Preview (10 of 31 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 3
1. Which statement about perception is NOT true?
a. We often perceive others accurately, even with minimal information.
b. Our evaluations of others can be more accurate if we have less, rather than more,
c. When we form our perception of others, our first impression is always accurate.
d. More information does not necessarily make your perception of someone more accurate.
Answer: c
The statement that our first impression is always accurate is not true. First impressions can
often be biased or incomplete, influenced by factors such as stereotypes or limited
information about the individual.
2. Which of the following is the process of making meaning from what we experience in the
world around us?
a. Selection
b. Perception
c. Interpretation
d. Organization
Answer: b
Perception is the process of making meaning from what we experience in the world around
us. It involves selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information to understand our
3. Which type of perception do you use when you try to decide if your best friend is angry,
based on his behavior?
a. Interpersonal

b. Physiological
c. Psychological
d. Intrapersonal
Answer: a
Interpersonal perception involves perceiving and understanding the thoughts, feelings, and
intentions of others, which is what happens when you try to determine if your friend is angry
based on their behavior.
4. Arianna has an argument with her boyfriend and storms out of their house. He does not call
or text her all morning and Arianna is pretty sure he is ignoring her. In this example, the fact
that Arianna notices her boyfriend is not contacting her exemplifies which stage of the
perceptual process?
a. Intention
b. Interpretation
c. Organization
d. Selection
Answer: d
Selection is the stage of the perceptual process where certain stimuli are chosen to be
attended to, and in this example, Arianna noticing her boyfriend's lack of communication
demonstrates the selection stage.
5. In class, you notice a classmate smiling at you. In which stage of the perceptual process are
you engaged?
a. Selection
b. Interpretation
c. Evaluation
d. Organization

Answer: a
In this scenario, noticing your classmate smiling at you involves the selection stage of the
perceptual process, where you choose to attend to that particular stimulus among others.
6. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that makes a given stimulus more likely to
be selected for attention?
a. Repetition
b. Intensity
c. Unexpectedness
d. Weakness
Answer: d
Weakness is not a characteristic that typically makes a stimulus more likely to be selected for
attention. Stimuli that are repeated, intense, or unexpected are more likely to capture
7. The __________________ stage of the perceptual process helps you make sense of
information by allowing you to see its similarities to, and differences from, other things you
know about.
a. application
b. organization
c. selection
d. interpretation
Answer: b
Organization is the stage of the perceptual process where incoming sensory information is
organized and structured, allowing individuals to make sense of it by comparing it to existing

8. In the sitcom The Big Bang Theory, several main characters, acclaimed and successful
scientists, try unsuccessfully to approach attractive women for dates. In the perceptual
process, which stage is probably causing the most problems, given that the women see
“geeky,” unattractive, socially awkward men?
a. Organization
b. Selection
c. Interpretation
d. Application
Answer: a
The stage causing the most problems in this scenario is likely organization, as the perception
of the characters as "geeky," unattractive, and socially awkward influences how they are
organized and understood by others.
9. What types of constructs emphasize people’s social or professional position?
a. Physical
b. Interaction
c. Role
d. Psychological
Answer: c
Role constructs emphasize people's social or professional position, defining their expected
behaviors and interactions within those roles.
10. When Cy meets his best friend’s father, he admires his confidence and self-assuredness.
Later, when Cy learns that his friend’s father is a top attorney with a prominent law firm, he
is not surprised. Which construct is Cy relying on when he readily accepts the father’s
profession as the most appropriate, given his first impression?
a. Role

b. Physical
c. Psychological
d. Interaction
Answer: a
Cy is relying on role constructs when he readily accepts the father's profession as the most
appropriate, given his first impression of confidence and self-assuredness, as role constructs
emphasize people's social or professional positions and associated behaviors.
11. Wendy decides the new guy at work, Dale, must be romantically interested in her because
Dale brings her coffee every morning. By assigning meaning to Dale’s behavior, Wendy is in
which stage of perception?
a. Organization
b. Evaluation
c. Selection
d. Interpretation
Answer: d
Interpretation is the stage of perception where individuals assign meaning to the stimuli they
have selected and organized. In this scenario, Wendy is interpreting Dale's behavior of
bringing her coffee as a sign of romantic interest.
12. When your best friend does you an unexpected favor, you interpret it as a sincere sign of
friendship, but if a coworker does you the same favor, you are more likely to wonder whether
he or she has an ulterior motive. This is due to what influencing factor on interpretation?
a. Interaction construct
b. Knowledge of the individual
c. Closeness of the relationship
d. Personal experience

