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Chapter 1
1. Which term best describes the process by which signs, symbols, and behaviors are used to
exchange information and create meaning?
a. Interaction
b. Communication
c. Talking
d. Feedback
Answer: b
Communication refers to the process of exchanging information and creating meaning
through signs, symbols, and behaviors. It encompasses various forms of interaction beyond
just verbal communication, making it the most comprehensive term among the options
2. Solitary confinement often results in the quickly deteriorating health of prisoners. Such
punishment therefore deprives prisoners of which type of basic need?
a. Physical
b. Spiritual
c. Relational
d. Instrumental
Answer: a
Solitary confinement deprives prisoners of physical interaction, access to exercise, proper
nutrition, and sometimes even sunlight, leading to deteriorating physical health. Hence, it
deprives them of physical needs.
3. Robert is recently homeless and is suffering from mental illness. As a result, he feels
increasingly socially isolated. Although he used to be physically healthy, he is now sick quite
often. Which aspect of Robert’s health is directly affected by his lack of contact with others?

a. Relational
b. Spiritual
c. Instrumental
d. Physical
Answer: d
Robert's deteriorating physical health is directly influenced by his lack of contact with others,
as social isolation can lead to stress, depression, and poor self-care habits, which in turn can
weaken the immune system and exacerbate existing health issues.
4. Which answer best describes the needs we look for in our interactions with others?
a. Relational
b. Spiritual
c. Instrumental
d. Physical
Answer: a
The needs we seek in interactions with others typically pertain to building relationships,
forming connections, and satisfying emotional or social desires, which align with the
relational aspect.
5. Which of the following is NOT a relational need?
a. Affection
b. Conflict
c. Escape
d. Companionship
Answer: b

Conflict is not typically considered a relational need, as it pertains to disagreements or
tensions within relationships rather than a desire or requirement for relational fulfillment.
6. Julio is a recent immigrant from Nicaragua. He cannot afford the technology that would
allow him to communicate with his friends and family at home, such as a cell phone or a
computer, and he has yet to make friends in the United States because he is still learning
English. Julio feels lonely and often ignored in his new country. Which of his needs is not
being met?
a. Physical
b. Spiritual
c. Relational
d. Instrumental
Answer: c
Julio's lack of companionship and connection with others indicates that his relational need is
not being met, leading to feelings of loneliness and isolation.
7. Research shows that marital happiness is more important than income, job status, or
education in accounting for how happy people are overall. In the case of a happy marriage,
which type of need is being met?
a. Spiritual
b. Instrumental
c. Physical
d. Relational
Answer: d
A happy marriage primarily fulfills relational needs by providing companionship, support,
intimacy, and a sense of belonging, which are essential for overall happiness and well-being.

8. Which of the following plays a critical role in the process of identity development?
a. Spirituality
b. Noise
c. Communication
d. Decoding
Answer: c
Communication plays a critical role in identity development by shaping how individuals
perceive themselves and how others perceive them, influencing self-concept, self-esteem, and
social identity.
9. Kara views herself as a shy, introverted person, unlike her more outgoing friends. At social
gatherings, Kara’s friends often speak and answer questions on her behalf. Kara’s shyness is
based on beliefs she has about herself, but it affects the way her friends treat her as well. Her
social habits play an important role in establishing which aspect of Kara’s sense of self?
a. Identity
b. Level of confidence
c. Overall happiness
d. Spirituality
Answer: a
Kara's social habits and the way others perceive her contribute to her sense of identity,
influencing how she sees herself and how she is seen by others in social contexts.
10. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect spirituality?
a. “I believe in loyalty and honesty.”
b. “I believe in God.”
c. “I value my family above all others.”

