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Chapter 7: Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses 7.1 Multiple Choice 1) The case of Melissa in the chapter prologue makes the point that A) mind and body interact to determine pain reactivity. B) pain hurts. C) beliefs about pain do not alter pain reactivity. D) drugs that block brain opiate receptors decrease pain. E) opiate drugs are addictive. Answer: A Rationale: The case of Melissa in the chapter prologue makes the point that mind and body interact to determine pain reactivity. 2) An example of the value of audition relative to vision is that only audition A) is used to communicate with others of our species. B) provides information from other animals. C) can provide warning signals about the environment. D) works both day and night. E) works underwater better than it does on dry land.. Answer: D Rationale: An example of the value of audition relative to vision is that only audition works both day and night. 3) Sound can best be thought of as A) compression of air molecules by an object. B) changes in air pressure produced by the vibration of an object. C) waves of acoustic energy that travel at fewer than 20 miles per hour. D) packets of energy. E) expansion of air molecules produced by a traveling object. Answer: B 4) Humans can detect sound vibrations between ________ and ________ cycles per second. A) 30; 700 B) 25; 4,000 C) 30; 20,000 D) 25; 9,000 E) 300; 45,000 Answer: C 5) The pitch of a sound stimulus is related to the physical characteristic of A) the amplitude of the vibration. B) the distance between the sound source and the detector. C) the complexity of the sound waves. D) frequency of vibration. E) air temperature. Answer: D 6) The loudness of a sound is related to A) the amplitude of the vibration. B) the distance between the successive air vibrations. C) the complexity of the sound waves. D) its frequency of vibration. E) the altitude of the observer. Answer: A 7) The complexity of a sound wave determines the psychological dimension of A) hue. B) pitch. C) loudness. D) saturation. E) timbre. Answer: E 8) Which of the following pairs of terms do NOT belong together? A) amplitude; pitch B) complexity; timbre C) frequency; pitch D) amplitude; loudness E) hue; wavelength Answer: A Rationale: Amplitude determines intensity but not pitch. 9) Which of the following is NOT a physical dimension of auditory perception? A) wavelength B) pitch C) amplitude D) complexity E) frequency Answer: B Rationale: Pitch is a perception not a physical attribute. 10) The formal name for the eardrum is the A) tectorial membrane. B) basilar membrane. C) outer membrane. D) tympanic membrane. E) pinna. Answer: D 11) Pitch is to frequency as A) hue is to saturation. B) frequency is to timbre. C) loudness is to sound amplitude. D) timbre is to complexity. E) timbre is to sound amplitude. Answer: D Rationale: Pitch is to frequency as timbre is to complexity. 12) The ossicles are A) auditory receptors. B) positioned within the pinna of the ear. C) receptive cells in the inner ear. D) tiny bones located within the middle ear. E) neurons that innervate the middle ear. Answer: D 13) The ________ is a hollow region just beyond the tympanic membrane that contains the ossicles. A) outer ear B) inner ear C) organ of Corti D) pinna E) middle ear Answer: E 14) The cochlea is located within the A) middle ear. B) inner ear. C) organ of Corti. D) pinna. E) outer ear. Answer: B 15) The malleus, incus, and stapes A) are tiny bones located within the outer ear. B) are located within the middle ear. C) provide a mechanical advantage for transferring sound energy to the inner ear. D) are the formal names for the oval, round, and tympanic membranes, respectively. E) are named for the bone that overlie the temporal lobe Answer: C 16) Which of the following is NOT a part of the organ of Corti? A) hair cells B) basilar membrane C) tympanic membrane D) tectorial membrane E) Deiters's cells Answer: C 17) ________ are hair-like appendages that protrude from the ends of the auditory receptors in the organ of Corti. A) Cilia B) Rods C) Intrafusal fibers D) Extrafusal fibers E) Hair cells Answer: A 18) Sound waves induce movements of the hair cells of the organ of Corti via A) movement of the basilar membrane relative to the tectorial membrane. B) movement of the scala tympani. C) movement of the malleus against the round window. D) movement of the stapes against the round window. E) contraction of the muscle fibers within the middle ear. Answer: A 19) Deafness caused by blockage of the ________ can be treated using ________. A) oval window; cochlear implants B) round window; the fenestration surgical procedure C) pinna; the fenestration surgical procedure D) middle ear; high doses of penicillin E) scala media; cochlear implants Answer: B Rationale: Deafness caused by blockage of the round window can be treated using the fenestration surgical procedure. 