Answer: c
The closeness of the relationship influences interpretation. When the relationship is close, as
with a best friend, favors are often interpreted positively. However, with a coworker,
interpretation may be influenced by suspicion due to a less intimate relationship.
13. Which statement is most accurate with regard to the perceptual process?
a. The perceptual process is linear.
b. The three stages of the perceptual process overlap.
c. The three stages of the perceptual process always follow the same order.
d. The perceptual process follows a specific sequence.
Answer: b
The perceptual process involves three stages (selection, organization, interpretation), but
these stages often overlap rather than occurring in a strict linear sequence.
14. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the order in which
perceptual stages occur?
a. Personal experience allows us to accurately assign meaning to behavior.
b. Even though perception happens in stages, the stages don’t always take place in the same
c. The perceptual process is always logical and linear.
d. Selection depends on personal experience, knowledge and the closeness of the relationship.
Answer: b
Perception occurs in stages, but these stages may not necessarily occur in a fixed or linear
order. They can overlap and interact with each other.

15. Perry, an American student, and Sun Yi, his girlfriend from Taiwan, are arguing. While
Perry expresses himself loudly, Sun Yi tries a less aggressive approach. They both grow more
and more frustrated, as Perry thinks Sun Yi won’t address the conflict directly and Sun Yi
thinks Perry is behaving selfishly. What perceptual influence could be at work in this
a. Primacy
b. Stereotypes
c. Culture
d. Perceptual sets
Answer: c
The differing communication styles and interpretations of conflict resolution in this scenario
suggest that cultural differences are influencing perception.
16. A ________________ is a generalization about a group or category of people that can
have a powerful influence on how we perceive other people and their communicative
a. stereotype
b. perceptual set
c. construct
d. characteristic
Answer: a
Stereotypes are generalizations about groups or categories of people that can significantly
impact how individuals perceive and interpret others' behavior.
17. Identify the concept best represented by the following thought process: (1) He is a man.
(2) Men don’t know how to express their feelings. (3) Therefore, he must not know how to
express his emotions.

a. Construct
b. Interpretation
c. Stereotype
d. Recency
Answer: c
This thought process reflects the use of stereotypes, as it involves generalizing characteristics
about a group (men) and applying them to an individual.
18. The belief that all homeless people are lazy is an example of which perceptual influence?
a. Generalization
b. Construct
c. Perceptual set
d. Stereotype
Answer: d
This belief is an example of a stereotype, as it involves a generalization about a group of
people (homeless individuals) based on a specific characteristic (being lazy).
19. We have a tendency to remember information that supports our stereotypes and to forget
information that doesn’t. Which of the following best describes this tendency?
a. Self-serving bias
b. Self-fulfilling prophecy
c. Selective memory bias
d. Fundamental attribution error
Answer: c

Selective memory bias refers to the tendency to remember information that confirms existing
beliefs or stereotypes while disregarding information that contradicts them.
20. Our first impressions of someone’s communicative behaviors seem to stick in our minds
more than second or third impressions because of what principle?
a. Recency
b. Constructs
c. Stereotype
d. Primacy
Answer: d
Primacy effect refers to the tendency for initial information or impressions to carry more
weight and influence perception more strongly than later information or impressions.
21. A stand-up comedian’s last joke is one of the most important jokes because of which
a. Perceptual effect
b. Recency effect
c. Primary effect
d. Construct effect
Answer: b
The correct answer is b. Recency effect. The recency effect is a cognitive bias that suggests
that items presented at the end of a sequence are more likely to be remembered and have a
greater impact on perception. In the context of a stand-up comedy routine, the last joke tends
to leave a strong impression on the audience due to its recency, making it one of the most
important jokes of the performance.
22. When giving a speech, you must offer strong opening and closing statements because of
what influence on perception?

