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Chapter 16: Autistic, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity, Stress, and Substance Abuse Disorders 16.1 Multiple Choice 1) In the chapter prologue on addiction, what factor induced John to restart his heroin addiction? A) John smoked some marijuana and drank some alcohol, which led him back into heroin use. B) The stress of losing his job led to drug relapse. C) John saw a poster on drug paraphernalia and experienced a very strong drug craving. D) John was reintroduced to heroin while in prison. E) All of the above are correct. Answer: C Rationale: In the chapter prologue on addiction, John saw a poster on drug paraphernalia and experienced a very strong drug craving which led him to relapse. 2) ________ involves the inability to develop normal social relations and a tendency to be self-absorbed. A) Tourette's syndrome B) Fragile X syndrome C) Obsessive-compulsive disorder D) Autism E) Parkinson's disorder Answer: D 3) Autistic disorder A) can be induced by childhood immunization. B) affects 1–2 percent of the population. C) includes affective, cognitive, and behavioral abnormalities. D) typically wanes during the early adult years. E) can be effectively treated with serotonin agonist drugs. Answer: C 4) Which of the following is a characteristic of autistic disorder? A) poorly developed social skills B) high creativity. C) normal interests and behaviors D) mania. E) extreme sadness and motor retardation. Answer: A 5) Autism was once believed to be A) a side effect of internment in prison camps. B) acquired through interactions with hostile, withdrawn parents. C) a less severe form of schizophrenia. D) related to brain damage induced by shaking a child. E) a purely genetic disorder. Answer: B 6) The strongest support for a genetic influence on autism is that A) autism is effectively treated using serotonin agonist drugs. B) the concordance rate for autism is 5 percent in fraternal twins and 70 percent in identical twins. C) siblings of autistic children are less likely to develop autism than the normal population. D) parents of autistic children are usually autistic. E) the concordance rate for autism is 70 percent in fraternal twins and 0 percent in identical twins. Answer: B 7) A general finding is that the brains of young autistic children exhibit A) reduced volume of the hippocampus. B) enlarged brain size of around 10 percent. C) fewer axons within the corpus callosum. D) loss of cells within the cerebral cortex. E) increased volume of the brain ventricles. Answer: B Rationale: A general finding is that the brains of young autistic children exhibit enlarged brain size of around 10 percent. 8) A known biological cause of autism is A) prenatal lithium. B) prenatal depression. C) encephalitis caused by herpes virus. D) multiple sclerosis. E) being born in the winter months. Answer: C Rationale: A known biological cause of autism is encephalitis caused by herpes virus. 9) Baron-Cohen suggests that autistic spectrum disorder involves an exaggeration of ______ interests such as ______. A) female; rough and tumble play B) male; drug addiction C) male; rough and tumble play D) female; drug addiction E) male; inferring the thoughts and feelings of others. Answer: C Rationale: Baron-Cohen suggests that autistic spectrum disorder involves an exaggeration of male interests such as rough and tumble play. 10) Difficulty in concentrating, remaining still, and working on a task that interfere with learning are the key characteristics of A) tubercular sclerosis. B) autism. C) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. D) anxiety disorder. E) psychostimulant abuse. Answer: C 11) The relatively poor ability of an autistic person to interact socially with others is likely due to A) a failure of activation of their fusiform face area by other faces. B) damage to the ascending visual pathways. C) visual acuity problems. D) enhanced activity within their orbitofrontal cortex. E) an infection involving the corpus callosum. Answer: A Rationale: The relatively poor ability of an autistic person to interact socially with others is likely due to a failure of activation of their fusiform face area by other faces. 12) The primary concern about children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is that A) ADHD interferes with learning in school. B) their behavior is irritating to their teachers. C) excessive fidgeting leads to extreme weight loss. D) persons with ADHD are likely to abuse cocaine as adults. E) ADHD in childhood becomes depression in adulthood. Answer: A Rationale: The primary concern about children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is that ADHD interferes with learning in school. 