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Chapter 8: Sleep and Biological Rhythms 8.1 Multiple Choice 1) The major disorder suffered by Michael, the subject of the chapter prologue, was A) a nighttime eating disorder. B) an anxiety disorder. C) narcolepsy. D) a slow-wave sleep behavior disorder. E) insomnia. Answer: C 2) The key symptom of narcolepsy is A) dreaming in color. B) an attack of sleep during the day. C) anxiety and fear during the waking period. D) rapid movements of the eyes. E) the inability to fall asleep. Answer: B 3) Which of the following is true of sleep? A) Strong movements accompany each sleep stage. B) Sleep is preceded by a feeling of dizziness. C) Humans spend about a third of their lives asleep. D) Sleep is a state of unconsciousness. E) The function of sleep is to suppress memory consolidation. Answer: C Rationale: Humans spend about a third of their lives asleep. 4) The only movements that are characteristic of sleep involve A) the tongue. B) rapid movements of the eyes. C) restlessness of the legs. D) slow movements of the neck. E) the fingers and arms. Answer: B 5) Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by A) changes in respiration. B) the quality and quantity of dreams. C) changes in the electrical activity of the brain. D) changes in consciousness. E) changes in motor movements. Answer: C Rationale: Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by changes in the electrical activity of the brain. 6) An electro-oculogram measures A) heart rate over time. B) eye movements. C) changes in blood pressure. D) electrical potentials within the brain. E) the resistance of the skin to electrical current. Answer: B 7) The ________ pattern of EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high-frequency (13–30 Hz), low-amplitude waves. A) beta B) delta C) theta D) sleep spindle E) alpha Answer: A 8) Beta brain wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because A) this pattern is seen in children but not adults. B) this brain wave pattern also appears during sleep. C) this wave form waxes and wanes during the day. D) it can be induced by certain drugs such as alcohol. E) This wave form is recorded in coma victims. Answer: B Rationale: Beta brain wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because this brain wave pattern also appears during sleep. 9) The transition between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ________ waves in the sleep record. A) alpha B) delta C) gamma D) theta E) beta Answer: D 10) The ________ brain wave pattern has a characteristic frequency of ________. A) sleep spindle; 1–3 Hz B) theta; 12–14 Hz C) alpha; 13–30 Hz D) sleep spindle; less than 3.5 Hz E) theta; 3.5–7.5 Hz Answer: E 11) A person whose brain waves contain high-amplitude delta waves is most likely A) in either stage 3 or 4 of slow-wave sleep. B) in stage 1 of slow-wave sleep. C) dreaming. D) in stage 2 of slow-wave sleep. E) awake. Answer: A Rationale: A person whose brain waves contain high-amplitude delta waves is most likely in either stage 3 or 4 of slow-wave sleep. 12) Sleep stages 3 and 4 are also called A) REM sleep. B) high-frequency sleep. C) slow-wave sleep. D) paradoxical sleep. E) rhythmic sleep. Answer: C 13) Sleep stages 1–4 are termed ________, whereas stages 3–4 are referred to as ________. A) REM sleep; non-REM sleep B) non-REM sleep; slow-wave sleep C) slow-wave sleep; non-REM sleep D) paradoxical sleep; REM sleep E) arrhythmic sleep; paradoxical sleep Answer: B Rationale: Sleep stages 1–4 are termed non-REM sleep, whereas stages 3–4 are referred to slow-wave sleep. 14) The appearance of rapid eye movements in the sleep record is an indicator of A) paradoxical sleep. B) cold, methodical dreams. C) muscle paralysis. D) slow-wave sleep. E) gastric distress. Answer: A Rationale: The appearance of rapid eye movements in the sleep record is an indicator of paradoxical sleep. 15) All of the following are characteristics of REM sleep EXCEPT A) alternating delta and beta EEG activities. B) loss of muscle tonus. C) presence of beta wave EEG activity. D) occasional twitching. E) rapid eye movements. Answer: A Rationale: Alternating delta and beta EEG waves are not present during REM sleep. 