d. “It’s never okay to steal, no matter what.”
Answer: c
While valuing family is important for many individuals, it does not directly pertain to
spirituality, which typically involves beliefs related to the sacred, transcendence, ultimate
meaning, or connection to a higher power or purpose. The other options directly involve
spiritual beliefs or moral values often associated with spirituality.
11. Kyle enjoys having philosophical discussions about the meaning of life in which he often
touches upon his own sense of purpose. These discussions meet which needs for Kyle?
a. Physical needs
b. Instrumental needs
c. Relational needs
d. Spiritual needs
Answer: d
Kyle's engagement in philosophical discussions about the meaning of life and his sense of
purpose suggests a quest for deeper meaning and understanding, which aligns with spiritual
needs rather than physical, instrumental, or relational needs.
12. Most of the communication we engage in daily is routine and not emotionally charged,
thus helping us to meet _______________ needs.
a. physical
b. instrumental
c. spiritual
d. relational
Answer: b

Routine, non-emotionally charged communication often serves instrumental needs, such as
conveying information, coordinating tasks, or accomplishing goals, rather than fulfilling
physical, spiritual, or relational needs.
13. When Laura calls the salon to schedule a haircut, she is using communication to fill what
type of need?
a. Relational
b. Spiritual
c. Instrumental
d. Physical
Answer: c
Laura's purpose in calling the salon is to fulfill a practical task—scheduling a haircut—
indicating an instrumental need rather than relational, spiritual, or physical needs.
14. What term describes the formal description of a process such as communication?
a. Model
b. Definition
c. Analysis
d. Channel
Answer: a
In the context of communication, a "model" refers to a formal description or representation of
the communication process, encompassing its various elements and dynamics.
15. Which of the following is NOT a model of communication?
a. Interaction
b. Action
c. Reaction

d. Transaction
Answer: c
Interaction, action, and transaction are all recognized models of communication, whereas
"reaction" is not typically identified as a distinct model but rather as a component or outcome
within existing models.
16. If you mail an annual family newsletter to update your loved ones and you don’t expect a
response, you are using which model of communication?
a. Action
b. Interaction
c. Reaction
d. Transaction
Answer: a
In the action model of communication, the sender (source) transmits a message to the
receiver without expecting immediate feedback or interaction. Sending a one-way annual
newsletter without expecting responses aligns with this model.
17. Which of the following is NOT a component of the action model of communication?
a. Source
b. Receiver
c. Noise
d. Feedback
Answer: d

The action model of communication involves the sender (source), message, channel, receiver,
and noise. Feedback is not explicitly included in this model, as it emphasizes one-way
communication without immediate response or feedback from the receiver.
18. Miles sends an instant message to his brother. According to the action model of
communication, which term best describes Miles’s role?
a. Decoder
b. Receiver
c. Communicator
d. Source
Answer: d
In the action model, Miles, as the sender of the instant message, assumes the role of the
source—the initiator of the communication process.
19. When you put your idea in the form of language or a gesture that the receiver can
understand, you are ____________ the message.
a. decoding
b. channeling
c. encoding
d. interpreting
Answer: c
Encoding refers to the process of translating thoughts or ideas into a form (e.g., language,
gestures) that the receiver can comprehend, making it the correct term for the described
20. Yani is on the phone with her mother, who is explaining how to go about preparing dinner
for the family later. Yani is distracted by a humorous Twitter post by one of her friends. As
dinner time nears, Yani realizes she has no idea how to cook the family meal as her mother

instructed her to do. During the conversation with her mother, Yani was experiencing which
type of noise?
a. Physical
b. Psychological
c. Physiological
d. Practical
Answer: b
Yani's distraction by a humorous Twitter post while her mother is providing instructions
results in a cognitive or psychological barrier to effective communication, known as
psychological noise. This noise interferes with Yani's ability to process and retain the
information her mother is conveying.
21. Fatigue and hunger are examples of ______________ noise.
a. physical
b. practical
c. psychological
d. physiological
Answer: d
Physiological noise refers to bodily conditions that interfere with communication. Fatigue
and hunger are examples of physiological states that can disrupt one's ability to effectively
send or receive messages, thus constituting physiological noise.
22. Wayne and Lindsay go on a blind date, and they both enjoy themselves. At the end of the
evening, Wayne tells Lindsay he will call her “soon.” Lindsay expects to hear from Wayne by
the next day, as that is what “soon” means to her, but he does not call for three weeks.
Lindsay most likely made an error during which stage of the communication process?
a. Noise

