors. B) administration of lithium. C) administration of valium. D) behavior therapy. E) administration of Prozac. Answer: D Rationale: The violent outbursts noted in Joshua were eventually controlled by behavior therapy. 44) The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is comprised of A) the occipital cortex and the cingulate cortex. B) the parietal cortex and the striatal cortex. C) the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. D) the temporal cortex and the cingulate cortex. E) the cingulate cortex and the limbic cortex. Answer: C 45) Phineas Gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull, exhibited capricious, emotional behavior (in part) as a result of widespread damage to his A) primary motor cortex. B) orbitofrontal cortex. C) cingulate cortex. D) occipital cortex. E) primary visual cortex. Answer: B Rationale: Phineas Gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull, exhibited capricious, emotional behavior (in part) as a result of widespread damage to his orbitofrontal cortex. 46) A key function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex may be to A) activate the PAG. B) inhibit the hypothalamus. C) inhibit aggressive behavior. D) activate the amygdala. E) facilitate aggressive behavior. Answer: C Rationale: A key function of the ventromedial media cortex is to inhibit aggression. 47) Which of the following statements about the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is correct? A) vmPFC is necessary for making judgments about the personal significance of social situations. B) vmPFC is not necessary for translating judgments into actions and emotional responses. C) vmPFC is an interface between emotional mechanisms and those mechanisms that control complex behaviors. D) vmPFC produces emotional reactions through connections with the thalamus and the hippocampus E) The vnPFC is critical for acquisition of emotional behavior. Answer: C 48) A general function of the prefrontal cortex may be to A) induce homicidal rage. B) guide the planning of motor acts. C) promote sexual arousal. D) dampen or inhibit emotional reactions. E) generate rage and anger. Answer: D Rationale: A general function of the prefrontal cortex may be to dampen or inhibit emotional reactions. 49) Which of the following best describes the changes produced by damage involving the prefrontal cortex in the patient described by Eslinger and Damasio (1985)? A) He was unable to understand the implications of his brain damage. B) He was unable to apply moral and ethical reasoning to his own life. C) He became a successful banker and investment broker. D) His personal life was a success, while his business life was a disaster. E) His business life became quite a success. Answer: B Rationale: The patient described by Eslinger and Damasio (1985) was unable to apply moral and ethical reasoning to his own life. 50) Moral judgments that involve deciding to harm another person _______ activity within the _______. A) decrease; ventromedial prefrontal cortex B) increase; motor cortex C) increase; ventromedial prefrontal cortex D) decrease; hippocampus E) increase; ventromedial hypothalamus Answer: C Rationale: Moral judgments that involve deciding to harm another person increase activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. 51) Excessive anger that results in murder may reflect a combination of inadequate activation of the ________ and enhanced activation of the ________. A) prefrontal cortex; hypothalamus B) amygdala; prefrontal cortex C) prefrontal cortex; amygdala D) cortex; reticular activating system E) noradrenergic system; serotonergic systems Answer: C Rationale: Excessive anger that results in murder may reflect a combination of inadequate activation of the prefrontal cortex and enhanced activation of the amygdala. 52) The activity of the prefrontal cortex is ________ by ________ projection neurons. A) activated; serotonergic B) inactivated; cholinergic C) inactivated; serotonergic D) facilitated; dopaminergic E) facilitated; noradrenergic Answer: A 53) The treatment of impulsive aggression using ________ for 12 weeks reduced aggression and also ________ the activity of the orbitofrontal cortex. A) fluoxetine; decreased B) haloperidol; increased C) fluoxetine; increased D) haloperidol; decreased E) atropine; decreased Answer: C 54) According to Darwin, the expressions of emotion in humans A) are unique to each culture. B) are learned during an early critical period. C) vary greatly among individuals in different cultures. D) evolved from similar expressions in other animals. E) involve muscle movements of the hands but not the face. Answer: D Rationale: According to Darwin, the expressions of emotion in humans evolved from similar expressions in other animals. 