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This Document Contains Chapters 7 to 9 Chapter 7: Towers, Villages, and Longhouses Multiple Choice 1. __________ is a component of the study of agriculture. A. Community B. Aesthetics C. Stratification D. Architecture Answer: A 2. V. Gordon Childe defined the transition to agriculture as __________. A. cultural evolution B. the Neolithic Revolution C. a shift from savagery to barbarism D. broad spectrum foraging Answer: B 3. Marshall Sahlins described hunter-gatherers as __________. A. middle stage barbarians B. the original affluent society C. broad spectrum foragers D. evolutionary throw-backs Answer: B 4. Ester Boserup suggested that __________ might be the cause of the shift to agriculture. A. a shift from trust to domination B. the rise of social inequality C. a desire for a surplus D. increased population size Answer: D 5. Which of the following descriptions best characterizes the Fertile Crescent? A. It is an area between the Middle East and India. B. It is a ribbon of Mediterranean climate that arcs across the Middle East. C. It was the region where rice was domesticated. D. It has wet summers and dry winters. Answer: B 6. The ________ Period is characterized by hunter-gatherers subsisting on a broad range of plants and animals. A. Chalcolithic B. Natufian C. Early Neolithic D. Kebaran Answer: D 7. The Kebaran site of __________, at the Sea of Galilee, was notable because of its remarkable preservation of organic remains, including the remains of six brush huts. A. Abu Hureyra B. Ohalo C. Mallaha D. Jericho Answer: B 8. What Natufian village site in Northern Israel has allowed archaeologists to tentatively reconstruct a large structure? A. Jerf el Ahmar B. Lepinski Vir C. Jericho D. Mallaha Answer: D 9. At the Natufian site of __________ in Syria, flotation has recovered many burned seeds that indicate the inhabitants were collecting a wide variety of plants. A. Ohala B. Jericho C. Netiv Hagdud D. Abu Hureya Answer: D 10. Toward the end of the Natufian there was a reduction in the number and size of sites. This reduction has been correlated with the __________, a global climatic event known as “the Little Ice Age.” A. Pleistocene B. Older Dryas C. Elder Glaciation D. Younger Dryas Answer: D 11. The Early Neolithic includes the period __________. A. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A B. Post-Pottery Neolithic B C. Chalcolithic C D. Dravidian D Answer: A 12. Although the Natufians did not appear to domesticate herd animals, there is evidence that they did domesticate __________. A. cats B. camels C. dogs D. chickens Answer: C 13. The most spectacular example of Pre-Pottery Neolithic A construction is the 9-meterhigh structure at __________. A. Jericho B. Mallaha C. Abu Hureya D. Jerf el Ahmar Answer: A 14. Of the many ritual objects found hidden away at Early Neolithic sites, perhaps the most striking are __________. A. caches of arrowheads B. plastered skulls C. plaster dog effigies D. bone flutes Answer: B 15. One characteristic of domesticated plants is a tough __________, which holds the seed to the stalk until harvested. A. rachis B. flower pod C. spikelet D. rindos Answer: A 16. Which of these plants was domesticated during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B? A. corn B. potatoes C. wheat D. tobacco Answer: C 17. Pottery manufacture developed across the Middle East during the __________ period. A. Natufian B. Upper Paleolithic C. Late Neolithic D. Younger Dryas Answer: C 18. The Late Neolithic site of __________ in Central Turkey includes rooms decorated with frescoes and bulls horns. A. Jerf el Ahmar B. Çatalhöyük C. Netiv Hagdud D. Lepinski Vir Answer: B 19. The __________ links the expansion of farmers into Europe with the spread of the Indo-European language family. A. language dispersal hypothesis B. agri-linguistic model C. Neolithic Revolution D. hyper-diffusionist hypothesis Answer: A 20. The earliest farmers in Central and Western Europe are known as the __________ culture. A. Linear Band Keramik B. fire-stick C. Mesolithic D. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Answer: A True False 1. Domestication refers to changes in plants and animals that allow them to survive better in the wild. Answer: False 2. The Neolithic Revolution refers to the subsistence strategy known as broad spectrum foraging. Answer: False 3. The Fertile Crescent is a ribbon of Mediterranean climate that arcs across the Middle East. Answer: True 4. The first true agriculture in the Middle East developed during the Kebaran Period. Answer: False 5. Ohalo is a Natufian dry cave site that yielded rare examples of preserved textiles. Answer: False 6. The burial at the Geometric Kebaran site of Wadi Mataha indicates that this was a peaceful time with well-understood rituals. Answer: False 7. The Natufian was the period where plants and animals were finally domesticated. Answer: False 8. The characteristic tools of the Natufian are tiny crescent-shaped stones called lunates. Answer: True 9. The Younger Dryas was a global climatic event that is often characterized as “prehistoric global warming.” Answer: False 10. The Natufians did not domesticate herd animals, but there is evidence that they domesticated cats. Answer: False 11. The Jericho tower is the earliest known large-scale piece of architecture in the Middle East. Answer: True 12. Excavation profiles can be represented schematically by using the Harris Matrix. Answer: True 13. On domesticated plants, the rachis is selected to be brittle so that it can be more easily harvested. Answer: False 14. At the end of the Early Neolithic, there was a sharp rise in the number and size of villages in the Middle East. Answer: Talse 15. The earliest farming communities in the Middle East are called Linear Band Keramik (LBK). Answer: False Short Answer 1. What is domestication? How is it recognized archaeologically? Answer: Domestication refers to a relationship between humans and plants and animals wherein humans play an integral role in the protection and reproduction of the plants and animals. Domestication of plants is seen in morphological changes, (size and shape) or appearance outside its natural range. Animal domestication can be detected on the basis of the ratio of sexes of an animal by age, with the remains of more young males present. 2. How did Lewis Henry Morgan and V. Gordon Childe view the relationship between man and nature as it related to the development of agriculture? Answer: Both Morgan and Childe viewed the development of agriculture as a shift in the relationship between humanity and the natural world. To Morgan, barbaric society was superior to nature. To Childe, Neolithic societies were active partners with nature, not parasites. So, in a sense, both Childe and Morgan saw the invention of agriculture as a conscious act by humans to remove themselves from nature. 