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Chapter 15
1. Which of the following is NOT an example of persuasion?
a. Convincing someone to buy a car you wish to sell
b. Supporting a political cause you care about
c. Sharing how relaxing your vacation was
d. Rallying support for a local charity
Answer: c
Rationale:
Persuasion involves attempting to influence someone's beliefs, attitudes, or actions. Sharing
information about a relaxing vacation does not inherently involve an attempt to influence
someone in any particular direction.
2. What type of speaking aims to influence listeners’ beliefs, attitudes, and actions?
a. Persuasive
b. Informative
c. Coercive
d. Public
Answer: a
Rationale:
Persuasive speaking specifically aims to persuade or influence the audience's beliefs,
attitudes, or actions, making it the most appropriate choice among the options provided.
3. We can think of _______________ as communicating in an attempt to motivate others to
adopt a specific manner of thinking or doing.
a. coercion
b. persuasion
c. public speaking

d. propaganda
Answer: b
Rationale:
Persuasion involves attempting to motivate others to adopt a specific manner of thinking or
doing through communication, making it the most suitable option among the given choices.
4. Which of the following is NOT a realistic goal for most persuasive speeches?
a. To get an audience to do something
b. To persuade an audience to believe that a claim we’re making is true
c. To convince an audience to believe an opinion about a particular issue
d. To convince listeners to alter their lives drastically
Answer: d
Rationale:
While persuasive speeches can aim to influence beliefs, attitudes, or actions, convincing
listeners to drastically alter their lives might not be a realistic or achievable goal in most
cases.
5. Kim is giving a persuasive talk about organ donation. She wants to share the benefits of
organ donation and she hopes that some audience members will be persuaded to fill out the
organ donor card she brought with her. What persuasive goal is Kim trying to achieve?
a. To persuade her audience to believe that the claim she’s making is true
b. To get her audience to do something
c. To convince an audience to believe her opinion about a particular issue
d. To convince her audience to believe in a social cause
Answer: b
Rationale:
Kim's goal is to get her audience to take action by filling out the organ donor card, which
aligns with the goal of persuading the audience to do something.

6. Phil is giving his persuasive speech about legalizing stem cell research. He knows some of
his audience members might have an issue with whether stem cells are taken from viable
fetuses, so he knows his first job as a persuasive speaker is to influence their __________
about where stem cells come from.
a. thoughts
b. actions
c. beliefs
d. values
Answer: c
Rationale:
Phil's aim is to influence his audience's beliefs about where stem cells come from,
particularly addressing any concerns they may have regarding the source of stem cells.
7. Which term best describes our perceptions about what is true or false, accurate or
inaccurate?
a. Beliefs
b. Opinions
c. Actions
d. Norms
Answer: a
Rationale:
Beliefs typically refer to our perceptions about what is true or false, accurate or inaccurate,
making it the most appropriate choice among the options provided.
8. An attorney arguing his or her side of a case before a judge is trying to influence the
judge’s ________ about the case, or what the judge trusts to be true or false.
a. opinions
b. actions

c. ruling
d. beliefs
Answer: d
Rationale:
In the context of a legal argument, the attorney aims to influence the judge's beliefs about the
case, affecting what the judge trusts to be true or false.
9. Tyrone has always been opposed to the war in Iraq. He’s always thought the United States
had no right to be there, and he wants to see troops withdrawn immediately. He thinks that
the U.S. presence only holds the country back, and that the U.S. is wrong to keep troops in
place. Tyrone decides to give a speech at a peace rally on campus, hoping to use his
persuasive skills to influence other students’ ____________ about the justness of the war.
a. beliefs
b. feelings
c. opinions
d. actions
Answer: c
Rationale:
Tyrone aims to influence other students' opinions about the justness of the war through his
persuasive speech at the peace rally.
10. A(n) __________ is an evaluation about what’s good and bad.
a. opinion
b. action
c. belief
d. value
Answer: a
Rationale:

An opinion is an individual's evaluation or judgment about what is good or bad, making it the
most suitable option among the choices provided.
11. If you see an infomercial on a product late one night and are persuaded to order that
product, the infomercial has succeeded in influencing what?
a. Your opinions
b. Your actions
c. Your beliefs
d. The way you spend your time
Answer: b
Rationale:
The correct answer is b. Your actions. Infomercials are designed to persuade viewers to take a
specific action, such as making a purchase. In this scenario, the viewer's decision to order the
product demonstrates the influence of the infomercial on their actions.
12. Liza is surfing the Internet when she sees an ad for a weight loss product. Although she
usually ignores such ads, this one is a large ad that specifically states what the product can
do. Liza is intrigued, so she “clicks through” the ad to get the details of the advertised weight
loss product. Liza’s _________ have been influenced by the online ad.
a. behaviors
b. beliefs
c. opinions
d. norms
Answer: a
Rationale:
The correct answer is a. behaviors. Liza's decision to click through the ad and seek more
information about the weight loss product demonstrates a change in her behavior, influenced
by the online ad.

13. In his Treatise on Rhetoric, which Greek philosopher described three forms of rhetorical
proof?
a. Socrates
b. Thales
c. Aristotle
d. Plato
Answer: c
Rationale:
The correct answer is c. Aristotle. Aristotle described three forms of rhetorical proof in his
Treatise on Rhetoric: ethos, logos, and pathos.
14. Which of the following is NOT a rhetorical proof that can support persuasive messages?
a. Mythos
b. Logos
c. Pathos
d. Ethos
Answer: a
Rationale:
The correct answer is a. Mythos. Mythos is not one of the rhetorical proofs described by
Aristotle. The three rhetorical proofs are ethos, logos, and pathos.
15. Which proof refers to a speaker’s respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character?
a. Pathos
b. Mythos
c. Logos
d. Ethos
Answer: d

Rationale:
The correct answer is d. Ethos. Ethos pertains to a speaker's credibility, respectability,
trustworthiness, and moral character.
16. Singer and social activist Bono has established a charity called One, which is dedicated to
fighting poverty and preventable diseases in the world. He has frequently called on other
celebrities such as Brad Pitt, Matt Damon, and Ellen DeGeneres to make commercials on
behalf of the cause, and politicians such as President Barack Obama and Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton have been interviewed about the issues the organization battles. The One
organization seems to realize the persuasive power that __________ can have.
a. pathos
b. ethos
c. mythos
d. logos
Answer: b
Rationale:
The correct answer is b. ethos. Bono's use of influential figures like celebrities and politicians
aligns with the concept of ethos, leveraging their credibility and authority to persuade others
to support the charity's cause.
17. Which of the following is NOT a quality a speaker should display for ethos?
a. Integrity
b. Goodwill toward the audience
c. A false sense of humility
d. Knowledge and experience with the topic
Answer: c
Rationale:
The correct answer is c. A false sense of humility. Genuine humility is a virtue, but a false
sense of humility can undermine credibility. Integrity, goodwill toward the audience, and

knowledge and experience with the topic are all qualities a speaker should display to enhance
ethos.
18. Tia is very passionate about raising money for a Haitian relief fund. She e-mails her
family and friends soliciting donations after a major earthquake in Haiti, encouraging them to
send money to the organization. When Tia’s brother asks about how much money goes to the
cause versus how much is kept for administration costs, Tia ignores his concerns and again
urges him to donate. Tia’s brother feels that Tia is just using him for the donation and decides
to donate his money elsewhere. What could Tia have done to better establish her ethos?
a. Tia could have had more goodwill toward her audience.
b. Tia could have demonstrated more integrity.
c. Tia could have had more virtue.
d. Tia could have displayed more experience with the topic.
Answer: b
Rationale:
The correct answer is b. Tia could have demonstrated more integrity. Ignoring her brother's
concerns about how the donations would be used could undermine Tia's credibility and
integrity. Being transparent about where the donations go and addressing concerns would
have helped establish her ethos.
19. Judgments about ethos belong to whom?
a. The speaker
b. Everyone
c. The orator
d. The audience
Answer: d
Rationale:
The correct answer is d. The audience. Ethos is perceived by the audience and involves
judgments about the credibility, trustworthiness, and character of the speaker.

