Preview (12 of 38 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 2: Causes of Abnormal Behavior Multiple Choice 1. The etiology of a problem behavior is its a. cause. b. paradigm. c. treatment. d. classification. Answer: a. 2. Which term is used for a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test a theory? a. etiology b. paradigm c. diagnosis d. prognosis Answer: b. 3. Most forms of abnormal behavior are thought to be caused by a. genetics. b. learning. c. a single cause. d. multiple factors. Answer: d. 4. What approach do the authors use when considering the etiology of various mental disorders? a. systems b. confluence c. reductionism d. biopsychosocial Answer: d. 5. A researcher described her approach to understanding mental disorders as biopsychosocial. When you ask her to explain what she means, what is she likely to say? a. Biological abnormalities give rise to psychological disturbances that have social consequences. b. Biological, psychological, and social factors are just as likely to be the cause of these disorders. c. The integration of biological, psychological, and social factors provides the most fruitful avenue for discovering the cause of most mental disorders. d. The search for etiologies is best accomplished by viewing the evidence through the lens provided by one of the major paradigms. Answer: c. 6. A distinguished researcher reviewed the current findings on the etiology of mental disorders. Which of the following is the best summary of the consensus of opinion? a. Most mental disorders are the result of genetic abnormalities. b. We do not currently know all of the specific causes of most mental disorders. c. Unconscious factors have been overlooked as the root cause of mental disorders. d. Environmental factors have been overlooked in the wake of recent findings on biological etiologies. Answer: b. 7. The case of Meghan B. in your text illustrates a. many plausible alternative causes. b. that disorders can often have a single cause. c. the importance of genetic factors. d. how objective tools can be used to pinpoint causation. Answer: a. 8. The search for explanations of the etiology of abnormal behavior dates to ancient times. It was not until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that three major advances occurred: the work of Sigmund Freud, the discovery of general paresis, and the a. blank slate theory. b. stationary universe model. c. development of the germ theory. d. development of academic psychology. Answer: d. 9. The discovery of the etiology of which disorder was an important scientific advance for the biological paradigm? a. general paresis b. Alzheimer's disease c. bipolar mood disorder d. dissociative identity disorder Answer: a. 10. A physician at a hospital in the late 1800s has read about the disease called general paresis. Which of the following patients is most likely to receive such a diagnosis? a. Alice, whose symptoms include restlessness and agitation b. Brenda, whose symptoms include insomnia and obsession c. Bob, whose symptoms include lack of appetite and suicidal thoughts d. Al, whose symptoms include delusions of grandeur and progressive paralysis Answer: d. 11. The correct biological explanation for general paresis a. was discovered very quickly. b. is still a mystery to scientists. c. will never be discovered. d. was only discovered after more than 100 years of study. Answer: d. 12. Confirming a specific biological cause of general paresis was greatly aided by eventually discovering that a. all such patients had a history of syphilis. b. most such patients developed syphilis later in life. c. very few such patients had ever been treated with penicillin. d. most such patients had lied about their sexual history. Answer: a. 13. General paresis was virtually eliminated because a. the patients died before they could have children. b. antibiotics were developed to treat syphilis. c. most older patients now develop Alzheimer's disease. d. psychiatrists developed the tools to diagnose it. Answer: b. 14. What type of bacteria was discovered to cause syphilis? a. Chloroflexi b. Dictyoglomi c. Spirochete d. Thermotogae Answer: c. 15. In 1910, what German microbiologist developed an arsenic-containing chemical that destroyed bacteria that caused syphilis and prevented paresis? a. Sigmund Freud b. Paul Ehrlich c. John Haslam d. Jean Fournier Answer: b. 16. What is the assertion of the psychodynamic paradigm? a. Feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are shaped by the unconscious. b. Behavior is a function of environment. c. Behavior is a function of biology. d. Normal behavior is caused by unconscious mental conflicts that have roots in early childhood experience. Answer: d. 17. How did Jean Charcot treat patients with hysteria? a. Medication b. Hypnosis c. Electric shock therapy d. Therapy sessions Answer: b. 18. DSM-5 uses the descriptive approach to classify abnormal behavior because experts do not know what causes mental disorders and because it a. helps diagnose the underlying cause of a mental disorder. b. is easier to understand. c. helps professionals to agree about the presence or absence of an emotional problem. d. categorizes behavior with a known mental disorder. Answer: c. 19. You are reading a biography of Sigmund Freud and find that he was trained as a a. neurologist. b. psychiatrist. c. clinical psychologist. d. counseling psychologist. Answer: a. 20. Both Jean Charcot and Sigmund Freud focused on a disorder called hysteria. Which of the following patients is most likely to have received this diagnosis from these two well-known clinicians? a. Hazel, who experiences delusions b. Amy, who screams during bouts of "night terrors" c. Laura, whose "blindness" has no organic explanation d. Zelda, who cannot sit still for more than 5 seconds Answer: c. 21. According to Sigmund Freud, what are the three parts of the mind? a. id, ego, superego b. oral, anal, phallic c. reality, pleasure, spiritual d. conscious, preconscious, unconscious Answer: a. 22. In psychoanalytic theory, sexual and aggressive drives are part of the a. id. b. ego. c. superego. d. conscience. Answer: a. 23. According to Freudian theory, what part of the mind is roughly equivalent to the conscience? a. id b. ego c. libido d. superego Answer: d. 24. According to Freudian theory, the reality principle is the framework of operation for the a. id. b. ego. c. superego. d. conscience. Answer: b. 25. According to Sigmund Freud, what is the purpose of defense mechanisms? a. to reduce anxiety b. to establish reality contact c. to develop self actualization d. to reduce reliance on social support Answer: a. 26. According to Sigmund Freud, how does a boy resolve forbidden sexual desire for his mother? a. by becoming attracted to girls b. by identifying with his father c. by developing an Electra complex d. by developing aggressive urges toward his mother Answer: b. 27. When we are around someone we dislike intensely we often "bend over backward" to be nice to this individual. Which defense mechanism is illustrated