20) The ratio of inner hair cells to outer hair cells in the human cochlea is approximately A) 1:1. B) 4:1. C) 1:3. D) 8:2. E) 2:7. Answer: C 21) The shearing force that bends the tips of the inner hair cells in response to movement of the basilar membrane arises from the A) linkage between the hair cells and the tectorial membrane. B) mechanical linkage between the hair cells and the tympanic membrane. C) movement of the round window. D) movement of the hair cells through the tectorial membrane. E) movement of fluid past the tips of the hair cells. Answer: E Rationale: The shearing force that bends the tips of the inner hair cells in response to movement of the basilar membrane arises from the movement of fluid past the tips of the hair cells. 22) Adjacent cilia on a hair cell are joined together by A) tip links. B) myosin filaments. C) strands of actin. D) insertional plaques. E) the outer edges of the tectorial membrane. Answer: A 23) The human cochlea contains approximately ________ inner hair cells and ________ outer hair cells. A) 6,000; 1,000 B) 3,500; 12,000 C) 1,750; 6,000 D) 6,000; 16,000 E) 12,000; 3,500 Answer: B 24) The opening and closing of ion channels within the hair cell cilia A) are a function of the voltage of the cilia membrane. B) reflect the action of a second messenger within the cilia. C) are controlled by ionotropic membrane receptors. D) reflect tension exerted by the tip links on the insertional plaques. E) are the result of chloride entry into the hair cell.. Answer: D 25) Which of the following is true of the neurons of the cochlear nerve? A) Inner hair cells provide input to nearly 95 percent of the axons of the cochlear nerve. B) The cell bodies of these neurons are located within the ventral medulla. C) These neurons carry signals generated by the outer hair cells. D) These nerve cells are hyperpolarized by release of transmitter from the hair cells. E) The cochlear nerve projects directly to the primary auditory cortex.. Answer: A 26) Auditory signals are carried to the brain via the A) trigeminal nerve. B) organ of Corti. C) auditory lemniscus. D) somatoacoustic nerve. E) cochlear nerve. Answer: E 27) Which of the following is true of hair cells? A) Afferent axons form connections with the outer hair cells. B) Damage to the inner hair cells impairs hearing. C) Outer hair cells are necessary for hearing. D) Thin unmyelinated axons form connections with inner hair cells. E) The outer hair cells provide 95 percent of the signals carried by the cochlear nerve. Answer: B Rationale: Damage to the inner hair cells impairs hearing. 28) A mutation that resulted in the loss of inner hair cells within the organ of Corti would be expected to result in A) reduced ability to detect differences in sound intensity. B) total impairment of hearing. C) a difficulty in locating the source of a sound. D) difficulty in detecting differences between different musical instruments. E) changes in pain perception. Answer: B Rationale: A mutation that resulted in the loss of inner hair cells within the organ of Corti would be expected to result in total impairment of hearing. 29) Indicate which of the following is the correct pathway by which auditory information flows to the brain. A) auditory nerve → superior olivary nuclei → medial geniculate → superior colliculus → auditory cortex B) auditory nerve → cochlear nuclei → medial geniculate → auditory cortex C) auditory nerve → cochlear nuclei → superior olivary nuclei → inferior colliculus medial geniculate → auditory cortex D) auditory nerve → cochlear nuclei → superior olivary nuclei → medial geniculate → auditory cortex E) auditory nerve → cochlear nuclei → superior colliculus → lateral geniculate → auditory cortex Answer: C 30) Which of the following is true of the central auditory system? A) Each hemisphere receives information from one ear. B) The most medial portion of the auditory cortex gets information from the apical end of the basilar membrane. C) The auditory cortex has a tonotopic organization. D) The auditory association cortex is located in the frontal lobe. E) The primary auditory cortex is located within the occipital lobe. Answer: C 31) Adjacent regions of the basilar membrane and of the primary auditory cortex appear to respond best to different sound ________; these differences