20. Aristotle used which term to refer to listeners’ emotions?
a. Ethos
b. Pathos
c. Logos
d. Mythos
Answer: b
Rationale:
The correct answer is b. Pathos. Aristotle used the term pathos to refer to appeals made to the
emotions of the audience in persuasion.
21. Appeals to positive _____________ are often most effective at persuading people to
change their attitudes or opinions, whereas appeals to negative ones are frequently most
effective at inducing behavioral change.
a. thoughts
b. beliefs
c. emotions
d. values
Answer: c
Rationale:
Appeals to positive emotions can create a sense of affinity, optimism, or desire, which can
lead individuals to be more receptive to changing their attitudes or opinions. On the other
hand, appeals to negative emotions, such as fear or guilt, can prompt individuals to take
immediate action to alleviate those negative feelings, hence inducing behavioral change.
22. Pathos appeals are usually focused on generating _____________ emotions because
people generally dislike them and are motivated to respond to the appeal to reduce those
feelings.
a. positive
b. ambivalent

c. uncomfortable
d. negative
Answer: d
Rationale:
Pathos appeals aim to evoke emotions in the audience. Negative emotions, such as sadness,
fear, or anger, are often uncomfortable for individuals, motivating them to respond to the
appeal to alleviate those negative feelings.
23. Maggie is giving a persuasive speech on vegetarianism. In her pathos appeals, Maggie
decides to appeal to ___________ by showing a graphic video of a cow being slaughtered. As
the audience watches the cow suffer and struggle before it dies, Maggie can see they are
appalled, and she is sure her pathos appeal was effective.
a. irritation
b. disgust
c. shame
d. frustration
Answer: b
Rationale:
Maggie's use of a graphic video of a cow being slaughtered aims to evoke disgust in the
audience. Disgust is a powerful emotion that can evoke a visceral reaction and can be
effective in persuading individuals to change their behaviors or attitudes, particularly in the
context of promoting vegetarianism.
24. Brent knows his persuasive speech on helping orphans from New Orleans has to be
emotional to motivate his audience to assist. Brent shows pictures of several orphans crying,
and he quotes several of them talking about how difficult their lives have been and how they
suffered after Hurricane Katrina in 2009. Brent is hoping to use these images and words to
appeal to ______________ as part of his use of pathos.
a. sadness
b. disgust

c. fear
d. anger
Answer: a
Rationale:
Brent's use of pictures of crying orphans and their quotes about their difficult lives after
Hurricane Katrina aims to evoke sadness in the audience. Sadness can elicit empathy and
compassion, making individuals more inclined to assist or take action to help the orphans.
25. The sale of blood diamonds—diamonds that are mined in a war zone and then sold to
support an insurgency or warlord’s activities—is an issue that Owen has long fought against.
He is asked to speak at a bridal show, where he knows his audience is composed not only of
brides, but jewelers as well. Owen uses the opportunity to discuss how children are often
used in the mining of blood diamonds. At the conclusion of his speech, Owen shows a picture
of a child missing a hand and says, “Next time someone tells you a diamond cost an arm and
a leg, ask yourself if there might be some truth to that. Don’t support this horrific practice just
so you can have something sparkly on your hand.” Which type of pathos appeal is Owen
using?
a. Fear
b. Humor
c. Sadness
d. Guilt
Answer: d
Rationale:
Owen is using a guilt appeal in his speech. By showing the picture of a child missing a hand
and linking it to the idea of diamonds costing "an arm and a leg," he aims to evoke feelings of
guilt in the audience for supporting the sale of blood diamonds and exploiting children in the
process.
26. If you are appealing to your listeners’ sense of reason, you are using which type of
appeal?

a. Ethos
b. Pathos
c. Logos
d. Mythos
Answer: c
Rationale:
Logos refers to the use of logic, reasoning, and evidence to persuade an audience. When
appealing to the audience's sense of reason, one is using logos to make a rational argument.
27. To ________________ means to make judgments about the world based on evidence
rather than emotion or intuition.
a. examine
b. reason
c. analyze
d. deduct
Answer: b
Rationale:
Reasoning involves making judgments or decisions based on evidence, logic, and rational
thought rather than relying solely on emotions or intuition.
28. What are the two types of reasoning?
a. Inductive and productive
b. Reductive and deductive
c. Reductive and productive
d. Inductive and deductive
Answer: d
Rationale:

The two types of reasoning are inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Inductive
reasoning involves drawing general conclusions from specific observations, while deductive
reasoning involves deriving specific conclusions from general principles or premises.
29. When a doctor listens to a patient’s symptoms, analyzes blood tests, and then provides a
diagnosis, the doctor has used _____________ reasoning.
a. deductive
b. inductive
c. productive
d. logical
Answer: b
Rationale:
The doctor has used inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning involves making
generalizations based on specific observations or evidence. In this case, the doctor is drawing
a conclusion (diagnosis) based on specific symptoms and test results.
30. Tonya tries to persuade her listeners that all swans in the world are white because no one
has ever seen a swan that wasn’t white. By offering this evidence to support her conclusion,
Tonya uses _____________ reasoning
a. practical
b. deductive
c. inductive
d. logical
Answer: c
Rationale:
Tonya uses inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning involves drawing general conclusions
based on specific observations. In this case, Tonya observes that all swans she has seen are
white and concludes that all swans in the world must be white, which is a generalization
drawn from specific instances.

31. In his speech, Jason attempts to persuade listeners that the assassination of President John
F. Kennedy was a conspiracy. He begins by establishing that a conspiracy is any occurrence
of two or more people acting together to commit a crime. He then presents evidence that
several people acted together to kill President Kennedy. He concludes by claiming that,
“Therefore, the assassination was a conspiracy.” Jason’s argument represents which form of
reasoning?
a. Inductive
b. Productive
c. Practical
d. Deductive
Answer: d
Rationale:
Jason's argument follows deductive reasoning because he starts with a general premise
(definition of conspiracy) and applies it to specific evidence (several people acting together to
kill Kennedy) to logically conclude that the assassination was a conspiracy.
32. Deductive claims often make use of a three-line argument, consisting of a major premise,
a minor premise, and a conclusion. What is this type of argument called?
a. Syllogism
b. Enthymeme
c. Hypothesis
d. Line of reasoning
Answer: a
Rationale:
This type of argument is called a syllogism, which consists of a major premise, a minor
premise, and a conclusion. It's a fundamental structure in deductive reasoning.
33. _______________ can be just as persuasive as full syllogisms, but only if listeners accept
the validity of both the omitted premise and the premise that is included.

a. Lines of reasoning
b. Enthymemes
c. Arguments
d. Hypotheses
Answer: b
Rationale:
Enthymemes are incomplete syllogisms where one premise is omitted. They can be
persuasive if the audience accepts both the included and omitted premises.
34. When we ask people to believe some statement, we are asserting that statement is true, so
we are using a proposition of what?
a. Policy
b. Value
c. Fact
d. Norms
Answer: c
Rationale:
When asking people to believe a statement, we are dealing with propositions of fact because
we are asserting the truth of the statement.
35. When a speaker asserts a proposition of __________, the persuasive goal isn’t to make
someone believe the speaker; rather, it is to make someone agree with him or her.
a. value
b. fact
c. opinion
d. policy
Answer: a

Rationale:
A proposition of value deals with judgments of what is important, moral, or right. The goal is
to persuade someone to agree with the speaker's values or judgments.
36. Nima is giving a speech against allowing same-sex marriage. She decides to argue a
proposition of ___________ by saying, “Two people of the same sex marrying each other is
immoral.”
a. policy
b. fact
c. value
d. morals
Answer: c
Rationale:
Nima is arguing a proposition of value because she is making a moral judgment about the
morality of same-sex marriage.
37. What type of proposition is based on a judgment that reflects the speaker’s opinions about
what is important, moral, and right?
a. Fact
b. Value
c. Policy
d. Ethics
Answer: b
Rationale:
Propositions of value are based on judgments about what is important, moral, or right,
reflecting the speaker's opinions or values.
38. If a speaker makes a claim about what we “should do,” what type of proposition is he or
she making?

a. Fact
b. Policy
c. Value
d. Action
Answer: b
Rationale:
Claims about what "should" be done involve propositions of policy, which address actions or
courses of action to be taken.
39. Andy is asked to give a speech in his political science class on a current issue in the
criminal justice system. He decides to discuss the death penalty. As his thesis, Andy states,
“The death penalty should be made illegal in the United States.” Andy has decided to base his
presentation on a proposition of
a. policy.
b. law.
c. value.
d. fact.
Answer: a
Rationale:
Andy's thesis statement presents a course of action, making it a proposition of policy.
40. Which of the following is NOT an option for organizing a persuasive speech?
a. Refutational
b. Comparative advantage
c. Space-time
d. Monroe’s motivated sequence
Answer: c

