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Chapter 10
1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a group decision?
a. A faculty committee choosing what textbook to use
b. A jury deciding if a defendant is guilty
c. A fraternity hazing a new member
d. Cardinals in the Catholic Church choosing a new pope
Answer: c
Hazing is not a legitimate decision-making process but rather a harmful and often coercive
activity. The other options involve formal decision-making processes undertaken by groups
with specific purposes and authority.
2. Which of the following is NOT a common way for a group to make decisions?
a. Conflict resolution
b. Nominal group technique
c. Brainstorming
d. Ideawriting
Answer: a
Conflict resolution is not primarily a method of generating ideas or making decisions but
rather a process to resolve disputes or disagreements within a group.
3. Which of the following allows group members to offer any ideas they wish and to create a
list of all the proposed ideas before any of the ideas are debated?
a. Ideawriting
b. Nominal group technique
c. Creating

d. Brainstorming
Answer: d
Brainstorming is a method where group members freely generate ideas without criticism or
debate initially, allowing for the creation of a comprehensive list of ideas before discussion
4. Navajo is in a small group working on a project for his literature class. No one is willing to
offer ideas, as they don’t know each other, and Navajo suspects they are afraid of being
ridiculed. Because ___________ allows members to generate ideas on a master list before
any are debated, Navajo thinks this might be the best way for his group to generate ideas.
a. Nominal group technique
b. Brainstorming
c. Consensus
d. Ideawriting
Answer: b
Brainstorming encourages the free flow of ideas without fear of criticism, allowing all
members to contribute without initial judgment or debate, which could be beneficial for
Navajo's situation.
5. In his hospitality and tourism course, Henry and his study group are charged with doing an
ad campaign on a destination of their choosing. Henry suggests they think about somewhere
cold, as he is sure the rest of the groups will choose tropical locations. Hannah, another group
member, is reminded of Canada’s Hôtel de Glace, a hotel made entirely of ice and snow. The
group loves the creative and unusual idea that came from ______________ during
a. piggybacking
b. encouraging creativity
c. focusing on quantity

d. not criticizing
Answer: a
Piggybacking refers to building upon the ideas of others, which is a common and valued
aspect of brainstorming, fostering creativity and innovation within a group.
6. ____________ calls for group members to generate their initial ideas silently and
independently and then to combine them and consider them as a group.
a. Brainstorming
b. Consensus
c. Nominal group technique
d. Ideawriting
Answer: c
The nominal group technique involves individual idea generation followed by group
discussion and evaluation, allowing for independent thinking while still benefiting from
group input.
7. The major advantage of _______________ over brainstorming is that it can encourage
participation from members who might be uncomfortable contributing their ideas aloud.
a. ideawriting
b. nominal group technique
c. consensus
d. brainstorming
Answer: b

Nominal group technique allows members to contribute ideas anonymously, reducing the fear
of judgment or ridicule often associated with verbal brainstorming, thereby encouraging
participation from all members.
8. Which of the following encourages members to generate and evaluate ideas in writing
while working independently?
a. Nominal group technique
b. Brainstorming
c. Consensus
d. Ideawriting
Answer: d
Ideawriting involves individual idea generation and evaluation in writing, promoting
independent thinking while still allowing for collaboration during the idea refinement
9. What is the LEAST collaborative idea-generation method, in which group members
accomplish most of the steps while working individually?
a. Ideawriting
b. Nominal group technique
c. Brainstorming
d. Consensus
Answer: a
Ideawriting primarily involves individual work, with minimal interaction or collaboration
among group members during the initial idea generation phase.
10. Liam’s group is trying to come up with ideas for their group project, so each group
member creates a list of ideas and why they think each idea has merit. They each read each
other’s lists, offering comments about strengths and weaknesses. Once Liam gets his list back

with the others’ comments, he then writes his own reaction to those comments, and then it
goes back into the pile so the group can finally make a master list of ideas worthy of
additional discussion. Liam’s group is using what method of idea generation?
a. Nominal group technique
b. Ideawriting
c. Brainstorming
d. Consensus
Answer: b
Ideawriting involves individual idea generation and evaluation, followed by group feedback
and refinement, which closely aligns with the process described in Liam's group.
11. Which of the following is NOT a group decision-making method?
a. Brainstorming
b. Majority rule
c. Consensus
d. Authority rule
Answer: a
Brainstorming is a technique used to generate ideas or solutions within a group setting, but it
is not a method for making decisions. Instead, it is a creative process aimed at generating a
wide range of ideas without immediate judgment or evaluation.
12. When a group reaches ____________, there is unanimous support of a decision.
a. a choice
b. voting
c. stalemate
d. consensus