a. Primacy/Recency
b. Stereotyping
c. Culture
d. Selective memory bias
Answer: a
The correct answer is a. Primacy/Recency. The primacy/recency effect suggests that
information presented at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a presentation is more
likely to be remembered and influence perception. Strong opening and closing statements
take advantage of this effect, ensuring that key points are more likely to be retained by the
23. A _________________ is a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to
a. stereotype
b. memory bias
c. perceptual set
d. context
Answer: c
The correct answer is c. Perceptual set. A perceptual set is a tendency or predisposition to
perceive stimuli in a certain way based on previous experiences, expectations, or context. It
influences what we notice and how we interpret sensory information.
24. Miles sees a friend at the mall he hasn’t spoken to in a few years. She is pushing a baby in
a stroller. Miles assumes it is a girl because of the yellow blanket in the stroller. “She is so
beautiful!” When Miles’s friend informs him the baby is a boy, Miles says, “Oh, of course.
Just look at how strong he is!” Which of the following terms best describes his apparent
change in perception with regard to the baby’s sex?

a. Bias
b. Stereotype
c. Context
d. Perceptual set
Answer: d
The correct answer is d. Perceptual set. Perceptual set refers to the tendency to perceive
stimuli in a particular way based on expectations or previous experiences. In this scenario,
Miles initially perceives the baby as a girl due to the presence of a yellow blanket (which
might be associated with girls in his mind), but adjusts his perception when corrected by his
friend, demonstrating a change influenced by his perceptual set.
25. When someone undergoes chemotherapy and his or her cancer goes into remission, some
individuals in that person’s life will believe the remission is an answer to their prayers,
whereas others will believe the remission is a natural response to the chemotherapy. Which of
the following factors might account for this difference in beliefs about cancer remission?
a. Perceptual set
b. Memory bias
c. Self-serving bias
d. Selection
Answer: a
The correct answer is a. Perceptual set. Perceptual set influences how individuals interpret
and perceive information. In this case, individuals with different perceptual sets may attribute
the cancer remission to different factors, such as religious beliefs or medical treatments,
leading to varying interpretations of the event.
26. You notice your cousin ignoring her fiancé. When you begin to wonder why she is
behaving the way she is, you are looking for what in relation to her behavior?

a. Context
b. Interpretation
c. Attribution
d. Perceptual set
Answer: c
The correct answer is c. Attribution. Attribution involves explaining the causes of behavior,
including internal factors (such as personality or disposition) and external factors (such as
situational influences). In this scenario, you are trying to attribute reasons for your cousin's
behavior, which involves considering possible causes or explanations.
27. Which of the following is NOT a dimension of attribution?
a. Focus
b. Stability
c. Controllability
d. Locus
Answer: a
The correct answer is a. Focus. In attribution theory, dimensions include locus (internal vs.
external), stability (stable vs. unstable), and controllability (controllable vs. uncontrollable).
"Focus" is not a recognized dimension within attribution theory.
28. Which term refers to the location of our behavior, whether within ourselves or outside
a. Stability
b. Controllability
c. Locus
d. Context

Answer: c
The correct answer is c. Locus. Locus refers to the location of behavior attribution, whether it
is attributed to internal factors (within oneself) or external factors (outside oneself). It is a key
dimension in attribution theory.
29. If your professor is late for class and you assign an external attribution (“She must have
hit heavy traffic on the way to campus,” you think), what are you examining in order to
understand the behavior?
a. Reason
b. Locus
c. Cause
d. Explanation
Answer: b
The correct answer is b. Locus. By attributing the professor's lateness to heavy traffic, you are
focusing on the external factors contributing to the behavior, which is indicative of examining
the locus of the behavior.
30. If you perceive that your boss is late for your appointment because she has chosen to
socialize with other coworkers beforehand, you are making a(n) ____________ attribution.
a. stable
b. external
c. controllable
d. unstable
Answer: c

The correct answer is c. Controllable. By attributing the boss's lateness to her choice to
socialize, you are suggesting that the behavior is controllable by the individual, rather than
being influenced by external factors. This reflects an attribution of controllability.
31. Roommates Meliah and Jean have an argument before going to bed. Meliah is so upset by
the conflict she forgets to load the dishwasher, as she has agreed to do every night. Jean is
sure Meliah deliberately didn’t do the dishes to get back at her. As a result, rather than
apologize in the morning as she had planned to do, Jean continues the argument. What has
Jean erroneously evaluated in this instance?
a. Stability
b. Controllability
c. Attribution
d. Interpersonal
Answer: c
Jean erroneously evaluated the cause of Meliah's behavior by attributing it to a deliberate act
of retaliation (internal attribution) rather than considering external factors such as Meliah's
emotional state or forgetfulness.
32. What term refers to our tendency to attribute our successes to stable, internal causes while
attributing our failures to unstable, external causes?
a. Attribution
b. Self-serving bias
c. Fundamental attribution error
d. Selfishness
Answer: b
The self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute success to internal factors, such as ability or
effort, while attributing failure to external factors, such as luck or situational factors.