can be displayed as a ________ map. A) intensities; tonotopic B) intensities; somatotopic C) frequencies; retinotopic D) frequencies; tonotopic E) timbres; tonotopic Answer: D Rationale: Adjacent regions of the basilar membrane and of the primary auditory cortex appear to respond best to different sound frequencies; these differences can be displayed as a tonotopic map. 32) The posterior auditory stream terminates in the ________ and is involved in ________. A) posterior parietal cortex; complex sound analysis B) posterior occipital cortex; sound localization C) parabelt region of the anterior temporal region; complex sound analysis D) parabelt region of the anterior temporal region; sound localization E) posterior parietal cortex; sound localization Answer: E 33) Low-frequency sounds produce maximal distortion of the basilar membrane A) near the stapes. B) at the apical end of the membrane. C) farthest from the stapes. D) farthest from the basal end of the membrane. E) at the middle of the membrane. Answer: C 34) A high-frequency tone would be expected to produce a maximal bending of the ________ nearest the ________. A) tectorial membrane; round window B) basilar membrane; oval window C) basilar membrane; round window D) tectorial membrane; oval window E) tympanic membrane; round window Answer: B 35) Which of the following strongly supports the notion that a place code is involved in detecting medium pitch to high pitch sounds? A) Cochlear implants can restore the understanding of speech sounds. B) Mutant mice that lack inner hair cells are unable to hear. C) Damage to the posterior temporal cortex impairs hearing. D) Overgrowth of bone over the round window impairs hearing of high—but not low—pitch sounds. E) Antibiotics can degenerate hair cells in an apical to basal direction and produce corresponding deficits in intensity perception. Answer: A Rationale: The fact that cochlear implants can restore the understanding of speech sounds strongly supports the notion that a place code is involved in detecting medium pitch to high pitch sounds. 36) Cochlear implants restore the ability to understand speech by A) changing the overall rate of firing of cochlear cells. B) allowing pressure changes to occur within the cochlea. C) opening a larger aperture within the round window. D) electrically stimulating different regions of the basilar membrane. E) electrically stimulating the 8th cranial nerve at greater than 500 pulses per second. Answer: D 37) The perception of low pitch sounds involves ________ located at the ________ of the basilar membrane. A) place coding; base B) rate coding; apical end C) phase coding; base D) tonotopic codes; apical end E) phase shifts; base Answer: B 38) The precise tuning of vibration along the basilar membrane reflects A) lateral inhibition of inner hair cells by outer hair cells. B) the loss of outer hair cells due to the aging process. C) the contractile capacity of inner hair cells. D) the contractile capacity of outer hair cells. E) longitudinal tension of the basilar membrane. Answer: D 39) Which of the following is true of rate coding along the basilar membrane? A) Rate coding occurs for frequencies greater than 500 Hz. B) The basal end of the basilar membrane shows the greatest movement to a frequency of less than 200 Hz. C) Lower frequencies are coded by rate of firing that is cued to the movement of the apical end of the basilar membrane. D) Cochlear implants can be used to signal frequencies up to 20,000 Hz. E) Rate coding is due to volleys of neurons that fire in sequence. Answer: C 40) The perceived pitch of a steady note played by a clarinet corresponds to its A) overtone. B) decay phase. C) attack phase. D) characteristic frequency. E) fundamental frequency. Answer: E 41) A blindfolded person can locate the source of a continuous tone of 1000 Hz that is to the left of the person because the tone A) timbre is different in the right ear relative to the left ear. B) will generate maximal firing rates in the left auditory nerve. C) will generate stimulation of the eardrums that is 180 degrees out of phase. D) generates a sonic shadow such that the right ear detects a different sound intensity than the left ear. E) B and D are correct. Answer: C 42) Neurons that use binaural differences in loudness as a cue to the source of a clicks are located within the A) superior olivary complex. B) 11th cranial nerve. C) parabelt region. D) medial geniculate. E) organ of Corti. Answer: A 43) Our capacity to detect whether a high-frequency sound comes from our left or right reflects an analysis of A) the fundamental overtones. B) a sonic shadow