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Chapter 10 Multiple Choice Questions 1. The parrot always squawks when its owner enters the room, squawks sometimes when the owner’s spouse enters the room, and never squawks when you enter the room. This is probably the result of a. stimulus generalization. b. a concurrent schedule of reinforcement. c. a multiple-schedule schedule of reinforcement. d. the parrot’s personality. Answer: c. a multiple-schedule schedule of reinforcement. Rationale: In a multiple-schedule reinforcement scenario, different behaviors are reinforced under different schedules of reinforcement. The parrot's behavior of squawking is reinforced when its owner enters the room, occasionally reinforced when the owner's spouse enters, and not reinforced when someone else enters. This differential reinforcement based on the presence of different stimuli (owner, spouse, others) suggests a multiple-schedule schedule of reinforcement. 2. The absence of stimulus control is indicated by a ____ pattern, whereas a lot of stimulus control is indicated by a ____ pattern. a. quadratic; curvilinear b. curvilinear; quadratic c. flat; steep d. steep; flat Answer: c. flat; steep Rationale: In behavior analysis, stimulus control refers to the degree to which a behavior is emitted in the presence of a particular stimulus. A flat pattern indicates little or no control by the stimulus, while a steep pattern indicates strong control by the stimulus. 3. The stimulus control gradient for presence-absence training is ____, whereas the stimulus control gradient for intra-dimensional discrimination training is ____. a. flat; steep b. steep; flat c. steep; moderate d. moderate; steep Answer: d. moderate; steep Rationale: In presence-absence training, the stimulus control gradient tends to be moderate, as the discrimination is relatively simple (presence versus absence of a stimulus). In intradimensional discrimination training, where subjects are trained to respond to variations within a stimulus dimension, the gradient tends to be steeper due to the more specific discrimination required. 4. After intra-dimensional discrimination training, the peak of the stimulus control gradient will be a. directly over the S+. b. directly over the S-. c. shifted in the direction opposite the S+. d. shifted in the direction opposite the S-. Answer: d. shifted in the direction opposite the S-. Rationale: In intra-dimensional discrimination training, the subject learns to respond more strongly to the positive stimulus (S+) than to the negative stimulus (S-). This results in a shift in the peak of the stimulus control gradient away from the S-. 5. You are usually unaware of the background noise of a fan. This is an example of a. discrimination. b. habituation. c. the peak shift. d. stimulus control. Answer: b. habituation. Rationale: Habituation refers to the decreased response to a repeated stimulus over time. In this case, the background noise of the fan becomes less noticeable over time as you become habituated to it. 6. A multiple schedule consists of two or more independent schedules presented in sequence a. each with its own discriminative stimulus. b. each resulting in a reinforcer. c. each with the same discriminative stimulus. d. each with the same reinforcer. Answer: a. each with its own discriminative stimulus. Rationale: In a multiple schedule, different schedules of reinforcement are associated with different discriminative stimuli. Each schedule operates independently, with its own discriminative stimulus signaling when the reinforcement is available for a particular behavior. 7. A multiple schedule analysis helps us understand ____. a. human personality, but not culture or socialization. b. human personality and culture, but not socialization. c. human personality and socialization, but not culture. d. human personality, culture, and socialization. Answer: d. human personality, culture, and socialization. Rationale: Multiple schedule analyses can provide insights into how individuals respond to different environmental stimuli and reinforcement schedules, shedding light on aspects of human behavior such as personality, cultural influences, and socialization. 8. The fading procedure involves ____ changing the ____ during discrimination training. a. gradually; S+ b. suddenly; S+ c. gradually; Sd. suddenly; SAnswer: c. gradually; SRationale: Fading involves gradually reducing the intensity or salience of the negative stimulus (S-) during discrimination training. This helps to strengthen the discrimination between the positive (S+) and negative stimuli. 9. Attention theory assumes ____ is more difficult than ____. a. learning to identify a dimension; learning to identify a value on a dimension b. learning to identify a value on a dimension; learning to identify a dimension c. learning to identify a schedule; learning to identify a value on a schedule d. learning to identify a value on a schedule; learning to identify a schedule Answer: a. learning to identify a dimension; learning to identify a value on a dimension Rationale: Attention theory suggests that initially, individuals find it easier to discriminate between dimensions (e.g., color vs. shape) than between values within a dimension (e.g., light blue vs. dark blue). 10. Which of the following support attention theory? a. the overlearning reversal effect b. the easy-to-hard problem c. intradimensional vs. extradimensional shifts d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above Rationale: The overlearning reversal effect, the easy-to-hard problem, and intradimensional vs. extradimensional shifts are phenomena consistent with attention theory, supporting the idea that discriminating between dimensions is easier than discriminating between values within a dimension.

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