33. If you do really well on a test, you say it’s because you were well prepared, but if you do
poorly, you say it’s because the classroom was too noisy. This is an example of what
attribution error?
a. Fundamental attribution
b. External locus
c. Controllability
d. Self-serving bias
Answer: d
This is an example of the self-serving bias, where positive outcomes are attributed to internal
factors and negative outcomes are attributed to external factors.
34. Nicole’s husband forgets their anniversary. She knows he has been distracted by clients at
work so she isn’t angry. When Nicole’s husband brings her flowers the next day, she believes
it is because he is a thoughtful husband. This tendency for Nicole to attribute negative
behaviors to external factors and positive behaviors to internal factors most likely reflects
which attribution error?
a. Self-serving bias
b. Fundamental attribution
c. Locus
d. Stability
Answer: a
Nicole's tendency to attribute her husband's forgetfulness to external factors (work
distraction) and his thoughtfulness to internal factors (being a thoughtful husband) reflects the
self-serving bias.
35. Which term refers to the tendency to attribute other people’s behaviors to internal rather
than external causes?

a. Fundamental attribution error
b. Locus
c. Self-serving bias
d. Stability
Answer: a
The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute others' behaviors to
internal factors, such as personality traits or intentions, rather than considering external
situational factors.
36. Good communicators bear in mind that others’ behaviors are often responses to external
forces, thus avoiding what problem?
a. Stability
b. Self-serving bias
c. Fundamental attribution error
d. Controllability
Answer: c
Good communicators avoid the fundamental attribution error by considering external
situational factors rather than solely attributing behavior to internal characteristics.
37. Wanda is annoyed because her waiter keeps getting her order wrong and doesn’t seem to
be listening to her. Wanda informs her companions she will not be leaving a tip for such a
lazy, incompetent waiter. Unbeknownst to Wanda, two other waiters have called in sick,
leaving her waiter with twice the workload. By not considering external forces to explain the
waiter’s behavior, what type of error is Wanda making?
a. Locus
b. Fundamental attribution error
c. Self-serving bias

d. Attribution
Answer: b
Wanda is making the fundamental attribution error by attributing the waiter's behavior solely
to internal factors (being lazy and incompetent) without considering the external situational
factor (being overworked due to other waiters calling in sick).
38. While the ability to perceive others accurately is an important part of communication, so
is the ability to accurately perceive
a. intentions.
b. actions.
c. self.
d. facework.
Answer: c
Accurately perceiving oneself (self-awareness) is crucial for effective communication, as it
allows individuals to understand their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which in turn
influences how they interact with others.
39. Your _______________ is composed of stable ideas about who you are that aren’t
influenced by moment-to-moment events.
a. perception
b. Johari window
c. stability
d. self-concept
Answer: d

Your self-concept consists of stable ideas about yourself, including traits, beliefs, and values,
which remain relatively constant and are not easily influenced by temporary events or
40. If you define yourself as a male, an uncle, and someone who is fun and honest, you are
defining different aspects of your
a. locus.
b. organization.
c. identity.
d. self-serving bias.
Answer: c
By defining oneself as male, an uncle, and possessing specific personality traits, one is
defining different aspects of their identity, which encompasses various roles, attributes, and
characteristics that contribute to their sense of self.
41. Which of the following is NOT an area of the Johari window?
a. Known
b. Blind
c. Open
d. Unknown
Answer: a
The Johari window consists of four areas: Open, Blind, Hidden, and Unknown. The "Known"
area is not part of the Johari window framework.
42. If Rebecca chooses not to share her history of childhood abuse with friends, in which area
of Rebecca’s Johari window would that information be located?
a. Open

b. Blind
c. Unknown
d. Hidden
Answer: d
Information that an individual chooses to keep private, such as Rebecca's history of
childhood abuse, is located in the Hidden area of the Johari window. This area represents
information known to the individual but kept hidden from others.
43. Which area of the Johari window would most likely include characteristics such as your
name, sex, academic major, and hobbies?
a. Open
b. Blind
c. Unknown
d. Hidden
Answer: a
The Open area of the Johari window contains information known to both the individual and
others. Characteristics such as name, sex, academic major, and hobbies are typically included
in this area as they are openly shared and known by both the individual and others.
44. In 2009, a popular game show aired called The Moment of Truth. On this show,
contestants chose to disclose secrets to their friends, family, and viewing audience in order to
win money. In other words, the contestants were moving information from the
_____________ area of their Johari window to the open area.
a. blind
b. unknown
c. open
d. hidden