that reflects differences in loudness (loudness is greater in the ear closest to the sound. C) differences in arrival times at the eardrums. D) differences in sound phase. E) differences in frequency overtones reaching the ears. Answer: B 44) In the human auditory system, the analysis of "what" corresponds to ________ , whereas the analysis of "where" corresponds to ________. A) complex sounds ; location of a sound B) loudness; pitch C) location of a sound; loudness D) object form; object location E) loudness; timbre Answer: A Rationale: In the human auditory system, the analysis of "what" corresponds to complex sounds, whereas the analysis of "where" corresponds to location of a sound. 45) Functional imaging studies of the human association cortex indicate that judgments of sound ________ activate the ________. A) timbre; dorsal stream B) identity; ventral stream C) timbre; ventral stream D) location; ventral stream E) identity; dorsal stream Answer: B 46) Which of the following is true of Patient I.R.? A) She sustained brain damage from a bleeding stroke.. B) She cannot hear C) She does not enjoy music. D) She cannot perceive musical melodies. E) She cannot comprehend speech. Answer: D Rationale: Patient I.R. cannot perceive musical melodies. 47) Which of the following is NOT true of music perception? A) Melody recognition depends on the absolute value of the notes of the melody. B) Melodies in the major mode are perceived as happy. C) Melodies in the minor mode are perceived as sad. D) Melody recognition depends on the interval between the notes. E). Melody recognition does not depend on the key of the melody. Answer: A 48) The second component of the labyrinths of the inner ear is the A) vestibular sacs. B) semicircular canals. C) organ of Corti. D) cochlea. E) ampulla. Answer: A 49) Low-frequency stimulation of the vestibular sacs would be expected to produce A) dizziness. B) a state of panic. C) no definable sensation. D) nystagmus. E) nausea. Answer: E 50) Sudden changes in the rotation of the head are sensed by the A) cochlea. B) semicircular canals. C) organ of Corti. D) vestibular sacs. E) utricle. Answer: B 51) Sudden angular rotation of the head through a plane is sensed by ________ within ________. A) hair cells; a semicircular canal B) hair cells; the cochlea C) dendrites; the saccule D) dendrites; the utricle E) hair cells; the utricle Answer: A 52) The utricle and saccule are components of the A) middle ear. B) cochlea. C) vestibular sacs. D) semicircular canals. E) outer ear.. Answer: C 53) The activation of hair cells within the semicircular canals is based on _____ relative to the hair cells. A) movement of the basilar membrane B) distortion of the tympanic membrane C) distortion of the ampulla D) movement of the cupula. E) movement of the otoconia Answer: D 54) The activation of hair cells within the vestibular sacs is the product of A) movement of the otoconia and gelatinous mass. B) movement of the cupula. C) distortion of the ampulla. D) distortion of the tympanic membrane. E) movement of the basilar membrane. Answer: A 55) The hair cells of the cochlea and those of the vestibular sacs are similar in that A) hair cells in each system are activated by a shearing force exerted on the cilia. B) each hair cell in each system contains one cilium. C) hair cell activation is accompanied by the closing of membrane ion channels. D) each ciliary membrane is hyperpolarized by movement of the cilia. E) Hair cells in each system are replaced weekly.. Answer: A Rationale: The hair cells of the cochlea and those of the vestibular sacs are similar in that hair cells in each system are activated by a shearing force exerted on the cilia. 56) The function of kinesthesia is to provide information about A) the overall state of muscle tone. B) head orientation. C) body movement and position. D) environmental temperature. E) gravity. Answer: C Rationale: The function of kinesthesia is to provide information about body movement and position. 57) The connection of the vestibular system with brain stem nuclei functions to A) adjust eye movements to compensate for sudden head movements. B) control movement of the lower legs. C) provide inhibitory feedback onto the auditory system during exposure to loud stimuli. D) generate a cue that promotes the sensation of depth in a visual scene. E) suppress nausea and vomiting induced by body movement. Answer: A 58) The somatosenses include all but the A) receptors positioned within the skin. B) stretch receptors in skeletal muscle. C) receptors located within limb joints. D) hair cells within the cochlea. E) free nerve endings in the skin. Answer: D Rationale: The somatosenses do not involve the hair cells within the cochlea. 