3. Why did Marshall Sahlins call hunter-gatherers the original affluent society ? Answer: Through a careful comparison of ethnographic studies of hunter-gatherer and farming communities, Sahlins showed that hunter-gatherers actually spent less time working for their food than agriculturalists did, and in fact had far more leisure time. Similarly, early agriculturalists were not as healthy as hunter-gatherers, having more diseases and pathologies due to crowding in permanent villages and diet quality. 4. What characterized the Natufian Period? Answer: The Natufian societies constructed the earliest stone buildings in the Middle East and developed an impressive array of art objects and personal ornaments. Settlements had up to a dozen structures, but there is no evidence of domestication. The Natufians relied instead on broad spectrum foraging. 5. Archaeologically what is the major technology that distinguishes the Early Neolithic and Natufian? Answer: The major marker is a gradual shift away from tools made on bladelets to a toolkit made on blades with a particular emphasis on arrowheads. Blades were also used for sickles and ground stone tools (axes, adzes, grinding stones) were also an important addition to the Early Neolithic tool kit. 6. How did Pre-Pottery Neolithic A villages differ from those later in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B? Answer: During the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B there was a shift from the round houses found n PPNA to rectangular houses and the size of settlements increased significantly. The later settlements are quite large with populations of 5,000, and show a high degree of planning. 7. What is the significance of plastered skulls during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B? Answer: Plastered skulls are found beneath floors on sites of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. Some archaeologists argue that the practice was an aspect of ancestor worship, and that it was through reverence for the ancestor that Early Neolithic societies maintained cohesion. Other archaeologists argue that these carefully crafted objects would have had a magical function. 8. What technological innovations occurred during the Late Neolithic? Answer: Pottery manufacture developed during the Late Neolithic. It was non-wheel, at a low firing temperature, and had décor that included burnishing and paint. There was also a significant shift in stone tool manufacture, with blades disappearing and projectile points becoming rare, but serrated sickle blades continuing. The period is characterized by a general decrease in the quality of workmanship in favor of expedient tools made from locally available materials. 9. How has our concept of the Neolithic Revolution changed since V. Gordon Childe proposed it? Answer: The shift to agriculture in the Middle East was not the sudden process Childe predicted. Rather the shift begins back in the Natufian with the construction of small settlements. Plant and animal domestication did not begin until the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B together with an increase of settlement size and density. Interestingly, villages preceded agriculture in the Middle East. 10. What was the Linear Band Keramik culture? Answer: The LBK were the earliest farmers in Western and Central Europe. They did not vary much across their distribution. They cultivated plants and animals domesticated in the Middle East. However, their villages consisted of longhouses built of massive timbers. It may be a result of both local innovation and diffusion from the Middle East. Essay 1. Compare and contrast the theories of Morgan, Childe, Rindos, and Ingold as to how agriculture developed. Answer: Lewis Henry Morgan: • Theory: Morgan proposed a unilinear theory of cultural evolution, suggesting that human societies progress through stages from savagery to barbarism to civilization. He viewed agriculture as a pivotal development that marked the transition from barbarism to civilization. • Mechanism: Morgan believed that agriculture developed as part of a natural progression of human ingenuity and technological advancement. • Significance: Morgan's theory emphasizes a linear and progressive view of cultural development. V. Gordon Childe: • Theory: Childe introduced the concept of the "Neolithic Revolution," a sudden and transformative event where human societies shifted from hunting and gathering to agriculture. • Mechanism: Childe argued that climatic changes at the end of the Pleistocene led to the congregation of people and animals around water sources. This close association facilitated the domestication of plants and animals. • Significance: Childe’s model highlights environmental factors and the transformative impact of agriculture on human societies. David Rindos: • Theory: Rindos proposed a coevolutionary model, suggesting that the development of agriculture was a mutual evolutionary process between humans and plants. • Mechanism: He argued that domestication resulted from humans and plants influencing each other's evolutionary paths, with humans unintentionally selecting for beneficial traits in plants over time. • Significance: Rindos’ model integrates evolutionary biology and emphasizes gradual, unintentional processes rather than a sudden revolution. Tim Ingold: • Theory: Ingold critiqued traditional theories by emphasizing the role of human agency, cultural practices, and social relationships in the development of agriculture. • Mechanism: He argued that agriculture arose from changes in social and economic relationships, not just environmental or biological factors. Ingold stressed the importance of understanding the cultural context and practices surrounding plant and animal domestication. • Significance: Ingold's perspective underscores the complexity of human decisions and cultural practices in the development of agriculture. 2. Discuss the various scenarios for why agriculture was adopted by human populations. Answer: Environmental Change: • Climate Stabilization: Post-Pleistocene climatic stabilization made conditions more favorable for plant cultivation. The end of the last Ice Age brought more predictable weather patterns, encouraging sedentism and agriculture. • Resource Pressure: Environmental changes leading to resource scarcity might have pushed human populations to develop agriculture as a more reliable food source. Demographic Pressure: • Population Growth: Increasing human populations may have created pressure to find new food sources. Agriculture could support larger populations than hunting and gathering. • Sedentism: As human groups became more sedentary, they needed stable and predictable food sources, leading to the adoption of agriculture. Socio-Cultural Factors: • Social Complexity: The development of social hierarchies and complex societies may have driven the need for surplus food production to support non-food-producing specialists, such as artisans, priests, and rulers. • Ritual and Feasting: Some theories suggest that agriculture developed to support social and religious practices, including feasting, which required large quantities of food. Technological Innovation: • Tool Development: Advances in tools and techniques for planting, harvesting, and storing crops made agriculture more feasible and efficient. • Knowledge Accumulation: Over generations, humans accumulated knowledge about plant and animal domestication, leading to more effective agricultural practices. 