here? a. denial b. projection c. sublimation d. reaction formation Answer: d. 28. You get a paper back and briefly feel angry at the low grade you received, but this feeling is upsetting because you like the professor so much. You quickly turn your attention to other matters. Later that day you pick a fight with your roommate because of the unfair manner in which the week's chores were divided. This fight could be an example of a defense mechanism called a. projection. b. sublimation. c. displacement. d. rationalization. Answer: c. 29. Who is credited with beginning the modern science of psychology at the University of Leipzig? a. Ivan Pavlov b. Wilhelm Wundt c. B. F. Skinner d. Sigmund Freud Answer: b. 30. The authors of your text view Freud’s ideas as a. scientifically valid. b. metaphors. c. worthless. d. dangerous. Answer: b. 31. The cognitive-behavioral paradigm views _______ as the product of learning. a. maladaptive behavior b. excessive behavior c. unconscious processes d. abnormal behavior Answer: d. 32. Ivan Pavlov rang a bell every time he fed meat powder to dogs. After repeated trials, the dogs began to salivate when they heard the bell, even if there was no food in sight. According to Pavlov, the dogs' salivation in the absence of food, following the ringing of the bell, is called the a. conditioned stimulus. b. conditioned response. c. unconditioned stimulus. d. unconditioned response. Answer: b. 33. Beth received a painful shock while turning on her television. Now she reacts with fear whenever she sees a television. What is the television in this example? a. neutral stimulus b. reinforced stimulus c. conditioned stimulus d. unconditioned stimulus Answer: c. 34. According to Ivan Pavlov's ideas on classical conditioning, extinction occurs when a conditioned stimulus is no longer presented with a. a negative reinforcer. b. a conditioned response. c. an unconditioned response. d. an unconditioned stimulus. Answer: d. 35. What is the primary concept in operant conditioning? a. a conditioned stimulus is neutral b. conditioned response leads to extinction c. behavior is determined by its consequences d. negative reinforcement is the same as punishment Answer: c. 36. According to the principles of operant conditioning, what happens when negative reinforcement is applied? a. behavior increases b. behavior decreases c. behavior is punished d. behavior remains at the same level Answer: a. 37. Your neighbors are playing loud music late at night and it annoys you. You ask them to turn down the music and they do. The next time they play loud music, you call them even sooner. B. F. Skinner would say this happens because a. your assertiveness is like a punishment. b. the noise was an unconditioned stimulus. c. the decreased noise negatively reinforced your assertiveness. d. the decreased noise positively reinforced your assertiveness. Answer: c. 38. John B. Watson was best known for a. founding humanism. b. promoting behaviorism. c. developing the theory of modeling. d. developing the theory of operant conditioning. Answer: b. 39. Mary and Jim took their two-year-old to the supermarket this past week. For more than an hour all Little Jimmy did was yell and scream because in the past this would have obtained him an ice cream cone. Jim managed to ignore him. Finally, Little Jimmy stopped yelling and screaming. What operant conditioning concept is illustrated by this story? a. shaping b. extinction c. punishment d. token economy Answer: b. 40. Though easily confused, negative reinforcement and punishment are quite different. With negative reinforcement, behavior __________ when the aversive stimulus is ____________, and with punishment, behavior __________ when the aversive stimulus is ____________. a. increases; removed; increases; introduced b. increases; removed; decreases; introduced c. decreases; removed; increases; introduced d. decreases; introduced; increases; removed Answer: b. 41. Watson made the very important assumption that all behavior is a. under the control of free will. b. inborn rather than learned. c. the result of hidden desires and unconscious conflicts. d. a result of learning. Answer: d. 42. Humanistic psychologists objected to the biological, psychoanalytic, and behavioral theories of abnormal behavior because these other approaches assume that a. free will exists. b. behavior is a paradigm. c. human nature is inherently good. d. behavior is predictably determined. Answer: d. 43. Which paradigm views human nature as basically good, attributes abnormal behavior to frustrations of society, and uses nondirective therapy to treat abnormal behavior? a. biomedical b. humanistic c. psychoanalytic d. cognitive behavioral Answer: b. 44. Who is the historian and philosopher who has written about the nature of paradigms? a. Sigmund Freud b. Karl Byron c. Thomas Kuhn d. John Watson Answer: c. 45. What is the purpose of the enigma written by Lord Byron that was included in the text? a. to show how writing can reveal one's unconscious memories b. to provide an example of the integration of different etiologies c. to reveal how paradigms can either help or hinder our search for answers d. to demonstrate that a psychotic process can often be uncovered in the words of even greater writers Answer: c. 46. The paradigms presented in your text make assumptions about the causes of abnormal behavior that can be too a. broad. b. narrow. c. untestable. d. vague. Answer: b. 47. Systems theory acknowledges that multiple contributions are important to causality and that they also a. focus on childhood experiences. b. are unconscious conflicts. c. focus on physical illnesses. d. are interdependent. Answer: d. 48. Holism is the idea that a. humans have free will. b. behavior is determined. c. human nature is basically good. d. the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Answer: d. 49. The idea that ultimate explanations for abnormal behavior are found when problems are analyzed in terms of their smallest components is known as a. deduction. b. paradigms. c. determinism. d. reductionism. Answer: d. 50. When trying to understand the cause of abnormal behavior, thinking of the different academic disciplines as representing different levels of analysis will illustrate systems theory’s assertion that a. no single academic discipline has a corner on the truth. b. the molar level is more helpful than the molecular level. c. the molecular level is more helpful than the molar level. d. only the molar level lends itself to rigorous research. Answer: a. 51. A newspaper headline heralds a finding that an excess of a particular brain chemical is the cause of a certain mental disorder. The article is not convincing to you. What potential flaw do you note in the report? a. The chemical change could be due to other variables. b. Chemical changes cannot bring about changes in behavior. c. The genetic code associated with the chemical has not been identified. d. Such findings are very difficult to generalize to the entire population. Answer: a. 52. Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest association between two variables? a. -0.74 b. -0.15 c. +0.26 d. +0.62 Answer: a. 53. The correlation between scores on a measure of hostility and age at death is -.64. We could conclude from this correlation coefficient that people who have a. high hostility scores tend to live longer. b. low hostility scores tend to die younger. c. high hostility scores tend to die younger. d. low hostility scores die 64 percent sooner than those with high hostility scores. Answer: c. 54. Assume that variables X and Y are significantly correlated; the concept of reverse causality tells us that a. X causes Y but not the reverse. b. Y causes X but not the reverse. c. X might cause Y or Y might cause X. d. X causes Y and Y causes X. Answer: c. 55. Assume that variables X and Y are significantly correlated; the third variable problem means that a. the correlation could be explained by their joint relation with some other factor. b. another variable must correlate with X but not Y. c. another variable must correlate with Y but not X. d. X causes Y and Y causes X. Answer: a. 56. A study has found a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and schizophrenia. What is a possible explanation for this finding? a. Emotional problems experienced during childhood cause schizophrenia. b. Some property of nicotine could be part of the cause of schizophrenia. c. The gene that carries schizophrenia also increases the potential for smoking. d. A fourth variable could be causing both. Answer: b. 57. The principle of equifinality, or the concept of multiple pathways, means that a. many risk factors might be involved in a disorder's etiology. b. disorders must always be explained in terms of many different risk factors. c. a diathesis must always be combined with some form of stress. d. the same risk factors can produce many different disorders. Answer: a. 58. Which of the following best illustrates reciprocal causality? a. Parents influence their children and are also influenced by their own parents. b. Parents influence their children both through heredity and through socialization. c. Parents influence their children and children influence their parents. d. Children are influenced both by their parents and by their peers. Answer: c. 59. What is a diathesis? a. a form of stress b. a predisposition c. a biological cause of mental illness d. an observable symptom of mental illness Answer: b. 60. Some researchers view alcoholism as the result of having a genetic predisposition to alcohol addiction while also having to cope with difficult life circumstances. This type of analysis is an example of a. circular thinking. b. biological etiology. c. the diathesis-stress model. d. the nature-nurture controversy. Answer: c. 61. A correlation may result from causation, but there are two alternatives: reverse causality and a. positive correlation. b. third variables. c. negative correlation. d. levels of neurotransmitters. Answer: b. 62. Developmental psychopathology is a new approach to abnormal psychology that emphasizes the importance of analyzing behavior in terms of a. cybernetics. b. early childhood trauma. c. learned patterns that are ingrained over time. d. comparisons of individual behavior to age-based norms. Answer: d. 63. What term is used to describe the pattern of behavior that is apparent before a disorder develops? a. premorbid history b. prognosis c. homeostasis d. developmental history Answer: a. 64. You are watching a movie about a mental hospital. In one scene two mental health professionals are talking about a patient. One of them asks about the patient's prognosis. The response to this question will deal with the patient's a. diagnosis. b. predicted course. c. premorbid history. d. developmental norm. Answer: b. 65. Neuroanatomy focuses on brain _________ while neurophysiology focuses on brain __________. a. functions; structures b. structures; functions c. dendrites; axons d. axons; dendrites Answer: b. 66. The study of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology is the domain of a multidisciplinary field of what research? a. Anatomy b. Zoology c. Neurology d. Neuroscience Answer: d. 67. What are the four major anatomic components of a neuron? a. dendrite, nerve, axon, and soma b. soma, dendrite, axon, and axon terminal c. nerve, nerve ending, synapse, and transmitter d. soma, receptor, transmitter, nerve Answer: b. 68. Most of a neuron's metabolism and maintenance control and performance originate from the a. soma. b. dendrites. c. axiom terminal. d. vesicles. Answer: a. 69. Once information within a neuron has been transmitted to the dendrites and cell body, what is next in its path? a. Axon terminal b. Synapse c. Axon d. Vesicles Answer: c. 70. A synapse is a a. cell body. b. nerve cell. c. chemical substance in the brain. d. fluid-filled gap between neurons. Answer: d. 71. How is information transmitted between nerve cells? a. by release of neurotransmitters at the synapse b. by release of neurotransmitters along the axon c. by changes in electrical potential along the axon d. by changes in electrical potential in the synapse Answer: a. 72. What two chemical compounds are known to be particularly important neurotransmitters in the brain? a. Glutamate and acetylcholine b. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine c. Norepinephrine and serotonin d. Serotonin and dopamine Answer: d. 73. A report of research on physiological psychology contains a description of a substance that can influence communication among neurons and can act some distance from where the substance was released. What is the topic of this report? a. axons b. humors c. neuromodulators d. neurotransmitters Answer: c. 74. What is the process by which some neurotransmitters in the synapse return to the axon terminals of the neuron that released them? a. reuptake b. regeneration c. neuromodulation d. neuroregeneration Answer: a. 75. Chemicals that may be released from neurons or from endocrine glands and that affect the functioning of neurotransmitters are known as a. adrenotransmitters. b. neuromodulators. c. reuptake inhibitors. d. reuptake facilitators. Answer: b. 76. What has been suggested as a way that neurotransmitters could play a role in abnormal behavior? a. an oversupply of a certain neurotransmitter b. an absence of neuromodulators c. faulty genes that misfold the proteins that make up a given neurotransmitter d. there is no relationship Answer: a. 77. Dualism refers to the out-of-date idea that a. mind and body are separate. b. the whole is more than the sum of its parts. c. the brain is made up of structures and functions. d. behavior is influenced by free will and determinism. Answer: a. 78. Which of the following neurotransmitters was first implicated in the development of schizophrenia? a. GABA b. dopamine c. serotonin d. norepinephrine Answer: b. 79. Basic bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration are regulated by which region of the brain? a. pons b. medulla c. midbrain d. corpus callosum Answer: b. 80. A police officer pulls over a