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Chapter 3 Project Management Tools
3.1 True False
1) Meeting or exceeding customer expectations while maintaining a cost-competitive position
is a necessary effort in organizations.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Meeting or exceeding customer expectations is fundamental for business success, as it leads
to customer satisfaction, loyalty, and positive word-of-mouth. Additionally, maintaining a
cost-competitive position ensures profitability and sustainability in the market.
2) The PDCA cycle includes programming, design, control, and acceptance.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle consists of four stages: planning, implementing,
evaluating, and acting upon the results. It is a continuous improvement framework used in
quality management, not related to programming or acceptance.
3) Brainstorming works well if team members build on each other's creativity focusing on a
single topic.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Effective brainstorming involves focusing on a single topic to generate a variety of ideas.
Team members can build on each other's ideas to enhance creativity and develop innovative
solutions.
4) An unstructured brainstorming process is accomplished when team members provide ideas
in turn.
Answer: False
Rationale:
An unstructured brainstorming process is characterized by the free flow of ideas without a
specific order or sequence. Team members provide ideas spontaneously, without waiting for
their turn.
5) TMAP is a graphical representation of a series of ideas or thoughts or decisions of a person
or a team.
Answer: True
Rationale:
TMAP (Thinking Maps) is a visual tool used to organize and represent ideas, thoughts, or

decisions. It helps individuals or teams to visualize information and enhance understanding.
6) After TMAP's brainstorming step, the project's scope cannot be changed.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The TMAP process allows for flexibility and adaptation. While the brainstorming step helps
define the initial scope, changes can be made as the project progresses and new insights are
gained.
7) Interrelationships is one of the six major Quality Functional Deployment components.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) includes six major components, one of which is
interrelationships. Interrelationships refer to the connections between different elements of
the QFD process, such as customer requirements and technical requirements.
8) The purpose of the QFD technical requirements step is to evaluate how well customer
requirements have been met compared to the competition.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The purpose of the QFD technical requirements step is to identify and prioritize the technical
characteristics that are necessary to meet customer requirements. It focuses on translating
customer needs into specific technical features, not on competitive analysis.
9) The purpose of the QFD planning matrix step is to establish a connection or relationship
between customer requirements and technical requirements.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The purpose of the QFD planning matrix step is to prioritize technical requirements based on
their impact on meeting customer needs. It helps in identifying the most critical technical
features that need to be developed.
10) The purpose of the QFD technical correlations step is to develop relationships between
the technology requirements.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The QFD technical correlations step involves identifying the relationships between different
technical requirements. This helps in understanding how changes in one technical feature can
affect other features and ensures that all technical requirements work together harmoniously.

11) The Kano model is a tool to distinguish types of product requirements that influence
customer satisfaction.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The Kano model categorizes product requirements into five types: must-be, one-dimensional,
attractive, indifferent, and reverse. Understanding these categories helps prioritize features
based on their impact on customer satisfaction.
12) Must-have is one of the five project requirements associated with the Kano model.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Must-have is not one of the five project requirements associated with the Kano model. The
five categories of requirements in the Kano model are must-be, one-dimensional, attractive,
indifferent, and reverse.
13) Based on the Kano model, brakes in an automobile are an example of the onedimensional requirements.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Brakes in an automobile are typically considered a must-be requirement in the Kano model,
as they are essential for safety and are expected by customers. One-dimensional requirements
are features where more is better, such as faster processing speed in a computer.
14) According to the Kano model, customers regard the must-be requirements as
prerequisites and do not explicitly demand them.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Must-be requirements are considered basic expectations that customers assume will be met.
Customers do not explicitly demand them because they are viewed as essential for the
product to function properly.
15) When compared to the other Kano model requirements, the attractive requirements have
the least influence on customer satisfaction.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Attractive requirements, also known as delighters, can have a significant impact on customer
satisfaction and loyalty. While they are not expected by customers, meeting or exceeding
these requirements can lead to positive experiences and increased satisfaction.