3. Describe the similarities and differences of the various archaeological periods in the Middle East, and trends between them. Answer: Epipaleolithic (20,000 – 10,000 BCE): • Characteristics: Characterized by small, mobile hunter-gatherer groups. Microlithic tools and a broad-spectrum subsistence strategy are common. • Significance: This period saw the gradual shift towards sedentism and experimentation with plant cultivation. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA, 10,000 – 8,500 BCE): • Characteristics: Marked by the first sedentary villages and the beginnings of agriculture. Sites like Jericho show evidence of early plant domestication and communal structures. • Significance: This period represents the initial transition from foraging to farming. Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB, 8,500 – 6,500 BCE): • Characteristics: Expansion of agricultural communities and more complex social structures. Larger villages, advanced architecture, and the domestication of animals are evident. • Significance: Increased social complexity and technological advancements, such as plaster production. Pottery Neolithic (6,500 – 5,000 BCE): • Characteristics: Introduction of pottery, which facilitated food storage and cooking. Continued growth of agricultural communities and increased trade. • Significance: Pottery reflects advancements in technology and changes in daily life and food processing. Chalcolithic (5,000 – 3,500 BCE): • Characteristics: Introduction of copper metallurgy. Development of more complex societies with social stratification and specialized crafts. • Significance: Transition towards urbanization and the formation of early states. Early Bronze Age (3,500 – 2,000 BCE): • Characteristics: Emergence of urban centers, complex political structures, and extensive trade networks. Writing systems, such as cuneiform, appear. • Significance: This period marks the rise of the first true cities and states, laying the foundation for historical civilizations. Trends: • Increasing Sedentism: Gradual shift from mobile hunter-gatherer groups to sedentary agricultural communities. • Technological Innovation: Development of new tools, pottery, and metallurgy. • Social Complexity: Growth of social hierarchies, trade networks, and early states. • Urbanization: Emergence of urban centers and complex political organizations. 4. What is paleoethnobotany and what can it tell archaeologists about sites? Answer: Definition: • Paleoethnobotany is the study of ancient plant remains to understand the interactions between humans and plants in the past. It involves analyzing seeds, pollen, phytoliths, and other plant parts recovered from archaeological sites. Insights Provided: • Diet and Subsistence: Analysis of plant remains reveals what types of plants were consumed and cultivated, providing insights into ancient diets and agricultural practices. • Environment and Climate: Plant remains can indicate past environmental conditions and climate changes, helping archaeologists reconstruct ancient landscapes and ecosystems. • Cultural Practices: Studying plant remains can uncover cultural practices related to food production, storage, and consumption, such as evidence of feasting or ceremonial use of plants. • Economic Activities: Paleoethnobotany can reveal information about trade and exchange networks through the presence of non-local plant species. • Domestication: Identifying domesticated plant species and their wild ancestors helps trace the origins and spread of agriculture. 5. Discuss the scenarios concerning the spread of agriculture to Europe. Answer: Migration and Diffusion: • Demic Diffusion: This scenario suggests that farming spread into Europe through the migration of agricultural populations from the Near East. Genetic evidence supports a significant influx of Near Eastern genes into European populations. • Cultural Diffusion: Another scenario posits that local hunter-gatherer populations in Europe adopted agricultural practices through cultural contact with neighboring farming communities, without significant population movement. Evidence For and Against: • Archaeobotanical Evidence: The presence of Near Eastern domesticates, such as wheat and barley, in early European agricultural sites supports the idea of agricultural diffusion from the Near East. • Genetic Studies: Genetic analyses show a mixture of Near Eastern and local European ancestry in early farming communities, supporting both demic and cultural diffusion scenarios. • Archaeological Sites: Early European farming sites show evidence of new technologies and practices, such as pottery and permanent settlements, indicating the adoption of Near Eastern agricultural methods. Multiple Routes: • Mediterranean Route: One proposed route is along the Mediterranean coast, where early farmers moved from the Near East through southern Europe. • Danube Corridor: Another route is through the Danube River valley, providing a pathway for agricultural spread into Central Europe. • Atlantic Route: Some researchers suggest a coastal route along the Atlantic seaboard, facilitating the spread of farming to Western Europe. Temporal Patterns: • Gradual Spread: The spread of agriculture was not uniform; it occurred over several millennia, with regional variations in the adoption and adaptation of farming practices. • Local Adaptations: As agriculture spread, local populations adapted farming practices to suit their specific environments, leading to diverse agricultural traditions across Europe. Chapter 8: Mounds and Maize Multiple Choice 1. This wild grass found in the Mexican highlands is the ancestor of maize. A. Curcubita pepo B. marsh elder C. teosinte D. chenopodium Answer: C 2. Excavations at __________ have produced the earliest evidence of domesticated plants in the Americas. A. Poverty Point B. Guilá Naquitz C. Las Capas D. Milagro Answer: B 3. Which of these is an early domesticated plant in Mesoamerica? A. tomatoes B. squash C. rhubarb D. cabbage Answer: B 4. What refinement of radiocarbon dating makes it possible to date very small samples? A. optically stimulated luminescence B. obsidian hydration C. accelerator mass spectrometry D. electron spin resonance Answer: C 5. The earliest domesticated plant in the Americas is __________, which dates to between 10,000 and 8,300 years ago. A. squash B. maize C. chenopodium D. beans Answer: A 6. What early agricultural site has over eight kilometers of stone terrace walls? A. Cerro Juanaqueña