Rationale:
Space-time is not an option for organizing a persuasive speech. The other options—
refutational, comparative advantage, and Monroe's motivated sequence—are all recognized
methods for structuring persuasive speeches.
41. Vito is organizing his persuasive speech on bottled water. His first main point will cover
the extensive amount of time it takes for a plastic water bottle to decompose in a landfill and
how many millions of plastic water bottles are thrown away each year. Vito’s second point
will cover reusable water bottles or containers, how easy and inexpensive they are to use, and
how their use will decrease plastic bottles in landfills. Vito has organized his speech using
what pattern of organization?
a. Monroe’s motivated sequence
b. Refutational approach
c. Comparative advantage
d. Problem-solving
Answer: d
Rationale:
Vito's speech organization focuses on presenting a problem (the extensive time for plastic
bottles to decompose and the high number of bottles thrown away) and then proposing a
solution (the use of reusable bottles). This aligns with the problem-solving pattern of
organization, where the speaker first identifies an issue and then provides a solution or course
of action.
42. If you organize your persuasive speech using a _________________, you present and
then immediately refute the main points against the position you plan to advocate.
a. comparative advantage
b. problem-solving
c. refutational approach
d. Monroe’s motivated sequence
Answer: c

Rationale:
The refutational approach involves presenting and then refuting opposing arguments. By
doing so, the speaker aims to strengthen their own position by addressing potential
counterarguments upfront.
43. During her persuasive speech on stopping illegal music downloading on the Internet,
Danica brings up an argument from the opposition. She says that those who support
unauthorized downloading have argued that it isn’t hurting anyone. Danica disproves that
argument, offering statistics and testimony from artists whose finances have been hurt by
illegal downloading. Danica has organized her speech using which of the following?
a. Refutational approach
b. Problem-solving
c. Monroe’s motivated sequence
d. Comparative advantage
Answer: a
Rationale:
Danica's organization involves presenting an opposing argument and then refuting it with
evidence and logic. This aligns with the refutational approach, where the speaker addresses
and disproves opposing viewpoints.
44. For which of the following does a speaker explain why his or her point of view is superior
to others on the same topic?
a. Refutational approach
b. Problem-solving method
c. Motivated sequence
d. Comparative advantage
Answer: d
Rationale:

The comparative advantage pattern of organization involves explaining why one's own
viewpoint is superior to others on the same topic. It focuses on highlighting the strengths or
advantages of a particular position compared to alternatives.
45. Attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and need are all stages of what method of
organization?
a. Monroe’s motivated sequence
b. Comparative advantage
c. Problem-solving method
d. Refutational approach
Answer: a
Rationale:
These stages correspond to Monroe’s motivated sequence, a method of organization
commonly used in persuasive speeches. The sequence progresses from gaining the audience's
attention to presenting a need, satisfying that need, visualizing the benefits, and ending with a
call to action.
46. Frances is organizing a persuasive speech on organ donation. She plans on starting with a
picture of a little girl and telling the audience about Connie, a four-year-old who died two
years ago because she needed a new heart and no donor could be found. If Frances is using
Monroe’s motivated sequence, what stage would this statement be found in?
a. Visualization
b. Satisfaction
c. Attention
d. Action
Answer: c
Rationale:

The stage of gaining the audience's attention corresponds to the first step in Monroe’s
motivated sequence. Frances's introduction with a picture of a little girl and a compelling
story about the need for organ donation is aimed at capturing the audience's attention.
47. Jacek’s persuasive speech on increasing the minimum wage has been organized using
Monroe’s motivated sequence. At what stage would Jacek say, “I’ve prepared a handout with
the name, e-mail address and telephone number of our state representative so you can contact
her about voting in favor of a minimum wage increase”?
a. Need
b. Action
c. Attention
d. Visualization
Answer: b
Rationale:
The stage of action in Monroe’s motivated sequence involves encouraging the audience to
take specific steps or actions related to the persuasive message. Jacek's statement about
providing contact information for the state representative corresponds to this stage.
48. A logical ______________ is a line of reasoning that, even if it makes sense, doesn’t
genuinely support a speaker’s point.
a. error
b. mistake
c. misnomer
d. fallacy
Answer: d
Rationale:
A fallacy is a flaw in reasoning that invalidates the argument, even if it may seem logically
sound. Fallacies can deceive listeners by appearing persuasive but ultimately fail to provide
genuine support for the speaker's point.