13) Which of the following is true of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? A) ADHD does not persist into adulthood. B) Boys are 10 times more likely to be classified as ADHD than are girls. C) ADHD is a rare childhood behavior disorder. D) ADHD interferes with mood E). Persons with ADHD are likely to abuse cocaine as adults. Answer: B 14) The most common treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is A) daily administration of Prozac. B) daily administration of a benzodiazepine drug. C) daily administration of methylphenidate. D) ablation of the cingulum bundle. E) drugs that are dopamine antagonists. Answer: C 15) The observation that ________ is an effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) suggests that ADHD results from ________. A) methylphenidate; understimulation of dopamine transmission B) haloperidol; overstimulation of dopamine transmission C) fluoxetine; a deficit in serotonin transmission D) fenfluramine; overstimulation of serotonin transmission E) methylphenidate; overstimulation of dopamine transmission Answer: A Rationale: The observation that methylphenidate is an effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) suggests that ADHD results from under stimulation of dopamine transmission. 16) A drug such as methylphenidate that blocks the dopamine transporter would be expected to A) reduce the likelihood of activation of other neurons. B) impair dopamine neurotransmission. C) increase synaptic levels of dopamine. D) decrease synaptic levels of dopamine. E) aggravate the behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Answer: C Rationale: A drug such as methylphenidate that blocks the dopamine transporter would be expected to increase synaptic levels of dopamine. 17) The estimated heritability of autism is ____%. A) 1-5 B) 10-20 C) 30-40 D).50-60 E)75-90 Answer: E 18) The symptoms of ADHD resemble those of persons with damage involving the A) amygdala. B) hippocampus. C) cerebellum. D) prefrontal cortex. E) anterior cingulate cortex. Answer: D Rationale: The symptoms of ADHD resemble those of persons with damage involving the prefrontal cortex. 19) The term "stress" was coined by A) Hans Selye. B) James Olds. C) Sigmund Freud. D) Walter Cannon. E) William James. Answer: D Rationale: The term "stress" was coined by Walter Cannon. 20) The general process by which a physiological reaction produced in the body by the perception of aversive or threatening events is referred to as A) posttraumatic stress disorder. B) a fight-or-flight response. C) stressful. D) an immune response. E) stress. Answer: E 21) Secretion of glucocorticoids results in A) reduced plasma levels of sex steroid hormones. B) increased conversion of protein to glucose. C) greater availability of fatty acids as sources of energy. D) increased blood flow. E) All of the above are correct. Answer: E 22) Glucocorticoid receptors A) are found within almost every cell of the body. B) are found in highest concentration in the adrenal glands. C) disappear following adrenalectomy. D) gradually deteriorate with age. E) are primarily localized in the brain stem. Answer: A 23) All of the following occur during a stress response EXCEPT A) the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is activated. B) norepinephrine is released as a neurotransmitter in the brain. C) glucose is made available for energy, due to the effects of epinephrine. D) an increased output of the heart increases blood flow to the muscles. E) the adrenal gland releases steroid hormones. Answer: A 24) Which of the following is true of the fight-or-flight response? A) Prolonged exposure to stress can lead to improved health B) The fight-or-flight response saves energy. C) The fight-or-flight response is maladaptive in that it prepares an organism to either enter into battle or to flee a situation. D) The term was coined by Walter Cannon. E) Evoluation has eliminated the need for this response in humans. Answer: D 25) Injection of CRH into brain would be expected to result in A) a profound state of relaxation. B) increased beard growth in men. C) impaired fear responses. D) behavioral signs of anxiety. E) activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Answer: D Rationale: Injection of CRH into brain would be expected to result in behavioral signs of anxiety. 26) The secretion of glucocorticoids is controlled by neurons localized within the A) posterior pituitary. B) preoptic hypothalamus. C) central nucleus of the amygdala. D) reticular activating system. E) PVN. Answer: E 27) Which of the following correctly depicts the control of secretion of glucocorticoids? A) central nucleus of the amygdala → activates ACTH secretion from anterior pituitary → PVN activation → glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal medulla B) CRH secretion within the PVN → activates ACTH release from anterior pituitary → glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal cortex C) PVN activation → CRH secretion in anterior pituitary → ACTH secretion from anterior pituitary → glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal cortex D) ACTH secretion from the PVN → CRH release from the posterior pituitary → glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal cortex E) activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala → sympathetic activation → adrenaline release → glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal cortex Answer: C Rationale: The control of secretion of glucocorticoids is: PVN activation → CRH secretion in anterior pituitary → ACTH secretion from anterior pituitary - > glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal cortex. 