55) Which of the following is a cue that can be used to communicate our emotional experience to others? A) changes in body posture B) language C) facial expressions D) nonverbal sounds E) All of the above are correct. Answer: E 56) The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by research in which A) blind children show different facial emotional expressions than do sighted persons. B) facial expressions of emotion vary by culture. C) the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures. D) facial expressions of emotion change over time in a culture. E) Humans and primates use different facial emotion expressions. Answer: C Rationale: The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by research in which the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures. 57) Ekman's research on the recognition of facial emotion expression A) showed that isolated cultures use different facial expressions to communicate emotion than do Westerners. B) disconfirmed Darwin's theory of facial emotion expression. C) supports the view that facial emotion expression is learned. D) supports Darwin's view that facial emotion expressions are innate. E). suggests that different cultures use quite different facial expressions to convey emotion. Answer: D Rationale: Ekman's research on the recognition of facial emotion expression supports Darwin's view that facial emotion expressions are innate. 58) Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere? A) the processing of tactile information B) the comprehension of emotions C) the capacity to recognize the emotional content of hand gestures D) the ability to communicate using language E) the control of the right side of the body Answer: B 59) Left hemisphere is to right hemisphere as comprehension of words is to A) production of words. B) recognition of emotion using tone of voice cues. C) grammar. D) facial expression of emotion. E) autonomic reactivity. Answer: B Rationale: Left hemisphere is to right hemisphere as comprehension of words is to recognition of emotion using tone of voice cues. 60) The recognition of emotions expressed by others is most likely to be impaired after damage to the A) cerebellum. B) brain stem. C) right hemisphere. D) left hemisphere. E) dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Answer: C 61) PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion from tone of voice is associated with increased activity of the A) right and left hemispheres. B) left hemisphere only. C) left frontal cortex. D) anterior potion of the corpus callosum. E) right prefrontal cortex. Answer: E 62) The amygdala is involved in the recognition of ________ communicated via ________. A) fear; facial expression B) happiness; tone of voice C) fear; tone of voice D) happiness; body posture E) anger; tone of voice Answer: A Rationale: The amygdala is involved in the recognition of fear communicated via facial expressions. 63) Which of the following is true of the role of the amygdala in recognition of emotion? A) Conscious awareness is required for the facial expression of emotion. B) Amygdala damage impairs the ability to use facial expressions for emotion recognition. C) The amygdala receives input from the visual cortex via the thalamus. D) Amygdala damage impairs the ability to use tone of voice cues for emotion recognition. E) Recognition of emotion conveyed by vocal cues requires an intact left amygdale. Answer: B 64) People with volitional facial paresis are unable to A) voluntarily move their facial muscles. B) cry. C) comprehend other people's emotions. D) recognize facial expressions. E) use tone of voice to communicate their emotional states. Answer: A 65) The insular cortex A) is activated by pheromones. B) contains the primary auditory cortex. C) is activated by stimuli that produce strong emotions. D) is required to regulate facial expressions of emotion. E) All of the above are correct. Answer: D 66) The capacity of a person to express an emotion using method acting would be impaired if that person suffered from A) unilateral damage to the caudate nucleus. B) unilateral damage to the substantia nigra. C) volitional facial paresis. D) emotional facial paresis. E) damage to the anterior callosum. Answer: D Rationale: The capacity of a person to express an emotion using method acting would be impaired if that person suffered from emotional facial paresis. 67) Which of the following statements is true of facial emotional expression? A) Positive emotions are more strongly expressed than are negative emotions. B) Positive emotions are more strongly displayed on the right side of the face. C) Negative emotions are more strongly displayed on the right side of the face. D) The sides of the face are equivalent during emotional expression. E) Negative emotional expressions are more intense on the left side of the face. Answer: E 68) Damage to the _______ would produce difficulty in recognizing facial emotion in another person. A) brain stem B) right amygdala C) Alzheimer's disease D) dopamine system E) left amygdala Answer: B 69) Although the amygdala is involved in ________, the amygdala does not play a role in ________. A) emotional expression; expression of happiness B) recognition of tone of voice; emotion cues using body posture to communicate emotion C) recognition of facial expression; emotional expression D) expression of happiness; expression of anger E) facial expression of emotions; recognition of emotion communicated via tone of voice Answer: C Rationale: Although the amygdala is involved in recognition of facial expression, the amygdala does not play a role in emotional expression. 