49. A common but illogical way to counter arguments is to criticize the people who make
them. This type of fallacy is called
a. slippery slope.
b. bandwagon appeal.
c. false-cause.
d. ad hominem.
Answer: d
Rationale:
The fallacy of ad hominem involves attacking the character or traits of an individual making
an argument rather than addressing the substance of the argument itself. It's a diversionary
tactic that aims to discredit the opponent rather than engage with their ideas.
50. In his speech on gun control, Mike says, “The right to bear arms is guaranteed by the
Second Amendment. If you allow our government to take that right away, it would be long
before they’ll be taking away your freedom of speech or your right to vote!” Mike is
committing what type of fallacy?
a. Bandwagon appeal
b. False-cause
c. Slippery slope
d. Red herring
Answer: c
Rationale:
Mike's argument suggests that allowing restrictions on the right to bear arms will inevitably
lead to further infringements on other rights, such as freedom of speech or the right to vote.
This is an example of the slippery slope fallacy, where an unlikely chain of events is
presented as if it is inevitable.
51. To make the claim that, “since prayer was banned in public schools in 1963, violent
crimes have increased dramatically” is to commit what type of fallacy?

a. False-cause
b. Slippery slope
c. Bandwagon
d. Ad hominem
Answer: a
Rationale:
This statement commits the false-cause fallacy by incorrectly assuming a causal relationship
between the banning of prayer in public schools and the increase in violent crimes. It implies
that one event caused the other without sufficient evidence to support such a claim.
52. Which of the following is a broad claim that is based on insufficient evidence?
a. Red herring
b. Slippery slope
c. Straw man fallacy
d. Hasty generalization
Answer: d
Rationale:
A hasty generalization occurs when a conclusion is drawn from insufficient evidence. It
involves making a broad claim based on limited or inadequate evidence, which can lead to
unreliable or incorrect conclusions.
53. Roger is giving a persuasive speech against school uniforms. One of his arguments is,
“There are so many issues in our public schools today like violence and drugs, so why are we
so focused on what kids are wearing?” What fallacy does Roger’s speech contain?
a. Straw man
b. Red herring
c. Slippery slope
d. Bandwagon

Answer: b
Rationale:
Roger's argument contains a red herring fallacy. Instead of addressing the topic of school
uniforms directly, he diverts attention to other issues such as violence and drugs, which are
irrelevant to the discussion at hand.
54. In Heather’s speech against breastfeeding in public, she says, “These women are angry
because we won’t let them flash their breasts at strangers in public! What decent person
wants to see that?” Because Heather is trying to refute an argument that supporters of
breastfeeding in public never actually made, Heather is engaging what type of fallacy?
a. Appeal to false authority
b. Red herring fallacy
c. Slippery slope
d. Straw man fallacy
Answer: d
Rationale:
Heather's argument is a straw man fallacy because she misrepresents the argument of
supporters of breastfeeding in public. She sets up a distorted or exaggerated version of their
argument (that they want to "flash their breasts at strangers") to make it easier to attack.
55. If you say, “Actress Alicia Silverstone verifies that a vegetarian lifestyle is the healthiest
way to live,” you are using what type of fallacy?
a. Begging the question
b. Straw man
c. Appeal to false authority
d. Bandwagon
Answer: c
Rationale:

This statement commits the fallacy of appeal to false authority by relying on the endorsement
of Alicia Silverstone, an actress, rather than on expert opinions or empirical evidence in the
field of nutrition or medicine.
56. Which of the following means supporting an argument with claims whose truth is taken
for granted but never verified?
a. Begging the question
b. Appeal to false authority
c. Slippery slope
d. Bandwagon
Answer: a
Rationale:
Begging the question involves assuming the truth of the conclusion in the premise, thereby
failing to provide evidence or reasoning to support the argument. It relies on claims that are
taken for granted without verification.
57. The phrase “preaching to the choir” could be used to describe speaking to what type of
audience?
a. Neutral
b. Hostile
c. Receptive
d. Disengaged
Answer: c
Rationale:
"Preaching to the choir" refers to speaking to an audience that already agrees with or is
supportive of the speaker's message, making them receptive to the argument being presented.
58. Because an issue doesn’t seem relevant to a ___________ audience, it is helpful to inform
listeners why your topic matters enough to them and they should care.
a. Neutral