28) Which of the following statements about glucocorticoids is correct? A) An inability to secrete glucocorticoids results in greater reactivity/toxicity to stressors. B) Secretion of glucocorticoids is controlled by the central nucleus of the amygdala. C) Glucocorticoids increase levels of hormones that affect sexual function. D) Cortisol is a glucocorticoid released by the anterior pituitary gland. E) Glucocorticoid receptors are mostly found within limbic system neurons. Answer: A 29) Prolonged stress can result in cardiovascular disease because A) stress-related hormones are toxic for cardiac cells. B) stress can increase blood pressure which leads to heart attacks and strokes. C) prolonged activation of the parasympathetic nervous system damages heart tissue. D) stress increases consumption of fatty foods that clog the arteries. E) activation of the sympathetic nervous system produces more wear and tear on the cardiovascular system. Answer: B Rationale: Prolonged stress can result in cardiovascular disease because stress can increase blood pressure which leads to heart attacks and strokes. 30) Studies of air traffic controllers who work in a busy airport indicate that they A) enjoy better health later in life. B) show immediate effects, but recover quickly. C) recover gradually, but exhibit no lasting effects of the stress. D) may be more likely to have high blood pressure and ulcers. E) are more likely to show avoidance of stress in the future. Answer: D Rationale: Studies of air traffic controllers who work in a busy airport indicate that they may be more likely to have high blood pressure and ulcers. 31) Hans Selye argued that ill health induced by chronic stress exposure reflects A) the prolonged secretion of acetylcholine. B) overstimulation of growth. C) the prolonged secretion of glucocorticoids. D) the activation of apoptosis in brain by stress exposure. E) decreased blood pressure. Answer: C Rationale: Hans Selye argued that ill health induced by chronic stress exposure reflects the prolonged secretion of glucocorticoids. 32) Which of the following effects of stress would predispose an organism to develop an infectious illness? A) inhibition of the immune response B) inhibition of steroid sex hormones C) inhibition of growth D) inhibition of the inflammatory responses E) high blood pressure Answer: A Rationale: Inhibition of the immune response would predispose an organism to develop an infectious illness to stress. 33) Chronic stress may impair memory by A) releasing acetylcholine in the hippocampus. B) destroying cells within field CA1 of the hippocampus. C) increasing the entry of glucose into neurons. D) increasing the reuptake of glutamate into hippocampal neurons. E) inducing apoptosis of glial cells. Answer: B 34) Elevated glucocorticoid levels during stress may explain A) loss of cells in the amygdala. B) development of memory problems in older persons. C) poor performance of stressed rats in tasks of cocaine self-administration.. D) induction of Alzheimer's disease after stress. E) the inhibition of growth noted during stress. Answer: B Rationale: Elevated glucocorticoid levels during stress may explain development of memory problems in older persons. 35) Intense feelings of fear, helplessness, or horror are key signs of A) psychosis. B) posttraumatic stress disorder. C) generalized anxiety. D) "flashbacks." E) neurotic depression. Answer: B 36) Which of the following is true of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A) Women are more likely than men to develop PTSD. B) PTSD is an environmental disorder with no genetic roots. C) Women are more likely than men to experience severe trauma. D) PTSD is a problem noted after middle age. E) PTSD results in poor psychological functioning without problems in physical health. Answer: A 37) The tendency to develop PTSD is related to A) being male. B) having a history of repeated trauma C) possessing a short allele for the acetylcholine transporter. D) exposure to mild stressors. E).a history of bipolar disorder. Answer: B 38) The immune system develops ________ through exposure to ________. A) interferon; antibodies B) antigens; antibodies C) antibodies; B-lymphocytes D) antibodies; antigens E) infections; antibodies Answer: D Rationale: The immune system develops antibodies through exposure to antigens. 