b. Decoding
c. Encoding
d. Channeling
Answer: b
Decoding is the process of interpreting a message. Lindsay's expectation of Wayne's
timeframe for calling her constitutes an error in decoding because she interpreted "soon"
differently from Wayne's intended meaning.
23. Which two elements does the interaction model of communication add to the action
a. Feedback and context
b. Message and feedback
c. Channel and noise
d. Encoding and decoding
Answer: a
The interaction model of communication adds feedback and context to the action model,
recognizing that communication is a dynamic process involving feedback loops and
influenced by situational contexts.
24. When Liz asks her father if he minds her borrowing the car, she notices he frowns and
shakes his head. What is Liz observing in her father?
a. Context
b. Noise
c. Feedback
d. Decoding
Answer: c

Liz is observing feedback from her father. His frown and headshake serve as nonverbal cues
that provide feedback on his attitude toward her request.
25. According to the interaction model of communication, receivers are not passive. Instead,
receivers offer various verbal and nonverbal responses to what kinds of messages?
a. Noise
b. Feedback
c. Context
d. Channels
Answer: b
According to the interaction model, receivers offer various verbal and nonverbal responses to
feedback messages, which help shape the ongoing communication process.
26. As you tell your brother about your first assignment in speech class, he nods his head and
says, “Uh huh,” and even smiles when he hears you got an A. Which of the following terms
best describes your brother’s reaction to your story?
a. Feedback
b. Noise
c. Messages
d. Context
Answer: a
The brother's nodding, verbal cues, and smiling represent feedback, indicating his response to
the story being told by the speaker.
27. Ralph went to a party over the weekend and, excited to share stories of his antics with his
friend Sarah, he invites her to his house after school. While Ralph is telling his story, his

mother enters the room. Ralph immediately changes his loud, boisterous tone and stops using
profanity. According to the interaction model, Ralph is reacting to a change in what?
a. Channel
b. Noise
c. Feedback
d. Context
Answer: d
Ralph is reacting to a change in context. His mother's presence alters the situational context
of the communication, prompting him to adjust his behavior accordingly.
28. One limitation of the interaction model of communication is that it doesn’t account for
a. context.
b. feedback from the receiver.
c. the simultaneous exchange of messages and feedback.
d. the interference of noise.
Answer: c
The interaction model of communication accounts for feedback from the receiver but doesn't
fully capture the simultaneous exchange of messages and feedback, which is a limitation of
this model.
29. The ____________ model of communication maintains that both people in a conversation
are simultaneously sources and receivers.
a. Action
b. Transaction
c. Reaction
d. Interaction

Answer: b
The transaction model of communication maintains that both parties in a conversation are
simultaneously sources and receivers, emphasizing the dynamic and reciprocal nature of
30. As Professor Li lectures during class, she notices several students yawning. Only one
student makes direct eye contact with her; the rest of the class is looking around the room.
Professor Li interprets these nonverbal cues as messages that she is boring, reflecting the
simultaneous nature of which model of communication?
a. Action
b. Reaction
c. Interaction
d. Transaction
Answer: d
Professor Li's interpretation of the students' nonverbal cues as feedback reflects the
simultaneous nature of the transactional model of communication, which emphasizes the
ongoing exchange of messages and feedback between communicators.
31. Susan observes that her new classmate, Lupe, is having some difficulty keeping up in
class. Because Lupe has just learned the language and has not yet adapted to her new
culture’s nonverbal codes, it takes her longer to decode messages that she receives. Susan
makes sure to stay after every class to share her notes with Lupe and to answer any questions
she has. According to the transaction model of communication, Susan identifies which
aspects of context as affecting how Lupe receives messages?
a. Cultural
b. Gender
c. Psychological
d. Social

Answer: a
In the transaction model of communication, which emphasizes the dynamic nature of
communication, cultural context plays a significant role in shaping how individuals encode,
decode, and interpret messages. Susan's recognition of Lupe's struggle due to her new
culture's nonverbal codes indicates an awareness of the cultural context affecting Lupe's
reception of messages.
32. Submitting a written report to your supervisor for feedback best represents which model
of communication?
a. Action
b. Interaction
c. Transaction
d. Construction
Answer: b
Submitting a written report to a supervisor for feedback involves a two-way exchange of
information, where the supervisor provides feedback on the report. This interaction reflects
the interaction model of communication, which emphasizes the feedback loop between
sender and receiver.
33. Which model of communication best describes complex face-to-face communication?
a. Interaction
b. Transaction
c. Action
d. Construction
Answer: b