16) Which of the following is a reason why stage 4 is considered to be the deepest sleep stage? A) A person in this stage is easily roused by meaningful stimuli. B) A person who awakes from stage 1 is groggy and confused. C) A person who awakes from this stage is alert and attentive. D) Only very loud stimuli will awaken a person from stage 4 sleep. E) Napping in stage 4 reduces the amount of sleep required per night. Answer: D Rationale: The fact that only very loud stimuli will awaken a person from stage 4 sleep is the reason why stage 4 is considered to be the deepest sleep stage. 17) Which of the following is true of the sleep cycle during a night of sleep? A) Each non-REM/REM cycle lasts about 45 minutes. B) Subjects first enter REM sleep and then transition to non-REM sleep. C) As the night goes on, the relative length of REM sleep increases in each successive cycle. D) Stages 3 and 4 of slow-wave sleep mostly occur in the early morning hours. E) Sleep cycles are random across the night. Answer: C Rationale: As the night goes on, the relative length of REM sleep increases in each successive cycle. 18) A single cycle of non-REM/REM sleep lasts about A) 10 minutes. B) 30–40 minutes. C) 90 minutes. D) 360 minutes. E) 8 hours. Answer: C 19) Which of the following is a rhythm that tends to occur over a 90 minute period? A) a single non-REM/REM sleep cycle B) heart rate rhythm C) stomach motility rhythm D) smoking rhythm E) menstrual cycle Answer: A Rationale: Heart rate rhythms tend to vary over a 90 minute period. 20) Which of the following is absent during REM sleep? A) eye movements B) dreaming C) genital changes associated with arousal D) EEG synchrony E) muscle paralysis Answer: D 21) Changes in blood flow to the genitals are noted during ________ and can be used clinically for the diagnosis of ________. A) slow-wave sleep; cardiac failure B) the day hours; hypertension C) REM sleep; impotence D) non-REM sleep; narcolepsy E) the day hours; cocaine abuse Answer: C Rationale: Changes in blood flow to the genitals are noted during REM sleep and can be used clinically for the diagnosis of impotence. 22) About ________ of the population experience insomnia as a persistent problem while ________ experience insomnia on an occasion. A) 1 percent; 3 percent B) 15 percent; 52 percent C) 27 percent; 45 percent D) 7 percent; 19 percent E) 9 percent; 25 percent Answer: E 23) A serious issue associated with sleeping medications is that A) the use of sleeping pills can lead to a fatal form of insomnia. B) people use these pills to get high. C) their short duration of action does not ensure a full night of sleep. D) these pills are in short supply, leaving some people without adequate insomnia treatment. E) the use of sleeping pills can lead to daytime grogginess. Answer: E 24) Insomnia is defined A) as a problem in rapidly reaching REM sleep. B) as the inability to fall asleep within one hour of going to bed. C) as awakening 4 or more times during the night. D) in relation to a person's particular need for sleep. E) as a relative lack of slow-wave sleep compared to REM sleep. Answer: D Rationale: Insomnia is defined in relation to a person's particular need for sleep. 25) A common treatment for sleep apnea is A) surgical modification of the airways. B) sleeping medication. C) sleep deprivation. D) antidepressant medication. E) a drug that activates brain norepinephrine synapses. Answer: A Rationale: A common treatment for sleep apnea is surgical modification of the airways. 26) ________ is a sleep disorder that involves a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood during sleep. A) Situational insomnia B) Sleep apnea C) REM disorder D) Narcolepsy E) Cataplexy Answer: B Rationale: Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that involves a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood during sleep. 27) The primary symptom of narcolepsy is A) recurring nightmares. B) abnormal slow-wave sleep. C) dreaming while awake. D) sleeping at inappropriate times. E) sleep paralysis. Answer: D 28) Narcolepsy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A) awaking refreshed from a sleep attack. B) sleep attacks. C) sleepwalking. D) hypnagogic hallucinations. E) sleep paralysis. Answer: C Rationale: Sleepwalking is not a symptom of narcolepsy. 