59) The cutaneous senses signal information about stimuli that interact with A) the external surface of the skin. B) the hair cells of the vestibular sacs. C) receptors of the muscles. D) the hair cells of the semicircular canals. E) the wall of the gut. Answer: A Rationale: The cutaneous senses signal information about stimuli that interact with the external surface of the skin. 60) The organic senses signal information about stimuli that interact with A) the external surface of the skin. B) he hair cells of the vestibular sacs. C) receptors of the muscles. D) receptors that line the surfaces of internal organs. E) the wall of the gut. Answer: D Rationale: The organic senses signal information about stimuli that interact with receptors that line the surfaces of internal organs. 61) For most persons, you would expect to find nonglabrous skin on the A) bottom of the feet. B) palms. C) bottom of the toes. D) fingertips. E) forearm. Answer: E Rationale: For most persons, you would expect to find nonglabrous skin on the forearm. 62) The outer layer of skin is termed the A). epidermis. B) dermis. C) subcutaneous fat. D) lymph layer. E) subdermis. Answer: A 63) In referring to the skin, the term "glabrous" means A) thick. B) thin. C) hairless. D) smooth. E) rough. Answer: C 64) Which of the receptors below are found in hairy and glabrous skin and are sensitive to vibration? A) Meissner's corpuscles B) free nerve endings C) Ruffini corpuscles D) Pacinian corpuscles E) Merkel's disks Answer: D 65) Match up the cutaneous stimulus with the correct perception. A) skin deformation; sensation of pressure B) tissue damage; perception of cold C) tissue damage; sensation of pressure D) vibration; perception of heat E) vibration; sensation of pressure Answer: A Rationale: Skin deformation generates a sensation of pressure. 66) ________ found in hairy skin are used by the body to detect changes in temperature. A) Dieter's cells B) Free nerve endings C) Meissner's corpuscles D) Pacinian corpuscles E) Ruffini corpuscles Answer: B 67) The primary function of the Pacinian corpuscle is to detect A) rapid vibration. B) cold. C) heat. D) texture. E) damage to the skin. Answer: A Rationale: The primary function of the Pacinian corpuscle is to detect rapid vibration. 68) ________ are located in the finger tips and are used to detect form and roughness. A) Free nerve endings B) Pacinian corpuscles C) Meissner's corpuscles D) Merkel disks E) Ruffini corpuscles Answer: C 69) If Patient G.L. sustained damage to large-diameter myelinated axons of the body below her face, she would be expected to have difficulty in detecting A) a cold probe applied to her arm. B) a warm probe applied to her leg. C) a faint touch on her hand. D) vibration. E) pain. Answer: C Rationale: Patient G.L. sustained damage to large-diameter myelinated axons of the body below her face would be expected to have difficulty in detecting a faint touch on her hand. 70) The _____ receptor mediates pain induced by burning of the skin. A) TRPM8 B) TRPV1 C) TRPA1 D) TRPV4 E) TRPV3 Answer: B 71) The function of a nociceptor is to detect A) noxious stimuli. B) cold. C) heat. D) salt in a food. E) the bitterness of a fluid. Answer: A 72) Damage to ________ receptors would be expected to impair ________. A) TRPV1; the sensation of cold B) TRPM8; the sensation of cool produced by menthol C) TRPV1; pain associated with mechanical stimulation D) TRPV4; pain produced by ischemia E) TRPV2; the pain induced by chili peppers Answer: B Rationale: Damage to T RPM8receptors would be expected to impair the sensation of cool produced by menthol. 73) Pain associated with intense pressure applied to the skin is detected by ________, whereas the type of pain associated with skin inflammation is detected by ________. A) TRPV1 receptors; free nerve endings B) mechanoreceptors; TRPA1 receptors C) Pacinian corpuscles; free nerve endings D) TRPM8 receptors; Ruffini corpuscles E) Pacinian corpuscles; TRPV1 receptors Answer: B 74) Free nerve endings produce the pain associated with A) overheating of the skin. B) mild vibration. C) intense, sudden pressure on the skin. D) eating chili peppers. E) cooling the skin. Answer: C 75) The relay nuclei for somato sensation are located within the A) medial lateral thalamic nuclei. B) medial geniculate nuclei. C) spinothalamic nuclei. D) ventral posterior thalamic nuclei. E) thalamocortical nuclei. Answer: D 76) Damage to the somatosensory association cortex can produce A) visual agnosia. B) a loss of tactile sensitivity. C) a difficulty in differentiating objects by weight. D) a difficulty in differentiating objects by using temperature cues. E) tactile agnosia. Answer: E Rationale: Damage to the somatosensory association cortex can produce tactile agnosia. 