Complex face-to-face communication involves a multidirectional exchange of messages
where both parties are simultaneously sending and receiving information. This aligns with the
transaction model of communication, which acknowledges the reciprocal nature of
34. How would you categorize the context of a “tweet,” which relies on text alone, without
the benefit of the sender’s voice or gestures?
a. Channel-less
b. Channel-rich
c. Channel-lean
d. Channel-full
Answer: c
A "tweet" relies solely on text, lacking the additional cues provided by the sender's voice or
gestures. Therefore, it can be categorized as channel-lean, as it utilizes a minimal channel for
35. Which of the following is NOT an example of a perceptual filter in communication?
a. Intelligence
b. Gender
c. Religious beliefs
d. All of the above are examples of perceptual filters.
Answer: d
Perceptual filters are individual differences that influence how people perceive and interpret
information. Intelligence, gender, and religious beliefs are all examples of perceptual filters
that can shape communication dynamics.
36. Frances and Jean are watching the president give a speech on television. Frances was a
big supporter of the president and identifies politically with his party. Jean did not vote for

the president and does not agree with his policies. While listening to the address, Frances is
delighted with the president’s message and thinks he is on point, whereas Jean thinks the
president is not addressing the issue at hand. Based on this scenario, what conclusion can we
make about communication?
a. Communication passes through perceptual filters.
b. Communication has relational implications.
c. Communication sends messages, whether intentional or unintentional.
d. Communication is complex.
Answer: a
Frances and Jean's differing interpretations of the president's speech demonstrate how
communication passes through perceptual filters, as their individual perspectives and biases
influence their reception and understanding of the message.
37. Where does the meaning of a word come from?
a. The symbol
b. The object being discussed
c. The people using it
d. The referent
Answer: c
The meaning of a word is derived from the people using it, as language is a shared system of
symbols with agreed-upon meanings within a particular linguistic community.
38. Riley tells her daughter to click the mouse when playing a computer game. Her daughter
is confused and says, “But there are no animals here.” What assumption did Riley make
about her daughter?
a. Her daughter can use a computer.

b. Her daughter understands the meaning she intended to communicate simply because Riley
understood it.
c. Her daughter understood the relational dimension to the message.
d. Her daughter is old enough to understand her use of symbols.
Answer: b
Riley assumed that her daughter would understand the intended meaning of "click the mouse"
based on her own understanding, without considering her daughter's perspective or
familiarity with computer terminology.
39. Robert is driving Samantha, his girlfriend, home from a party. He notices she is quiet and
withdrawn. Robert asks Samantha if she is okay. She replies, “I’m fine,” in a snide tone while
rolling her eyes. Robert becomes angry and asks what her problem is. Robert is responding to
what dimension of Samantha’s message?
a. Relational
b. Content
c. Symbolic
d. Underlying
Answer: a
Robert's response to Samantha's snide tone and eye-rolling indicates his reaction to the
relational dimension of her message, which suggests underlying tension or dissatisfaction.
40. If your roommate tells you that you’re out of cereal and you interpret the statement as
also meaning, “I’m irritated you never replace food items when they are gone,” you are
interpreting which dimension of your roommate’s message?
a. Content
b. Symbolic
c. Underlying

d. Relational
Answer: d
Interpreting the statement as implying irritation about not replacing food items involves
understanding the relational dimension of the message, which reflects the underlying
relationship dynamics between roommates.
41. What do we call it when we communicate about how we communicate?
a. Higher communication
b. Metacommunication
c. Intercommunication
d. Interpersonal communication
Answer: b
Metacommunication refers to communication about communication itself. It involves
discussing the process, means, or effects of communication rather than just the content. It's a
higher level of communication that helps individuals navigate and understand their
interactions better.
42. Carolyn and Maxine are shopping for prom dresses. Carolyn asks Maxine’s opinion on a
particular dress and tells her to be honest. When Maxine laughs and says the dress makes
Carolyn look ridiculous, she is surprised to see Carolyn get upset. When Carolyn explains to
Maxine that it is not the opinion, but the way in which it was stated, that hurt her feelings,
Carolyn is engaging in what type of communication?
a. Intercommunication
b. Higher communication
c. Metacommunication
d. Interpersonal communication
Answer: c

