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Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Questions 1. In which of the following procedures does the CS go on and off prior to the US? a. delay conditioning b. trace conditioning c. simultaneous conditioning d. backward conditioning Answer: b. trace conditioning Rationale: In trace conditioning, the CS is presented and terminated before the onset of the US. There is a temporal gap between the termination of the CS and the onset of the US, allowing for the association between the two stimuli to form despite their temporal separation. 2. In which of the following procedures is predictive learning impossible? a. delay conditioning b. trace conditioning c. simultaneous conditioning d. backward conditioning Answer: c. simultaneous conditioning Rationale: Simultaneous conditioning presents the CS and US at the same time, making it impossible for the organism to predict the occurrence of the US based on the CS alone. Since the CS and US occur simultaneously, there is no predictive relationship between them, hindering the formation of an association. 3. Which of the following appears to be an exception to the law of temporal contiguity? a. eyelid conditioning b. heart rate conditioning c. acquired taste aversion d. none of the above Answer: c. acquired taste aversion Rationale: Acquired taste aversion is an exception to the law of temporal contiguity because it can occur even when there is a significant temporal gap between the conditioned stimulus (taste) and the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., illness). Despite the delay, a strong association forms between the taste and the subsequent illness, leading to aversion to that taste in the future. 4. Jamie goes to a new restaurant that serves exotic foods and is stung by a bee while eating. Half an hour later Jamie feels sick. As the result of these unfortunate events Jamie will most likely a. become sick at the thought of bees and the exotic food. b. become afraid of bees and the exotic food. c. become afraid of bees and sick at the thought of exotic food d. become sick at the thought of bees and afraid of the exotic food Answer: c. become afraid of bees and sick at the thought of exotic food Rationale: This scenario describes a case of classical conditioning where Jamie associates the previously neutral stimuli (bees and exotic food) with the unpleasant experience of being stung by a bee and feeling sick. As a result, Jamie is likely to develop fear towards bees (conditioned fear response) and aversion towards exotic food (conditioned taste aversion). 5. A loud tone and dim light are presented at the same time and followed by food. Salivation will most likely occur to a. the tone and light. b. the tone and not the light. c. the light and not the tone. d. neither the tone nor light. Answer: b. the tone and not the light. Rationale: In classical conditioning, salivation will likely occur in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), which in this case is the loud tone. The dim light, being presented simultaneously but not directly paired with the food, does not become associated with the food and thus does not elicit the conditioned response (salivation). 6. As the percentage of trials on which the CS and US are paired during acquisition increases, the speed of acquisition ____ and the speed of extinction ____. a. increases; increases b. increases; decreases c. decreases; decreases d. decreases; increases Answer: a. increases; increases Rationale: Increasing the percentage of trials on which the CS and US are paired during acquisition leads to faster learning (speed of acquisition), as there are more opportunities for the association between the CS and US to strengthen. Additionally, a stronger association acquired during acquisition results in faster extinction, as there is more to unlearn when the CS is presented without the US. 7. Which of the following phenomena indicate that extinction cannot result from destroying the association between the CS and CR? a. external inhibition b. disinhibition c. stimulus generalization d. stimulus discrimination Answer: b. disinhibition Rationale: Disinhibition refers to the sudden reappearance of a previously extinguished response following the presentation of a novel stimulus. This phenomenon suggests that extinction cannot solely result from destroying the association between the CS and CR, as the response can reappear when inhibition is removed by a novel stimulus. 8. Pavlov regarded ____ as evidence that extinction involves the ____ of a response. a. external inhibition; unlearning b. spontaneous recovery; unlearning c. external inhibition; inhibition d. spontaneous recovery; inhibition Answer: d. spontaneous recovery; inhibition Rationale: Pavlov observed spontaneous recovery, which is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a delay, as evidence that extinction involves the inhibition rather than the unlearning of a response. Spontaneous recovery suggests that the original association between the CS and CR remains intact but is temporarily suppressed during extinction. 