Answer: d
Contestants on The Moment of Truth were revealing previously hidden information to others,
thus moving it from the Hidden area of their Johari window to the Open area, where it is
known to both the individual and others.
45. When the College Board asked almost one million U.S. American high school seniors to
rate their ability to get along with others, every single student responded that he or she was
“above average.” Which of the following statements best reflects the results of this survey?
a. It is often difficult for people to judge themselves objectively or accurately.
b. Many aspects of our self-concept are objective.
c. We define ourselves in many ways.
d. It is important to recognize the many dimensions of self-concept.
Answer: a
This statement reflects the psychological phenomenon known as "illusory superiority" or the
"above-average effect," where individuals tend to overestimate their abilities or qualities
compared to others, indicating the difficulty in judging oneself objectively or accurately.
46. Some of what we know about ourselves is based on _________ facts, details such as
height, weight, and hair color.
a. subjective
b. obvious
c. accurate
d. objective
Answer: d
Objective facts are those that are observable and measurable, such as height, weight, and hair
color. These details contribute to our self-awareness and self-concept.

47. Johanna suffers from depression and has low self-esteem. When she receives a low grade
on her informative speech, she believes this to be a reflection of her self-worth. Which
statement best illustrates Johanna’s experience?
a. The tendency toward self-monitoring ranges along a continuum from high to low.
b. Many aspects of our self-concept are objective.
c. Sometimes our judgments of ourselves are unreasonably negative.
d. We define ourselves in many ways.
Answer: c
Johanna's belief that a low grade on her speech reflects her self-worth demonstrates an
instance of unreasonably negative self-judgment, indicating that sometimes our perceptions
of ourselves are skewed or overly critical.
48. Someone who is a high _________________ pays attention to how others are reacting to
his or her behaviors and has the ability to adjust communication as needed.
a. self-monitor
b. egomaniac
c. competent communicator
d. scholar
Answer: a
A high self-monitor is someone who is attentive to social cues and adjusts their behavior
accordingly to fit social situations or expectations.
49. Tyce doesn’t spend a lot of energy worrying about his appearance; he just wears whatever
is at hand in the morning. Likewise, he always says what is on his mind, as he isn’t concerned
with what other people think about him. This is because Tyce is a(n) _________________
a. high

b. average
c. low
d. honest
Answer: c
Tyce's lack of concern for how others perceive him and his tendency to behave authentically
without much regard for social norms or expectations suggest that he is a low self-monitor.
50. Lissa hates public speaking. She knows she will not do well in her speech class. As her
first speech assignment approaches, Lissa doesn’t really work on it, as she believes she won’t
do well on it anyway. When she receives a “D” on the speech, Lissa tells her father, “See? I
told you I wasn’t good at this!” Which phenomenon is Lissa likely experiencing?
a. Self-fulfilling prophecy
b. Self-monitoring
c. Self-esteem
d. Self-concept
Answer: a
Lissa's belief that she would fail at public speaking influenced her behavior, leading to a selffulfilling prophecy where her expectation of failure became a reality. This phenomenon
demonstrates how our beliefs about ourselves can shape our actions and outcomes.
51. If you experience _________________, it is because your expectations of a situation
influence your behavior, thus influencing the outcome.
a. controllability
b. fundamental attribution error
c. self-serving bias
d. self-fulfilling prophecy

Answer: d
A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when your beliefs or expectations about a situation
influence your behavior in a way that ultimately brings about the expected outcome. In this
case, your expectations shape your behavior, which, in turn, affects the situation, leading to
the fulfillment of your initial expectations.
52. Which of the following most directly reflects your degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction
with your self-concept?
a. Childhood
b. Stability
c. Self-esteem
d. Self-fulfilling prophecy
Answer: c
Self-esteem directly relates to your evaluation of yourself. It reflects your overall sense of
worth or value, which is a crucial aspect of your self-concept. High self-esteem typically
leads to satisfaction with one's self-concept, while low self-esteem leads to dissatisfaction.
53. Individuals with _________________ self-esteem tend to be more outgoing and
communicative, and therefore build stronger relationships with others.
a. high
b. confident
c. low
d. regular
Answer: a