70) In the case of patient S.P., bilateral damage to the ________ resulted in ________. A) amygdala; an inability to produce a facial expression of emotion B) prefrontal cortex; an inability to recognize the emotional state of another using voice cues C) amygdala; an inability to recognize emotion in other persons D) hippocampus; an inability to forget painful memories of her past life E) prefrontal cortex; an inability to recognize emotion in other persons Answer: C Rationale: In the case of patient S.P., bilateral damage to the amygdala resulted in an inability to recognize emotion in other persons. 71) According to the James-Lange theory, feelings of emotions are A) culturally determined responses to stimuli. B) the causes of physiological reactions to events. C) produced by feedback from the behaviors and physiological responses caused by emotion-producing situations. D) dependent upon the genetic makeup of an individual. E) produced by activity within the thalamus in response to sensory cues. Answer: C 72) Which statement best illustrates the James-Lange theory of emotion? A) Laugh and you will be happy. B) Feeling happy causes you to laugh. C) Happiness is the result of excessive release of endorphins. D) Your frontal lobe causes you to feel happy, whereas your motor cortex causes you to laugh. E) Feeling happy induces the species-typical reaction we call laughter. Answer: A Rationale: The James-Lange theory of emotion is best illustrated by the statement “Laugh and you will be happy”. 73) According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is most important for the subjective experience of an emotion? A) an intact thalamus B) the cultural context in which an event occurs C) one's self-report of what is being experienced D) sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs E) changes in hormone levels provoked by the stimulus Answer: D Rationale: According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs is most important for the subjective experience of an emotion. 74) Which of the following results from studies of people with spinal cord injuries supports the James-Lange theory of emotion? A) Spinal cord transection did not alter the expression of emotional behaviors. B) The higher the spinal cord injury, the less the intensity of the reported feeling. C) The farther away the injury was from the brain, the less the probability that an intense emotion could be experienced. D) People who could not feel reactions from most of their bodies reported that they felt intense emotions. E) Partial transection exerts larger effects than do total cord transections. Answer: B 75) Studies by Ekman and colleagues suggest that A) different emotions are expressed in similar ways by the facial muscles. B) simulated facial emotional expression changes sympathetic activity. C) fear and happiness produce similar changes in the autonomic nervous system. D) simulated facial emotional expression changes parasympathetic activity. E) C and D are correct. Answer: B 76) Seizures that involve the ________ hemisphere are most likely to induce ________. A) right; thought disorder B) left; emotional disorder C) right; emotional disorder D) left; arousal and difficulty sleeping E) right; speech deficits Answer: C 10.2 True-False 1) Most studies of emotion have focused on positive emotions. Answer: False 2) The central nucleus of the amygdala is the most important part of the brain for the expression of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli. Answer: True 3) The different components that comprise an emotional response are controlled by separate circuits in brain. Answer: True 4) Conditioned fear responses are produced via operant conditioning. Answer: False 5) The capacity of a rat to "freeze" depends on an intact lateral hypothalamus. Answer: False 6) Damage to the medial prefrontal cortex facilitates the extinction of a conditioned emotional response. Answer: False 7) Feelings of fear are produced by electrical stimulation of the human amygdala. Answer: True 8) Aggressive behaviors are independent of reproductive behaviors. Answer: False 9) All aggressive behaviors are related to depression. Answer: False 10) Low levels of brain 5-HIAA are correlated with risky behavior in male primates. Answer: True 11) Damage to the orbitofrontal cortex reduces people's inhibitions and self-concern. Answer: True 12) Drugs that facilitate brain serotonin activity reduce impulsive aggression. Answer: True 13) Facial expressions of emotions are similar in young blind and young sighted persons. Answer: True 14) Visual and auditory recognition of emotions appears to be more of a right- than left-hemisphere function. Answer: True 15) Bilateral damage of the amygdala impairs the ability of a person to express emotions using facial cues. Answer: False 16) The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that visceral feedback modulates emotional experience. Answer: True 17) Seizures that involve the left hemisphere are more likely to induce emotional difficulties than cognitive difficulties. Answer: False 10.3 Short-Answer Essay 1) Describe the types of emotional stimuli that activate cells within the amygdala. Answer: Amygdala cells change their firing rate in response to the presentation of emotionally relevant stimuli. These responses cut across sensory domains (vision, audition) and can be conditioned (the sight of a syringe that was previously used to inject bitter substances in the mouth of the subject). 