Answer: d
Consensus refers to a situation where every member of a group agrees on a decision. It
signifies a collective agreement and support for a particular choice.
13. Omar’s group wants to come to consensus on the ad campaign for a new product.
Although the group is committed, after many long, frustrating discussions, they reach a
___________, so they must resort to some other form of decision-making.
a. vote
b. stalemate
c. false consensus
d. nominal group technique
Answer: b
A stalemate occurs when a group is unable to reach a decision despite efforts to do so. It
signifies a deadlock or impasse in the decision-making process.
14. If someone says, “Let’s take a vote” when a group decision is looming, he or she is
probably recommending what decision-making strategy?
a. Stalemate
b. Expert opinion
c. Majority rule
d. Consensus
Answer: c
Taking a vote suggests employing the majority rule decision-making strategy, where the
option with the most votes is chosen, regardless of whether it achieves unanimous agreement
or consensus.

15. When her bank merges with another bank, Keiko’s group, composed of 11 people, is
charged with choosing the new company logo. The group finds it impossible to come to
consensus, so they take a vote. Six vote in favor of one logo, whereas Keiko and four others
vote in favor of another, making the vote 6 to 5. Keiko and the others in the minority are
upset, as they feel that such a close vote warrants further discussion. Keiko and the rest of the
minority should remember that when using _______________ to make decisions, everyone in
a group implicitly agrees to support the majority decision.
a. minority rule
b. majority rule
c. consensus
d. voting
Answer: b
Majority rule is a decision-making approach where the option favored by the largest number
of members is chosen, and all members implicitly agree to support the decision, even if they
initially opposed it.
16. BioTech University has a large biology department, with 38 faculty members teaching, 25
of whom are adjuncts (part-time professors). For the sake of efficiency, every three years a
committee of 10 full-time faculty members makes the decision as to what textbook will be
used in the basic biology foundation course. By using ____________ decision-making, the
BioTech biology department saves the faculty’s time for other pursuits for the department.
a. minority rule
b. majority rule
c. consensus
d. expert opinion
Answer: a

Minority rule involves a smaller group or subset of members making decisions on behalf of
the larger group. In this scenario, the committee of 10 full-time faculty members represents a
minority making decisions on behalf of the larger faculty body, thus saving time and
streamlining the decision-making process.
17. ______________ works on the principle that some people have better judgment or more
informed opinions on specific topics or matters than others.
a. Minority rule
b. Consensus
c. Authority rule
d. Expert opinion
Answer: d
Expert opinion relies on the expertise or specialized knowledge of certain individuals within
a group. It recognizes that some individuals possess better judgment or more informed
opinions on particular subjects, and their input is valued in decision-making.
18. In the Toy Story movies, a child’s favorite toy, Woody, tends to make the decisions for the
group of toys that live in his room. Although he does try to look out for the best interests of
all the toys, his ____________ approach to decision making can leave the other toys feeling
frustrated and questioning Woody’s right to make decisions on behalf of the group.
a. minority rule
b. expert opinion
c. authority rule
d. majority opinion
Answer: c
Authority rule involves decision-making where a single individual or entity possesses the
power or authority to make decisions for the entire group without necessarily seeking

consensus or majority agreement. In this case, Woody acts as the authoritative figure making
decisions for the other toys, which can lead to frustration among the group members.
19. Which of the following is usually NOT a factor in determining the method a group uses to
make decisions?
a. How important the decision is
b. How quickly the decision must be made
c. Whether the decision requires expert knowledge
d. Whether the group wants everyone to be content
Answer: d
Factors such as the importance of the decision, the urgency of making the decision, and
whether expert knowledge is needed typically influence the method a group uses to make
decisions. However, prioritizing individual contentment is not typically a primary factor in
decision-making methods within groups.
20. When working in groups, Lani is very concerned with reaching consensus and she always
values what is best for the group over what she personally wants. Which cultural influence is
at work when Lani is in a group?
a. Individualism affects decision-making
b. Power distance affects decision-making
c. Time orientation affects decision-making
d. Context affects decision-making
Answer: a
Lani's prioritization of group consensus and the collective good over individual preferences
reflects the cultural influence of individualism. Individualistic cultures emphasize personal
autonomy, self-expression, and the pursuit of individual goals over collective interests.

