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Chapter 1: Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience 1.1 Multiple Choice 1) The mind-body solution proposed by René Descartes was inspired by A) visions he had while suffering a nervous breakdown in his teen years. B) his daughter Francine. C) his observation of mechanical statues in a royal garden. D) his training as a philosopher. E) his training in music. Answer: C Rationale: The mind-body solution proposed by René Descartes was inspired by his observation of mechanical statues in a royal garden. 2) _______ refers to the ancient belief that spirits control the movements of inanimate objects. A) Spiritualism B) Dualism C) Monism D) Animism E) Theism Answer: D 3) Early humans would explain the movement of tree leaves in the wind as due to A) mental processes in plants. B) random motion. C) the presence of spirits in the tree. D) an action of God. E) movement of fluids within the tree branches. Answer: C Rationale: Early humans would explain the movement of tree leaves in the wind as due to the presence of spirits in the tree. 4) The fact that humans have a thirst for knowledge of how things work is an example of A) empathy. B) spiritualism. C) monism. D) animism. E) curiosity. Answer: E 5) The author's meaning of "consciousness" is consistent with our A) being awake. B) ability to detect stimuli that are present in the outside world. C) ability to move our bodies. D) ability to communicate our thoughts and feelings to others. E) possessing a complicated nervous system. Answer: D Rationale: The author’s meaning of “consciousness” is consistent with our ability to communicate out thoughts and feelings to others. 6) Which of the following is most consistent with the proposition that consciousness is a physiological function? A) Consumption of a placebo pill changes our vision. B) Damage to the brain can alter our self-awareness. C) Inhalation of certain gases renders us aware of the environment. D) Our awareness levels change with our emotional states. E) Consciousness is similar across organisms with very different brain structures. Answer: B Rationale: The proposition that consciousness is a physiological function is consistent with the fact that damage to the brain can alter our self-awareness. 7) Carlson argues that a key aspect of human consciousness is related to A) our ability to communicate to others via language. B) our ability to sleep at night. C) the fact that humans are awake during the day. D) the observation that brain damage can alter our awareness. E) our ability to react to painful stimuli. Answer: A Rationale: Carlson argues that a key aspect of human consciousness is related to our ability to communicate to others via language. 8) Epileptic seizures can be controlled by A) administration of drugs such as cocaine or amphetamine. B) drugs that block the action of acetylcholine in the brain. C) removal of the cerebral cortex. D) cutting the corpus callosum. E) electrical stimulation of sub-cortical brain structures. Answer: D Rationale: Epileptic seizures can be controlled by cutting the corpus callosum. 9) An important function of the corpus callosum is to A) channel sensory information to the thalamic relay centers. B) control the movement of the hands and fingers. C) interconnect the cerebral hemispheres. D) control the release of neurohormones from the pituitary. E) channel motor information to the spinal cord. Answer: C Rationale: An important function of the corpus callosum is to interconnect the cerebral hemispheres. 10) Transection of the ________ may be useful for reducing the symptoms of ________. A) corpus callosum; epilepsy B) fornix; obsessive-compulsive disorder C) stria terminalis; anterograde amnesia D) fornix; depression E) corpus callosum; anxiety Answer: A 11) Surgical transection of the corpus callosum is intended to A) reduce swelling of the brain in hydroencephalus. B) alter long-term memory of traumatic events. C) promote the development of the frontal lobes. D) reduce the severity of epileptic seizures. E) prevent the development of Parkinson's disease. Answer: D 12) In most persons, the left hemisphere of the brain A) controls the left side of the body. B) controls speech. C) is involved in spatial perception. D) receives tactile information from the left side of the body. E) receives olfactory information from the right nostril. Answer: B Rationale: In most persons, the left hemisphere of the brain controls speech. 13) Which of the following would be expected of a person who has undergone the "split-brain" procedure? A) more intense epileptic seizures B) poor motor balance C) putting down an interesting book held in his or her right hand D) making obscene gestures with his or her left hand at unexpected times E) diminished capacity to reason Answer: D Rationale: A person who has undergone the “split-brain” procedure would be expected to make obscene gestures with his or her left hand at unexpected times. 