77) Which of the following is known to decrease pain sensitivity? A) riding in a car B) meditation C) consumption of a pill laced with capsaicin D) opiate administration E) activation of substance P in the spinal cord Answer: D 78) Which of the following is true of the functions of pain? A) Pain is triggered by activation of Pacinian corpuscles. B) Pain can be triggered by tissue damage within the body. C) Opiates enhance pain reactivity. D) Emotional events mostly decrease the aversiveness of pain stimuli. E) Activation of ACC neurons is involved in the long-term consequences of pain. Answer: B Rationale: Pain can be triggered by tissue damage within the body. 79) The immediate aversive emotional consequence of pain reflects activation of the A) secondary somatosensory cortex. B) prefrontal cortex. C) anterior cingulate cortex. D) hippocampus. E) cerebellum. Answer: C 80) The acute sensory component of pain is mediated by pathways that A) involve the amygdala. B) project from the spinal cord to the primary somatosensory cortex. C) project to the anterior cingulate cortex and the insular cortex. D) project to the prefrontal cortex. E) reach the temporal cortex. Answer: B 81) The long-term emotional component of chronic pain is mediated by pathways that A) involve the hypothalamus. B) project from the spinal cord to the primary somatosensory cortex. C) reach the anterior cingulate cortex and the insular cortex. D) project to the prefrontal cortex. E) reach the parietal cortex. Answer: D 82) Imaging studies indicate that the ________ plays a key role in the perceived intensity of pain, while the activity of the ________ is related to the unpleasantness of pain. A) periaqueductal gray matter; reticular formation B) somatosensory cortex; anterior cingulate cortex C) anterior cingulate cortex; secondary somatosensory cortex D) lateral hypothalamus; medial amygdala E) reticular formation; periaqueductal gray matter Answer: B 83) Imagine that you are suffering chronic pain from a medical condition that cannot be treated. If you could elect to have a specific region of your brain inactivated to modify your pain reactions, which of the following regions would you choose in order to minimize the emotional response to your pain? A) anterior cingulate cortex B) dorsal lateral thalamus. C) primary somatosensory cortex D) prefrontal cortex E) posterior cingulate cortex Answer: A Rationale: Imagine that you are suffering chronic pain from a medical condition that cannot be treated. If you could elect to have a specific region of your brain inactivated to modify your pain reactions, you should ablation of anterior cingulate cortex to minimize the emotional response to your pain? 84) Melzak argues that phantom limb sensation in an amputee occurs because A) spinal cord axons continue to spontaneously fire after being detached from a limb. B) sensory neurons in the thalamus show spontaneous firing which is interpreted by the brain as a signal from the missing limb. C) the parietal cortex is programmed to perceive activity from each of four limbs. D) the frontal cortex is programmed to perceive activity from each of four limbs. E) cells in frontal cortex undergo spontaneous firing, which is interpreted as pain. Answer: C 85) Which of the following is true of taste? A) Flavor is a mixture of olfaction and gustation. B) Taste is a mixture of olfaction and gustation. C) Flavor is solely determined by the smell of food. D) Tigers and leopards avidly consume sugar. E) Flavor is determined by air temperature. Answer: A 86) Tigers and cats are unable to sense the taste qualities of A) bitterness. B) sweetness. C) saltiness. D) sourness. E) umami Answer: B 87) Sodium channels form receptors that play a key role in the perception of A) acids. B) umami. C) salts. D) sugars. E) toxic alkaloids. Answer: C 88) The receptors for ________ tastes detect the presence of hydrogen ions. A) sour B) umami C) salty D) sweet E) bitter Answer: A 89) The ________ is the first relay station for gustatory information arising from the tongue. A) chorda tympani B) area postrema C) ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus D) nucleus of the solitary tract E) insular cortex Answer: D 90) The stimulus for olfaction is A) a volatile substance with a molecular weight between 15 and 300. B) a molecule that has a high molecular weight. C) an electromagnetic pulse delivered to