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Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Questions 1. This perspective states that it is possible to understand conscious experience and the mind by identifying its basic elements. a. structuralism b. behaviorism c. nativism d. empiricism Answer: a. structuralism Rationale: Structuralism, as pioneered by Wilhelm Wundt, aimed to break down consciousness into its basic elements through introspection, believing that understanding these elements would lead to an understanding of the mind. 2. The method of ____ asks subjects to accurately describe their inner thoughts and emotions. a. attentive vigilance b. cognitive mapping c. introspection d. introversion Answer: c. introspection Rationale: Introspection involves the examination and description of one's own thoughts, feelings, and sensations, which aligns with the description provided in the question. 3. The functionalists believed that psychology should be the study of a. the elements of conscious experience. b. mind-body dualism. c. observable behavior. d. adaptive processes. Answer: d. adaptive processes. Rationale: Functionalism, led by William James, emphasized the study of how mental processes function in adapting to the environment, focusing on the purpose or function of behavior rather than its structure. 4. William James was a ____ while Wilhelm Wundt was a ____. a. behaviorist; functionalist b. functionalist; structuralist c. structuralist; functionalist d. functionalist; behaviorist Answer: b. functionalist; structuralist Rationale: William James was a prominent figure in functionalism, emphasizing the adaptive functions of behavior, while Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of structuralism, which sought to analyze the basic elements of consciousness. 5. This person strongly criticized psychology for emphasizing the study of conscious experience. a. Wundt b. Watson c. Kohler d. James Answer: b. Watson Rationale: John B. Watson criticized psychology's focus on conscious experience and introspection, advocating for behaviorism which emphasized observable behavior. 6. One of the major difficulties with the structuralist approach to psychology was the fact that the method of ____ was unreliable. a. deduction b. induction c. retrospection d. introspection Answer: d. introspection Rationale: Introspection, the primary method of structuralism, proved unreliable due to its subjective nature, making it difficult to establish replicable results and generalizable findings. 7. A scientific explanation always includes a. an independent variable b. a dependent variable c. an independent and dependent variable d. none of the above Answer: c. an independent and dependent variable Rationale: A scientific explanation typically involves identifying both an independent variable (the variable manipulated by the researcher) and a dependent variable (the variable being measured or observed). 8. A pseudo-explanation a. fails to specify an independent variable. b. is circular. c. may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above Rationale: A pseudo-explanation lacks the rigor of a scientific explanation, often failing to specify variables clearly, relying on circular reasoning, and potentially leading to self-fulfilling prophecies. 9. Psychology looks to _____ for its explanations. a. nature (heredity) b. nurture (experience) c. nature and nurture d. none of the above Answer: c. nature and nurture Rationale: Contemporary psychology recognizes the influence of both nature (biological factors, including heredity) and nurture (environmental factors, including experience) in shaping behavior and mental processes. This perspective is known as the nature-nurture debate. 10. Which of the following parts of the body appear to take up a disproportionately large part of the human motor cortex? a. the tongue b. the thumb c. the tongue and thumb d. none of the above Answer: c. the tongue and thumb Rationale: Research on the human motor cortex suggests that areas associated with fine motor control, such as those controlling the tongue and thumb, occupy a disproportionately large amount of cortical space compared to other body parts, a phenomenon known as cortical magnification. 11. According to the operational definition, learning is a ____ in behavior that results from some type of experience. a. change b. permanent change c. relatively permanent change d. conscious change Answer: c. relatively permanent change Rationale: The operational definition of learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience. This definition emphasizes the enduring nature of the change brought about by learning. 12. Tolman and Honzik's (1930) maze study suggested that a. there is no distinction between learning and performance. b. there is a distinction between learning and performance. c. learning is the opposite of performance. d. both b and c Answer: b. there is a distinction between learning and performance. Rationale: Tolman and Honzik's maze study indicated that rats could learn the layout of a maze without demonstrating that learning through immediate performance. This suggested a distinction between the acquisition of knowledge (learning) and its manifestation in behavior (performance). 13. Which of the following groups in the Tolman and Honzik's (1930) maze study clearly indicated that they had learned? a. the Regularly Rewarded and No Reward groups b. the Regularly Rewarded and No Reward until Day 11 groups c. the No Reward and No Reward until Day 11 groups d. all three groups Answer: b. the Regularly Rewarded and No Reward until Day 11 groups Rationale: The rats in the Regularly Rewarded group and the No Reward until Day 11 group demonstrated learning by navigating the maze more efficiently, indicating that they had acquired knowledge of the maze's layout even before receiving rewards. 14. Classical conditioning is to ____ as instrumental conditioning is to ____. a. adaptation; prediction b. adaptation; control c. prediction; control d. control; prediction Answer: c. prediction; control Rationale: In classical conditioning, an organism learns to associate two stimuli, leading to a predictive response, while in instrumental conditioning, the organism learns to associate its behavior with its consequences, allowing it to exert control over its environment. 15. “School of hard knocks” is to ____ as “book learning” is to ____. a. prediction ; control b. control; prediction c. direct; indirect d. indirect; direct Answer: c. direct; indirect Rationale: The "school of hard knocks" refers to learning from direct experience or practical life challenges, while "book learning" refers to acquiring knowledge from indirect sources such as books or formal education. Test Bank for Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition Jeffrey C. Levy 9780205950775

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