14) Which of the following functions is associated with the right hemisphere? A) the control of muscles of the left side of the body B) the processing of olfactory signals from the left nostril C) the processing of tactile signals from the right side of the body D) the motor control of the right side of the body E) the capacity to feel emotion Answer: A 15) A person has undergone the "split-brain" procedure to treat a clinical disorder. After her left nostril is plugged with cotton, the scent of a flower is directed to her right nostril. We would expect this odor to A) generate a sensory message in the left hemisphere of her brain. B) generate a sensory message in both hemispheres of this person’s brain. C) lead that person to report the smell of a flower. D) fail to generate a verbal report of the sensory experience. E) have no effect on consciousness or behavior. Answer: D Rationale: A split-brain person who had an odor directed to their right nostril would not be able to repost the smell of that odor. 16) The scent of a flower sniffed through the right nostril in a "split-brain" person would be expected to A) generate a sensory message in the left hemisphere of the brain. B) generate a sensory message in both hemispheres of the brain. C) lead that person to report the smell of a flower. D) allow that person to use his or her left hand to choose a hidden plastic flower. E) rapidly induce nausea. Answer: D Rationale: The scent of a flower sniffed through the right nostril in a “split-brain” person would be expected to allow that person to use his or her left hand to choose a hidden plastic flower. 17) Which of the following is true of the right hemisphere? A) This hemisphere controls speech. B) It receives olfactory information from the right nostril. C) It receives tactile information from the right side of the body. D) It controls the muscles on the right side of the body. E) It receives olfactory information from the left nostril. Answer: B Rationale: The right hemisphere receives olfactory information from the right nostril. 18) ________ is a type of explanation used by scientists. A) Generalization B) Induction C) Rationalization D) Syllogism E) Simplification. Answer: A Rationale: Generalization is a type of explanation used by scientists. 19) A psychologist who argues that phobias are actually learned fears is using the process of A) rationalization. B) pseudoscience. C) reductionism. D) generalization. E) logical discrimination. Answer: D Rationale: A psychologist who argues that phobias are actually learned fears is using the process of generalization. 20) A complex phenomenon that is explained using simpler phenomena is based on the process of A) rationalization. B) simplification. C) generalization. D) deduction. E) reduction. Answer: E 21) Dr. Leary argues that muscle contraction occurs because muscle fibers undergo a physical process of shortening. His explanation would invoke the process of A) reduction. B) syllogism. C) generalization. D) induction. E) superordinate causality. Answer: A Rationale: The statement that muscle contraction occurs because muscle fibers undergo a physical process of shortening is an example of reduction. 22) Which of the following is correct? A) Reduction uses complex processes to explain complicated ones. B) The goal of science is to explain simple phenomena in terms of complicated mechanisms. C) Generalization and reduction are important tools in science. D) Physiological psychologists only use reductionistic explanations. E) Science involves generating – but not – testing hypotheses. Answer: C Rationale: Generalization and reduction are important tools in science. 23) A serious complication of physiological analyses of behavior is that A) behaviors have to be explained in terms of molecular events. B) different physiological mechanisms may produce identical behaviors. C) different behaviors may occur for the same reasons. D) physiologists are only able to offer reductionist explanations. E) Science is difficult. Answer: B Rationale: A serious complication of physiological analyses of behavior is that different physiological mechanisms may produce identical behaviors. 24) René Descartes would be most comfortable with which of the following statements? A) The universe is a mental construction. B) The body is a hallucination generated by the mind. C) The body is made of matter; the mind is not. D) The brain serves to cool the passions of the heart. E) Reflexes are noted in humans, but not in animals. Answer: C Rationale: René Descartes would be most comfortable with the statement that the body is made of matter; the mind is not. 25) Which of the following statements is consistent with how a physiological psychologist would solve the problem of how the mind and body interact? A) The mind is a product produced by the operations of the nervous system. B) The body can influence the mind through the actions of the pineal gland. C) The mind is spiritual, while the body is made from matter. D) The mind can exist apart from the body. E) The body is physical, but the mind is not. Answer: A Rationale: A physiological psychologist would argue that the mind is a product produced by the operations of the nervous system. 26) The Greek scholar ______ dissected and studied the brains of cattle, sheep, dogs, and apes. A) Aristotle B) Galen C) Hippocrates D) Descartes E) Carlson Answer: B 27) A physiological psychologist would be most comfortable with which of the following statements? A) The universe is a mental construction. B) The body is a hallucination generated by the mind. C) The body is made of matter; the mind is not. D) Everything is made of matter and energy. E) The body is physical and the mind is spiritual. Answer: D Rationale: A physiological psychologist would be most comfortable with the statement that everything is made of matter and energy. 