21. Groups from monochromic cultures may opt for majority rule, minority rule, or authority
rule because those methods use time efficiently, whereas groups from polychromic cultures
may try achieving consensus if they believe that method will produce a better decision. This
is because _______________ affects decision-making.
a. power distance
b. time orientation
c. context
d. individualism
Answer: b
Time orientation refers to how cultures perceive and utilize time. Monochromic cultures
value punctuality, schedules, and efficiency in time management. Therefore, methods such as
majority rule, minority rule, or authority rule are preferred as they allow for quick decisionmaking. On the other hand, polychromic cultures have a more fluid approach to time and
prioritize relationships and consensus-building. Hence, they may opt for achieving consensus
as it allows for thorough discussion and consideration of various viewpoints.
22. A _________ is a characteristic of a person that is relatively enduring and not easily
a. personality
b. feature
c. trait
d. quality
Answer: c
A trait is a stable and enduring characteristic of an individual that shapes their behavior,
thoughts, and feelings over time. Traits are relatively consistent across different situations and
contexts and are considered fundamental aspects of an individual's personality.

23. Which of the following is NOT a physical trait that tends to influence 1) who is likely to
become a leader and 2) how effective that leader is perceived to be?
a. Sex
b. Height
c. Physical appearance
d. Education
Answer: d
Education is not typically considered a physical trait. While factors like sex, height, and
physical appearance may influence perceptions of leadership effectiveness due to societal
biases and stereotypes, education pertains more to cognitive abilities and knowledge
acquisition rather than physical attributes.
24. Twenty-nine of the 44 U.S. presidents have been taller than the average U.S. adult man,
and since 1990, the taller candidate for president has won the popular vote 66 percent of the
time. This could be related to our perception of which physical trait contributing toward a
more effective leader?
a. Ethnicity
b. Sex
c. Height
d. Physical appearance
Answer: c
Research suggests that taller individuals are often perceived as more dominant, authoritative,
and competent, leading to a bias towards taller candidates in leadership roles. The correlation
between height and perceptions of leadership effectiveness is well-documented, with taller
individuals often being favored in elections and leadership positions.

25. Studies have shown that leaders with masculine-looking faces are judged as more
competent than are leaders with feminine-looking faces because _____________ plays a role
in people’s perception of effective leadership.
a. physical appearance
b. sex
c. height
d. ethnicity
Answer: a
Physical appearance, specifically facial features, influences perceptions of leadership
competence. Research indicates that individuals with facial features typically associated with
masculinity (e.g., strong jawline, prominent brow ridge) are often perceived as more
competent and effective leaders compared to those with features associated with femininity.
This bias reflects societal norms and stereotypes regarding leadership qualities.
26. Many effective leaders share particular ___________ traits, which are characteristics of
their personality and ways of relating to others.
a. physical
b. psychosocial
c. physiological
d. cultural
Answer: b
Psychosocial traits refer to characteristics of an individual's personality and social behavior.
Effective leaders often exhibit traits such as charisma, empathy, assertiveness, and emotional
intelligence, which contribute to their ability to influence and inspire others.

27. Some researchers have suggested that people who are high ___________ are able to
perceive the needs of others in a group and adapt their own behavior to meet those needs,
which can lead to leadership emergence.
a. self-esteemed
b. self-monitors
c. face-workers
d. extroverts
Answer: b
Self-monitors are individuals who are sensitive to situational cues and adapt their behavior
accordingly. High self-monitors are adept at understanding the needs and preferences of
others, making them effective at navigating social dynamics and emerging as leaders within
group settings.
28. Although Anna is shy and reserved in her study groups, she applies to be a study group
leader at her college student instruction center. She feels she would be very helpful to others
in her major of mathematics, and could lead students to success in a challenging subject area.
The other applicant for the job, Olena, is more assertive and outgoing. Although Olena is not
as strong in math, she ends up getting the position. It is likely that Anna’s ____________
made her appear to be a less effective leader to the student instruction center.
a. communication apprehension
b. extroversion
c. introversion
d. personality
Answer: c
Introversion refers to the tendency to be inward-focused, reserved, and less inclined towards
assertive or outgoing behavior in social situations. In this scenario, Anna's introverted nature