B. Guilá Naquitz C. Poverty Point D. Milagro Answer: A 7. Which of these was the only animal domesticated in Mesoamerica? A. dogs B. chickens C. turkeys D. guinea pigs Answer: C 8. __________ is based on the assumption that humans act on the basis of rational self-interest in collecting resources. A. Simple hunting and gathering B. Optimal foraging theory C. Agency theory D. Systems theory Answer: B 9. Which of the following sites used canals to irrigate their fields? A. Las Capas B. Cerro Juanaqueña C. Milagro D. Poverty Point Answer: A 10. The widespread use of pottery in the American Southwest around 1,800 years ago marks the beginning of what period? A. Archaic B. Early Neolithic C. Early Woodland D. Formative Answer: D 11. Though Early and Middle Woodland subsistence was based heavily on cultivated plants, __________ is rare and does not appear to have played a major role in the Woodland diet. A. maize B. beans C. squash D. wheat Answer: A 12. The earliest crude ceramic vessels first appeared in eastern North America in the __________ culture. A. Green River B. Weeden Island C. Stalling Island D. Adena Answer: C 13. This Late Archaic site in Louisiana is characterized by a series of six concentric mounds. A. Stalling Island B. Poverty Point C. Indian Knoll D. Adena Answer: B 14. Which of these statements best applies Hayden’s model to the function of Poverty Point? A. It was a defensive bulwark against invasion from the West. B. It was the first urban centre along the Gulf Coast. C. It was the administrative centre for the Archaic in the Lower Mississippi Valley. D. It was the focal point of feasting events, servicing the local region. Answer: D 15. One source of evidence of the diet of past cultures is the study of fecal remains, also known as __________. A. coprolites B. fulgerites C. isotope analysis D. crotovina Answer: A 16. Elaborate burial mounds found in Ohio dating to the Woodland Period can be related to the __________ culture. A. Late Prehistoric B. Hopewell C. Mississippian D. Poverty Point Answer: B 17. According to this model, the Hopewell culture earthworks served as the symbolic and ceremonial core of a dispersed settlement pattern. A. agency theory B. vacant center pattern C. central place theory D. optimal foraging theory Answer: B 18. The Newark Earthworks in Ohio is attributed to the __________ culture. A. Ohioan B. Mississippian C. Adena D. Hopewell Answer: D 19. Archaeologists have used __________ on skeletal material to determine the role of maize in the diet. A. macro analysis B. isotope analysis C. electron spin resonance D. radiocarbon analysis Answer: B 20. When does maize become a major component of the diet in eastern North America? A. at the beginning of the Woodland Period B. after the Woodland Period C. during the Middle Woodland Period D. at the beginning of the Late Woodland Period Answer: B True False 1. Teosinte, found in the highlands of Mexico, is the wild ancestor of squash. Answer: False 2. Guilá Naquitz is an early agricultural site in Arizona with canal-irrigated fields. Answer: False 3. AMS radiocarbon dating makes it possible to date very small samples. Answer: True 4. Cerro Juanaqueña has produced the earliest evidence of domesticated plants in the Americas. Answer: False 5. Optimal foraging theory is based on the assumption that choices people make reflect altruistic impulses to benefit others. Answer: False 6. The widespread introduction of pottery into the Southwest happened at the beginning of the Formative period. Answer: True 7. At both Shabik’eschee Village and the SU site, unusual structures were found that appear to have played a communal function. Answer: True 8. Shell middens are sites built up of discarded shells. Answer: True 9. Poverty Point is a mound site built by the Adena culture. Answer: False 10. The Adena and Hopewell were periods of intensive mound building in the Oaxaca Valley. Answer: False 11. Like the mounds, Hopewell domestic settlements are numerous and are easily found by archaeologists. Answer: False 12. The mounds in the Ohio River Valley were built by a lost race known as the Moundbuilders. Answer: False 13. Isotope analysis of bone chemistry can determine the role of maize in the diet. Answer: True 14. Bruce Smith views domestication as the result of intentional actions of individuals, most likely shaman. Answer: False 15. The impact of the adoption of agriculture on societies in Mexico, the Southwest, and eastern United States was remarkably similar across time and space. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What is the significance of the site of Cerro Juanaqueña? Answer: At this Archaic site (3,070 yrs ago) archaeologists have traced over 8 kilometers of terrace walls and 100 rock rings. It is believed that the function of the terraces was to provide a level for houses. The floral and faunal remains indicate that hunting and gathering of wild resources continued to be important while horticulture was being adopted. 2. What is the advantage of accelerator mass spectrometry over conventional radiocarbon dating? Answer: Since AMS dating directly counts the carbon isotopes in a sample, it is now possible to directly date small samples, including seeds and residues. Samples can be dated more quickly than with conventional methods, and in some cases it is possible to date very old samples in which the surviving concentration of carbon-14 is extremely low. 3. What is optimal foraging theory? Answer: It is a theory originated by Robert Hard and John Roney, which is based on the assumption that humans act on the basis of rational self-interest to maximize efficiency in collecting and processing resources. This explains the differences in the timing of the adoption of agriculture as being based on differences in the local ecology. 4. How did the Formative period compare with the preceding Archaic period? Answer: The widespread introduction of pottery into the American Southwest around 1,800 years ago marks the beginning of the Formative period. By this time pithouses are common across the region as are communal structures. Regional variation in the impact of maize agriculture continues, however, based on local ecology. 5. How did agriculture develop in eastern North America? Answer: The development of agriculture involved both the domestication of a wide range of local plants and the adoption of maize. The initial domestication took place during the Eastern Archaic period. The intensification of agriculture and the first appearance of maize occurred during the Early and Middle Woodland periods. Intensive maize agriculture and larger settled villages became established only at the beginning of the Late Woodland period. 6. Describe the physical layout of the Poverty Point site. Answer: This Late Archaic site is a massive planned construction that consists of a series of six concentric embankments 2 meters high and over 20 meters across that form a semicircle more than a kilometer wide. Along the embankment are a series of massive mounds, some of which appear to be in the shape of birds. 