28) Ancient Egyptian, Indian, and Chinese cultures viewed the ________ as the seat of thought and emotion. A) gut B) heart C) brain D) pineal gland E) stomach Answer: B 29) Which of the following philosophers/scientists attributed thought and emotion to the brain? A) Aristotle B) Galen C) Hippocrates D) Plato E) Müller Answer: C Rationale: Hippocrates attributed thought and emotion to the brain. 30) Aristotle argued that A) the brain is the seat of thought, but not emotion. B) the brain serves to cool the passions of the heart. C) the brain is the seat of emotion, but not thought. D) the brain routes sensory information to the heart. E) injury to the brain alters emotion and thought. Answer: B Rationale: Aristotle argued that the brain serves to cool the passions of the heart. 31) René Descartes argued that A) the mind is an emerging property of organization of the brain. B) only humans are capable of reflexive behaviors. C) the brain acts to cool the passions of the heart. D) animals are mechanical devices whose behavior is controlled by environmental stimuli. E) humans cannot understand the nature of the real world. Answer: D Rationale: René Descartes argued that animals are mechanical devices whose behavior is controlled by environmental stimuli. 32) A reflex is considered to be a(n) ________ movement elicited by an ________. A) involuntary; external stimulus B) voluntary; internal stimulus C) conscious; external stimulus D) unconscious; internal stimulus E) None of the above are correct. Answer: A Rationale: A reflex is considered to be an involuntary movement elicited by an external stimulus. 33) Which scientist coined the term "reflexes" to describe certain bodily movements? A) Aristotle B) René Descartes C) Hermann von Helmholtz D) Wilder Penfield E) Luigi Galvani Answer: B 34) Which of the following terms best describes view of the relation between mind and body held by René Descartes? A) Mind and body are identical. B) Mind is the residue when the brain is formed. C) One brain gives rise to many minds. D) Mind and body interact at the pineal body of the brain. E) Body movement is controlled by inanimate spirits. Answer: D Rationale: René Descartes argued that mind and body interact at the pineal body of the brain. 35) The father of modern philosophy is considered to be A) Sigmund Freud. B) Hippocrates. C) Aristotle. D) René Descartes. E) Wilhelm Wundt. Answer: D 36) According to René Descartes, A) the heart is the organ that controls emotions. B) the muscles are activated by electrical signals carried by nerves. C) nerves carry electrical messages that contract muscles. D) a reflex is a sensory perception generated by the mind. E) the mind controls the movements of the body. Answer: E Rationale: According to René Descartes, the mind controls the movements of body. 37) For Descartes, the statues in the royal garden provided a(n) ________ for explaining how the mind controls behavior. A) model B) analogy C) generalization D) prototype E) syllogism Answer: A Rationale: Descartes used the movements of the statues in the royal garden as a model for explaining how the mind controls behavior. 38) A(n) ________ is a simple system that works on known principles that can be used to explain a complex system. A) model B) analogy C) generalization D) prototype E) syllogism Answer: A 39) Galvani's experiment showed that ________ of a frog nerve caused ________ of the attached muscle. A) electrical stimulation; relaxation B) electrical stimulation; contraction C) chemical stimulation; contraction D) pressurization; relaxation E) chemical stimulation; relaxation Answer: B Rationale: Galvani’s experiment showed that electrical stimulation of a for nerve caused contraction of the attached muscle. 40) The significance of Galvani's experiment involving stimulation of an isolated frog muscle is that it proved that A) fluid flow along nerves causes muscles to contract. B) the muscles are activated by electrical nerve signals. C) reflexes can be explained using a hydraulic model. D) a reflex is a process controlled by the mind. E) the mind controls the movements of the body. Answer: B Rationale: The significance of Galvani’s experiment involving stimulation of an isolated frog muscle is that it proved that the muscles are activated by electrical nerve signals. 41) Which of the following is consistent with Galvani's experiment ?A) The brain contains air-filled chambers. B) Nerves are filled with air and exert a vacuum pressure.. C) Muscles comprise the mind. D) Electrical stimulation of a nerve can evoke contraction of a muscle, even when the nerve has been disconnected from the rest of the body. E) The brain controls the muscles of the body. Answer: D Rationale: Galvani’s experiment showed that electrical stimulation of a nerve can evoke contraction of a muscle, even when the nerve has been disconnected from the rest of the body. 42) The doctrine of specific nerve energies was proposed by A) Johannes Müller. B) Paul Broca. C) René Descartes. D) Hippocrates. E) Wilhelm Wundt. Answer: A 43) Which of the following is consistent with the doctrine of specific nerve energies? A) Electrical stimulation of a sensory nerve cannot evoke a specific sensation. B) All nerves carry a similar electrical message. C) Exerting pressure on the eyeball can evoke pain. D) Each brain area receives signals from all sensory systems. E) Visual signals are carried by very large action potentials whereas tactile signals are carried by tiny action potentials. Answer: B Rationale: The doctrine of specific nerve energies suggests that all nerves carry a similar electrical message. 