driver suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol. The driver is asked to exit the car and walk a straight line. This test is designed to detect the effects of alcohol on the a. cerebellum. b. hypothalamus. c. temporal lobe. d. limbic system. Answer: a. 81. Evidence that effective treatments for depression inhibit the reuptake of a neurotransmitter links a depletion of that neurotransmitter to mood disorders. That neurotransmitter is a. dopamine. b. GABA. c. serotonin. d. Prozac. Answer: c. 82. The ________ is involved with some motor activities associated with fighting and sexual behavior. a. midbrain b. forebrain c. hindbrain d. corpus callosum Answer: a. 83. Changes in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease have been found, but they are of limited value because a. they are too similar to the changes seen in Parkinson's disease. b. they can only be seen by very expensive imaging techniques. c. they appear in women, but not men. d. they are only seen during autopsy. Answer: d. 84. In patients with schizophrenia, what two parts of the brain are larger than normal? a. Frontal lobe and parietal lobe b. Medulla and corpus callosum c. Ventricles and planum temporale d. Planum temporale and amygdala Answer: c. 85. The reticular activating system regulates a. eating and drinking. b. sleeping and waking. c. sex drive and eating. d. aggression and emotions. Answer: b. 86. Which region of the brain plays a key role in regulating emotion? a. cerebellum b. limbic system c. corpus callosum d. reticular activating system Answer: b. 87. Which of the following is most likely to be affected by a tumor on the hypothalamus? a. creativity b. long-term memory c. motor coordination d. basic biological urges Answer: d. 88. Your patient shows signs of restlessness, agitation, and anxiety. One of the first disorders to test for would be Graves’ disease, so you order tests of a. dopamine levels. b. blood sugar levels. c. thyroid function. d. cerebral blood flow. Answer: c. 89. Researchers are interested in the ventricles in the brain because a. they become enlarged in some disorders. b. they fill with cerebrospinal fluid. c. they are often found to be absent in people with severe mental disorders. d. they connect the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and cerebellum. Answer: a. 90. The region of the brain responsible for the regulation of emotion and some aspects of learning, memory, and language reception is called the a. occipital love. b. cerebellum. c. corpus callosum. d. temporal lobe. Answer: d. 91. If blood vessels in the brain rupture, cutting off the supply of oxygen to parts of the brain and thereby killing surrounding brain tissue, the person is said to have suffered a a. stroke. b. broken ventricle. c. tangle of neurons. d. nervous breakdown. Answer: a. 92. A patient has just undergone a complete examination of the brain using the most sophisticated imaging tools available. The neurosurgeon found a tumor in the frontal lobe. Which of the following is most likely to be affected by this tumor? a. sleep b. biological urges c. reasoning and planning d. hearing and vision Answer: c. 93. If you focused your research efforts on problems associated with psychophysiological arousal, you would be interested in activity within the a. endocrine system. b. brain stem and temporal lobes. c. the early signs of Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff's syndrome. d. hormone levels and corpus callosum. Answer: a 94. The endocrine system is a collection of a. glands. b. neurons. c. ventricles. d. brain structures. Answer: a. 95. Chemical substances that affect the functioning of distant body systems and sometimes act as neuromodulators are known as a. glands. b. ventricles. c. hormones. d. endocrines. Answer: c. 96. Which of the following would be most likely observed in a patient whose thyroid gland is secreting too much of the hormone thyroxin? a. Alzheimer's disease b. schizophrenia c. agitation and anxiety d. low levels of motivation and sexual desire Answer: c. 97. What are the two components of the central nervous system? a. brain and spinal cord b. somatic and autonomic systems c. corpus callosum and cerebellum d. sympathetic and parasympathetic systems Answer: a. 98. In the autonomic nervous system, increased arousal and energy expenditure are associated with activation of the a. somatic nervous system. b. central nervous system. c. sympathetic nervous system. d. parasympathetic nervous system. Answer: c. 99. Theories that attempt to link psychophysiology to the etiology of psychopathology have implicated a. both overarousal and underarousal. b. only overarousal. c. both overmodulation and undermodulation. d. only overmodulation. Answer: a. 100. Your neighbor is a behavior geneticist. When you ask her to describe her discipline, what is she likely to say? a. the computer driven study of genotypes b. a search for various biochemical abnormalities c. investigation of the hereditary functions of specific genes d. a broad approach that studies genetic influences on behavior Answer: d. 101. Genes are small units of DNA, carriers of genetic information and a. form the basis of handedness. b. composed of proteins. c. provide the formula for child behavior. d. located on chromosomes. Answer: d. 102. What is a phenotype? a. a genetic structure b. a set of observable traits c. a pattern of dominant and recessive genes d. a description of a chromosomal abnormality Answer: b. 103. Genes have alternative forms known as a. phenotypes. b. genotypes. c. alleles. d. genosomes. Answer: c. 104. Suppose that researchers discover the gene responsible for manic behavior. Assume that the alleles of the gene are represented by M and m and the gene is dominant/recessive. Which of the following represents the phenotype? a. the M allele b. the m allele c. manic behavior d. the combination of the M and m alleles Answer: c. 105. Most theories developed by behavior geneticists to pin down genetic explanations for abnormal behavior assume that mental disorders are most likely a. polygenic; that is, caused by a single gene. b. polygenic; that is, caused by multiple genes. c. autosomal; that is, caused by a single gene. d. autosomal; that is, caused by multiple genes. Answer: b. 106. What is another name for a proband? a. carrier b. index case c. identical twin d. fraternal twin Answer: b. 107. The major problem with family incidence studies that ask whether diseases "run in families" is that even when they find a higher prevalence of a certain illness in families with one ill proband, a. they cannot determine if a single gene or multiple genes are involved. b. they cannot determine if dominant genes or recessive genes are involved. c. the finding is consistent with both genetic and environmental causation. d. they can only study families with identical twins. Answer: c. 108. As more genes are involved in determining a trait, what happens to the distribution of the trait in the general population? a. It occurs more often in each generation. b. It occurs less