may have led to a perception of her as less suitable for a leadership role compared to Olena,
who exhibited more assertive and outgoing qualities typically associated with leadership.
29. Leadership is inherently social, so ________ tend to excel at leadership because they are
friendly, assertive, and outgoing with others.
a. introverts
b. extroverts
c. loud people
d. high self-monitors
Answer: b
Extroverts are characterized by their sociability, assertiveness, and outgoing nature in social
situations. These traits align closely with effective leadership skills, as extroverts are often
adept at building relationships, communicating effectively, and motivating others within
group settings.
30. Group leaders who enact a(n) ___________ leadership style reflect the principle that
every citizen has the right to participate in decision-making.
a. democratic
b. autocratic
c. laissez-faire
d. strong
Answer: a
A democratic leadership style emphasizes collective decision-making and participation from
group members. It reflects the principle of equality and respects the opinions and
contributions of all individuals within the group, aligning with the notion that every citizen
has the right to participate in decision-making processes.

31. Marcos is the chairperson of an executive board for a pharmaceutical company. The
decisions his board makes have far-reaching consequences for how the company is run.
Marcos thinks it is important that all members of his committee be given the chance to speak
and that all ideas be considered equally, regardless of controversy. When it comes time to a
vote, Marcos counts everyone’s votes equally and he supports the will of the majority even if
it doesn’t reflect his own preferences. What style of leadership does Marcos have?
a. Autocratic
b. Democratic
c. Fair
d. Laissez-faire
Answer: b
Marcos exhibits a democratic leadership style as he values input from all committee
members, treats their ideas equally, and respects the majority decision, even if it differs from
his own preferences.
32. If a leader takes charge of a group and controls how each meeting progresses and how
each decision is made, that leader is
a. controlling.
b. democratic.
c. laissez-faire.
d. autocratic.
Answer: d
An autocratic leader exercises complete control over the group, making decisions without
input from others and directing the course of meetings and decision-making processes.
33. A _____________ leader believes group members should work independently, with little
direction or personal involvement from him or her.

a. laissez-faire
b. liberal
c. autocratic
d. democratic
Answer: a
A laissez-faire leader adopts a hands-off approach, allowing group members to work
autonomously with minimal interference or guidance from the leader.
34. John runs the sociology department at a major university, and he has 14 faculty members
teaching in his department. John believes each faculty member understands his or her
function at the college, so he does not interfere with their day-to-day work. John feels the
faculty members are professionals who understand how best to do their jobs. When a conflict
arises with a student or other faculty member, John will sit in on a meeting only if
specifically invited, and he rarely offers his opinion or tells the faculty how to resolve the
issue. John exhibits a _______________ style of leadership.
a. lazy
b. laissez-faire
c. relaxed
d. autocratic
Answer: b
John demonstrates a laissez-faire leadership style by trusting his faculty members to handle
their responsibilities independently without micromanagement or direct intervention from
35. If a group’s priority is to accomplish its task quickly, which style of leadership would
most likely be more effective?
a. Autocratic

b. Democratic
c. Consensus
d. Laissez-faire
Answer: a
An autocratic leadership style, characterized by swift decision-making and clear direction
from the leader, is likely to be more effective in achieving quick task completion without
prolonged deliberation or debate.
36. Which leadership approach is likely to backfire when group members lack the skills or
training to work autonomously?
a. Consensus
b. Democratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Autocratic
Answer: c
A laissez-faire leadership approach, which relies on group members to work independently
with minimal guidance, can backfire when members lack the necessary skills or training to
operate autonomously, leading to confusion, inefficiency, and poor outcomes.
37. ______________ gives one the ability to influence or control people or events.
a. Power
b. Authority
c. Command
d. Dominance
Answer: a