Carolyn is engaging in metacommunication by addressing the way the message was delivered
rather than just the content itself. She's discussing the communication process itself to clarify
and manage their interaction.
43. When you choose a specific suit to wear to a job interview, wanting to communicate
professionalism, what type of message are you sending?
a. Intentional
b. Unintentional
c. Content
d. Relational
Answer: a
The choice of attire in this scenario is intentional, as the individual purposefully selects
clothing to convey a specific message—in this case, professionalism.
44. Identify an example of following an explicit rule.
a. Not making eye contact on an elevator
b. Not cutting in line at the bank
c. Following your school’s weapons ban
d. Not talking on your cell phone during a movie
Answer: c
Following a school's weapons ban is an example of adhering to an explicit rule, as it involves
complying with a clearly stated regulation.
45. What are the two types of rules that govern communication?
a. Content and relational
b. Internal and external

c. Norms and values
d. Explicit and implicit
Answer: d
The two types of rules that govern communication are explicit (clearly stated) and implicit
(understood but not directly stated).
46. Stan mentally rehearses what he will say to break up with his girlfriend later in the day.
Stan is engaging in what kind of communication?
a. Intrapersonal
b. Interpersonal
c. Romantic
d. Dyadic
Answer: a
Stan is engaging in intrapersonal communication because he is processing his thoughts and
rehearsing his message internally, without direct interaction with his girlfriend.
47. Which of the following is NOT an example of interpersonal communication?
a. Exchanging instant messages with a friend
b. Talking on the phone with a relative
c. Visiting face-to-face with a co-worker
d. Reminding yourself to call a friend later
Answer: d
Interpersonal communication involves direct interaction between two or more people.
Reminding oneself to call a friend later is not interpersonal communication as it involves only
internal dialogue.

48. What is the most common form of communication we engage in?
a. Intrapersonal
b. Interpersonal
c. Small group
d. Public
Answer: b
Interpersonal communication, involving interactions between individuals, is the most
common form of communication as humans are social beings and frequently engage in oneon-one or small group interactions.
49. Lynn likes interacting with the members of her soccer team, especially engaging with
them to make decisions and working together to win. What type of communication does Lynn
seem to most enjoy?
a. Interpersonal
b. Public
c. Small group
d. Mass
Answer: c
Lynn seems to most enjoy small group communication, as she thrives in interactions with her
soccer team, collaborating and making decisions together within a smaller group setting.
50. Jeremiah has a speech to deliver in two weeks. He spends a lot of time researching and
organizing his presentation. He asks his friends to listen as he practices the speech. Jeremiah
may be spending so much time preparing and practicing his remarks because he is
anticipating engaging in what type of communication?
a. Mass
b. Interpersonal

c. Public
d. Small group
Answer: c
Jeremiah is preparing for public communication, as he anticipates delivering a speech to an
audience. This involves addressing a larger group of people in a formal setting.
51. Mass media encompasses all of the following, EXCEPT
a. blogs.
b. magazines.
c. instant messaging.
d. television.
Answer: c
Mass media refers to mediums of communication that reach large audiences, such as
television, magazines, and blogs. Instant messaging, while a form of communication,
typically involves direct communication between individuals or small groups rather than
broadcasting to a large audience, thus making it an exception to the definition of mass media.
52. Because its audience is so large, which type of communication works well for distributing
news, commentary, and entertainment?
a. Public
b. Mass
c. Small group
d. Electronic
Answer: b