16) According to the Kano model, there is no feeling of dissatisfaction if the attractive
requirements are not met.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Attractive requirements are not expected by customers, so their absence does not lead to
dissatisfaction. However, fulfilling these requirements can lead to higher levels of satisfaction
and delight.
17) Bigger trunk space is an example of the Kano model's must-be requirement.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Bigger trunk space would likely fall under the category of one-dimensional requirements,
where more is better. Must-be requirements are essential features that customers expect to be
present, such as a working engine in a car.
18) In projects, the Kano model can be employed to identify customer needs and functional
requirements as well as during concept development.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The Kano model can be used throughout the product development process to understand
customer needs, prioritize features, and guide concept development. It helps ensure that the
final product meets or exceeds customer expectations.
19) A Pareto chart is used to organize and summarize ideas or issues generated by team
members.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A Pareto chart is used to prioritize problems or issues based on their impact. It helps identify
the most significant factors contributing to a problem or situation by organizing data in
descending order.
20) Affinity diagram procedures include brainstorming an exhaustive list of ideas or issues.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Affinity diagrams are used to organize a large number of ideas or issues into categories based
on their relationships. The process typically begins with brainstorming to generate an
exhaustive list of ideas, which are then grouped into related categories.
21) A T-Bone diagram is a tool that allows teams to identify and graphically detail all

possible causes related to a problem and discover root causes of the problem at hand.
Answer: False
Rationale:
A T-Bone diagram does not exist as a commonly recognized tool in quality management or
problem-solving methodologies. The description provided seems to be a mix-up or
misunderstanding of other tools, such as the fishbone diagram (Ishikawa diagram) used for
cause-and-effect analysis.
22) Check sheets graphically illustrate the causes of a certain event.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Check sheets are used to systematically record and compile data from historical sources or
observations in real time. They do not graphically illustrate causes but rather provide a
structured way to collect and organize data.
23) A check sheet is a table or form that is used to allow a team to systematically record and
compile data from historical sources or observations as they happen in real time.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Check sheets are simple forms or tables used to collect and organize data in a structured
manner. They are often used to track the frequency of events or the occurrence of certain
issues over time.
24) Pareto charts are usually used when analyzing data about the frequency of problems or
causes in a process.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Pareto charts are used to prioritize problems or causes based on their frequency or impact.
They help identify the most significant factors contributing to a problem or situation,
allowing teams to focus on addressing the most critical issues first.
25) Although popular, the NGT has not been shown to enhance one or more dimensions of
effectiveness of decision-making groups.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is a structured method for group brainstorming that
has been shown to enhance decision-making by ensuring equal participation from all group
members and generating a wide range of ideas.

26) When there is concern about some team members not participating, NGT can result in a
high-quality decision-making process.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The NGT is designed to ensure that all team members participate equally, making it
particularly useful in situations where some members may be less likely to contribute. This
can lead to a more comprehensive and high-quality decision-making process.
27) TMAP is a tool to achieve aggregate opinions concerning real-world knowledge solicited
from experts within certain topic areas.
Answer: False
Rationale:
TMAP (Thinking Maps) is actually a visual tool used to organize and represent ideas,
thoughts, or decisions. It is not specifically related to aggregating opinions from experts
within certain topic areas.
28) The Delphi Technique may be used by project managers and the project team to discover
what is actually known or not known about a specific topic.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The Delphi Technique is a structured method for gathering input from experts to reach
consensus on a particular topic. It can be used to explore areas of uncertainty and identify
what is known or unknown about a specific subject.
29) The Delphi Technique can help generate a consensus.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The Delphi Technique is designed to facilitate consensus-building among experts by
iteratively collecting and synthesizing their opinions. It allows for the refinement of ideas and
the convergence towards a shared viewpoint.
30) SWOT analysis is a strategic method for identifying whether to use a component or a
feature in a project.
Answer: True
Rationale:
SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool used to identify the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats related to a project, product, or organization. It helps in decisionmaking by assessing the internal and external factors that may impact the success of a project.

3.2 Multiple Choice
1) Each of the following is a common project management tool except
A) data flow diagrams.
B) brainstorming.
C) fishbone diagrams.
D) burndown charts.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Data flow diagrams are typically associated with systems analysis and design, not specifically
with project management. They are used to visualize the flow of data through a system or
process.
2) PDCA stands for
A) perform, document, control, analyze.
B) plan, do, check, act.
C) plan, design, control, accept.
D) perform, develop, convert, activate.
Answer: B
Rationale:
PDCA stands for Plan, Do, Check, Act. It is a four-step management method used for the
control and continuous improvement of processes and products.
3) Project processes can be accomplished by tools such as
A) communication and collaboration tools.
B) SWOT analysis.
C) check sheets.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Project processes can be supported by various tools, including communication and
collaboration tools, SWOT analysis for strategic planning, and check sheets for data
collection and tracking.
4) A process for teams to generate ideas and to find solutions on project issues and problems
best defines
A) brainstorming.
B) TMAP.