frequently with each generation. c. The trait tends to be distributed in a bimodal manner. d. The trait tends to be distributed as a normal distribution. Answer: d. 109. In twin studies the key comparison involves determining how many pairs of twins either have the same disorder or are free of the disorder; this involves the calculation of a. discordance rates. b. concordance rates. c. shared environment rates. d. nonshared environment rates. Answer: b. 110. Similar concordance rates for a given trait in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins suggests that the trait may be due to a. genetic causes. b. endocrine causes. c. environmental causes. d. phonotypical causes. Answer: c. 111. In a study of twins, a researcher finds that 40 percent of dizygotic (DZ) twins and 40 percent of monozygotic (MZ) twins share a trait. What is the researcher most likely to conclude about the trait? a. It is 40 percent concordant. b. It is 60 percent concordant. c. It is genetically determined. d. It is not genetically determined. Answer: d. 112. What is the most likely cause of a disorder if both monozygotic and dizygotic twins show a high concordance rate? a. recessive genes b. dominant genes c. different environmental experiences d. shared environmental experiences Answer: d. 113. Even when twin studies find that monozygotic twins have higher concordance rates than dizygotic twins, it is possible these results are not due to genetics but to the possibility that a. DZ twins are usually treated very similarly. b. MZ twins may be treated more similarly than DZ twins. c. MZ twins are easier to locate and study. d. DZ twins are more likely to live in similar environments. Answer: b. 114. Adoption studies are important in behavior genetics because they help to a. investigate the effects of adoption. b. provide evidence on genetic versus environmental contributions. c. separate the MZ twins from the DZ twins. d. determine whether adoption can influence genetic makeup. Answer: b. 115. A strong piece of evidence that genes alone do not cause the vast majority of mental disorders is that genetic studies a. rely too much on twin studies and not enough on adoption studies. b. rely too much on adoption studies and not enough on twin studies. c. typically find concordance rates for DZ twins far below 100 percent. d. typically find concordance rates for MZ twins far below 100 percent. Answer: d. 116. Which of the following would be a legitimate summary of the role of genes in causing abnormal behavior? a. Single genes have been found for many mental disorders. b. Scientists have found the gene or genes responsible for only a few, rare forms of mental disorder. c. Scientists have not yet been able to locate any gene responsible for a mental disorder. d. The influence of genes is almost always greater than the influence of environment. Answer: b. 117. Dr. Andrew Wakefield has speculated that the measles/mumps/rubella vaccination may be responsible for 12 cases of autism. A Danish study of half a million children found a. weak evidence to support this theory. b. strong evidence to support this theory. c. no evidence to support this theory. d. evidence that rubella itself is part of the cause of autism. Answer: c. 118. In evolutionary psychology, which of the following would be a good description of natural selection? a. Successful genetically determined adaptations become more common over successive generations. b. Successful genetically determined adaptations become less common over successive generations. c. Unsuccessful genetically determined adaptations become more common over successive generations. d. Successful genetically determined adaptations become more common in many other species. Answer: a. 119. According to the concept of sexual selection, those characteristics that give males greater access to mates a. are likely to become less common over successive generations. b. are likely to become more common over successive generations. c. lead to the development of similar characteristics in females. d. are also likely to make males less aggressive and less able to survive and reproduce. Answer: b. 120. You are watching a video of John Bowlby in which he discusses his views on attachment. Later you are to write a summary of Bowlby's comments and include the major reason why he believes that attachments form. What will you write? a. They are reinforcing. b. They have survival value. c. They fulfill sexual and aggressive drives. d. They are a component of self actualization. Answer: b. 121. According to attachment theorists, why do anxious attachments develop during the first year of life? a. modeling b. low self-actualization c. inconsistent and unresponsive parenting d. temperament differences Answer: c. 122. The observations of attachment theory and ethology suggest that ______________ has survival value. a. proximity b. imitation c. affiliation d. social support Answer: a. 123. The two broad categories of social behaviors studied by ethologists are a. imprinting and attachment. b. temperament and social learning. c. affiliation and dominance. d. extraversion and agreeableness. Answer: c. 124. While visiting your niece in the hospital, you see several other very young children. You observe one young child who is placid and smiles often, whereas another child seems to be very active and fussy. Such differences in style are often described as reflections of a. imprinting. b. motivation. c. affiliation. d. temperament. Answer: d. 125. Which of the following is one of the five major personality traits that have been the focus of recent research? a. dominance b. achievement c. extraversion d. responsibility Answer: c. 126. In addition to conscientiousness and extraversion, what is one of the “big five” dimensions of temperament? a. aggressiveness b. mood c. distractability d. neuroticism Answer: a. 127. What acronym will help you remember the “big five” dimensions of temperament? a. NEEDS b. ROCKS c. OCEAN d. WAVES Answer: c. 128. Researchers have taken the hundreds of words for different feelings in the English language and have used statistical analysis to discover that a. no two feelings are alike. b. they can reduce the list to six basic emotions. c. they can reduce the list to two basic emotions. d. anger is the strongest emotion. Answer: b. 129. In addition to love, joy, surprise, anger, and fear, what other basic emotion has been identified by researchers? a. hesitant b. melancholy c. sadness d. conscientiousness Answer: c. 130. What conclusion follows from the finding that emotions are controlled primarily by subcortical brain structures? a. Emotional response may be more basic than cognition. b. In terms of evolution, emotions are a rather new development. c. Emotional response requires the input of the cerebral cortex. d. Reduced memory capacity has led to expression of a limited number of emotions. Answer: a. 131. Emotions come to us without intention, desire, or a. trust. b. imagination. c. perception. d. effort. Answer: d. 132. In addition to motivations and temperament, what, by