Mass communication is designed to reach a large audience simultaneously. It is effective for
distributing news, commentary, and entertainment widely, as it can reach a broad
demographic range without the need for direct interaction with individual audience members.
53. In a nationwide survey of U.S. adults conducted by the National Communication
Association, 91 percent of respondents rated their communication skills as above average.
This finding reflects what common myth?
a. Everyone is a communication expert.
b. Communication will solve any problem.
c. Communication can break down.
d. Communication is inherently good.
Answer: a
This reflects the myth that everyone is a communication expert, which suggests that
individuals tend to overestimate their own communication abilities, leading to a skewed
perception of their competence in this area.
54. Kareem and Haidy have been engaged for two years, but they have been arguing a lot for
the past six months. When Haidy tries to break off the engagement, Kareem insists they try
couples’ counseling first. He is sure that if they just work on their communication skills, they
can continue with the engagement. After a few weeks of counseling, Haidy still chooses to
end the engagement, despite the open communication they experienced in the counseling
sessions. Kareem is surprised, thus showing he most likely believes which communication
a. Everyone is a communication expert.
b. Communication is inherently good.
c. Communication can break down.
d. Communication will solve any problem.
Answer: d

Kareem believes that improving communication skills will resolve their relationship issues,
reflecting the myth that communication will solve any problem, which overlooks other
factors that may contribute to relationship difficulties.
55. The idea that communication can “break down” is a myth. With this in mind, which
statement is most accurate?
a. Communication is inherently good.
b. Our progress is halted because communication has halted.
c. The problem lies not with the communication itself but how we are using it.
d. Communication is not a process so therefore can be compared to a journey.
Answer: c
This statement acknowledges that while communication breakdowns can occur, the problem
often lies in how communication is utilized rather than the inherent nature of communication
56. How we use communication determines whether it will have positive or negative effects.
This fact dispels what myth?
a. Communication can break down.
b. Communication is inherently good.
c. Communication will solve any problem.
d. Communication is a process.
Answer: b
This statement dispels the myth that communication is inherently good by emphasizing that
the outcome of communication depends on how it is employed, indicating that
communication can have both positive and negative effects depending on its application.
57. Lulu disagrees with her friends’ position on the war in Afghanistan. She thinks her friends
simply aren’t informed of the nuances of the situation. Lulu talks at length about her

understanding of the conflict, and whenever her friends try to state their opinion, she simply
speaks over them. She is sure if they would just listen, they would come to understand and
agree with her point of view. Lulu probably believes which communication myth?
a. More communication is always better.
b. Communication will solve any problem.
c. Communication is inherently good.
d. Everyone is a communication expert.
Answer: a
Lulu believes that if her friends would just listen to her perspective, they would come to
understand and agree with her, reflecting the myth that more communication is always better,
which overlooks the importance of effective listening and dialogue in communication.
58. A 2012 National Association of Colleges and Employers survey found that verbal and
written communication skills top the list of most desired qualities in potential hires. In other
words, employers are most interested in which of the following?
a. Teamwork skills
b. Communication competence
c. Workplace competence
d. Initiative
Answer: b
The survey findings indicate that employers prioritize communication competence,
emphasizing the importance of effective verbal and written communication skills in the
59. Someone with communication __________________ is able to communicate in ways that
are effective and appropriate in a given situation.
a. skills

b. traits
c. talent
d. competence
Answer: d
"Competence" refers to the ability to perform a task effectively and appropriately. In the
context of communication, having competence means being able to communicate effectively
in various situations.
60. In June 2010, President Obama went on NBC’s Today show to discuss the BP oil spill in
the Gulf of Mexico. During the interview, the president told host Matt Lauer he was holding
discussions with BP executives so he would know “whose [obscenity] to kick.” In the
following days, there was much discussion and debate in the media over the use of obscenity
in that situation. What does this controversy demonstrate with regard to the communication
decisions of the president and other high-ranking officials?
a. It is important to communicate appropriately for the social and cultural context.
b. Communication should be enacted logically.
c. It is important to communicate appropriately for the Today show audience.
d. A public figure should always be honest about his or her opinions.
Answer: a
This controversy demonstrates the importance of considering social and cultural norms when
communicating, as using inappropriate language for the context can lead to public backlash
and controversy.
61. Which of the following is NOT a trait of competent communicators?
a. Adaptable
b. Self-aware
c. Cognitively simple