39) The primary means by which the immune system defends against invading organisms is to A) suppress the release of CRH. B) release corticosterone. C) generate red blood cells from bone marrow. D) generate antibodies that bind to and kill a foreign cell. E) trigger apoptosis of brain cells. Answer: D 40) Which of the following strategies would be most likely to prevent the harmful effects of stress without producing harmful side effects? A) a drug that damages the PVN B) a drug that increases the release of CRH C) a drug that partially antagonizes the release of glucocorticoids D) a drug that inactivates the parasympathetic nervous system E) a drug that is a potent antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors Answer: C Rationale: A drug that partially antagonizes the release of glucocorticoids would be most likely to prevent the harmful effects of stress without producing harmful side effects. 41) The inhibitory action of stress on immune function is mostly due to A) inactivation of the pituitary. B) impaired secretion of CRH. C) increased secretion of glucocorticoids. D) inactivation of the PVN. E) increased formation of immunoglobulins. Answer: C Rationale: The inhibitory action of stress on immune function is mostly due to increased secretion of glucocorticoids. 42) An example of an adverse stress effect on immune function is A) a person who cares for a relative with Alzheimer's disease produces fewer antibodies to a bacterial agent. B) fighter pilots show higher immune responses over successive missions. C) husbands whose wives died from breast cancer show improved immune response. D) seen when antibody production is stimulated by the release of glucocorticoids. E) when high glucocorticoid levels increase blood pressure. Answer: A Rationale: An example of an adverse stress effect on immune function is a person who cares for a relative with Alzheimer's disease produces fewer antibodies to a bacterial agent. 43) The term addiction is derived from the Latin word "addicere," which means to A) require. B) relieve. C) sentence. D) alleviate. E) please. Answer: C 44) Which of the following is a correct match between a drug and its toxic effect? A) synthetic opiate; acquired Parkinson's disease B) cocaine; lung cancer C) smoking; reduced urge to drink alcohol D) alcohol; lung cancer E) cocaine; Korsakoff's disease Answer: A 45) ________ is thought to be the most universal recreational drug. A) Ethyl alcohol B) Cannabis C) Morphine D) Cocaine E) Nicotine Answer: A 46) An example of a recreational drug that is found in nature is A) ketamine. B) heroin. C) LSD. D) ethyl alcohol. E).PCP. Answer: D 47) The key property of addictive drugs relates to A) their ability to inhibit dopamine in brain. B) the withdrawal that follows termination of the drug. C) their reinforcing effects. D) their capacity to produce tolerance. E) their ability to rapidly produce physical dependence. Answer: C 48) Which of the following is a principle derived from the observation that heroin is more addictive than morphine? A) Food is a poor reinforcer for hungry rats. B) Immediate reinforcement is more important than quantity of reinforcer. C) Quantity of reinforcement is more important than immediacy of reinforcement. D) Longer delays between response and food delivery results in faster learning. E) Drugs that are rapidly cleared from the brain are more addictive. Answer: B Rationale: The fact that heroin is more addictive than is morphine illustrates the principle that immediacy of reinforcement (heroin crosses into brain more rapidly) is more important than quantity of reinforcer. 49) Natural and drug reinforcement results from _____ release within the _____. A) GABA; amygdala B) dopamine; nucleus accumbens C) ACh; hippocampus D) glycine; cerebellum E) serotonin; cingulated cortex Answer: B 50) Which substance below enhances dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens? A) caffeine B) sugar C) cocaine D) saccharin E) Clozapine Answer: C 51) The common aspect of all natural reinforcers relates to A) the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens. B) the release of norepinephrine within the locus coeruleus. C) the release of dopamine within the lateral hypothalamus. D) inactivation of the frontal cortex. E) activation of the medulla. Answer: A 52) Which of the following is true of the neural substrates of reinforcement? A) Aversive stimuli do not increase dopamine levels within the accumbens. B) Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a necessary condition for reinforcement. C) Damage to brain dopamine systems enhances the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. D) Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a sufficient condition for reinforcement. E) Drugs that increase dopamine by blocking reuptake are not addictive. Answer: B Rationale: Release of dopamine within the accumbens is a necessary condition for reinforcement. 