Power refers to the capacity to influence or control others or events, whether through
coercion, persuasion, or other means.
38. Alice teaches an interpersonal communication course. She finds that when she exercises
________ power by giving extra credit or bringing her class treats, her students are more
motivated to participate in class.
a. coercive
b. referent
c. reward
d. expert
Answer: c
Alice demonstrates reward power by offering incentives such as extra credit or treats to
motivate her students, thereby encouraging desired behaviors in the classroom.
39. A judge has ____________ power because he or she can punish you with fines or
imprisonment for not doing as he or she says.
a. expert
b. referent
c. legitimate
d. coercive
Answer: d
A judge possesses coercive power, which stems from the ability to enforce compliance
through punishment, such as fines or imprisonment, for non-compliance with legal mandates
or court orders.
40. Although she knows it is wrong, Sarah decides to copy her English term paper from an
online source because she has heard from friends at her college that there isn’t a strong policy
against plagiarism. She knows that if she gets caught, the most that would happen is a

warning not to do it again. Because the college lacks a policy that inflicts a sufficient
punishment, Sarah is not concerned with its _____________ power.
a. coercive
b. expert
c. legitimate
d. reward
Answer: a
Sarah disregards the potential punishment for plagiarism because the college lacks sufficient
coercive power to deter such behavior effectively.
41. Which type of power is most likely to become emotionally abusive if misused?
a. Expert
b. Legitimate
c. Referent
d. Coercive
Answer: d
Coercive power relies on the ability to punish or control others through threats, intimidation,
or actual punishment. When misused, it can easily turn into emotional abuse as the wielder of
this power may resort to manipulation, fear tactics, or coercion to maintain control over
42. The power of attraction—the idea that we tend to comply with requests made by people
we like, admire, or find attractive in some way—is also called _________ power.
a. coercive
b. referent
c. expert

d. legitimate
Answer: b
Referent power is based on the attractiveness or charisma of the person making the request.
People are more likely to comply with requests from individuals they like, admire, or find
appealing, hence it is often referred to as referent power.
43. In a study group, you might work harder for a group leader you like and admire than for
one you dislike because of what type of power?
a. Referent
b. Legitimate
c. Reward
d. Expert
Answer: a
Referent power is the influence wielded by individuals who are liked, admired, or respected
by others. In this scenario, the group leader's ability to inspire admiration or liking from the
members leads to increased effort and compliance.
44. Proactiv, an acne treatment, has been endorsed by many celebrity spokespeople, including
Jessica Simpson, Lindsay Lohan, and Sean “P-Diddy” Combs. Proactiv is hoping to sell more
of its products because it believes these and other celebrities have __________ power that
will influence consumers to want to be like them.
a. expert
b. referent
c. reward
d. legitimate
Answer: b

Celebrities often possess referent power, as they are admired and liked by many people. Their
endorsement of a product can influence consumer behavior by leveraging their attractiveness
or likability to encourage others to emulate them by purchasing the endorsed product.
45. When the president of the United States meets with his cabinet, members of that group
follow the president’s directives because he has what type of power?
a. Expert
b. Referent
c. Coercive
d. Legitimate
Answer: d
The president's power in this scenario is legitimate power, derived from his position and
authority within the government. Members of the cabinet comply with his directives because
they recognize his authority as the duly elected leader of the nation.
46. Alita is appointed to a temporary supervisory position at work when her boss goes on
medical leave. Alita is in charge of answering employees’ questions, settling conflicts, and
approving sick and vacation days. When Alita’s supervisor returns, Alita can no longer
perform those functions because she has lost her ________ power.
a. legitimate
b. coercive
c. expert
d. reward
Answer: a
Alita's power in this situation stems from her temporary appointment to a supervisory
position, which gives her legitimate power over her colleagues. However, when her

supervisor returns, Alita no longer holds this position of authority, thus losing her legitimate
47. _________ power stems from having proficiency in a particular area.
a. Coercive
b. Legitimate
c. Expert
d. Referent
Answer: c
Expert power is derived from an individual's knowledge, skills, or expertise in a specific
domain. Others defer to individuals with expert power because they recognize their
competence and trust their judgment in that particular area.
48. Many socialist and communist governments exercise _________ power over their
populations by controlling all of the media in their countries.
a. coercive
b. expert
c. referent
d. informational
Answer: d
Informational power involves controlling access to information. Socialist and communist
governments often exert control over media outlets to shape public opinion and maintain their
authority, thus exercising informational power over their populations.
49. Jean is working on a group project in his sociology class on the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.
Since Jean has family in Haiti, his group has asked him to interview family members about
their experiences during the event. Because Jean is the only one in his group with access to
those data, Jean now has ______________ in his group.