29) A person who exhibits sudden paralysis while remaining conscious may be suffering from A) REM without atonia. B) somnambulism. C) a sleep attack. D) situational insomnia. E) an episode of cataplexy. Answer: E 30) Cataplexy may be brought on by A) strong emotions or physical exertion. B) overuse of caffeine. C) high blood levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. D) damage to neurons that initiate REM sleep. E) staying awake for long periods of time. Answer: A 31) An example of ________ is a person who dreams while lying awake, but is temporarily paralyzed. A) somnambulism B) hypnagogic hallucinations C) cataplexy D) night terrors E) a daydream Answer: B 32) Narcolepsy is a considered to be a neurological disorder in that A) narcoleptics are prone to develop mania. B) narcoleptics show no problems in staying asleep. C) narcoleptics generally enter REM sleep directly from the waking state. D) slow-wave sleep intrudes into the awake state in narcoleptics. E) narcoleptics show problems in eye tracking. Answer: C Rationale: Narcolepsy is a considered to be a neurological disorder in that narcoleptics generally enter REM sleep directly from the waking state. 33) ________ is(are) considered to be an abnormality of REM sleep. A) Sleep apnea B) Somnabulism C) Cataplexy D) Night terrors E) Insomnia Answer: C Rationale: Cataplexy is considered to be an abnormality of REM sleep. 34) Narcolepsy in dogs is A) produced by a mutation of the hypocretin gene. B) due to a flaw in the lateral hypothalamus. C) a mutation of the leptin gene. D) an environmental disorder. E) associated with overeating to obesity. Answer: A 35) A genetic mutation of the hypocretin gene in mice results in A) intrusion of slow-wave sleep during the awake period. B) symptoms of narcolepsy. C) prolonged sleeping. D) hypnagogic hallucinations. E) excessive overeating. Answer: B 36) The symptom known as ________ is an abnormality of REM sleep. A) night terror B) insomnia C) enuresis D) cataplexy E) apnea Answer: D 37) In the text example of narcolepsy, the Doberman dog showed cataplexy while A) playing with each other. B) eating. C) drinking. D) engaging in reproductive behavior. E) running along the beach. Answer: B 38) Which of the following is true of human narcolepsy? A) Narcolepsy is a non-genetic disorder. B) An autoimmune disease damages ghrelin neurons resulting in narcolepsy. C) Narcolepsy involves the intrusion of REM sleep components into the awake state. D) Narcolepsy is a stress disorder. E) Narcolepsy is a disorder of childhood, Answer: C Rationale: Narcolepsy involves the intrusion of REM sleep components into the awake state. 39) Sleep attacks are effectively treated by drugs that A) facilitate serotonin. B) damage hypocretin neurons in the brain. C) act as catecholamine agonists. D) facilitate GABA activity. E) block hypocretin2 receptors. Answer: C Rationale: Sleep attacks are effectively treated by drugs that act as catecholamine agonists. 40) Symptoms of narcolepsy involving REM sleep (such as cataplexy) are effectively treated by drugs that A) block serotonin receptors. B) impair the release of hypocretins in the brain. C) act as catecholamine antagonists. D) are commonly used to treat depression. E) promote GABA activity. Answer: D 41) The primary symptom of REM-sleep behavior disorder is(are) A) attacks of cataplexy. B) a depressed mood upon awakening. C) motor movements during slow-wave sleep. D) the ability of a person to move during REM sleep. E) loss of dreams during REM sleep. Answer: D 42) REM sleep behavior disorder is to cataplexy as A) dreaming is to logic. B) movement is to paralysis. C) logic is to dreaming. D) paralysis is to movement. E) sleep is to awake. Answer: B Rationale: REM sleep behavior disorder is to cataplexy as movement is to paralysis. 43) Night terrors are most likely to occur during A) REM sleep. B) high-frequency sleep. C) stage 4 of slow-wave sleep. D) paradoxical sleep. E) stage 1 of slow-wave sleep. Answer: C 44) A treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder involves A) antidepressant medications. B) stimulant drugs. C) antipsychotic medications. D) clonazepam. E) drugs that block hypocretin receptors. Answer: D Rationale: A treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder involves clonazepam. 45) ________ is a sleep disorder that is the opposite of REM-sleep behavior disorder. A) Cataplexy B) Situational insomnia C) Somnambulism D) Nocturnal enuresis E) Sleepwalking Answer: A Rationale: Cataplexy is a sleep disorder that is the opposite of REM-sleep behavior disorder. 46) Somnambulism is synonymous with A) sleep attack. B) dreaming while awake. C) sleepwalking. D) cataplexy. E) night terrors. Answer: C 47) Sleep disorders that occur during or involve REM sleep include A) sleepwalking. B) night terrors. C) sleep-related eating disorder. D) bedwetting. E) narcolepsy. Answer: E 48) Which of the following is not a disorder of slow-wave sleep? A) somnambulism B) night terrors C) nocturnal enuresis D) cataplexy E) bedwetting Answer: D Rationale: Cataplexy is not a disorder involving slow-wave sleep. 