44) _______ was among the first scientists to advocate the use of experimental techniques in the study of physiology. A) Paul Broca B) René Descartes C) Sigmund Freud D) Johannes Müller E) Charles Darwin Answer: D Rationale: Flourens was among the first scientists to advocate the use of experimental techniques in the study of psychology. 45) Johannes Müller proposed A) an important role for natural selection in the evolution of behavior. B) that language is a function of the right hemisphere. C) that different brain channels carry out different functions. D) that the pineal body interconnects the body with the mind. E) that the amygdala controls thought and emotion. Answer: C Rationale: Johannes Müller proposed that different brain channels carry out different functions. 46) Pierre Flourens is known A) for his development and use of the experimental ablation technique. B) as the father of modern philosophy. C) for creating the theory of evolution. D) for his study of the impairment of language in stroke victims. E) as a radical philosopher who rejected the study of how the mind controls the body.. Answer: A Rationale: Pierre Flourens is known for his development and use of the experimental ablation technique. 47) Experimental ablation involves A) comparisons of brain size differences across species. B) measurements of conduction velocity rates in damaged and intact nerves. C) chronic chemical stimulation of the brain. D) low-level electrical stimulation of the brain. E) the study of changes in function after intentional damage to a portion of the brain. Answer: E Rationale: Experimental ablation involves the study of changes in function after intentional damage to a portion of the brain. 48) Based on his observation of brain damage and behavioral difficulties in a stroke victim, Paul Broca concluded that A) the control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere. B) the right hemisphere controls motor movements on the right side of the body. C) damage to the right hemisphere impairs speech. D) different regions of the brain control heart rate and breathing, purposeful movements, and sensory function. E) muscle atrophy after a stroke results from a loss of fluid pressure within the brain ventricles. Answer: A Rationale: Based on his observation of brain damage and behavioral difficulties in a stroke victim, Paul Broca concluded that the control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere. 49) Electrical stimulation of the ________ in dogs was shown by Fritsch and Hitzig in 1870 to result in ________. A) pineal gland; contraction of the facial muscles B) parietal cortex; the sensation of high frequency sound C) corpus callosum; paralysis of both hind legs D) primary motor cortex; muscle contraction on the opposite side of the body E) left globus pallidus; atrophy of muscles on the right side of the body Answer: D 50) A key contribution of Hermann von Helmholtz to the study of neuron function was A) a mathematical formula to describe the conservation of energy. B) a theory of black-white vision. C) his invention of the ophthalmoscope. D) measuring the conduction speed through nerves of the action potential. E) his creation of the ablation method. Answer: D Rationale: A key contribution of Hermann von Helmholtz to the study of neuron function was his measurement of the conduction speed through nerves of the action potential. 51) In his studies of nerve conduction, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that A) electrical signal speeds differ from nerve to nerve. B) nerve signal conduction is at the speed of light. C) nerves conduct signals faster than do electrical wires. D) nerves conduct signals more slowly than wires conduct electricity. E) different sensory systems use different conduction speeds. Answer: D Rationale: In his studies of nerve conduction, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that nerves conduct signals more slowly than wires conduct electricity. 52) Darwin proposed the principle of A) specific nerve energy. B) homeostasis. C) experimental ablation. D) natural selection. E) functionalism.. Answer: D 53) Darwin's view that the natural characteristics of an organism exert useful effects is termed A) reductionism. B) positivism. C) functionalism. D) consolidation. E) adaptation. Answer: C Rationale: Darwin’s view that the natural characteristics of an organism exert useful effects is termed functionalism. 54) The principles of natural selection and evolution were proposed by A) Paul Broca. B) René Descartes. C) Sigmund Freud. D) Johannes Müller. E) Charles Darwin. Answer: E Rationale: Charles Darwin proposed the principles of natural selection and evolution. 