2) Describe the changes in emotion that follow damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CE). Answer: CE damage produces a tame animal that no longer shows behavioral and hormonal changes indicative of fear. CE animals are less likely to develop stress-induced ulcers. 3) Explain the significance of a conditioned emotional response (CER). Answer: A CER is a classically conditioned response in which a novel stimulus comes to elicit components of an emotional reaction after prior pairing with an emotionally relevant stimulus. Organisms will work to avoid or to terminate a stimulus that elicits a CER. 4) Describe the interaction of serotonin with aggression. Answer: The activity of serotonergic neurons functions to inhibit risk-taking behaviors that include aggression. Damage to forebrain serotonin neurons increases aggression. while drugs that are serotonin agonists can reduce aggression. 5) Describe the changes in personality in Phineas Gage that occurred after his brain injury. Answer: Prior to the injury of his frontal lobes, Gage was a railway track supervisor. After his injury, Gage was thoughtless and irresponsible, and prone to outbursts of temper. He was unable to make or carry out plans, and was unable to continue as a supervisor. 6) Defend the proposition that emotional expressions are innate. Answer: Emotional expressions are common to even remote cultures. Young blind children show the same emotional expressions as do young sighted children. 7) Explain the significance of Hohman's (1966) study of spinal cord transection for study of emotion. Answer: A key piece of support for James-Lange theory comes from Hohman (1966), who assessed the impact of spinal cord injury on emotional experience: the higher the level of the transaction, the greater the interruption of sensory information to the brain, and the greater the decrement in the intensity of experienced emotion. 10.4 Essay 1) Describe the three components of an emotional response. Answer: Feelings are distinct from the responses that accompany an emotion. The three components are behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal. Behavioral responses include motor movements, facial expressions, posture, and tone of voice. Autonomic responses include specific changes in the sympathetic ns that provide energy for responding. Hormonal responses that reinforce the autonomic responses include release of norepinephrine and epinephrine as well as glucocorticoids. 2) Describe evidence supporting the involvement of the amygdala in emotional behavior. Answer: Stimuli that convey threat activate the central nucleus (CE) of the amygdala. Electrical stimulation of the CE induces signs of fear and anxiety and can induce ulcers. Damage to the CE diminishes the behavioral and hormonal responses to fear stimuli. The CE appears to integrate the behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal components of fear. 3) Describe the role of the right hemisphere in the recognition of emotions. Identify two strategies that have been used to study this topic. Answer: The facial displays of emotion are more intense on the left side of the face, suggesting an important role of the right hemisphere for producing emotional displays. People show a left ear and left visual field advantage for the recognition of emotional expressions. One strategy is to compare the ability of persons with right hemisphere damage to judge facial expressions for emotional content (they are impaired). Another is to examine the changes in brain activity within the hemispheres using a PET scanner as people judge the emotional content of words (right hemisphere is more activated). 4) Discuss the James-Lange theory of emotion and cite evidence that supports this theory. Answer: The James-Lange theory argues that environmental events trigger patterns of visceral responding, and that our brains subsequently decode the pattern to arrive at an emotional experience. A key piece of support for the theory comes from Hohman (1966), who assessed the impact of spinal cord injury on emotional experience. The higher the level of the transaction, the greater the interruption of sensory information to the brain, and the greater the decrement in the intensity of experienced emotion. Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

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