d. Empathic
Answer: c
Competent communicators are characterized by traits such as adaptability, self-awareness,
and empathy. Being cognitively simple would not contribute to effective communication as it
suggests a lack of complexity in understanding and responding to various communication
62. Fred does not notice that he tends to dominate conversations because he is a __________
a. poor
b. high
c. low
d. average
Answer: c
A low self-monitor is someone who tends to be less aware of their behavior in social
situations. Fred's lack of awareness of his dominating behavior in conversations indicates low
63. Which of the following can make someone a more competent communicator by enabling
that person to see how his or her behavior fits, or doesn’t fit, in a given social situation?
a. Self-monitoring
b. Adaptation
c. Empathy
d. Cognitive complexity
Answer: a

Self-monitoring involves observing and adjusting one's behavior to fit social situations better.
By being more self-aware of how their behavior aligns with the context, individuals can
become more competent communicators.
64. Tom Cruise has appeared in various interviews to defend his views on Scientology and
medication. In these interviews, he appears earnest, focused, and serious. This is in sharp
contrast to his appearance on MTV’s Movie Awards in 2010, where he appeared as a crude
character named Les Grossman and did a suggestive dance with Jennifer Lopez. The
appearance was widely viewed in a positive light by its intended audience. By assessing what
would be appropriate in different contexts and modifying his behavior accordingly, Tom
Cruise demonstrates the idea that competent communicators are which of the following?
a. Self-aware
b. Empathic
c. Ethical
d. Adaptable
Answer: d
Tom Cruise's ability to adjust his behavior depending on the context demonstrates
adaptability, a trait of competent communicators. He understands what is appropriate in
different situations and modifies his behavior accordingly to effectively communicate with
different audiences.
65. Melanie wants to go with her friends on a class trip to Mexico, but her mother refuses to
let her go. Melanie is frustrated, as she thinks her mother is too protective and won’t let her
have any fun. However, Melanie’s mother is worried that something will happen to Melanie,
a fear based on her own experiences at Melanie’s age. Which of the following traits would
help Melanie to become a more competent communicator, and thus understand her mother’s
a. Adaptability
b. Empathy
c. Self-awareness

d. Ethical foresight
Answer: b
Empathy would help Melanie understand her mother's perspective by allowing her to
recognize and share her mother's feelings and concerns. By empathizing with her mother,
Melanie can communicate more effectively and find common ground.
66. If you ask someone to “put yourself in my shoes,” you are asking that person to practice
which of the following?
a. Empathy
b. Sympathy
c. Understanding
d. Awareness
Answer: a
Asking someone to "put yourself in my shoes" implies requesting empathy, as it involves
understanding and sharing the feelings of another person.
67. If Chelsea looks for only one explanation for her friend’s behavior, then she most likely
lacks ___________ complexity as a communicator.
a. empathic
b. ethical
c. cognitive
d. nonverbal
Answer: c

Cognitive complexity refers to the ability to consider multiple explanations or perspectives
for a given situation. If Chelsea only seeks one explanation for her friend's behavior, she
demonstrates a lack of cognitive complexity in her communication approach.
68. Which of the following approaches to communication generally dictates that we treat
people fairly and communicate honestly?
a. Sympathetic
b. Empathic
c. Self-aware
d. Ethical
Answer: d
The ethical approach to communication emphasizes treating people fairly and communicating
honestly, reflecting moral principles and integrity in interactions.
69. Chrissie is the owner of a small photocopying business. When her daughter participates in
a fundraiser for a cheerleading competition, Chrissie asks her employees to contribute to the
fundraiser, even though she pays most of them minimum wage. Most of her employees feel
obligated to contribute, and are upset. Which of the following practices of a competent
communicator might Chrissie keep in mind to understand her coworkers’ feelings better?
a. Practicing self-awareness
b. Behaving ethically
c. Thinking with cognitive complexity
d. Adaptability
Answer: b
Behaving ethically involves considering the fairness and consequences of one's actions on
others. Chrissie should keep in mind ethical principles to understand her employees' feelings
better and avoid causing distress or resentment among them.

Test Bank for Communication Matters
Kory Floyd
9780078036866, 9781259707766

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