55) The physiological mechanisms of an organism can modulate behavior. Strictly speaking, these mechanisms A) can be said to have purpose. B) can be traced or linked to certain functions. C) are thought to be different from species to species. D) are not thought to be subject to evolution. E) are present at birth and do not require environmental stimulation for complete expression. Answer: B Rationale: The physiological mechanisms of an organism can modulate behavior. Strictly speaking, these mechanisms can be traced or linked to certain functions. 56) Which of the following is consistent with Blest's (1957) study of the impact of background pattern on consumption of worms by birds? A) Background pattern made no difference in this study. B) Birds avoided backgrounds that resembled the bark of a tree. C) Worms were most likely to be eaten when placed on a background that contained a pattern that resembled an eye of an owl. D) Birds rapidly approached backgrounds that contained eyespot patterns. E) Backgrounds that contained eyespot patterns were avoided by the birds. Answer: E Rationale: Blest’s (1957) study of the impact of background pattern on consumption of worms by birds showed that backgrounds that contained eyespot patterns were avoided by the birds. 57) The principle of natural selection proposes that certain characteristics will become more prevalent in a species to the extent that these A) are associated with multiple genetic mutations. B) inhibit reproductive behaviors. C) increase the likelihood that an organism will successfully reproduce. D) impair adaption to the local environment. E) impair appetite. Answer: C Rationale: The principle of natural selection proposes that certain characteristics will become more prevalent in a species to the extent that these increase the likelihood that an organism will successfully reproduce. 58) Which of the following is true of genetic mutations? A) Mutations have mostly beneficial effects. B) Mutations commonly increase the survivability of affected offspring. C) Mutations rarely result in problems for the affected offspring. D) Most mutations are deleterious. E) Mutations cannot confer selective advantages to the affected offspring. Answer: D Rationale: Most genetic mutations are deleterious. 59) Genetic mutations involve A) adverse neural development caused by drug ingestion in adulthood. B) accidental changes in the chromosomes of sperms or eggs. C) poor adaptation to the environment. D) improved reproductive success. E) only beneficial changes in the characteristics of an organism. Answer: B Rationale: Genetic mutations involve accidental changes in the chromosomes of sperms or eggs. 60) Traits that can be altered via genetic mutations A) are mostly beneficial to members of the species. B) are psychological in nature. C) are physical in nature. D) exert direct actions on behavior. E) suppress the creation of DNA. Answer: C 61) Genetic variety is good for a species in that A) such diversity allows some members of the species to adapt to a new environment. B) mutations are kept to a minimum. C) variety promotes neural development. D) variety reduces reproductive success. E) None of the above are correct. Answer: A Rationale: Genetic variety is good for a species in that such diversity allows some members of the species to adapt to a new environment. 62) The process of evolution A) cannot involve genetic mutations. B) can occur in the absence of natural selection. C) implies genetic similarity. D) refers to a gradual change in the structure and function of a species. E) requires numerous mutations. Answer: D Rationale: The process of evolution refers to a gradual change in the structure and function of a species. 63) The first primates A) were the bark from trees. B) were relatively large compared to other species. C) dined on other primates.. D) were able to grasp objects with their hands. E) were blind. Answer: D 64) Which of the following is an advantage associated with the development of color vision in primates? A) the ability to locate food in the dark B) the ability to freely move in the forest at night C) the capacity to discriminate movement at the edge of the visual field. fruit D) the capacity to communicate using hand signals E).The ability to distinguish ripe from unripe fruit. Answer: E Rationale: The ability to distinguish ripe from unripe fruit is an advantage associated with the development of color vision in primates. 65) Which of the following is correct regarding the genetic similarities evident among the various members of the primate families? A) Members of the primate family share 78.8 percent of their DNA. B) Humans and chimpanzees share 98.8 percent of their DNA. C) Chimpanzees and gorillas share 50 percent of their genes. D) Humans share only 1.2 percent of their genes with other primates. E) There is little genetic similarity between the primate groups. Answer: B 66) A larger brain allowed primates to develop which of the following capacities and abilities? A) the ability to huddle in the forest to keep warm. B) use of smell to identify food C) use of language to signal information to other members of the group D) the ability to locomote within the forest E) the capacity to chew and swallow food Answer: C Rationale: A larger brain allowed primates to develop the use of language to signal information to other members of the group. 