53) Which of the following best illustrates the concept of negative reinforcement? A) A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache. B) A woman injects heroin into her veins to obtain a "rush." C) A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of shock through the floor of the chamber. D) A hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet. E) A child is sent to his room after screaming at the dinner table. Answer: A Rationale: The concept of negative reinforcement is illustrated by the example in which a man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache. 54) Decreased sensitivity to a drug after repeated use is termed A) euphoria. B) drug depression. C) tolerance. D) inverse mania. E) addiction. Answer: C 55) Which of the following is true of withdrawal symptoms? A) Withdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of the effects of the drug. B) Withdrawal can be seen in the absence of tolerance. C) Withdrawal symptoms are not an indicator of physical tolerance. D) Withdrawal symptoms are less intense versions of the normal effects of a drug. E) Most addictive drugs produce similar withdrawal symptoms. Answer: A Rationale: Withdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of the effects of the drug. 56) Which of the following is a common explanation for tolerance in heroin addiction? A) increased brain levels of the drug with repeated use B) the body's attempt to compensate for the effects of the drug C) the loss of homeostatic regulation after taking drugs D) the drug is metabolized less efficiently with repeated use E) heroin is more slowly cleared from the brain with repeated treatments Answer: B Rationale: Tolerance in heroin addiction reflects the body's attempt to compensate for the effects of the drug. 57) Which of the following best illustrates the process of positive reinforcement? A) A child is sent to her room after screaming while at the dinner table. B) A hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet. C) A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of shock through the floor of the chamber. D) A woman injects heroin into her veins to obtain a "rush." E) A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache. Answer: B Rationale: An example of positive reinforcement s when a hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet. 58) ____ refers to a compulsion to take a drug. A) Craving B) Allostasis C) Drug tolerance D) Homeostasis E) Withdrawal Answer: A 59) Craving is associated with level of activation of the ______ in response to _______. A) amygdala; pain B) medial prefrontal cortex; cocaine C) ventral tegmental area; stress D) ventral tegmental area; water intake E) anterior cingulate; pain Answer: B Rationale: Craving is associated with level of activation of the medial prefrontal cortex in response to cocaine. 60) The experience of stress has been found to A) increase the amount of cocaine self-administered by rats. B) reduce the high produced by cocaine. C) render rats resistant to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. D) block the craving for cocaine in abstinent addicts. E) suppreses drug intake. Answer: A 61) Which of the following best illustrates the concept of craving? A) A man ingests an aspirin to rid himself of a strong headache. B) A hungry rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet. C) A rat presses a lever that results in delivery of shock through the floor of the chamber. D) A woman injects heroin into her veins to obtain a "rush." E) A "free" injection of cocaine reinstates responding for intravenous cocaine in a rat that previously underwent extinction of cocaine responding. Answer: E Rationale: An example of the concept of craving is when "free" injection of cocaine reinstates responding for intravenous cocaine in a rat that previously underwent extinction of cocaine responding. 62) Studies indicate that cocaine craving is associated with A) increased activation of the parietal cortex. B) activation of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. C) increased blood flow in the anterior cingulate cortex. D) decreased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex. E) decreased dopamine production in the nucleus accumbens. Answer: B 63) The poor judgment shown by drug addicts involves A) inactivation of the caudate nucleus. B) the reorganization of the motor cortex. C) inactivation of the cingulate cortex. D) abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. E) inactivation of the amygdala. Answer: D 64) Which drug below is most likely to be overused by schizophrenics? A) heroin B) methamphetamine C) caffeine D) alcohol E) nicotine (smoking) Answer: C 65) Which of the