the nose. D) a water soluble molecule. E) a fat soluble molecule. Answer: A 91) Olfactory receptors are located in the A) turbinate bones. B) olfactory epithelium. C) cribiform plate. D) chorda tympani. E) olfactory operculum. Answer: B 92) Recent studies indicate that humans may possess as many as ________ different olfactory receptor genes. A) 15 B) 215 C) 339 D) 1940 E) 10,112 Answer: C 93) Which of the following is true of the neural coding of olfaction? A) Each odorant binds to only one receptor type. B) Each receptor type binds to many different odorants. C) Odorants bind with the same affinity to every receptor type. D) Each odorant binds to several different receptor types. E) Receptors exist in low versus high activity states. Answer: D 7.2 True-False 1) A blind person will find it easier to join a conversation than will a deaf person. Answer: True 2) Sound waves are detected by movements of the basilar membrane that in turn bend the cilia of inner hair cells. Answer: True 3) Outer hair cells are more numerous in the cochlea than are inner hair cells. Answer: True 4) Outer hair cells provide 95 percent of the signals carried by the cochlear nerve to the brain. Answer: False 5) Damage to the outer hair cells of the cochlea causes deafness in mice. Answer: False 6) The pitch of an auditory stimulus is related to sound frequency. Answer: True 7) Auditory information is transmitted via two streams within the secondary auditory cortex. Answer: True 8) Cochlear implants mimic place coding so as to restore perception of speech. Answer: True 9) Rate coding along the basilar membrane is used to detect high-frequency sounds. Answer: False 10) A complex sound is a combination of a fundamental frequency and overtones. Answer: True 11) The receptive organ for the vestibular sense is the organ of Corti. Answer: False 12) The semicircular canals respond to steady rotation of the head. Answer: False 13) The cutaneous senses respond to a number of tactile stimuli. Answer: True 14) Pain generated by intense heat or chili peppers is detected by TRPV1 receptors. Answer: True 15) The immediate emotional component of pain involves pathways projecting to the anterior cingulate cortex and the insular cortex. Answer: True 16) A plant alkaloid is an example of a natural product that generates a bitter taste. Answer: True 17) In the olfactory system, a specific odorant is associated with a spatial pattern of activation of different olfactory receptors. Answer: True 7.3 Short-Answer Essay 1) Describe the physical and psychological properties of sound. Answer: Sound represents vibrations of air molecules produced by objects in the environment. These are waves which vary in frequency and intensity. Sound pitch corresponds to wave frequency, loudness to the sound intensity, and timbre corresponds to the complexity of the sound wave. 2) Describe the basic anatomy of the middle and inner ear that is relevant to hearing. Answer: The middle ear contains a series of bones—malleus, incus, and stapes—that are connected to the tympanic membrane. The stapes can vibrate the cochlea through the oval window. The inner ear contains the cochlea. Within the cochlea is the organ of Corti, which contains the receptive elements for sound. 3) Describe the processes by which the basilar membrane codes for pitch. Answer: Tones of different frequencies produce vibrations that are maximal at different points along the basilar membrane. High frequencies produce distortions near the stapes. Low frequency tones appear to be coded by rate of firing. 4) Describe the movement of the basilar membrane in response to sounds of different frequencies. Answer: The basilar membrane shows distortion as sound waves are transmitted through the oval window by the stapes. High-frequency tones produce a maximal distortion in the basilar membrane near the oval window. Low-frequency tones produce distortion farther away from the oval window. 5) Describe how the organ of Corti transduces sound waves into electrical potentials. Answer: Hair cells are anchored to the basilar membrane. Cilia that project from the inner hair cells are moved by currents produced when the basilar membrane moves relative to the overlying tectorial membrane. The cilia of a hair cell are interconnected by tip links and as these move, the attachment points of the adjacent cilia open an ion channel, which creates a receptor potential. 