67) ________ refers to the concept in which maturation is extended, and the brain of an adolescent reaches its adult brain size. A) Adaptation B) Mutation C) Trisomy 21 D) Neoteny E) Allodyny Answer: D 68) Which of the following is true with regard to the use of animals by humans? A) Owning a pet requires permission from a veterinarian. B) Pet homes are regularly inspected by the government. C) More suffering occurs through pet ownership than with research. D) More animals die in research projects than die as pets. E) No animal research has been useful for understanding and treating human disease. Answer: C 69) Animal rights activists are most concerned with our use of animals A) in hunting and trapping. B) as a source of food. C) as companions or pets to humans. D) as a source of fur for coats. E) as subjects for research. Answer: E 70) Which of the following is an indispensable use of animals for humans? A) research for the treatment of human disease B) as a source of food C) as companions to humans D) as a source of fur E) as contestants in reality television shows Answer: A 71) Research involving animals was required in order to study and develop treatments for which of the following human diseases? A) melanoma B) stroke C) bulimia nervosa D) baldness E) phobia Answer: B Rationale: Research involving animals was required in order to study and develop treatments for stroke. 72) Which of the following is the easiest justification for the use of animals in research? A) Animal research is conducted so as to minimize human suffering. B) Animal research is an important part of our food supply.. C) Animal research has led to disease discoveries and treatments that would not otherwise be possible. D) One simply has a conversation with an animal rights activist about the validity of animal research. E) Animal research is easier than computer simulations of human disease. Answer: C Rationale: Animal research can be justified in that such research has led to disease discoveries and treatments that would not otherwise be possible. 73) ________ is the original name for the field which involves the study of the physiology of behavior. A) Behavioral neuroscience B) Biopsychology C) Psychobiology D) Physiological psychology E) Biological pseudoscience Answer: D 74) ________ are physicians trained to diagnose and to treat diseases of the central nervous system. A) Psychologists B) Neurologists C) Anatomists D) Behavioral neuroscientists E) Experimental neuropsychologists Answer: B 75) Which of the following was NOT a strategy advocated by the text author to assist you in learning the material of this text? A) Focus on the conclusions of a series of studies, not on the premises that support the conclusion. B) Each chapter section should be read several times. C) Do not use a highlighter to emphasize a text concept. D) Be active in your study of the text material. E) Make use of the study guide. Answer: A 76) Recent models of the nervous system have tried to understand the brain in terms of A) mechanical devices such as levers and fulcrums. B) the functions of computer programs. C) the flow of hydraulic fluid through nerves. D) wiring patterns used to produce telephone networks. E) ion flows through axon membranes. Answer: B Recent models of the nervous system have tried to understand the brain in terms of the functions of computer programs. 1.2 True-False 1) Animism is the belief that the mind is separate from the body. Answer: False 2) The author argues that consciousness is associated with the ability of humans to use language for communication. Answer: True 3) The severity of epilepsy may be reduced by surgical transection of the corpus callosum. Answer: True 4) An important function of the corpus callosum is to permit sharing of information between the two hemispheres of the brain. Answer: True 5) Scientific explanations consist of generalizations and reductions. Answer: True 6) An example of generalization is the explanation of gravitation in terms of forces and subatomic particles. Answer: False 7) The term "reflex" refers to an automatic movement. Answer: True 8) René Descartes was an influential advocate for using experimental techniques to study the physiology of the mind. Answer: False 9) Fritsch and Hitzig used electrical stimulation to locate the primary motor cortex in a dog brain. Answer: True 10) Helmholtz was the first to accurately measure the speed of conduction in nerves. Answer: True 11) The physiological mechanisms of living organisms have a purpose. Answer: False 12) The principle of natural selection is the cornerstone of Darwin's theory of evolution. Answer: True 13) Humans and chimpanzees share 98.8 percent of their DNA. Answer: True 14) Neoteny involves prolonged maturation of the human brain. Answer: True 15) More animals are killed by scientists in laboratory research than for any other reason. Answer: False 16) Nicholl and Russell's research indicates that animal rights activists are most concerned with the use of animals as research subjects. Answer: True 17). It is simple to convince an animal rights activist that it is ethical to use animals for research purposes. Answer: False 18) The broad field of neuroscience contains the specialty field of physiological psychology. Answer: True 19) Most psychologists are physicians. Answer: False 20) Computer programs have been used as a model of brain function. Answer: True 1.3 Short Answer Essay 1) Discuss evidence that suggests consciousness is a physiological function. Answer: Consciousness appears to be localized to discrete circuits and to allow us to more readily adapt to new environments. Brain damage can alter consciousness, as in the case of the "split-brain" syndrome. 