following is true of opiate addiction? A) Opiate use leads to bipolar disorder. B) The opiate habit is expensive. C) Heroin use leads to using other addictive drugs. D) Needle-using opiate addicts are at risk for contracting measles. E) It is difficult to induce opiate self-administration in rats. Answer: B 66) Which of the following statements about opiates is NOT true? A) The most commonly abused opiate is codeine. B) AIDS is a significant risk factor for many heroin users. C) The opiate habit is expensive. D) Opiates are often combined with adulterants that can have toxic effects. E) Opiate use in a pregnant woman can produce a drug dependency in the child she is carrying. Answer: A 67) Opiate receptors in the ___________ are responsible for the analgesia caused by opiate drugs. A) ventral segmental area B) preoptic area C) periaqueductal gray matter D) mesencephalic reticular formation E) nucleus accumbens Answer: C 68) Opiate receptors in the ___________ are responsible for the sedation caused by opiate drugs. A) nucleus accumbens B) preoptic area C) periaqueductal gray matter D) mesencephalic reticular formation E) ventral segmental area Answer: D 69) Which of the following is true of stimulant drugs? A) Cocaine and methamphetamine may be the most effective reinforcers of all available drugs. B) Cocaine produces the same physical and behavioral effects as heroin. C) Cocaine abuse causes strong physical dependence. D) Cocaine is the least addictive of the psychostimulant drugs. E) Methamphetamine is less potent than is amphetamine. Answer: A 70) Which of the following statements about cocaine is correct? A) Cocaine administration decreases dopamine within the nucleus accumbens. B) Damage to the nucleus accumbens enhances cocaine reinforcement in rats. C) Cocaine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. D) Drugs that block dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens impair cocaine reinforcement. E) Cocaine is more addictive via the oral route of administration. Answer: D 71) Chronic abuse of methamphetamine reduces the number of dopamine transporters in the caudate nucleus and putamen, which may explain why these addicts A) are rarely overweight. B) develop depression while abusing this drug. C) are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease as they age. D) move on to "harder" drugs as they get older. E) are less likely to develop Parkinson's disease as they age. Answer: C Rationale: Chronic abuse of methamphetamine reduces the number of dopamine transporters in the caudate nucleus and putamen, which may explain why these addicts are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease as they age. 72) Which of the following is consistent with the proposition that nicotine has adverse consequences? A) Nearly two-thirds of the world's population smoke. B) Nearly 90 percent of long-term smokers will die from smoking-related causes. C) It is estimated that smoking will soon be the largest single health problem in the world. D) Fetuses exposed to nicotine after birth show malformed facial features.. E) Nicotine is a habit not an addiction. Answer: C Rationale: The proposition that nicotine has adverse consequences are evident in that smoking will soon be the largest single health problem in the world. 73) Which of the following is NOT true of nicotine addiction? A) Animals self-administer nicotine. B) Nicotine use is a habit, not an addiction. C) Most smokers smoke every day. D) Smokers continue to smoke after lung cancer or heart attacks. E) Humans smoke regularly or not at all. Answer: B Rationale: Nicotine use is a habit, not an addiction. 74) Nicotine reinforcement is due to the release of ________ within the ________. A) glutamate; VTA B) norepinephrine; nucleus accumbens C) dopamine; nucleus accumbens D) GABA; hypothalamus E) acetylcholine; lateral hypothalamus Answer: C 75) The case of Patient N. suggests that the urge to smoke comes from activity of the A) lateral hypothalamus. B) nucleus accumbens. C) hippocampus. D) amygdala. E) insula. Answer: E Rationale: The case of Patient N. suggests that the urge to smoke comes from activity of the insula. 76) A serious consequence of alcohol addiction is A) cirrhosis of the liver. B) acne. C) Alzheimer’s disease. D) bipolar disorder. E) A development of mania. Answer: A 77) Use of ________ by pregnant women is one of the leading causes of mental retardation. A) alcohol B) marijuana C) nicotine D) cocaine E) caffeine Answer: A 78) The effect of nicotine to indirectly inhibit ________ may explain the weight gain associated with ________. A) leptin receptors; smoking marijuana B) CB1 receptors; smokers who quit C) MCH activity; smokers who quit D) orexin receptors; smoking marijuana E) ghrelin receptors; anorexia nervosa Answer: C Rationale: The effect of nicotine to indirectly inhibit MCH activity may explain the weight gain associated with smokers who quit. 79) At low doses, alcohol A) decreases GABA activity. B) has an anxiolytic effect. C) acts as a potent sedative. D) inhibits cerebellar function. E) inhibits the spinal cord, thereby blocking incoming pain messages. Answer: B Rationale: At low doses, alcohol has an anxiolytic effect. 