some degree, can be modified by learning? a. depression b. emotions c. schizophrenia d. bulemia Answer: b. 133. Modeling is learning based on a. imitation. b. self actualization. c. operant conditioning. d. classical conditioning. Answer: a. 134. Some forms of psychopathology are associated with errors in attribution. Such errors involve a. modeling. b. perceived causes. c. attachment processes. d. the identification process. Answer: b. 135. People's beliefs about cause-effect relations are called ___________ in cognitive psychology. a. causal beliefs b. attributions c. hallucinations d. cognitions Answer: b. 136. Erikson's concept of _________ is an integrated sense of individuality, wholeness, and continuity. a. ego b. self c. identity d. schema Answer: c. 137. Socialization is a process that leads a child to develop a. identity. b. self-schema. c. self-concept. d. self-control. Answer: d. 138. In their stage theories, Sigmund Freud focused on ________ stages while Erik Erikson focused on _________ stages. a. psychological; biological b. unlearned; learned c. conscious; unconscious d. psychosexual; psychosocial Answer: d. 139. What is an important characteristic of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development? a. There are no stages in development. b. Development does not end in adolescence. c. Children ages 5-12 are in a period of latency. d. Developmental changes are quantitative, not qualitative. Answer: b. 140. What do proponents of labeling theory view as the cause of emotional disorders and abnormal behavior? a. social expectations b. inadequate attachment c. irrational self schemas d. developmental transitions Answer: a. 141. What is an example of a social influence on abnormal behavior? a. social expectations b. gender roles c. education d. self-control Answer: b. 142. A child overhears her teacher call her a "troublemaker." This label may play a key role in the child’s development of a. ADHD. b. ADD. c. psychotic tendencies. d. antisocial behavior. Answer: d. 143. What two relationship problems have researchers found that are associated with various mental disorders? a. lying and cheating b. conflict and anger c. insecurity and lack of self-confidence d. jealousy and anger Answer: b. 144. What is the general finding concerning the relationship of marital status and psychopathology? a. Marital status and psychopathology are not related. b. Marriage tends to increase the rate of psychopathology among both men and women. c. Marital status has an influence on the children of a marriage but not on the spouses. d. There is more psychopathology among divorced and never-married people than among married people. Answer: d. 145. Research suggests that one reason why many children facing troubled family circumstances are protected against the development of psychopathology is a. social support from adults outside the family. b. that their parents still love them. c. their ability to learn to repress negative feelings. d. their agreeable temperament. Answer: a. 146. Which of the following is an example of how gender roles may influence psychopathology? a. Mike cannot remember any of the details of an accident that killed two of his friends. b. Alice has developed a form of schizophrenia involving delusions related to television shows. c. Carol has been dependent on others for most of her life and has recently developed depression. d. Andy fears water as an adult after falling into a pool at the age of four. Answer: c. 147. The possession of both female and male gender role characteristics in one person is known as a. hermaphrodism. b. androgyny. c. bisexuality. d. heterosexuality. Answer: b. 148. In addition to the theory that living in a poor section of a U.S. city can expose children to the stress of high crime rates, what has also been suggested as a way in which poverty could add to the rate of mental disorders? a. Living a life of poverty is inherently stressful. b. Living in poverty exposes people to higher rates of disease, prompting the occurrence of mental disorders. c. People with mental disorders gravitate to poorer areas of cities. d. Poor areas of U.S. cities lack adequate safety, leading to mental distress. Answer: a. 149. Race and poverty are closely linked to a. families headed by women. b. marital status. c. families headed by men. d. social history. Answer: b. 150. According to your text, poverty is linked with many stressors, including gruesome trauma and a. the feeling of not being in control of one's life. b. perception of inferiority. c. dangerous living situations. d. exposure to chemical toxins. Answer: d. Short Answer 151. A ________ is a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test hypotheses. Answer: paradigm 152. Many contemporary psychological scientists are guided by the __________ model, an effort to integrate research on various contributions to the causes of mental disorders. Answer: biopsychosocial 153. According to Freud the ego protects itself from anxiety by utilizing various __________ __________ that he saw as unconscious self-deceptions. Answer: defense mechanisms 154. In Freudian theory the part of the psyche that is present at birth and houses biological drives, such as hunger, as well as two key psychological drives, sex and aggression, is known as the __________. Answer: id 155. _____________ conditioning involves learning through association. Answer: Classical 156. ____________________ reinforcement is when the cessation of a stimulus increases the frequency of a behavior. Answer: Negative 157. ______________ attempts to understand problems by focusing on smaller and smaller units, suggesting the smallest account is the true case. Answer: Reductionism 158. Equifinality has a mirror concept, the principle of __________, which says that the same event can lead to different outcomes. Answer: multifinality 159. A __________ is a predisposition toward developing a disorder, for example, an inherited tendency toward alcoholism. Answer: diathesis 160. The __________ model suggests that mental disorders develop only when a stress is added on top of a predisposition. Answer: diathesis-stress 161. Multiple stressors or _________ __________ may contribute to mental disorders. Answer: risk factors 162. The field of _______ is concerned with the study of biological structures. Answer: anatomy 163. The basic building blocks of the brain, the cells that are most active, are known as __________ . Answer: neurons 164. Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic gap and eventually come into contact with sites called __________ at the surface of the receiving neuron. Answer: receptors 165. The __________ controls basic biological urges, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity. Answer: hypothalamus 166. The brain is said to be __________ , since often one hemisphere of the brain serves a specialized role as the site of specific cognitive and emotional activities. Answer: lateralized 167. Endocrine glands produce psychophysiological responses by releasing __________ . Answer: hormones 168. An individual's actual genetic makeup is known as her/his __________ . Answer: genotype 169. _____________ have alternative forms known as alleles. Answer: Genes 170. The textbook uses the example of “anxious” parents giving their children “anxiety” promoting genes and raising them in an environment of anxiety as an example of gene-environment ____________. Answer: correlation 171. If a mental disorder has a genetic component at its root, a single gene is rarely the cause. Instead, the disorder is said to be __________ . Answer: polygenic 172. Genes are located on chainlike structures known as __________, which are found in the nucleus of cells. Answer: chromosomes 173. Family incidence studies ask whether diseases “run in families.” Investigators identify normal and ill __________ , or index cases, and tabulate the frequency with which other members of their families suffer from the same disorder. Answer: probands 174. __________________ twins start when one sperm fertilizes one egg. They start off being genetically identical, having identical genotypes. Answer: Monozygotic 175. Genetic influences on abnormal behavior are __________ (that is, increased risks), not predestinations or inevitabilities. Answer: predispositions 176. The widely accepted idea that a combination of a genetic risk and an environmental stress causes emotional disorders is known as gene-environment __________ . Answer: interaction 177. The application of the principles of evolution to understanding the animal and human mind is at the heart of a new field known as evolutionary __________ . Answer: psychology 178. Evolutionary psychologists study _____________ characteristics. Answer: species-typical 179. Attachment theory is known mainly through the writing of John __________ . Answer: Bowlby 180. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, __________ selection improves inclusive fitness through increased access to mates and mating. Answer: sexual 181. John Bowlby based his approach known as __________ theory on ethology, the study of animals in their natural habitat. Answer: attachment 182. One of the most important areas of study in individual differences is called __________ or characteristic styles of relating to the world. Answer: temperament 183. Having internal rules for guiding appropriate behavior is an important concept in research on abnormal behavior and is known as ___________________ . Answer: self-control 184. An important concept in cognitive psychology is that of perceived causes, or people's beliefs about cause-effect relations, known as __________ . Answer: attributions 185. ____________ is the emotional and practical assistance received from others. Answer: Social support 186. Poverty affects a disproportionate number of _______________. Answer: African Americans Essay 187. Describe how a paradigm can both direct and misdirect scientists. Answer: A paradigm can suggest ways to look for answers to questions and the methodology to test ideas. On the other hand, a paradigm works under assumptions that may be appropriate for one theory, but may hinder the discovery of solutions to other problems because of a limiting mindset. 188. Explain how scientists suspect abnormal behavior is caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. Answer: Biological contributions range from brain chemistry to genetic predispositions. Psychological contributions range from troubled emotions to distorted thinking. Social and cultural contributions range from conflict in family relationships to sexual and racial bias. 189. Define systems theory and explain how it has influenced many sciences. Answer: Systems theory is an integrative approach to science, one that embraces not only the importance of multiple contributions to causality but also their interdependence. Systems theory has influenced many sciences; for example, it is basic to ecology, the study of the interdependence of living organisms in the natural world. 190. Define reductionism. Discuss the limitations of the reductionistic idea that if a depletion of certain chemicals in the brain accompanies depression, then the depletion must be the cause of the depression. Answer: Reductionism is the belief that ultimate causes rest in the smallest unit of analysis. However, in the case of depression, just because chemicals are a small unit of analysis does not mean that they are a more likely causal element. Broader elements such as behavior, relationships, and negative cognitions associated with depression could also cause chemical changes in the brain. 191. Define the correlation coefficient and what it means to have a positive correlation. Answer: The correlation coefficient is a number that always ranges between -1 and +1. Two factors are more strongly correlated when a correlation coefficient has a higher absolute value, regardless of whether the sign is positive or negative. Positive correlations (from 0.01 to 1) indicate that, as one factor goes up, the other factor also goes up. 192. Explain why it is not possible to assume that a correlation must indicate causation. Relate this to the correlation of depression with the depletion of neurotransmitters. Answer: In interpreting any correlation, there are always two alternative explanations. Reverse causality means that if X and Y are correlated, X could cause Y but Y might also cause X. The third variable problem means that the correlation between X and Y could be explained by their joint relation with some unmeasured factor. Thus, even if there is a correlation between depression and the depletion of neurotransmitters, it is possible that the depletion causes the depression, but it is also possible that the depression causes the depletion. Moreover, both the depression and the depletion could come about as the result of stress. 193. Discuss the implications of the idea that most forms of psychopathology are polygenic. Answer: Phenotypes produced by a single gene produce characteristics that are categorically different. Polygenic traits (caused by more than one gene) are continuously distributed, and thus polygenic abnormal traits are on a continuum with normal traits. This point may make it difficult to determine the threshold of abnormality, which may be a question of degree rather than qualitative differences. What's more, when behavior geneticists find that a given mental disorder is "genetic," our interpretation must be cautious. This finding does not mean the disorder is caused by the presence or absence of one or two genes, nor does it confirm that the abnormal behavior is in a different category from normal behavior. 194. The assumption that the environment affects dizygotic (DZ) twins in the same way it influences monozygotic (MZ) twins has been criticized. Describe this criticism and the research methodology used to address it. Answer: The criticism is that there may be greater concordance among MZ twins in part because they are treated more similarly than the DZ twins are treated. To address this concern, adoption studies have been conducted. If the concordance rate is higher for biological relatives than for adoptive relatives, this finding will point to genetic involvement in the trait. 