C) burndown charts.
D) preplanning review.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Brainstorming is a technique used to generate creative ideas and solutions by encouraging all
team members to contribute without criticism or judgment.
5) Which of the following is a brain-writing idea that encourages team members to build on
each other's ideas?
A) Thought Process Map
B) Kano model
C) Ring-Exchange Technique
D) Pareto chart
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Ring-Exchange Technique is a form of brain-writing where team members write down
their ideas and then pass their papers to others who build on those ideas, fostering
collaboration and creativity.
6) A graphical representation of a series of ideas or thoughts or decisions of a person or a
team best describes
A) nominal group technique.
B) SWOT analysis.
C) QFD.
D) TMAP.
Answer: D
Rationale:
TMAP (Thinking Maps) is a visual tool used to organize and represent ideas, thoughts, or
decisions. It helps individuals or teams to visualize information and enhance understanding.
7) Each of the following is a true statement about TMAP except
A) TMAP is an initial process used to generate ideas in order to accomplish project goals and
a visual representation of an entire team's thoughts, ideas, and questions relative to
accomplishing the project goal.
B) TMAP presents a structure of information and helps a team progress through the project
process.
C) TMAP is a static document that does not change throughout the project, thus serving as a

baseline representation of the project.
D) TMAP allows team members to refer back to how, why, and when decisions were made.
Answer: C
Rationale:
This statement is false. TMAP is not a static document; it evolves and changes throughout the
project as new ideas are generated and decisions are made.
8) The TMAP procedure includes each of the following steps except
A) define the project goals.
B) list the knowns, unknowns, and constraints.
C) sequence and link all team comments, responses and questions.
D) conduct a feasibility study.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The TMAP procedure does not include conducting a feasibility study. It focuses on defining
project goals, identifying knowns, unknowns, and constraints, and organizing team
comments, responses, and questions.
9) Which TMAP step maps the thought process to understand the unknowns?
A) ask DMAIC questions
B) ask grouped questions
C) sequence and link all team comments, responses, and questions
D) define the project goals
Answer: A
Rationale:
Asking DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) questions helps map the
thought process to understand the unknowns and identify areas for improvement.
10) Which TMAP step improvises the team thought process to form a thought map?
A) ask DMAIC questions
B) improve and link all responses to form a thought map
C) identify possible tools to be used
D) sequence and link all team comments, responses, and questions
Answer: B
Rationale:
Improving and linking all responses to form a thought map helps organize and visualize the
team's thought process, facilitating better understanding and decision-making.

11) A tool that links customer requirements to project planning, analysis, design, and
implementation best describes
A) TMAP.
B) DMAIC.
C) QFD.
D) ERD.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a methodology used to translate customer
requirements into specific project planning, analysis, design, and implementation steps. It
helps ensure that the project delivers what the customer wants.
12) QFD does each of the following except
A) acts as a fundamental foundation to understand customer requirements.
B) links customer requirements to project planning, analysis, design, and implementation.
C) provides project scope and perceived value from the customer perspective.
D) documents the flow of data through a system, where it is stored, and when it enters and
leaves the system.
Answer: D
Rationale:
QFD focuses on understanding and translating customer requirements, linking them to project
planning and design, and ensuring customer satisfaction. Documenting the flow of data
through a system is not a primary function of QFD.
13) QFD's graphical format documents
A) customer requirements.
B) technical requirements.
C) interrelationships.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The graphical format of QFD documents customer requirements, technical requirements, and
the relationships (interrelationships) between them, providing a visual representation of the
project's alignment with customer needs.
14) QFD's graphical format documents each of the following except
A) state transitions.