80) The reinforcing effects of alcohol may be due to A) decreased activity within the ventral tegmental area. B) indirect antagonism of NMDA receptors. C) inhibition of the limbic system. D) release of glycine from cells within the spinal cord. E) increased activation of GABAA receptors. Answer: E Rationale: The reinforcing effects of alcohol may be due to increased activation of GABAA receptors. 81) The anxiolytic effects of alcohol may be due to A) increased activation of GABAAreceptors. B) release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. C) inhibition of the limbic system. D) release of glycine from cells within the spinal cord. E) increased activity of MCH within the ventral tegmental area. Answer: A Rationale: The anxiolytic effects of alcohol may be due to increased activation of GABAAreceptors. 82) Imagine that you have ingested a drug that prevents alcohol from binding to GABAA receptors just before you join friends at a bar. Which of the following would you expect to happen to you? A) You show no signs of sedation, even after 9 beers. B) One beer puts you to sleep. C) The pill makes alcohol taste bitter, causing you to vomit after one sip. D) You find alcohol more intoxicating. E) You would experience intense euphoria with the first beer. Answer: A Rationale: Ingestion of a drug that prevents alcohol from binding to GABAA receptors would be expected to block signs of sedation, even after 9 beers. 83) The "high" produced by ________ can be blocked by ________. A) cocaine; dopamine autoreceptor agonists B) alcohol; CB1 receptor agonists C) marijuana; CB1 receptor antagonists D) alcohol; GABAA receptor agonists E) marijuana; GABAA receptor agonists Answer: C 84) Research on the genetics of drug dependence indicates that A) alcoholism and smoking are independent diseases. B) alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors. C) smokers are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking. D) alcoholics are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking. E) environment plays a minimal role in drug abuse. Answer: B Rationale: The "high" produced by marijuana can be blocked by CB1 receptor antagonists. 85) Which drug below is useful for the treatment of opiate overdose? A) heroin B) demerol C) naloxone D) methadone E) codeine Answer: C 86) A new treatment for opiate addiction involves the administration of A) codeine and naltrexone. B) naloxone and naltrexone. C) liquid methadone. D) low doses of naltrexone with high doses of heroin. E) buprenorphine and naloxone. Answer: E 87) A major difficulty for the treatment of opiate addition is that antagonists for the opiate receptors A) trigger withdrawal effects. B) block the euphoric effects of the opiates. C) are useful for preventing overdose. D) cannot easily get into the brain. E) have very short half-lives, and therefore require more frequent treatments. Answer: A 88) Which of the following has been examined as a possible treatment for smoking addiction? A) drugs that block serotonin receptors B) drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors C) antibodies to acetylcholine D) administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant E) antagonism of GABA receptors Answer: D 89) Which drug below is useful for the treatment of alcoholism? A) methyl alcohol B) Demerol C) nicotine D) naltrexone E) codeine Answer: D 16.2 True-False 1) Poor parenting is an important cause of autistic disorder. Answer: False 2) The brains of autistic persons show abnormalities of white matter. Answer: True 3) Boys are about ten times more likely than girls to receive a diagnosis of ADHD. Answer: True 4) Almost every cell of the body contains glucocorticoid receptors. Answer: True 5) Posttraumatic stress disorder is caused by exposure to a situation of extreme danger, trauma, and stress. Answer: True 6) There is direct evidence that stress can result in poor immune functioning and increased rates of disease. Answer: True 7) Antigens are substances that are generated by the immune system and that attack invading bacteria. Answer: False 8) All natural reinforcers that have been studied cause release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Answer: True 9) The release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reinforcement to take place. Answer: True 10) Withdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of the effects induced by a drug. Answer: True 11) The termination of an aversive stimulus that is contingent on a particular response is called punishment. Answer: False 12) Craving