7. Describe the Adena and Hopewell cultures. Answer: Originally dubbed as a lost race of Moundbuilders, the Early Woodland Adena and Middle Woodland Hopewell were cultures that built mounds in Eastern North America, centering on the Ohio Valley region. There is evidence of elaborate burial practices and extensive trade networks within and outside of the area. Subsistence was based heavily on hunting and the cultivation of indigenously domesticated plants, though the use of maize was minimal. 8. How has isotope analysis helped archaeologists to understand past diet, especially in regards to the adoption of maize? Answer: The bone chemistry of humans is used as a source of data for determining their diet. This method is based on people consuming foods that have a particular chemical signature. Fortunately the inclusion of maize (a C4 pathway plant) in the diet leaves a signature that can be recognized in human skeletal remains as a C13C12 ratio. These studies indicate that there was a considerable length of time between the first planting of maize (1,000 yrs ago) and the adoption of maize as an essential food source, 700 yrs later. 9. How does Prentice introduce the concept of agency into the process of plant domestication? Answer: Guy Prentice has proposed that the domestication of plants might have been the result of intentional actions of individuals. He argues that the introduction of domesticated squash into eastern North America was carried out by male shamans who would have used gourds as rattles or ritual containers. 10. How did the adoption of maize farming vary across America? Answer: Maize was adopted much earlier in Mesoamerica (6,250 yrs ago) by mobile hunter-gatherers, compared to 1,000 yrs ago in Eastern North America. In the southwestern United States, whether maize was adopted or not varied depending on local ecology. Some groups developed irrigation canals and terraces to farm maize (Las Capas), and other groups relied on wild resources (at Jornada Mogollon). Based on OFT, maize farming may not have always been the best energy investment for a person in the desert environment. Large scale villages do not always accompany maize farming. Essay 1. Discuss the process of the domestication of plants in highland Mesoamerica. Answer: Environmental Context: • Highland Mesoamerica: This region includes the Mexican highlands, characterized by diverse microenvironments and a range of altitudes, creating varied ecological niches. • Climate: The highlands experience distinct wet and dry seasons, which influenced the domestication of plants adapted to these conditions. Key Plants: • Maize (Zea mays): Maize is the most significant crop domesticated in Mesoamerica. The process began with the selection of teosinte, a wild grass, and involved gradual changes in cob size, kernel number, and other traits to increase yield and ease of harvest. • Beans (Phaseolus spp.) and Squash (Cucurbita spp.): Alongside maize, beans and squash were also domesticated, forming the "Three Sisters" agricultural system, where these crops were grown together to complement each other nutritionally and agriculturally. Process: • Initial Foraging and Selection: Early inhabitants of the highlands were foragers who began selectively harvesting wild plants with desirable traits, such as larger seeds or more palatable fruits. • Cultivation and Management: Over time, people began cultivating these plants in gardens and fields, intentionally planting and tending to them. This cultivation led to more direct selection pressures and gradual changes in plant morphology. • Genetic Changes: The domestication process involved genetic mutations and selective breeding that enhanced traits favorable for human use. For example, maize underwent significant changes from its wild ancestor teosinte, including larger cobs and more kernels. Archaeological Evidence: • Coxcatlan Cave: One of the key archaeological sites in the Tehuacán Valley, where early evidence of domesticated maize, squash, and beans has been found, dating back to around 7000 BCE. • Tehuacán Valley: Extensive excavations in this region have revealed a sequence of plant domestication, showing the transition from foraging to agriculture over several millennia. 2. What was the impact of maize agriculture on the peoples of the Southwestern United States? Answer: Economic and Subsistence Changes: • Stable Food Supply: Maize provided a reliable and storable source of food, reducing reliance on hunting and gathering and allowing for more permanent settlements. • Agricultural Intensification: Communities developed irrigation systems and agricultural terraces to increase maize production, leading to surplus food that could support larger populations and more complex societies. Social and Cultural Impact: • Population Growth: The stability and surplus provided by maize agriculture supported population growth and the development of larger, more complex communities. • Social Stratification: The ability to produce and store surplus food contributed to the development of social hierarchies, with elites controlling the distribution of agricultural produce. • Cultural Practices: Maize became central to religious and cultural practices, featuring prominently in rituals, ceremonies, and mythology. Architectural and Settlement Patterns: • Permanent Settlements: The adoption of maize agriculture led to the establishment of more permanent villages and towns, with complex architecture, including pit houses and later, multi-story pueblo structures. • Ancestral Puebloans: Maize agriculture was crucial to the Ancestral Puebloan culture, supporting the development of large, multi-room pueblos and cliff dwellings, such as those at Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde. 3. Describe the site of Poverty Point, including its layout and possible function. Answer: Layout: • Geometric Earthworks: Poverty Point, located in present-day Louisiana, is characterized by a series of large, concentric earthen ridges and mounds arranged in a semicircular pattern. The central plaza is surrounded by six rows of ridges, creating an amphitheater-like setting. • Mound A (Bird Mound): The largest mound, Mound A, is shaped like a bird in flight and rises about 70 feet above the surrounding landscape. It is part of a complex that includes several other smaller mounds. • Ridge System: The concentric ridges were likely used for residential purposes, with evidence of postholes and hearths suggesting that people built houses on the ridges. Possible Functions: • Residential and Ceremonial Center: Poverty Point likely served as both a residential area and a ceremonial center, hosting gatherings and rituals. The large central plaza could accommodate large groups of people for public events. • Trade and Exchange Hub: The presence of exotic materials, such as copper, mica, and stone from distant sources, indicates that Poverty Point was a major trade and exchange center, facilitating long-distance trade networks. • Astronomical Alignments: Some researchers suggest that the layout of the earthworks may have had astronomical significance, aligning with celestial events such as solstices and equinoxes. 