49) The phrase "pavor nocturnus" is synonymous with A) cataplexy. B) dreaming while awake. C) sleepwalking. D) sleep attack. E) night terrors. Answer: E 50). Which of the following is true of sleep-related eating disorder? A) The condition is common. B) The condition can lead to weight loss. C) The condition may be associated with the use of sleeping pills such as Zolpidem. D) The disorder is treated using lithium. E) The condition is caused by stress. Answer: C 51) The primary function of slow-wave sleep is to A) clear brain waste products produced by REM sleep. B) promote dreaming. C) facilitate learning. D) promote brain development. E) permit the brain to rest. Answer: E Rationale: The primary function of slow-wave sleep is to permit the brain to rest. 52) Which statement about sleep is false? A) REM sleep patterns are similar in all species. B) Sleep is a useful behavior. C) Everyone dreams. D) All vertebrates show sleep. E) Mammals and birds show signs of REM sleep. Answer: A Rationale: REM sleep patterns are not similar in all species. 53) The mallard duck is unique in that A) it does not sleep. B) they can sleep with one hemisphere awake and the other asleep. C) eye movements do not occur during their sleep. D) slow-wave sleep is absent from their sleep pattern. E) these ducks sleep with both eyes wide open. Answer: B 54) A primary effect of sleep deprivation in humans is A) psychosis. B) overeating and weight gain. C) perceptual distortions. D) secretion of stress hormones. E) depression. Answer: C 55) Prolonged sleep deprivation results in A) impaired mental concentration. B) difficulty in physical exercise.. C) some perceptual illusions. D) tactile hallucinations. E) improved mental concentration. Answer: A 56) The high level of delta waves in normally active brain areas suggests that the primary function of stage 4 of slow-wave sleep is to A) inhibit motor movements during dreaming. B) facilitate memory. C) promote beta-wave activity in the forebrain. D) rest the brain. E) redirect blood flow to the genitals. Answer: D Rationale: The high level of delta waves in normally active brain areas suggests that the primary function of stage 4 of slow-wave sleep is to rest the brain. 57) A full day of physical exercise would be expected to A) produce insomnia. B) reduce the amplitude of delta activity in the frontal lobes. C) increase the amount of time spent that night in slow-wave sleep. D) increase the need for REM sleep. E) increase the amount of time spent dreaming. Answer: C Rationale: A full day of physical exercise would be expected to increase the amount of time spent that night in slow-wave sleep. 58) Healthy subjects who spent six weeks resting in bed exhibited A) no change in REM or slow-wave sleep patterns. B) REM sleep patterns similar to those of depressed subjects. C) decreased slow-wave sleep. D) a significant reduction in total sleep time. E) signs of REM-sleep behavior disorder. Answer: A 59) The rebound phenomenon noted after deprivation of REM sleep suggests that A) there is a physiological need for stage 1 slow-wave sleep. B) the function of REM sleep is to rest the brain. C) emotional wellbeing requires slow-wave sleep. D) there is a physiological need for a certain amount of REM sleep. E) dreaming is not a function of REM sleep. Answer: D Rationale: The rebound phenomenon noted after deprivation of REM sleep suggests that there is a physiological need for a certain amount of REM sleep. 60) Which of the following findings supports the brain development theory of REM sleep? A) REM sleep increases in college students during exam time. B) Active phases of brain development are associated with low levels of REM sleep. C) Newborn infants spend 70 percent of their sleep time in slow-wave sleep. D) The elderly spend 85 percent of their sleep time in REM sleep. E) Infant animals born with well-developed brains spend proportionally less time in REM sleep than do infant animals born with poorly developed brains. Answer: E Rationale: The fact that infant animals born with well-developed brains spend proportionally less time in REM sleep than do infant animals born with poorly developed brains supports the brain development theory of REM sleep 61) Which of the following findings support the memory consolidation theory of REM sleep? A) Deprivation of REM sleep results in poor learning in rats. B) Active phases of brain development are associated with low levels of REM sleep. C) Slow-wave sleep deprivation results in poor learning in rats. D) Training in a complex maze reduces time spent in REM sleep. E) REM sleep time is increased in retarded children relative to normal children. Answer: A Rationale: The fact that deprivation of REM sleep results in poor learning in rats support the memory consolidation theory of REM sleep. 