a. informational power
b. expert power
c. referent power
d. coercive power
Answer: a
Jean's possession of exclusive information relevant to the group project grants him
informational power within the group. His access to data not available to others gives him a
degree of influence over the group's decision-making process.
50. Regardless of what forms of power we possess, each of us exercises power that is limited
to particular people in particular situations because power
a. requires recognition.
b. is coercive.
c. is relative.
d. requires followers.
Answer: c
Power is relative because its effectiveness depends on the context, the individuals involved,
and the circumstances surrounding the situation. Different forms of power may be more or
less influential depending on various factors, making power a relative concept rather than an
absolute attribute.
51. In the early 1990s, David Koresh was the leader of a Branch Davidian religious sect,
believing himself to be its final prophet. The U.S. government raided his compound in 1993,
a move that ended in the death of Koresh and his followers. The fact that Koresh’s followers
believed him to be their prophet and were therefore willing to stand with him, shows that
a. is coercive.

b. is relative.
c. is corruptive.
d. requires recognition.
Answer: d
David Koresh's power over his followers was based on their recognition of him as their
prophet. This recognition was crucial for him to exert influence and maintain control over the
52. Which of the following is NOT a major strategy for engaging in group conflict?
a. Avoiding
b. Competing
c. Collaborating
d. Opposing
Answer: d
"Opposing" is not a recognized strategy for engaging in group conflict. The other options—
avoiding, competing, and collaborating—are commonly acknowledged approaches to dealing
with conflicts within groups.
53. If you have a ___________ style during conflict, your goal is to win the conflict while the
other party loses.
a. avoiding
b. opposing
c. competing
d. collaborating
Answer: c

The competing style of conflict resolution focuses on achieving one's own goals at the
expense of the other party, aiming for a win-lose outcome.
54. Ignoring conflict while hoping it will go away is an example of which approach to
a. Avoiding
b. Competing
c. Compromising
d. Collaborating
Answer: a
Avoiding conflict involves ignoring or minimizing its existence in the hope that it will resolve
itself without direct confrontation or intervention.
55. Which approach to conflict reflects a high level of concern for the other party but a low
level of concern for the self?
a. Avoiding
b. Accommodating
c. Compromising
d. Collaborating
Answer: b
The accommodating style prioritizes the needs and concerns of the other party over one's
own, often resulting in a win for the other party and a loss for oneself.
56. Tyler has applied for a job at a local radio station. The station manager likes Tyler and
thinks he would do well at the station but doesn’t have the money in his budget to pay Tyler’s
asking salary. Tyler cannot afford to take an unpaid internship. Tyler and the station manager
come to an agreement on a modest salary. It is far less than Tyler had hoped to make, but by

__________________, Tyler is able to secure this position he really wants at the radio
a. collaborating
b. debating
c. competing
d. compromising
Answer: d
By compromising, Tyler and the station manager reach a mutually acceptable solution where
both parties make concessions, allowing Tyler to secure the position despite not receiving his
ideal salary.
57. If your goal is to arrive at a win-win situation that maximizes both parties’ gains, you are
_________________ during conflict.
a. collaborating
b. avoiding
c. competing
d. compromising
Answer: a
Collaborating involves working together to find a solution that satisfies the interests of both
parties, resulting in mutual gains and a win-win outcome.
58. When group members engage in ____________, they seek unanimous agreement despite
their individual doubts.
a. collaborating
b. compromising
c. groupthink

d. avoidance
Answer: c
Groupthink occurs when members of a group prioritize consensus and harmony over critical
evaluation of alternatives, often leading to flawed decision-making and overlooking
dissenting opinions.
59. Which of the following is a warning sign of groupthink?
a. Individual rationalization
b. Pressure for individualism
c. Illusion of morality
d. Illusion of vulnerability
Answer: c
The illusion of morality, where the group believes its decisions are morally superior or
unquestionably right, is a warning sign of groupthink as it can lead to overlooking ethical
considerations or opposing viewpoints.
60. When group members are overly confident in their position, ignoring obvious problems,
they suffer from which of the following?
a. Collective rationalization
b. Excessive stereotyping
c. Pressure for conformity
d. Illusion of invulnerability
Answer: d
The illusion of invulnerability leads group members to be excessively confident, ignoring
potential risks or problems and believing they are immune to failure or criticism.