b. Hostile
c. Receptive
d. Normal
Answer: a
Rationale:
When addressing a neutral audience, it is essential to explain why the topic is relevant to
them, as they may not initially see its significance or relevance to their interests or concerns.
59. The most difficult audience to persuade is a ____________ audience.
a. Neutral
b. Hostile
c. Bored
d. Receptive
Answer: b
Rationale:
A hostile audience is the most challenging to persuade because they are actively resistant or
opposed to the speaker's message or argument, making it difficult to change their opinions or
attitudes.
60. What is the best strategy when dealing with a hostile audience?
a. Stress points on which you and your listeners disagree.
b. Ignore the hostility.
c. Acknowledge the listeners’ negative feelings.
d. Make listeners feel maligned rather than respected.
Answer: c
Rationale:

When dealing with a hostile audience, acknowledging their negative feelings can help defuse
tension and create an atmosphere of respect and understanding. Ignoring hostility or
exacerbating it can further alienate the audience and hinder effective communication.
61. To build __________ is to create the perception that your listeners see things similarly to
the way you do.
a. credibility
b. ethos
c. pathos
d. rapport
Answer: d
Rationale:
Rapport refers to the establishment of a harmonious relationship with your audience, where
they feel connected to you and see things from a similar perspective. Building rapport
involves creating a sense of familiarity and understanding between the speaker and the
listeners, which enhances communication effectiveness.
62. Which of the following is NOT a way to build rapport with your audience?
a. Open with a story.
b. Avoid using humor.
c. Interact with listeners before your speech.
d. Maintain eye contact.
Answer: b
Rationale:
Using humor can actually be an effective way to build rapport with an audience by creating a
sense of shared enjoyment. Humor can help to break the ice and make the speaker more
relatable. Therefore, avoiding humor would not contribute to building rapport.
63. Becky has been asked by a local high school to speak to their environmental club. She’s a
bit nervous, as she doesn’t know the audience. She wants to get some information about who

the students are and what matters to them, and she also wants to signal that she cares about
them. What is the best way for Becky to build this type of rapport?
a. Opening with a story
b. Maintaining eye contact while she speaks
c. Interacting with her listeners before she speaks
d. Using humor when appropriate
Answer: c
Rationale:
Interacting with the listeners before the speech allows Becky to gather information about
their interests and concerns, demonstrating that she cares about them. This interaction helps
establish a connection and builds rapport.
64. If a speaker has a good deal of ____________, an audience will take his or her words
seriously and be open to new ideas.
a. credibility
b. pathos
c. charisma
d. knowledge
Answer: a
Rationale:
Credibility refers to the trustworthiness and expertise of the speaker. When a speaker is
perceived as credible, the audience is more likely to take their words seriously and be open to
new ideas presented in the speech.
65. Which of the following is a component of credibility?
a. Wisdom
b. Humor
c. Charisma

d. Vitality
Answer: c
Rationale:
Charisma, along with expertise, integrity, and dynamism, is a component of credibility.
Charismatic speakers often have a magnetic personality that enhances their persuasiveness
and influence over an audience.
66. If a professor seems organized, prepared, and professional, what is he or she
demonstrating?
a. Charisma
b. Character
c. Wisdom
d. Competence
Answer: d
Rationale:
Demonstrating organization, preparedness, and professionalism reflects the professor's
competence. Competence is essential for establishing credibility and gaining the trust of the
audience.
67. If you are considering someone’s ______________, you are evaluating his or her honesty.
a. charisma
b. character
c. morals
d. competence
Answer: b
Rationale:

Character relates to the moral and ethical qualities of an individual, including honesty and
integrity. Evaluating someone's character involves assessing their trustworthiness and
sincerity.
68. When Barack Obama ran for the U.S. presidency in 2008, unprecedented crowds gathered
to hear him speak. He was well known for slogans such as, “Yes, we can” and “Change we
can believe in.” When Obama rallied crowds with such statements, he was relying on which
of the following to increase his credibility?
a. Competence
b. Charisma
c. Character
d. Enthusiasm
Answer: b
Rationale:
Barack Obama's use of slogans like "Yes, we can" and "Change we can believe in"
demonstrates his charisma. Charismatic leaders have an innate ability to inspire and motivate
others, which enhances their credibility and appeal to the audience.

Test Bank for Communication Matters
Kory Floyd
9780078036866, 9781259707766

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