62) The notion that sleep or wakefulness is regulated by a substance that circulates within the blood is A) proven by the observation that naps reduce sleep time the following night. B) unlikely, given that the cerebral hemispheres of a dolphin sleep at different times. C) REM and slow-wave sleep appear to involve independent mechanisms. D) proven by studies of the dolphin sleep cycle. E) proven by studies in which blood transfusion from a tired person to a rested person results in sleep in the recipient. Answer: B 63) The metabolism of glycogen increases the brain levels of ________, which in turn promotes ________. A) GABA; slow-wave sleep B) GABA; REM sleep C) adenosine; slow-wave sleep D) a benzodiazepine ligand; slow-wave sleep E) adenosine; wakefulness Answer: C 64) Signs of cortical arousal in the EEG are reduced by A) dopamine agonists. B) GABA agonists. C) serotonergic drugs. D) acetylcholine antagonists. E) adenosine. Answer: D 65) Signs of cortical arousal in the EEG are induced by A) adenosine. B) GABA agonists. C) serotonergic drugs. D) acetylcholine agonists. E) dopamine agonists. Answer: D 66) Microdialysis studies indicate that cortical beta wave activity is related to its levels of ________ within the ________. A) serotonin; striatum B) GABA; hippocampus C) acetylcholine; frontal cortex D) dopamine; locus coeruleus E) GABA; locus coeruleus Answer: C 67) Activation of ________ cells within the ________ produces arousal and reduced sleep. A) noradrenergic; locus coeruleus B) dopaminergic; preoptic area C) cholinergic; raphe D) serotonergic; SCN E) GABAergic; striatum Answer: A 68) The firing rates of cells within the locus coeruleus A) are highest during REM sleep. B) decrease during sleep and increase at awakening. C) are unrelated to behavioral arousal. D) are suppressed by sleeping medications. E) alter EEG cortical arousal. Answer: B Rationale: The firing rates of cells within the locus coeruleus decrease during sleep and increase at awakening. 69) The cell bodies of most serotonin neurons are located within the A) nucleus accumbens. B) reticular formation. C) raphe nuclei. D) striatum. E) locus coeruleus. Answer: C 70) Infusion of the transmitter substance ______ induces wakefulness. A) histamine B) glycine C) Gaba D) reserpine E) nitrous oxinde Answer: A 71) Drugs that deplete brain levels of histamine ______. A) inhibit slow wave sleep. B) decrease waking. C) induce symptoms of narcolepsy. D) suppress REM sleep. E) enhance rapid eye movements. Answer: B 72) ________ is(are) the result of degeneration of hypocretin neurons in the brain. A) Narcolepsy B) Insomnia C) Sleep attacks D) Night terrors E) Iatrogenic insomnia Answer: A 73) Hypocretin neurons are active during ________ but inactive during ________. A) reinforcement; punishment B) normal waking; sleep C) sexual behavior; feeding D) eating; drinking E) slow-wave sleep; REM sleep Answer: B 74) Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area would be expected to A) produce persistent REM sleep. B) alter male reproductive behavior. C) produce insomnia. D) impair the control of temperature regulation. E) reproduce the symptoms of narcolepsy. Answer: C Rationale: Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area would be expected to produce insomnia. 75) Which of the following are true of neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA)? A) Damage to the vlPOA produces sleepiness. B) Excitotoxic lesions of the vlPOA in cats increased sleep. C) vlPOA neurons have a low firing rate during sleep. D) Electrical stimulation of vlPOA neurons produces signs of drowsiness. E) vlPOA neurons secrete glutamate to excite regions that control arousal. Answer: D 76) According to Saper, mutual inhibition of the vlPOA by cells of the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei may result in A) shifts of attention. B) alternating motor search behaviors in a maze. C) the transitions between eating and drinking in the rat. D) stereotypic behavior. E) the alternation between sleep and waking states. Answer: E Rationale: According to Saper, mutual inhibition of the vlPOA by cells of the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei may result in the alternation between sleep and waking states. 