2) Explain why consciousness is NOT a general property of the entire brain. Answer: Persons with a transection of the corpus callosum are aware of an object (i.e., they can reach for the object with the appropriate hand) but are unable to state that they can view the object. 3) Describe Descartes's view of how nerves control muscle activity. Answer: Descartes viewed nerves as hollow cylinders that carried fluid which could cause muscles to expand and thus move the body. 4) Describe the implications of Galvani's research for Descartes's view of how nerves control muscle activity. Answer: Galvani was able to contract the frog muscle via electrical stimulation when the muscle was detached from the body—thus it was not pressure exerted from the brain which caused muscle contraction. 5) Explain what Darwin meant by his principle of natural selection. Answer: The basic notion is that animals differ in a number of characteristics. As the environment changes, some of these animals will more successfully adapt and will pass on their genes to their offspring. Over time, such characteristics will increase in the population. 6) Discuss a role that mutations play in the process of natural selection. Answer: Mutations may result in a favorable state which will help an organism adapt to its environment. 7) Explain how pet ownership is different from the use of animals in research. Answer: Pet ownership benefits the owner whereas many persons can benefit from research. Pain and suffering is limited and monitored in animal research but not in pet ownership. 8) How has research on animals helped us to understand human diseases? Give a specific example. Answer: We are able to test the causes of diseases and to seek treatments for diseases. Stroke research has led to the development of drugs that reduce brain damage associated with a stroke. 9). Explain what is meant by a model of the nervous system. Answer: A model allows us to use a simple mechanism to test the complicated workings of the human brain. Computer programs have been used to simulate human brain function. 1.4 Essay 1) Compare and contrast the philosophical positions of animism, that of Descartes and the modern view held by most physiological psychologists. Answer: Animism is the view that objects have spirits which move them. Descartes argued that the mind and brain are separate but interacting. Most physiological psychologists argue that mind is a property of the brain. 2) Identify three contributors to the development of physiology and discuss the implications that their work had for the science of neurophysiology. Answer: Müller argued for the use of experimental methods to study physiology. Helmholtz developed methods and techniques to study the physiology of vision and audition. Flourens developed the technique of experimental ablation, which can provide insight into the functions of brain regions. 3) Describe the following principles or techniques and identify the researchers who were responsible for their development: experimental ablation and electrical stimulation of the brain. Answer: Each technique involves the physical manipulation of the brain and allows for an assessment of a change in function after the manipulation. Experimental ablation was developed by Pierre Flourens. Fritsch and Hitzig are known for their use of electrical stimulation of dog cortex to study the neural control of motor behavior. 4) Describe Darwin's principle of natural selection. Give examples of structural and behavioral characteristics that might confer selective advantages to an organism. Answer: Natural selection suggests that certain characteristics of an organism offer an advantage which allows the organism to reproduce and to pass on that characteristic to their offspring. The coloring of an organism may allow it to blend in to the background, thus escaping detection by predators. The capacity to remain still (i.e., freeze) may similarly allow an organism to avoid predation. 5) Discuss the use of animals in research and the ethical issues associated with such use. Make an argument a) FOR and b) AGAINST their use in research Answer: A relatively small percentage of animals are used in neuroscience research, and their use must be justified by the gain in knowledge produced by the research. An argument for might focus on the fact that such research may produce benefits which are real and which cannot be realized in any other way. An argument against might suggest that humans and animals are so different that results from animals are not useful for understanding humans. Test Bank for Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Neil R. Carlson 9780205968091, 9780134639796, 9780205947997

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