B) technical correlations.
C) technical priorities, benchmarks, and targets.
D) planning matrix.
Answer: A
Rationale:
QFD's graphical format typically does not document state transitions. Instead, it focuses on
technical correlations, priorities, benchmarks, and the planning matrix to align project
activities with customer requirements.
15) In preparation for QFD deployment, it is recommended that one use
A) a trained QFD facilitator.
B) a multi-disciplinary team depending upon the nature of the project.
C) QFD software or QFD Excel sheet.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
To effectively deploy QFD, it is recommended to use a trained facilitator, involve a multidisciplinary team, and utilize QFD software or tools to streamline the process and ensure
comprehensive analysis.
16) Which QFD step focuses on what must be achieved to satisfy customer requirements?
A) interrelationships
B) technical requirements
C) technical correlations
D) voice of customer
Answer: B
Rationale:
The technical requirements step in QFD focuses on defining the specific technical features or
characteristics that must be achieved to satisfy customer requirements.
17) Which QFD step evaluates how well customer requirements have been met compared to
the competition?
A) interrelationships
B) technical correlations
C) planning matrix
D) voice of customer
Answer: C

Rationale:
The planning matrix step in QFD evaluates how well customer requirements have been met
compared to the competition by prioritizing technical features that will address customer
needs and provide a competitive edge.
18) Which QFD step establishes a connection or relationship between customer requirements
and technical requirements?
A) technical correlations
B) planning matrix
C) voice of customer
D) interrelationships
Answer: D
Rationale:
The interrelationships step in QFD establishes a connection between customer requirements
and technical requirements by identifying how changes in technical features can impact
customer satisfaction.
19) Which QFD step develops relationships between the technology requirements?
A) technical correlations
B) planning matrix
C) voice of customer
D) interrelationships
Answer: A
Rationale:
The technical correlations step in QFD develops relationships between technology
requirements by identifying how different technical features are related and how changes in
one feature can affect others.
20) Which QFD step uses a set of data to provide the technical performance achieved by
competitive products and the degree of difficulty in developing each technology requirement?
A) technical correlations
B) complete technical properties, and set design benchmarks
C) planning matrix
D) technical requirements
Answer: B
Rationale:
The step that uses a set of data to provide the technical performance achieved by competitive

products and the degree of difficulty in developing each technology requirement is the
complete technical properties and set design benchmarks step in QFD.
21) A tool used to distinguish between five types of product requirements that influence
customer satisfaction best defines
A) TMAP.
B) QFD.
C) Kano model.
D) Pareto chart.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Kano model is a tool used to categorize and prioritize product requirements based on
their impact on customer satisfaction. It distinguishes between five types of requirements:
must-be, one-dimensional, attractive, indifferent, and reverse.
22) Each of the following is a product classification requirement used by the Kano Model
except
A) forward requirements.
B) reverse requirements.
C) indifferent requirements.
D) attractive requirements.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Forward requirements are not a classification used by the Kano Model. The Kano Model
categorizes requirements into must-be, one-dimensional, attractive, indifferent, and reverse
categories.
23) Kano product requirements include
A) must-be requirements.
B) one-dimensional requirements.
C) attractive requirements.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Kano Model includes must-be requirements (basic expectations), one-dimensional
requirements (more is better), and attractive requirements (unexpected features that delight
customers).

24) Which of the following Kano Model requirements suggests that the customer will be
extremely dissatisfied if the basic project requirements are not fulfilled?
A) must-be requirements
B) one-dimensional requirements
C) attractive requirements
D) indifferent requirements
Answer: A
Rationale:
Must-be requirements are basic expectations that, if not fulfilled, lead to dissatisfaction.
Customers expect these requirements to be met.
25) Which of the following Kano Model requirements suggests that customer satisfaction is
proportional to the level of fulfillment?
A) must-be requirements
B) one-dimensional requirements
C) attractive requirements
D) indifferent requirements
Answer: B
Rationale:
One-dimensional requirements are features where satisfaction increases with the level of
fulfillment. Examples include speed, memory, etc.
26) Which of the following Kano Model requirements has the greatest influence on customer
satisfaction?
A) must-be requirements
B) one-dimensional requirements
C) attractive requirements
D) indifferent requirements
Answer: C
Rationale:
Attractive requirements, also known as delighters, have the greatest influence on customer
satisfaction because they exceed customer expectations and create delight.
27) Which of the following Kano Model requirements results in neither satisfaction nor
dissatisfaction regardless of whether they are fulfilled?
A) must-be requirements
B) one-dimensional requirements