77) Caffeine promotes wakefulness because it is a(n) A) adenosine antagonist. B) adenosine agonist. C) GABA antagonist. D) GABA agonist. E) norepinephrine antagonist. Answer: A Rationale: Caffeine promotes wakefulness because it is an adenosine antagonist. 78) Administration of a(n) ________ would be expected to promote sleep. A) adenosine antagonist B) adenosine agonist C) hypocretin agonist D) serotonin antagonist E) norepinephrine agonist Answer: B Rationale: Administration of an adenosine agonist would be expected to promote sleep. 79) Activation of adenosine receptors may increase sleep by A) excitation of hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. B) inhibition of the ventrolateral preoptic area. C) inhibition of neurons that normally inhibit the vlPOA. D) activation of histamine neurons. E) inactivation of serotonin neurons. Answer: C Rationale: Activation of adenosine receptors may increase sleep by inhibition of neurons that normally inhibit the vlPOA. 80) ________ is(are) a component of REM sleep. A) Decreased blood flow to the genitals B) Muscle spasms C) Low cerebral metabolism D) Desynchronized EEG activity E) Cold, unemotional dreams Answer: D 81) The neurons that turn on REM sleep are located in the A) pons. B) occipital cortex. C) suprachiasmatic nucleus. D) globus pallidus. E) preoptic area. Answer: A 82) Secretion of orexin within the _______ produces ______. A) REM-OFF area; wakefulness B) REM-ON area; a loss of slow-wave sleep C) preoptic area; wakefulness D) REM-OFF area; cataplexy E) preoptic area; wakefulness Answer: A 83) The neurons that turn off REM sleep are located in the A) ventral pons. B) occipital cortex. C) suprachiasmatic nucleus. D) globus pallidus. E) ventrolateral PAG. Answer: E 84) The REM-OFF cells receive excitatory input from A) orexigenic neurons within the lateral hypothalamus. B) ghrelin-secreting neurons within the thalamus. C) serotonin neurons within the preoptic region. D) peribrachial dopaminergic neurons. E) GABAergic neurons from the globus pallidus. Answer: A 85) Circadian rhythms are A) annual changes in behavior (such as bird migration). B) learned patterns of daily activity. C) not found in plants. D) endogenous cycles of activity over the course of a day. E) monthly cycles of reproductive activity. Answer: D 86) ________ is an example of a ________ A) Light; zeitgeber B) Colder night temperature; pacemaker C) Melatonin; pacing stimulus D) Warmer day temperature; zeitgeber E) Light; chronopulse Answer: A 87) Damage to the ______ suppresses penile erections during REM sleep. A) central nucleus of the amygdala B) nucleus accumbens C) lateral preoptic area. D) hippocampus E) lateral hypothalamus Answer: C 88) Which of the following is true of melanopsin? A) Melanopsin in rods is a cue that resets SCN clock cells. B) Melanopsin is found within cones but not rods. C) Melanopsin activity is suppressed by light. D) Melanopsin is found within ganglion cells. E) Melanopsin is found within rods but not cones. Answer: D Rationale: Melanopsin is found within ganglion cells. 89) The ________ contains the primary biological clock that controls sleep-wake cycles in the rat. A) intergeniculate leaflet B) pineal gland C) suprachiasmatic nucleus D) pretectal area E) superior colliculus Answer: C 90) The suprachiasmatic nucleus controls circadian rhythms via A) indirect neural connections with the hippocampus. B) release of hormones from the pituitary. C) activation of the ganglion cells of the retina. D) secretion of as yet unidentified chemicals. E) pathways routed through the paraventricular hypothalamus. Answer: D Rationale: The suprachiasmatic nucleus controls circadian rhythms via secretion of as yet unidentified chemicals. 91) Neural activity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei in rats is A) greatest during the winter months. B) lowest during the winter months. C) constant throughout a 24-hour period. D) higher at night and lower during the day. E) higher during the day and lower at night. Answer: E Rationale: Neural activity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei in rats is higher during the day and lower at night. 