4. How have Adena and Hopewell mound sites, and the people who made them, been interpreted through time? Answer: Early Interpretations: • Moundbuilder Myth: In the 18th and 19th centuries, some European settlers and scholars believed that the mounds were built by a lost race of "Moundbuilders" distinct from Native Americans, reflecting a bias that underestimated the capabilities of indigenous peoples. 20th Century and Beyond: • Cultural Recognition: Archaeological research in the 20th century firmly established that the Adena and Hopewell cultures were responsible for the mound-building activities. These cultures are now understood as complex, sedentary societies with rich ceremonial traditions. Adena Culture (c. 1000 BCE – 200 CE): • Burial Mounds: The Adena are known for their burial mounds, which often contained elaborate grave goods, indicating social stratification and complex ritual practices. • Earthworks: Adena earthworks include circular enclosures and conical mounds, suggesting ceremonial and possibly defensive purposes. Hopewell Culture (c. 200 BCE – 500 CE): • Elaborate Earthworks: The Hopewell built more complex earthworks, including large geometric shapes such as squares, circles, and octagons. These earthworks often had astronomical alignments and served as ceremonial centers. • Trade and Craftsmanship: Hopewell sites are characterized by elaborate artifacts made from exotic materials, reflecting extensive trade networks. The craftsmanship of Hopewell artifacts, including intricate stone and metalwork, highlights their artistic and technical skills. Modern Interpretations: • Ritual and Social Complexity: Current interpretations emphasize the ritual and social complexity of Adena and Hopewell societies. The mounds and earthworks are seen as central to their ceremonial life and social organization. • Continuity and Influence: Archaeologists recognize the continuity between Adena, Hopewell, and later Mississippian cultures, seeing them as part of a long tradition of mound-building and ceremonialism in Eastern North America. 5. How has gender bias affected archaeologists’ interpretation of the process of domestication? Answer: Early Interpretations: • Male-Centric Views: Early archaeological interpretations often attributed the development of agriculture and domestication to men, reflecting the gender biases of the researchers. This view was influenced by assumptions about prehistoric gender roles, with men seen as the primary innovators and laborers. Feminist Archaeology: • Reevaluation of Roles: Feminist archaeologists have challenged these biases, arguing that women played crucial roles in the domestication process. Ethnographic studies of contemporary foraging societies show that women are often responsible for gathering plant resources and experimenting with cultivation. • Inclusive Models: Current models of domestication incorporate the roles of both men and women, recognizing that plant domestication likely involved a collaborative effort. Women’s knowledge of plant growth, seasonality, and propagation would have been essential. Evidence of Female Contributions: • Grinding Stones and Tools: The presence of grinding stones and other food processing tools in domestic contexts suggests that women were heavily involved in the processing and perhaps cultivation of plants. • Plant Gathering: Archaeological evidence from early agricultural sites shows that plant gathering and experimentation with cultivation were likely household activities, involving both genders. Impact on Interpretation: • Broader Perspectives: By addressing gender bias, archaeologists have developed a more nuanced understanding of the domestication process. This includes recognizing the contributions of both men and women and understanding the social and cultural contexts of domestication. • Cultural Practices: Acknowledging the role of women has led to a better understanding of the cultural practices surrounding domestication, including the importance of social networks, knowledge transmission, and household activities. Chapter 9: A Feast of Diversity Multiple Choice 1. Indigenously domesticated plants are found in this region of Africa. A. Ethiopia and Eritrea in the northeast B. southern African C. tropical East Africa D. desert of the northwest Answer: A 2. One of the most complete pictures of a hunter-gatherer village in North Africa comes from the North African site of __________. A. Akhreijit B. Uan Afuda C. Dhar Tichit D. Nabta Playa Answer: D 3. The spectacular preservation at this preagricultural site in the Sahara produced many organic items, including a layer of preserved animal dung. A. Nabta Playa B. Uan Afuda C. Wanlek D. Kuk Swamp Answer: B 4. Pastoral societies have an economy based on __________. A. fishing B. herding C. hunting and gathering D. horticulture Answer: B 5. What was the earliest domesticated crop in Africa? A. yams B. quinoa C. taro D. millet Answer: D 6. Genetic research indicates that this plant species was domesticated in New Guinea. A. millet B. potatoes C. yams D. maize Answer: C 7. What evidence for agriculture was found at the Kuk Swamp site in New Guinea? A. the ancient field system (canals and mounds) B. post holes indicating garden boundaries C. preserved seeds of domestic crops D. written record of planting schedules Answer: D 8. Silica structures that build up along plant cell walls are called __________. A. pollen casts B. ecoliths C. phytoliths D. starch grains Answer: C 9. Andean indigenous domesticates include ___________. A. quinoa B. turkeys C. dogs D. squash Answer: A 10. __________ accounts for the remarkable wealth of marine resources along the Andean coast. A. El Niño B. The Humboldt Current C. The Gulf Stream D. The Pacific Current Answer: B 11. __________ are patches nurtured by mist from coastal fog in which dense vegetation grows. A. Sunis B. Punas C. Llomas D. Yungas Answer: C 12. AMS dates of beans at Guitarrero Cave indicate that they were domesticated __________. A. at the same time as llamas B. 10,000 years ago C. 4, 300 years ago D. well after highland cities had been established Answer: C 13. A(n) __________ is a domesticated camelid. A. manioc B. alpaca C. quinoa D. guinea pig Answer: B 14. __________ is a preagricultural village on the coast of Peru, which provides a vivid demonstration of the importance of marine resources to early village communities. A. Humboldt B. Paloma C. Quechua D. Cusco Answer: B 15. What Andean period corresponds with the appearance of monumental architecture and the absence of pottery? A. Prepottery Neolithic B B. Moche C. Archaic D. Cotton Preceramic Answer: D 16. _________ refers