9. If a rat is shocked half the time after a tone occurs and half the time when the tone is not present, it will a. learn to fear the tone a little. b. learn to fear the tone a moderate amount. c. learn to fear the tone a lot. d. not learn to fear the tone. Answer: d. not learn to fear the tone. Rationale: This scenario describes partial reinforcement, where the CS (tone) is not consistently followed by the US (shock). In such cases, learning is slower and weaker compared to continuous reinforcement, leading to a lower likelihood of the rat developing a conditioned fear response to the tone. 10. Prior conditioning is to more salient as ____ is to ____. a. overshadowing; blocking b. blocking; overshadowing c. latent inhibition; blocking d. blocking; latent inhibition Answer: b. blocking; overshadowing Rationale: In classical conditioning, blocking occurs when a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) blocks the acquisition of a new association between another CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US). This is akin to prior conditioning, where the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus interferes with the conditioning of a new stimulus. Both blocking and prior conditioning involve the overshadowing of one stimulus by another, but in the case of blocking, the previously conditioned stimulus overshadows the new one, leading to interference in its conditioning. 11. According to Pavlov's stimulus-substitution theory, the ____ acts as a substitute for the ____. a. CS; NS b. CS; US c. US; CS d. NS; US Answer: b. CS; US Rationale: According to Pavlov's stimulus-substitution theory, the conditioned stimulus (CS) acquires the properties of the unconditioned stimulus (US) and acts as a substitute for it in eliciting the conditioned response (CR). In classical conditioning, the CS becomes associated with the US through repeated pairings, leading to the CS evoking a similar response as the US. 12. According to Pavlov's stimulus-substitution theory, temporal contiguity is a. necessary and sufficient b. necessary but not sufficient c. sufficient but not necessary d. not necessary or sufficient Answer: a. necessary and sufficient Rationale: Temporal contiguity, which refers to the closeness in time between the CS and the US, is both necessary and sufficient for classical conditioning to occur according to Pavlov's stimulussubstitution theory. This means that for the CS to become associated with the US and elicit the CR, it must reliably precede or coincide with the presentation of the US. 13. Research findings indicate that temporal contiguity is ____ for classical conditioning to occur. a. necessary and sufficient b. necessary but not sufficient c. sufficient but not necessary d. not necessary or sufficient Answer: b. necessary but not sufficient Rationale: While temporal contiguity is necessary for classical conditioning to occur, it is not always sufficient. Other factors such as contingency (the predictive relationship between the CS and the US) and attention also play significant roles in determining the strength of conditioning. 14. Pavlov believed that the ____. Research findings indicate that ____. a. CR always resembles the UR; he was correct b. CR always resembles the UR; he was incorrect c. CR never resembles the UR; he was correct d. CR never resembles the UR; he was incorrect Answer: b. CR always resembles the UR; he was incorrect Rationale: Pavlov initially believed that the conditioned response (CR) always closely resembled the unconditioned response (UR). However, research findings indicate that this is not always the case. While there may be similarities between the CR and UR, they are not always identical in form or magnitude. 15. Siegel’s research in which drugs serve as the US suggests that the CR a. is a substitute for the UR. b. prepares the individual for the UR c. is a substitute for the US. d. prepares the individual for the US Answer: d. prepares the individual for the US Rationale: Siegel's research, where drugs serve as the unconditioned stimulus (US), suggests that the conditioned response (CR) prepares the individual for the occurrence of the US. This implies that the CR anticipates the presentation of the US and adjusts the organism's physiological or behavioral state accordingly. 16. Which of the following components of the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning helps us understand why learning is greatest at the beginning and diminishes with experience? a. salience of the CS b. salience of both CSs c. salience of the US d. the surprise factor Answer: d. the surprise factor Rationale: The surprise factor in the Rescorla-Wagner model represents the discrepancy between what is expected (based on previous learning) and what actually occurs during conditioning. Initially, when the CS is novel, the surprise is high, leading to rapid learning. As the association between the CS and the US strengthens, the surprise decreases, resulting in diminished learning over time. 17. Which of the following components of the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning helps us understand why blocking occurs? a. salience of the CS b. salience of both CSs c. salience of the US d. the surprise factor Answer: b. salience of both CSs Rationale: Blocking occurs when a previously established association between one CS and the US prevents or blocks the acquisition of a new association with another CS. In the RescorlaWagner model, the salience of both CSs plays a crucial role in blocking. If the first CS is highly salient and effectively predicts the US, there is little room for the second CS to contribute to learning. Thus, its salience becomes overshadowed by the first CS, leading to blocking. Test Bank for Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition Jeffrey C. Levy 9780205950775

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