92) The "ticking" of a clock cell within the SCN appears to involve A) feedback loops of intracellular protein production. B) the rhythmic opening of sodium channels in the membrane. C) interactions between two adjacent clock cells. D) the rhythmic opening of calcium channels in the membrane. E) the buildup of sodium in the clock cell over time. Answer: A Rationale: The "ticking" of a clock cell within the SCN appears to involve feedback loops of intracellular protein production. 93) A person who travels across several time zones is likely to experience A) jet lag. B) elevated secretion of melatonin at night. C) a craving for chocolate. D) a permanent change in mood and sleep pattern. E) a desire to take on a factory night job. Answer: A 94) A potential treatment for jet lag is to administer ________ at ________. A) amphetamine; noon B) melatonin; bedtime C) alcohol; boarding time D) amphetamine; bedtime E) melatonin; noon Answer: B Rationale: A potential treatment for jet lag is to administer melatonin at bedtime. 8.2 True-False 1) Sleep is a behavior. Answer: True 2) A sleeping person is unconscious. Answer: False 3) Sleep stages 3 and 4 are characterized by delta activity. Answer: True 4) Sleep apnea is a fatal disorder involving insomnia. Answer: False 5) Insomniacs underestimate their amount of sleep. Answer: True 6) Disruption of the hypocretin gene produces symptoms of narcolepsy. Answer: True 7) Antidepressant drugs are also effective against disorders of REM sleep. Answer: True 8) REM sleep behavioral disorder is another name for sleepwalking. Answer: False 9) In the bottlenose dolphin, slow-wave sleep occurs independently in the left and right hemispheres. Answer: True 10) Sleep deprivation produces severe physiological stress. Answer: False 11) REM sleep facilitates the consolidation of non-declarative memory. Answer: True 12) Antagonism of adenosine receptors by caffeine produces arousal. Answer: True 13) Noradrenergic agonist drugs produce arousal and decrease sleep. Answer: True 14) The vlPOA is key region for the initiation of sleep. Answer: True 15) Degeneration of brain orexin neurons causes narcolepsy. Answer: True 16) Activation of lateral preoptic neurons may mediate the genital arousal noted during REM sleep. Answer: True 17) Light is the primary zeitgeber for most mammals' activity cycles. Answer: True 18) The photopigment melanopsin is located in rods but not cones. Answer: False 8.3 Short-Answer Essay 1) Describe the laboratory methods used to study sleep. Answer: Subjects are instrumented so as to provide measures of brain electrical activity (EEG), muscle tension (EMG), and eye activity (EOG), whereas other devices may record heart rate or skin resistance. These measures are then examined to determine the stages and phases of sleep. 2) Explain why it is said that the brain is active during sleep. Answer: Circuits in the brain control the sequencing of the various phases of sleep, with the cycle lasting about 90 minutes. Blood flow can increase dramatically to deliver oxygen and glucose to brain cells that are active during REM sleep (e.g., the visual association cortex) and there is evidence of mental activity during sleep (e.g., dreaming). 3) Give two reasons why sleeping medications may not be the right treatment for insomnia. Answer: People underestimate the amount of sleep they get each night; there is no single definition of insomnia; sleeping pill use may leave a person groggy the next day. 4) Describe the symptoms of narcolepsy. Answer: Sleep attack is an overwhelming urge to sleep for a few minutes. During cataplexy, a person has paralysis and is conscious; whereas during sleep, paralysis occurs just before or just after sleep. Hypnagogic hallucinations are dreams that occur during sleep paralysis. 5) Describe the types of problems that occur during slow-wave sleep. Answer: Slow-wave sleep disorders include sleepwalking, bedwetting, and night terrors. Slow-wave sleep is also associated with a form of bedtime overeating. 6) Explain why it is unlikely that the sleep-wake cycle is controlled by a blood-borne chemical factor. Answer: Sleep could be the result of depletion of a wakefulness-promoting factor, whereas waking could result from depletion of a sleep-inducing factor. Two objections arise from the observation that conjoined twins (who share a circulatory system) show separate sleep-cycles. More importantly, the hemispheres of the dolphin brain show alternating sleep-waking patterns. 