C) attractive requirements
D) indifferent requirements
Answer: D
Rationale:
Indifferent requirements do not impact customer satisfaction. Customers are indifferent to
whether these requirements are fulfilled or not.
28) Which of the following Kano Model requirements results in dissatisfaction when fulfilled
and satisfaction when not fulfilled?
A) must-be requirements
B) one-dimensional requirements
C) reverse requirements
D) indifferent requirements
Answer: C
Rationale:
Reverse requirements are features that, when present, lead to dissatisfaction but when absent,
do not necessarily lead to satisfaction.
29) Each of the following is a Kano Model procedure except
A) interpret and evaluate results.
B) construct the Kano questionnaire and interview customers.
C) identify project requirements and customer expectations as though you are walking in the
customer's shoes.
D) close down the project.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Closing down the project is not a part of the Kano Model procedure. The other options are
steps involved in implementing the Kano Model.
30) Recommendations for preparing an affinity diagram include
A) gather the team in a conference room.
B) make sure that there is either a whiteboard or writing board or flip chart.
C) involving all members of the team will create more input, and more input is better.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
These recommendations are important for preparing an affinity diagram. Gathering the team

in a suitable location with the necessary tools and ensuring everyone's involvement can lead
to a more effective brainstorming and categorization process.
31) Affinity diagram procedures include each of the following except
A) make sure that the problem statement is a full sentence and unambiguous to team
members.
B) construct the affinity questionnaire and interview customers.
C) brainstorm an exhaustive list of ideas or issues.
D) sort ideas or issues into as many natural groups as possible.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Affinity diagram procedures do not involve constructing an affinity questionnaire and
interviewing customers. Instead, they focus on brainstorming ideas or issues and sorting them
into natural groups.
32) Which of the following is used to organize and summarize ideas or issues generated by
team members?
A) burndown chart
B) affinity diagram
C) check sheet
D) Kano model
Answer: B
Rationale:
Affinity diagrams are used to organize and summarize ideas or issues generated by team
members. They help group related ideas together to identify patterns or themes.
33) A tool that allows teams to identify and graphically detail all possible causes related to a
problem and discover root causes of the problem at hand best describes
A) TMAP.
B) nominal group technique.
C) fishbone diagram.
D) Delphi technique.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The fishbone diagram, also known as the Ishikawa diagram, is used to identify and
graphically detail all possible causes related to a problem. It helps teams discover root causes
by organizing causes into categories.

34) Recommendations for preparing fishbone diagrams include each of the following except
A) gather the team in the conference room.
B) make sure that there is either a whiteboard or writing board or flip chart.
C) make sure there are colored markers.
D) be selective about idea generation.
Answer: D
Rationale:
It is not recommended to be selective about idea generation when preparing fishbone
diagrams. The goal is to brainstorm all possible causes related to the problem, which can then
be organized into categories on the diagram.
35) A table or form that is used to allow a team to systematically record and compile data
from historical sources or observations as they happen in real time best defines
A) burndown chart.
B) affinity diagram.
C) SWOT analysis.
D) check sheet.
Answer: D
Rationale:
A check sheet is used to systematically record and compile data from historical sources or
observations in real time. It helps teams collect and organize data in a structured manner.
36) Advantages of using a check sheet include each of the following except
A) provides an organized structure for uniform data collection and collation.
B) can be difficult to use.
C) effective way of displaying collected data.
D) can be used to substantiate or refute conclusions.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Check sheets are designed to be easy to use, so they are not typically considered difficult.
They provide an organized structure for data collection, display data effectively, and can be
used to support or challenge conclusions.
37) A simple bar graph where the y-axis represents frequency of occurrence best describes
A) Pareto chart.
B) NGT.
C) affinity diagram.

D) check sheet.
Answer: A
Rationale:
A Pareto chart is a type of bar graph where the y-axis represents the frequency of occurrence
of different categories, ordered from highest to lowest. It helps identify the most significant
factors contributing to a problem.
38) NGT results in a high-quality decision-making process when
A) a new team member is present.
B) some team members are much more vocal than others.
C) there is concern about some team members not participating.
D) All of the above are correct.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) results in a high-quality decision-making process
when there is concern about some team members not participating, when some members are
more vocal than others, or when a new team member is present. The technique ensures equal
participation and generates a wide range of ideas.
39) A decision-making tool used to understand and use the opinion of each and every project
member best describes
A) Pareto chart.
B) nominal group technique.
C) Delphi technique.
D) SWOT analysis.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is a decision-making tool used to understand and use
the opinions of each team member. It ensures that all team members have an equal
opportunity to contribute and be heard.
40) A tool to achieve aggregate opinions concerning real-world knowledge solicited from
experts within certain topic areas best defines
A) Pareto chart.
B) SWOT analysis.
C) Delphi technique.
D) nominal group technique.