involves the desire to use a drug. Answer: True 13) Stress can trigger relapse in a former drug addict. Answer: True 14) Opiate drugs produce sedation via activation of receptors in the preoptic area. Answer: False 15) Evidence suggests that smoking is a habit rather than an addiction. Answer: False 16) Because cigarette smoking does not produce intoxication, tobacco is not considered an addictive drug. Answer: False 17) At low doses, alcohol reduces anxiety. Answer: True 18) Low doses of THC trigger dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Answer: True 19) The strongest index of heredity for drug addiction derived from twin studies is for cocaine. Answer: True 16.3 Short-Answer Essay 1) Explain why it is no longer believed that parenting plays a role in producing autism in children. Answer: Parents of autistic children are just as warm, sociable, and responsive as other parents. Moreover, one would expect that poor parenting would produce autism in all children born to such parents—yet normal children can be found in a family with an autistic child. 2) Describe and explain how the hormonal changes that accompany stress can alter health. Answer: Exposure to a stressor activates the PVN to release CRH, which stimulates ACTH, which in turn stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenals. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid that aids in the delivery of glucose for use in the fight-or-flight response. Long-term secretion of cortisol damages the muscles, increases blood pressure, damages neurons, and suppresses the immune system. 3) Explain why drug abuse represents a problem for society. Answer: The use and abuse of drugs poses physical dangers for the user, which include disease and death. Drug intoxication can alter psychomotor performance, thereby endangering the user as well as others around the user (e.g., driving while intoxicated). 4) Describe the relationship between stress and infectious disease Answer: CRH released during stress releases glucocorticoids which directly impair immune cell function. 5) Explain how negative reinforcement may play a role in drug abuse. Answer: Negative reinforcement refers to a situation in which a behavior that turns off an aversive stimulus will be reinforced. Taking a drug to reduce a withdrawal reaction will reinforce the action of taking that drug. 6) Explain the addictive potential of cocaine in humans. Answer: Cocaine is rapidly absorbed from the lungs into the blood stream and therefore rapidly enters the brain. Delay of reinforcement is an important variable in the reward process. 7) Where are the opiate receptors located that are responsible for the following: analgesia, sedation, and reinforcement? Answer: Analgesia involves opiate receptors in the periaqueductal gray matter; hypothermia involves opiate receptors within the preoptic area; opiate receptors within the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens are implicated in the reinforcing effects of opiates. 16.4 Essay 1) Describe the symptoms that comprise autism and assess the potential for treatment. Answer: Autism is characterized by poor social skills, poor communicative abilities, and impaired imagination. Several genes strongly contribute as causes for autism, and prenatal toxins (thalidomide) can induce autism. Treatments are largely preventative, in that pregnant women can avoid taking thalidomide or contracting rubella. There are no current biological therapies for autism. 2) Explain how drugs of abuse may act via the same substrate engaged by natural rewards. Answer: The mesolimbic dopamine system terminates in the nucleus accumbens. Food for a hungry rat and water for a thirsty rat cause the release of dopamine from the nucleus accumbens, as do drugs that are self-administered (e.g., cocaine and amphetamine). 3) Explain why nicotine is now considered to be an addictive drug. Answer: Humans either smoke regularly or not at all. Smokers find it very difficult to stop smoking, even after suffering diseases that are directly related to smoking. Animals self-administer nicotine and this drug, like cocaine, activates dopamine processes within the nucleus accumbens. 4) Describe the types of approaches that are being taken today to treat drug addiction. Answer: One approach is to administer a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, so as to prevent the reinforcing action of the drug of abuse. This, however, can lead to drug craving. Administering a long-acting drug that substitutes for the drug of abuse (e.g., methadone) may help during the drug withdrawal process. Another approach is to use partial agonists in hopes of dampening neuronal activity. A recently developed technique is to develop an antibody to the drug of abuse. Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

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