61. If you feel pressure to agree with your group’s decision, and fear being branded disloyal if
you do not, you are feeling the pressure
a. for conformity.
b. to placate.
c. of unanimity.
d. to mindguard.
Answer: a
Conformity refers to the tendency to align one's beliefs and behaviors with those of the
group, often due to social pressure or norms. In this scenario, the individual feels pressure to
conform to the group's decision to avoid being seen as disloyal, indicating a pressure for
62. Some group members actively prevent the group from hearing about arguments or
evidence against the group’s position because of
a. self-censorship.
b. mindguards.
c. pressure for conformity.
d. excessive stereotyping.
Answer: b
Mindguards are individuals within a group who actively prevent contradictory information
from reaching the group, thus protecting the group from dissenting opinions. This behavior
fits the description provided in the question.
63. ____________ is particularly likely to occur when a group has a strong, authoritarian
leader; is composed of members with similar backgrounds; and is isolated from outside
a. Groupthink

b. Conformity
c. Agreement
d. Obedience
Answer: a
Groupthink is a phenomenon where group cohesion and the desire for consensus override
realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. The conditions described in the question,
such as a strong leader and homogeneous group composition, are conducive to groupthink.
64. On the reality television show Survivor, contestant Russell Hantz made the comment, “I
don't know, this might be the worst group in history and I might be the best. I’m gonna have
them under control, all like zombies walking around.” Hantz seems to be planning on
____________ to help him get ahead in the game.
a. conformity
b. obedience
c. conflict
d. groupthink
Answer: d
Hantz's statement suggests his intention to manipulate the group's dynamics and exert control
over them, akin to the concept of groupthink where individuals conform to maintain harmony
and cohesion within the group.
65. Which of the following is NOT a step that group members can take to prevent
a. Be aware of the potential for groupthink.
b. Make sure the group has limited time in which to make decisions.
c. Encourage dissenting viewpoints.
d. Give important decisions a second chance.

Answer: b
Limited time for decision-making can actually exacerbate groupthink by reducing the
opportunity for critical evaluation of alternatives. The other options listed are effective
strategies for preventing groupthink.
66. Noise, boredom, and information overload are all examples of barriers to effective
a. leadership in groups.
b. communication in groups.
c. listening in groups.
d. conflict resolution in groups.
Answer: c
In a group setting, noise, boredom, and information overload can impede individuals' ability
to actively listen to and process information, thus hindering effective listening within the
67. Christian is in a study group for his physics class. As the group prepares for the final
exam, Christian is having trouble keeping track of all of the information being called out by
the group. Christian most likely won’t find the study session useful because of
a. information overload.
b. boredom.
c. rebuttal tendency.
d. noise.
Answer: a
Christian's difficulty in processing the information due to the overwhelming amount of data
being presented suggests that he is experiencing information overload, which diminishes the
effectiveness of the study session for him.

68. Which of the following can be a particularly common barrier to effective listening in
groups that evaluate or analyze, because members of such groups may disagree on the merits
of the various ideas they’re discussing?
a. Noise
b. Boredom
c. Information overload
d. Rebuttal tendency
Answer: d
The rebuttal tendency refers to the inclination to mentally prepare counterarguments while
others are speaking, hindering active listening and understanding. In groups where evaluation
or analysis is critical, differing viewpoints can exacerbate this tendency, impeding effective
69. Which type of listening skill is especially important in groups that have to make
important decisions, such as a state legislature or a corporate board of directors?
a. Informational
b. Effective
c. Critical
d. Empathic
Answer: c
Critical listening involves evaluating and analyzing information to make reasoned judgments
or decisions. In settings where important decisions need to be made, such as state legislatures
or corporate boards, critical listening is crucial for considering various perspectives and
reaching well-informed conclusions.

Test Bank for Communication Matters
Kory Floyd
9780078036866, 9781259707766

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