Answer: C
Rationale:
The Delphi technique is a method used to achieve consensus or aggregate opinions from
experts within certain topic areas. It involves multiple rounds of questionnaires or surveys to
gather and refine opinions until a consensus is reached.
41) Advantages of using the Delphi Technique include
A) allows sharing of information and reasoning among team members and experts.
B) helps generate consensus.
C) focuses attention on the issue at hand.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Delphi Technique allows for the sharing of information and reasoning among team
members and experts, helps generate consensus by refining opinions through multiple rounds
of feedback, and focuses attention on the issue at hand by structuring the communication
process.
42) A strategic method for identifying whether to use a component or a feature in a project
best defines
A) nominal group technique.
B) Delphi technique.
C) Kano model.
D) SWOT analysis.
Answer: D
Rationale:
SWOT analysis is a strategic method used to identify the Strengths, Weaknesses,
Opportunities, and Threats related to a project or business decision. It helps in decisionmaking by assessing the internal and external factors that may impact the project or decision.
43) Advantages of SWOT include each of the following except
A) very simple to use.
B) creates an awareness of political and environmental threats.
C) encourages customers to provide routine feedback.
D) allows the project manager to prepare appropriate response plans.
Answer: C
Rationale:

SWOT analysis does not specifically encourage customers to provide routine feedback.
Instead, it focuses on assessing internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as external
opportunities and threats, to inform strategic decision-making.
44) A graphical representation of the work left to do versus the total scheduled time of an
activity or an entire project best describes
A) affinity diagram.
B) burndown chart.
C) Pareto chart.
D) fishbone diagram.
Answer: B
Rationale:
A burndown chart is a graphical representation used in project management to track the work
remaining versus the total scheduled work over a period of time. It helps visualize progress
and forecast completion dates.
45) Advantages of using a burndown chart include
A) stakeholders can see a visual display of project progress.
B) team members are responsible for updating the chart.
C) reflects real deadlines and progress of projects.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Using a burndown chart allows stakeholders to visually track project progress, helps team
members take ownership of updating the chart, and provides an accurate reflection of project
deadlines and progress, aiding in effective project management.
3.3 Essay
1) List five common project management tools.
Answer: Brainstorming, TMAP, QFD, Kano model, and affinity diagram are five common
project management tools. The textbook identifies additional project management tools.
2) What is TMAP? What is its procedure?
Answer: Thought Process Map is a graphical representation of a series of ideas or thoughts or
decisions of a person or a team. The TMAP procedure includes defining the project goal;
listing the knowns, unknowns, and constraints; asking DMAIC questions and "grouped"
questions; sequencing and linking all team comments, responses, and questions; improving
and linking all responses to form a thought map; and identifying possible tools to be used.

3) What is QFD? What are its six major components?
Answer: Quality Functional Deployment is a tool that links customer requirements to project
planning, analysis, design, and implementation. The six major components include customer
requirements; technical requirements; planning matrix; interrelationships; technical
correlations; and technical priorities, benchmarks, and targets.
4) Define SWOT analysis. What is its procedure?
Answer: SWOT analysis is a strategic method for identifying whether to use a component or
a feature in a project. The SWOT analysis procedure includes establishing objectives,
delegating research and information-gathering tasks, SWOT analysis, listing SWOT factors,
and evaluating SWOT factors against established objectives.
5) What is a burndown chart? Identify five advantages of a burndown chart.
Answer: A burndown chart is a graphical representation of the work left to do versus the total
scheduled time of an activity or an entire project. Advantages include reflecting real
deadlines and progress of projects; team members are responsible for updating the chart; the
project goal is shown in the chart; the chart usually can be annotated with key events; and
stakeholders can see a visual display of project progress.

Test Bank for Project Management: Process, Technology and Practice
Ganesh Vaidyanathan
9780132807180

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