to an ecological event causing a massive decline in marine resources along the Andean coast. A. Global warming B. El Niño C. Tsunami D. La Pinta Answer: B 17. What are the most significant plants domesticated in East Asia? A. rice and millet B. beans and rice C. quinoa and wheat D. sweet potatoes and quinoa Answer: A 18. __________ was a Japanese preagricultural society that lived in large villages and produced elaborate pottery. A. Jomon B. Longshan C. Yangshou D. Pentoushan Answer: A 19. The large Chinese village site of Banpo belongs to the __________ culture. A. Jomon B. Yangshou C. Peiling D. Hemudu Answer: B 20. Domesticates in the Yangtze and Huai River Valleys in southern China include __________. A. water buffalo B. camels C. millet D. rye Answer: A True False 1. In Africa, pastoral societies based on domesticated animals developed without plant domestication. Answer: True 2. In central Africa, two critical cereals—quinoa and sorghum—were domesticated. Answer: False 3. Prior to 5,000 years ago, the Sahara Desert had more rainfall and was extensively occupied. Answer: False 4. Pastoral societies are sedentary societies with an economy based on horticulture. Answer: False 5. In New Guinea, domestication focused on herd animals. Answer: False 6. Sweet potatoes and pigs were both domesticated indigenously in New Guinea. Answer: False 7. The Kuk Swamp site in highland New Guinea has produced early evidence of llama herding. Answer: False 8. Phytoliths are a type of pollen best preserved in freshwater lakes and ponds. Answer: False 9. The Pacific coastal region of the Andes is tropical forest environment with abundant rainfall. Answer: False 10. The Humboldt Current accounts for the remarkable wealth of marine resources along the Andean coast. Answer: False 11. El Niño is a severe reversal of the Humboldt current which has been brought about by recent industrial development resulting in a degraded environment. Answer: False 12. Llamas and alpacas were domesticated in the lowland tropical forest region east of the Andes. Answer: False 13. On the Andean coast, settled villages preceded the adoption of agriculture. Answer: False 14. The Jomon were a Japanese agricultural society with elaborate pottery. Answer: False 15. Millet, not rice, was the main early domesticate in northern China around the Yellow River Valley. Answer: True Short Answer 1. What were the three major regions where plants were indigenously domesticated in Africa? Answer: In the northeast a wide range of plants included grains, such as teff and finger millet, and coffee. In central Africa there were two critical cereals—pearl millet and sorghum. In west Africa, African rice was domesticated. 2. What is the importance of the Nabta Playa site? Answer: One of the most complete pictures of an early village of hunter-gatherers in north Africa comes from excavations at Nabta Playa. It was a village of 15 huts that was occupied 9,000 years ago. It possessed pottery and subsisted mostly on the gathering of wild sorghum 3. What sort of plants were domesticated in New Guinea, and how did they differ from other areas? Answer: Recent genetic research indicated that a wide number of plant species were domesticated indigenously in New Guinea. These crops include yams, bananas, taro, and possibly sugarcane. None of these crops are cereals, and instead involve transplanting suckers, cuttings, or shoots, rather than planting seeds. 4. What is the role of the Humboldt Current in the subsistence of the Andean coast? Answer: The current accounts for the remarkable wealth of marine resources including anchovies, large fish, ocean birds, marine mammals, and shellfish. El Niño creates a reversal of the current, which causes a massive decline in marine resources along the coast. 5. How did domestication in the Andes region differ from other regions in the world? Answer: In the Andes, there was a complex interplay between the domestication of plants and animals by mobile societies in the Highlands. On the other hand, settled village societies living on the coast depended heavily on marine resources. When agriculture was adopted on the coast, the main focus was a nonfood crop: cotton. 6. What is the Cotton Preceramic? Answer: Approximately 5,700 years ago, large sites with monumental architecture began to appear on the coast of Peru, e.g., El Paraiso, Caral, Aspero. These sites were large and characterized by the prevalence of cotton seeds and the absence of pottery. The bulk of their diet came from fish and shellfish, although some sites used domesticate plants too. 7. What was the Jomon? Answer: The Jomon societies in Japan, dated to between 13,000 and 2,500 years ago, produced elaborate pottery and lived in villages that included as many as 50 pit houses. The subsistence was based on hunting and gathering, with an emphasis on fish and shellfish, rice and millet agriculture only appeared in the Late Jomon, about 3,000 yrs ago. 8. What evidence is there for early rice farming in China? Answer: The earliest evidence of rice farming is found on village sites in the Yangzte and Huai River valleys. The Pengtoushan site is an early village dated to 9,000 years ago with evidence of domesticated rice. The neighboring site of Bashidang has also produced a large quantity of charred rice. 9. What is the significance of the Banpo site? Answer: This site, which consisted of both round semi-subterranean houses and rectangular houses built on the surface, is a good example of the Yangshao culture. A wide range of wild plants and animals were exploited, including domesticated millet, pigs, and dogs. Elaborate pottery, some of it painted, was also found at the site. 10. What general characterizations can be made about domestication around the world? Answer: In all regions, the transition to agriculture was a gradual process. There were many trajectories from hunting and gathering to agriculture depending on the plant and animal species involved, the characteristics of the local environment, and the particularities of cultural practices. Multiple perspectives are needed to understand the process of domestication as it requires changes to the biology of animals and plants, human subsistence strategies, social organization and world view. Essay 1. What were the differences between the origins of agriculture in Africa, New Guinea, the Andes, and East Asia? Answer: Africa: • Regions: Agriculture independently developed in multiple regions of Africa, including the Sahel, Nile Valley, and West Africa. • Crops: Early domesticates included sorghum, millet, yams, and African rice. • Domestication Process: African agriculture likely began with the management and cultivation of indigenous plants suited to local conditions. New Guinea: • Regions: Agriculture developed in the highlands of New Guinea. • Crops: Domesticates included taro, yams, and bananas. • Domestication Process: New Guinea's agriculture focused on root crops and tree crops adapted to