195. When discussing biological functions, it is important to note the distinction between the study of biological structures and biological functions. Explain these distinctions. Answer: The field of anatomy is concerned with the study of biological functions; the field of physiology investigates biological functions. Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology are subspecialties within these broader fields that focus on brain structure and brain functions. The study of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology is the domain of an exciting, multidisciplinary field of research called neuroscience. 196. Summarize the evidence in the matter of the hypothesis that vaccinations contribute to the cause of autism. Answer: In 1998, Andrew Wakefield and several other authors speculated that it was likely that MMR vaccinations were responsible for 12 cases of autism. They did not however base this speculation on any empirical evidence. Since then several very large, empirical studies have looked for epidemiological evidence of a link between vaccinations and the rate of autism. For example a Danish study of one half million children found no statistical difference in the rate of autism between children who had received the suspect vaccination and children who hadn’t. The same conclusion was published by studies in the UK and Japan, which also found no evidence of a link between vaccinations and autism. 197. Researchers have identified the five basic dimensions of personality (temperament). List them. Answer: (1) extraversion (active and talkative vs. passive and reserved); (2) agreeableness (trusting and kind vs. hostile and selfish); (3) conscientiousness (organized and reliable vs. careless and negligent); (4) neuroticism (nervous and moody vs. calm and pleasant); (5) openness to experience (imaginative and curious vs. shallow and imperceptive). 198. Describe emotions and list the six basic emotions researchers have isolated to reduce our lexicon of feelings. Answer: Emotions, internal feeling states, are essential to human experience and to our understanding of mental disorders. The six basic emotions are love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, and fear. 199. What are attributions? Why are psychologists interested in them? Describe, with a specific example, how attributions can be used to explain depression. Answer: Attributions involve how people perceive causes, their beliefs about cause-effect relations. Attribution errors can play a prominent role in the development of psychopathology. For example, a person who attributes a bad event to internal, stable, and global causes is more at risk for depression. So a student getting a bad grade who says "I'm stupid" will feel more helpless and ultimately more depressed. 200. What has research revealed concerning the relationship between marital status and mental health? What particular problems of interpretation occur when trying to reach valid conclusions on this relationship? Answer: Data from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study provided valuable data in assessing the relationship between marriage and mental health. Researchers found consistent relationships between marital status and mental health. For example, depression occurred in 1.5 percent of people still in their first marriage. The rate for those who were never married (1-year prevalence) was 2.4 percent. Among those who had been divorced, the rate was 4.1 in the past year. Finally, 5.8 percent of people who had been divorced more than once had experienced depression in the previous 12 months. Similar findings were found for alcoholism and schizophrenia as well as virtually every disorder diagnosed in the study. How do we interpret these results? The usual interpretation is that not being married causes emotional problems. The absence of a supportive mate makes one more susceptible to psychological problems. However, reverse causality needs to be considered as an alternative explanation. Specifically, emotional problems may be the cause of marital status. Psychologically disturbed people may have more trouble dating and forming permanent relationships. If they get married, their emotional struggles may make them or their spouses unhappy in their marriages and prone to divorce. What's more, third variable interpretations could create spurious relationships, and poverty has been suggested as one possible third variable. Researches have concluded that although the relationship between marriage and mental health may be partly explained by third variables, the correlation is still found when the effects of poverty are excluded. For severe psychological disorders like schizophrenia, it seems clear that being single or getting divorced is a reaction to, not a cause of, the emotional problems. 201. Explain why MZ twins who divorce have more psychological problems than their married co-twins is not due to the difference in genes nor childrearing experiences that the twins share. Answer: Identical twins have identical genes and grow up in the same families. Any difference between them is caused by the nonshared environment, or their unique experiences, one of which is divorce. Twin research suggests that divorce causes some psychological problems in both children and adults. 202. Discuss how gender roles affect the development, expression, and consequences of psychopathology. Answer: Gender roles may cause problems (e.g., women are raised to show dependency and helplessness, which may cause depression). Gender roles may affect the expression of problems (e.g., it is socially acceptable for women to show depression, and for men to show physical illness). Gender roles can affect the consequences of problems (e.g., once a phobia develops, it is socially acceptable for women, but not men, to continue to avoid the feared object, and this avoidance may exacerbate the problem for women). 203. Compare and contrast the concepts of “gene-environment interaction” and “gene-environment correlation.” Answer: Many contemporary models of the etiology of mental disorders suggest that genetic factors or diatheses interact with environmental factors in complex ways to cause mental disorders. A person may have a genetic risk of developing schizophrenia, but may not develop the disorder in the absence of environmental stress. Such a situation exemplifies a gene-environment interaction. An example of gene-environment correlation would be if an individual inherited a predisposition to respond to stressful situations with anxiety and was raised in a way that encouraged or rewarded anxious behavior. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery 9780205997947, 9780205970742, 9780134899053, 9780134531830, 9780205965090

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right

Select menu by going to Admin > Appearance > Menus

Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right