7) Contrast the effects of acetylcholine and serotonin on cortical arousal. Answer: Cortical arousal refers to alertness and wakefulness and is indexed by cortical desynchrony. Acetylcholine is contained within two sets of neurons and released in the cortex to induce desynchrony. One pathway is from the pons to cortex, and the other is from the basal forebrain to cortex. Electrical stimulation of the pons induces cortical desynchrony and is accompanied by marked increases in acetylcholine levels. Serotonin-containing neurons are located within the raphe nuclei. Serotonin neurons may be most active during waking and are almost silent during REM sleep. 8) Explain how melatonin may act to ameliorate jet lag. Answer: Jet lag refers to the fact that while humans can rapidly travel across many time zones, our internal clocks require a longer time period to reset to the local time. Jet lag refers to feelings of disorientation and problems with sleep patterns. Melatonin secretion is a circadian rhythm that peaks near bedtime. Ingestion of melatonin at bedtime may pulse the brain with melatonin, thereby resetting brain clocks. 8.4 Essay 1) Compare the characteristics of non-REM sleep with that of REM sleep. Answer: Non-REM consists of four stages: stage 1 contains alpha activity (8–12 Hz) and theta activity (3.5–7.5 Hz); stage 2 contains sleep spindles (12–14 Hz) but not alpha activity; stages 3 and 4 contain more delta activity ( less than 3.5 Hz). Muscle activity is present during non-REM sleep, but not REM sleep. In REM sleep, the EEG shifts back to a beta wave form (13–30 Hz). In REM sleep, there are regular movements of the eyes, signs of genital activity, and dreaming. Non-REM dreams can be frightening (stage 4 night terrors). 2) Explain the relationship between REM sleep, narcolepsy, and antidepressant medications. Answer: Certain aspects of REM sleep (paralysis, dreaming) appear to intrude into the daytime hours in a person with narcolepsy. Sleep attack is an overwhelming urge to sleep for a few minutes. During cataplexy, a person has paralysis while conscious, whereas during sleep paralysis occurs just before or just after sleep. Hypnagogic hallucinations are dreams that occur during sleep paralysis. Sleep attacks can be treated using amphetamine-like stimulants, whereas antidepressant drugs (which act on serotonin and norepinephrine) are effective against other narcolepsy symptoms. Depressed persons show fragmented REM sleep, and antidepressant drugs suppress REM sleep. 3) Evaluate the hypothesis that sleep is a restorative process. Discuss the effects of sleep deprivation and physical and mental activity on sleep. Answer: All vertebrates sleep. Sleep deprivation in humans can produce visual hallucinations and difficulty in concentration. During slow-wave sleep, brain activity declines, and it appears that slow-wave sleep is important for cognitive functioning. Although physical exertion (increase or decrease) has little effect on slow-wave sleep, mental exertion produces an increase in subsequent slow-wave sleep. 4) Compare and contrast the neural systems that control slow-wave and REM sleep with regard to anatomy and the relevant transmitters involved in each. Answer: Slow-wave sleep is produced by activity of neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA), which act by inhibition of neural systems that promote wakefulness (e.g., NE within the locus coeruleus, histamine in the tuberomammillary nucleus, and serotonin within the raphe nuclei) to initiate sleep. When the sleep-waking flip-flop is in the awake state, sleep is prevented. In the sleep state, slow-wave sleep shifts to REM sleep via another flip-flop mechanism in which cells within the sublaterodorsal nucleus act as “REM-ON” cells while cells within the ventrolateral PAG act as a “REM-OFF” region. When the REM-ON cells are active, motor neurons of the spinal cord are inhibited, whereas tectal neurons generate rapid eye movements. 5) Evaluate the hypothesis that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) acts as the primary biological clock. Answer: The SCN receives afferent signals from the retina (melanopsin in ganglion cells) that provide the capacity of light signals to reset the clock (zeitgeber function). Damage to the SCN impairs circadian rhythms. Cells within the SCN show reliable changes in neural activity across the day and the night. Transplanted SCN cells placed into the ventricles are sufficient to restore circadian rhythms in hamsters whose own SCN was ablated. Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

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