highland environments. Andes: • Regions: Agriculture developed in both the highlands (e.g., Peru, Bolivia) and coastal regions (e.g., Norte Chico). • Crops: Domesticates included potatoes, quinoa, maize (in coastal areas), and various tubers. • Domestication Process: Andean agriculture involved the domestication of high-altitude crops like potatoes and quinoa, as well as adaptation to coastal environments. East Asia: • Regions: Agriculture developed in several regions, including China, Southeast Asia, and Japan. • Crops: Domesticates included rice, millet, soybeans, and others. • Domestication Process: East Asian agriculture focused on rice cultivation, particularly wet rice farming in lowland areas, along with millet and other grains. Key Differences: • Environmental Factors: Each region had distinct environmental conditions that influenced crop selection and cultivation techniques. • Cultural Practices: Local cultural practices and traditions shaped agricultural development and adaptation strategies. • Genetic and Archaeological Evidence: Genetic studies and archaeological evidence indicate multiple, independent origins of agriculture in these regions. 2. Discuss the environment of the Sahara Desert between 14,000 and 4,500 years ago and the adaptation of the people who lived there. Answer: Environment: • Paleoclimatic Shifts: During this period, the Sahara experienced significant climatic fluctuations known as the Holocene climatic optimum and subsequent desertification. • Holocene Climatic Optimum (8,000 • 4,500 BCE): This period saw increased rainfall and a greening of the Sahara, with lakes, rivers, and vegetation expanding across the region. • Desertification (After 4,500 BCE): Gradual aridification led to the retreat of lakes and rivers, transforming the Sahara into the desert landscape seen today. Adaptation of People: • Hunter-Gatherer Adaptations: Early inhabitants were mobile hunter-gatherers who followed seasonal resources, including game animals and edible plants around lakes and rivers during wetter periods. • Technology and Mobility: Archaeological evidence shows the development of specialized tools for hunting and gathering, such as microlithic stone tools, which aided in exploiting resources in diverse environments. • Cultural Strategies: Cultural adaptations included water management techniques, rock art depicting environmental changes, and burial practices reflecting spiritual beliefs related to natural cycles. 3. How can the study of microbotanicals, such as pollen, phytoliths, and starch grains help scientists to interpret archaeological sites? Answer: Pollen Analysis: • Environmental Reconstruction: Pollen preserved in sediments provides insights into past vegetation and climatic conditions, helping reconstruct ancient landscapes. • Land Use and Agriculture: Changes in pollen assemblages can indicate shifts in land use, including deforestation for agriculture or pastoralism. Phytolith Analysis: • Plant Identification: Phytoliths, silica structures produced by plants, can identify plant species even when macroscopic remains are absent. • Cultural Practices: Phytoliths can indicate plant processing activities, such as burning or grinding, providing insights into past agricultural and food preparation practices. Starch Grain Analysis: • Food Processing: Starch grains preserved on artifacts like grinding stones reveal the types of plants processed and domesticated. • Subsistence Strategies: Changes in starch grain assemblages over time reflect shifts in diet and agricultural practices, contributing to understanding past subsistence strategies. Integration with Archaeological Data: • Contextual Interpretation: Microbotanical data, when integrated with other archaeological evidence like artifacts and features, provides a holistic view of past human-environment interactions. • Chronological Resolution: Microbotanical analysis offers high chronological resolution, helping archaeologists track changes in plant use and landscape dynamics through time. 4. How did the trajectories of domestication differ between the highlands and lowlands of the Andean region? Answer: Highlands: • Crops: Highland regions of the Andes, such as Peru and Bolivia, domesticated crops adapted to cooler temperatures and high altitudes, including potatoes, quinoa, and tubers like oca and ulluco. • Agricultural Techniques: Terrace farming and irrigation systems were developed to manage mountainous terrain and exploit diverse ecological zones. Lowlands: • Crops: Coastal and lowland regions, such as Norte Chico and later Moche cultures, cultivated crops suited to warmer coastal climates, including maize, cotton, and beans. • Agricultural Strategies: Lowland agriculture focused on floodplain agriculture, utilizing riverine resources and irrigation for crop cultivation. Cultural and Environmental Adaptations: • Cultural Diversity: Different cultural groups in the highlands and lowlands developed distinct agricultural practices and crop preferences based on local environmental conditions. • Technological Innovations: Highland societies developed terracing, freeze-resistant potato varieties, and complex water management systems, while lowland societies utilized canal irrigation and coastal marine resources. 5. What is the relationship between settled village life and agriculture? Answer: Mutual Dependence: • Agricultural Surplus: Settled village life emerged as a result of agricultural surplus, allowing populations to live in permanent or semi-permanent settlements rather than following seasonal resources. • Sedentism: Agriculture provided a reliable food supply, supporting larger populations and enabling the development of social complexity and specialized labor roles. Technological and Social Development: • Technological Innovations: Agriculture spurred technological advancements such as irrigation systems, plows, and storage facilities, enhancing agricultural productivity and food security. • Social Organization: Settled village life led to the development of social hierarchies, trade networks, and cultural practices centered around agricultural cycles and communal labor. Cultural and Environmental Impact: • Environmental Modification: Agricultural practices often involved landscape modification, including deforestation, terracing, and soil management, shaping local ecosystems. • Cultural Identity: Agricultural rituals, ceremonies, and calendar systems developed around planting and harvesting seasons, reinforcing cultural identity and community cohesion. Long-Term Implications: • Urbanization: Over time, settled village life laid the foundation for urbanization and the development of complex societies, leading to the rise of cities and early states based on agricultural surplus and trade. Test Bank for World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways Through Time Michael Chazan 9780205953721, 9780205953103, 9780205953394

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