High self-esteem fosters confidence and a positive self-perception, making individuals more
comfortable and open in social interactions. This increased comfort often leads to greater
communication and stronger relationships with others.
54. Because of an abusive childhood, Luis has low ____________. He is pessimistic about
his abilities at work and school and wishes he were a better person. Luis rarely initiates
relationships and has a hard time believing in a partner’s expression of love and affection.
a. stability
b. self-concept
c. constructs
d. self-esteem
Answer: d
Luis's negative self-perception and lack of confidence in his abilities indicate low selfesteem. This affects his overall evaluation of himself and influences various aspects of his
life, including relationships and aspirations.
55. When you wear a suit to an interview and communicate in an articulate, professional
manner, what behavioral adjustment are you engaging in?
a. Self-fulfilling prophecy
b. Fundamental attribution error
c. Self-serving bias
d. Identity management
Answer: d
Wearing a suit and adjusting communication style for a professional setting exemplifies
identity management. It involves consciously altering behavior to present oneself in a
particular way, tailored to the demands of a specific situation or context.

56. Ann has a date after work. She rushes home, changing out of her business suit into jeans
and a nice shirt. She puts on heavier make-up and makes sure to put on perfume, something
she never does for work. Ann is engaging in what communication behavior?
a. Self-serving bias
b. Identity management
c. Self-fulfilling prophecy
d. Organization
Answer: b
Ann is adjusting her appearance and behavior to align with the expectations of a social
setting, which is a form of identity management. By changing her attire and grooming habits,
she seeks to present herself in a way that fits the context of a date.
57. Psychologist Dan McAdams has suggested that everyone develops a ____________, a
way of presenting ourselves to others that is based on our self-concept but that is also
influenced by other people.
a. life story
b. identity
c. face
d. image
Answer: a
A life story encompasses the narrative individuals construct about their own lives, which
integrates their self-concept with experiences and interactions with others. It reflects both
personal identity and external influences.
58. In the film, The Mask, bank teller Stanley Ipkiss (played by Jim Carrey) tries to be
friendly and outgoing, but others, including his own friends, treat him with disrespect and
scorn, as they clearly do not accept the image of himself that he portrays. This is because

a. Stanley manages multiple identities.
b. impression management is complex.
c. Stanley tries to project an image that accurately reflects his self-concept.
d. impression management is collaborative.
Answer: d
Others' rejection of Stanley's self-presentation suggests that impression management is
collaborative. Despite Stanley's efforts to project a certain image, others' perceptions and
reactions influence how his self-concept is received and accepted in social interactions.
59. In your circle of friends, you are known as a friend, but in your place of employment, you
are known as an employee. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes
this concept?
a. Impression management is collaborative.
b. We manage multiple identities.
c. Impression management is complex.
d. We try to project an image that accurately reflects our self-concept.
Answer: b
Managing different roles and personas in various social contexts reflects the concept of
multiple identities. Individuals adapt their behavior and presentation to fit the expectations
and norms associated with different roles they occupy.
60. Patrick has been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. Although his condition is in its early
stages, Patrick notices he completes tasks at a much slower pace at work than he used to.
Patrick is having trouble deciding if he will reveal his medical condition to his supervisor, as
he doesn’t want it to change his boss’s perception of him. Like many others with “invisible”
medical conditions, Patrick is trying to
a. manage multiple identities.

b. lie about how he is.
c. be someone who he is not.
d. avoid impression management.
Answer: a
Patrick's dilemma illustrates the management of multiple identities. He must navigate
disclosing his medical condition while maintaining his professional identity at work.
Concealing his condition is a strategy to balance different aspects of his identity in different
61. Which of the following is NOT among the reasons why someone who is HIV-positive
would choose to keep the condition to him- or herself?
a. Fear of rejection
b. Privacy
c. Self-blame
d. Disbelief
Answer: d
Individuals who are HIV-positive may choose to keep their condition private due to fear of
rejection, concerns about privacy, and feelings of self-blame. However, disbelief is not
typically a reason for keeping the condition to oneself.
62. Lola has two e-mail addresses, one for school and another for her personal use. She also
enjoys going to a virtual gaming web site, where her user name is Xena. Lola is
____________ online.
a. projecting one image about herself to multiple users
b. identifying herself in a cohesive way
c. managing multiple identities
d. avoiding impression management