6) Describe the stimuli that are detected by receptors within the skin. Answer: The receptors respond to physical stimuli that include pressure, vibration, cooling, and heating, and that are associated with tissue damage. These provide information about the texture of objects, the temperature of an object, and produce a sensation called pain that signals damage to the skin. 7) Differentiate between the receptors that have been identified as responding to pain stimuli. Answer: Nociceptors are pain receptors. Three nociceptors types include: free nerve endings that respond to intense pressure; free nerve endings that respond to intense heat, to acids, and to the chemical capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor); TRPA1 receptors that respond to pungent irritants. 8) Explain how a few hundred types of olfactory receptors can code for thousands of different odorants. Answer: Each olfactory cilium contains one type of receptor and each glomerulus receives information from one type of receptor. An odorant molecule can bind to and activate, in varying intensity, different receptor types, which would generate a different pattern of firing within the olfactory system. 9) Explain the significance of "natural analgesia." Answer: Analgesia refers to reduced pain reactivity. Endogenous opioid systems are triggered by certain environmental events which leads to endorphin release—which induces analgesia. Copulation is associated with a certain degree of analgesia. 7.4 Essay 1) Describe the neural pathways by which auditory signals for audition reach the cortex. Answer: This answer is summarized in figure 7.7. The cochlear nerve projects afferent fibers to the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, then to the superior olivary complex, and then through the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus—then to the thalamic medial geniculate nucleus, and then to the primary auditory cortex. Auditory signals follow these neural pathways to reach the cortex: 1. Cochlea: Sound waves are converted into neural signals by hair cells in the cochlea. 2. Auditory Nerve: These signals are transmitted via the auditory nerve. 3. Cochlear Nuclei: The auditory nerve fibers synapse at the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. 4. Superior Olivary Complex: Signals then travel to the superior olivary complex for initial sound localization processing. 5. Lateral Lemniscus: The signals continue through the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. 6. Inferior Colliculus: Further integration and reflexive responses occur here. 7. Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN): Signals are relayed from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. 8. Auditory Cortex: Finally, the signals reach the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the temporal lobe for conscious sound perception and processing. 2) Explain how the brain codes for the spatial location of sound. Answer: Auditory neurons are sensitive to the differences in the arrival times of an auditory stimulus (low frequency). A sound that occurs directly in front will arrive at the left and right ears at the same time; a sound that occurs to the left will arrive at the left ear sooner than at the right ear. High frequency sounds may be detected using differences in sound intensity. 3) Differentiate between the perceptual and behavioral effects of pain. Answer: Pain stimuli produce a sensory component that involves the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, while an intermediate emotional component involves the anterior cingulate and insular cortex. The long-term component of pain represents the emotional implications of pain, and is related to activity of the prefrontal cortex. Hypnotism reduces the activity of the anterior cingulate and the unpleasantness of a pain stimulus. 4) Describe the biological actions by which certain stimuli are able to lower reactivity to pain. Answer: Pain signals are transmitted to the spinal cord and from there to the thalamus and to various cortical regions (anterior cingulate and the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex). Pain reactivity can be diminished by interrupting the ascending pain pathways, by reducing the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (reduced aversiveness), or by inducing the release of endorphins, which block pain transmission. 5) Describe the transduction process for gustatory signals. Answer: Taste receptors code for five qualities (sweetness, bitterness, sourness, saltiness, and umami). Each receptor type involves a different transduction process. Hydrogen ions generate a sour taste which controls a potassium channel. Bitter and sweet tastes are coded for by multiple receptors Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

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