Answer: c
Lola's use of different email addresses and a distinct username for gaming indicates that she
is managing multiple identities online, maintaining separate personas for different contexts.
63. Research shows that when people ask others for favors, they often create narratives that
help them maintain their image while still being persuasive because
a. we manage multiple identities.
b. image management is complex.
c. we like to tell stories about our self-concept.
d. our self-esteem informs everything we do.
Answer: b
When individuals ask for favors, they often craft narratives to maintain their image while
being persuasive because image management is a complex process involving the preservation
of one's self-image while achieving goals.
64. Rashid has been asked to be the best man at his brother’s wedding. Unfortunately, the
wedding is in another state, and in order to arrive on time, Rashid would need to miss his
final exam for his algebra class. Rashid meets with the professor and explains the situation.
He knows he must appear dedicated to class while at the same time asking to be allowed to
finish the course early. Rashid’s narrative reflects the concept that
a. we like to tell others stories.
b. we manage multiple identities.
c. our self-esteem informs the narratives we tell.
d. image management is complex.
Answer: d

Rashid's situation highlights the complexity of image management, where he must balance
appearing dedicated to his class while requesting an accommodation for his brother's
wedding, illustrating the nuanced nature of managing one's image.
65. Sociologist Erving Goffman coined what term to describe the behaviors we use to project
our desired public image to others?
a. Impression management
b. Context
c. Facework
d. Identity
Answer: c
Erving Goffman coined the term "facework" to describe the behaviors individuals engage in
to project their desired public image to others, focusing on the maintenance of social identity
and interactional control.
66. Margaret is angry that her mother insists on doing everything for her, even though she
began college a few months ago. Her mother makes her doctors’ appointments for her, tells
her when her car needs to be taken in for maintenance, and even insists on going shopping
with Margaret for new clothes. Her mother must also see all of Margaret’s grades and
feedback from her professors. Margaret is having which face need imposed upon?
a. Autonomy
b. Competence
c. Fellowship
d. Relational
Answer: a

Margaret's situation demonstrates a lack of autonomy, where her mother's actions impose on
her ability to make decisions and manage her own affairs, thus threatening her need for
67. Your desire to avoid an embarrassing situation is related to your ___________ face.
a. fellowship
b. competence
c. relational
d. autonomy
Answer: b
The desire to avoid embarrassment is related to maintaining one's competence face, as
individuals strive to appear capable and avoid situations that may undermine their perceived
68. When Stefan’s mother hands him a rejection letter from the college he had been dreaming
of going to for four years, Stefan shrugs and says that he didn’t really want to go to that
college anyway. He says he had already decided to go to his second-choice school, which had
accepted him a week earlier. Stefan is most likely employing a defense mechanism, because
he views the rejection letter as a
a. face-threatening act.
b. face need.
c. face-saving act.
d. threat to his self-esteem.
Answer: a
Stefan's reaction of downplaying the importance of the rejection letter and asserting his
preference for his second-choice school suggests he is employing a defense mechanism to

protect his self-image in the face of a perceived threat (the rejection), which is a facethreatening act.
69. Individuals with certain disabilities may perceive threats to their __________________
face if they are unable to do activities that others can do, such as driving a car.
a. fellowship
b. relational
c. competence
d. autonomy
Answer: d
Individuals with disabilities may perceive threats to their autonomy face when they are
unable to engage in activities that others can do independently, such as driving a car, which
may impact their sense of independence and control.
70. Each of us is constantly _______________our public image, hoping others will perceive
us the way we want them to.
a. changing
b. finding
c. managing
d. hiding behind
Answer: c
Individuals engage in the constant management of their public image, striving to present
themselves in a manner consistent with their desired self-image and how they wish to be
perceived by others.

Test Bank for Communication Matters
Kory Floyd
9780078036866, 9781259707766

Document Details

Related Documents

Lincoln Reed View profile

Send listing report


You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner


Send Message


My favorites


Application Form

Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close