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This Document Contains Chapters 13 to 14 Chapter 13: From City to Empire Multiple Choice 1. The earliest evidence of emerging political complexity in Mesoamerica is found on ________ sites. A. Maya B. Toltec C. Aztec D. Olmec Answer: D 2. What is the oldest city in Mesoamerica? A. Monte Albán B. Teotihuacán C. La Venta D. Aguateca Answer: A 3. The Pyramid of the Sun can be found at what site? A. Teotihuacán B. Copán C. Tikal D. Tenochtitlán Answer: A 4. Maya sites are often located near __________, which were critical water sources. A. marshlands B. piscinas C. estuaries D. cenotes Answer: D 5. Which of these was among the agricultural methods used by the Maya? A. slash and burn cultivation B. mountain terrace farming C. plows pulled by animals D. three-field rotation Answer: A 6. The first king of Copán may have had links to __________. A. Teotihuacán B. Tikal C. Aguateca D. Monte Albán Answer: A 7. The site of __________ was burned and abandoned as the result of a military attack at the end of the Classic Period. A. Bonampak B. Dos Pilas C. Yaxchilán D. Aguateca Answer: D 8. __________ is a geophysical method of remote sensing. A. Dendrochronology B. Ground-penetrating radar C. Multi-spectral satellite imagery D. Aerial photography Answer: B 9. This artifact, found in downtown Mexico City, depicted a central event in Aztec mythology. A. the Toltec skull mask B. the altar of sacrifice C. the Coyolxauhqui sculpture D. Tlaloc’s column Answer: C 10. __________ is a Maya myth written after the Spanish conquests. A. The Popol Vuh B. The Epic of Gilgamesh C. The Copán Codex D. The Popol Na Answer: A 11. The collapse of the Maya cities was partially due to __________. A. slavery B. ecological degradation C. population decline D. conquest Answer: B 12. Which statement best represents the state of tourism at archaeological sites? A. It destroys sites and should not be allowed. B. It is predominantly run through indigenous community leadership. C. It can be used for political gain. D. Tourism takes precedence over archaeological research at most sites. Answer: C 13. What was the largest prehistoric city in the Americas and capital of the Aztec Empire? A. Tenochtitlán B. Teotihuacán C. Aztlán D. Cuzco Answer: A 14. A major source of information on Aztec history and culture was compiled by Friar Bernardo de Sahagún in the __________. A. Florentine Codex B. Historia de las Indias C. Conquistador Codex D. Orbo Nueva Answer: A 15. What was the capital of the Toltec Empire? A. Monte Albán B. La Tisa C. Tula D. Teotihuacán Answer: C 16. The mythical homeland of the Aztecs is known as __________. A. La Tisa B. Otumba C. Teotihuacán D. Aztlán Answer: D 17. Which city was part of the alliance that formed the basis of Aztec expansion? A. Teotihuacán B. Cusco C. Texcoco D. Aztlán Answer: C 18. Aztec agriculture depended on artificial islands of raised beds called __________. A. khipu B. chinampas C. pagos D. panaqa Answer: B 19. Excavation of the rural site of __________ have produced insight into provincial life under the Aztecs. A. Cusco B. Cuexcomate C. Texcoco D. Tlapocán Answer: B 20. This monumental structure was at the center of both physical and spiritual world of the Aztec. A. Templo Mayor B. Pyramid of the Sun C. Pyramid of Aztlán D. Pyramid of the Moon Answer: A True False 1. The reigns of Maya rulers were deciphered based on two signs, known as the “toothache sign” and the “upended frog” sign. Answer: True 2. The Olmec developed a highly sophisticated artistic tradition that included monumental sculptures of snakes. Answer: False 3. Teotihuacán was the capital of the Aztec Empire. Answer: False 4. The Feathered Serpent is a recurring symbol of a deity in Mesoamerican pre-history. Answer: True 5. From bones, osteoarchaeologists can find out about diet, disease, growth, behavior and lifestyles of people. Answer: True 6. Maya pyramids were constructed during a single building episode. Answer: False 7. Geophysics creates detailed pictures of archaeological sites and exactly what is under the ground. Answer: False 8. One aspect of Maya material culture that is largely invisible in the archaeological record is woven cloth, because it is perishable. Answer: True 9. The Maya hieroglyphs were deciphered in the late 19th century by a German linguist. Answer: False 10. The Florentine Codex, compiled by friar Bartolome de las Casas, is a major source of information on the Aztecs. Answer: False 11. Aztlán is the mythical homeland of the Mexica, who formed the Aztec Empire. Answer: True 12. The Toltec Empire was large and powerful, controlling a substantial area. Answer: False 13. Pagos are raised agriculture beds built in the swamps surrounding Tenochtitlán. Answer: False 14. Excavations have shown that the Aztec empire contained skilled iron smelters. Answer: False 15. Archaeological and historical research has demonstrated that, contrary to popular belief, the Aztec never actually practiced human sacrifice. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What was Teotihuacán? Answer: Beginning around 2,000 years ago, Teotihuacán was established in the highland Valley of Mexico and grew to be a great city of more than 80,000 people. The city covers an area of 20 kilometers and possesses massive monumental architecture, including The Pyramids of the Sun and Moon along the Avenue of the Dead. The feathered serpent is a recurring motif at the site and in subsequent cultures. 2. What is the importance of the Olmec to the development of Mesoamerican Prehistory? Answer: The Olmec were one of the first societies that are classed as having emerging political complexity. Between 1,300 and 300 B.C. they built a series of major ceremonial centers along the Gulf Coast of Mexico. The populations of these sites numbered in the 1000s. Some of their art style was diverse and unique, such as the enormous heads carved out of volcanic material, and the delicate hollow clay sculptures of infants with adult heads. They also sculpted jade and other hard stones. There is an explicit connection between the Olmec and the Aztec some 1,500 years later. An Olmec stone mask was included in the cache of precious artifacts found in the Aztec Templo Mayor, the spiritual core of the Aztecs. Such inclusion speaks to the high regard the Aztec had for the earlier Olmec. 3. What can human osteology tell us about the ancient world? Answer: Osteoarchaeology studies human bones from archaeological contexts. Using forensic and medical techniques, researchers can get information about diet, nutrition, disease, trauma, growth, development, behavior and lifestyles, and population history. No matter the importance of the analysis at hand, it is important that ethics are considered, such as consulting with indigenous groups before excavation. By working with archaeologists, osteologists can create a more complete view of a past society than just looking at bones alone, and vice versa. 4. Why has it been difficult to reconstruct the Classic Maya? Answer: Much of the rich history of the Maya was lost when their society collapsed and they dispersed from their urban centers. The conquering Spaniards that arrived later brought with them devastating diseases, which impacted them physically and imposed their way of life which impacted them culturally. The suppression of Maya culture included burning most of the Maya books. 5. What role can geophysics play in archaeological research? Answer: Geophysical methods allow a researcher to see what is below the surface of the ground without digging it up. It cannot show exactly what is there, the data needs to be interpreted by experienced people, but it can help researchers focus their excavations on areas that seem to be related to human activities as opposed to those areas that are not involved. It also allows complete survey of large areas relatively quickly. Two of the techniques used are Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and magnetometry, others include electromagnetic and resistivity/conductivity. GPR sends out an electromagnetic pulse, which is either absorbed on reflected based on the internal structure of the ground. Magnetometry detects magnetic features or objects that cause changes in the earth’s magnetic field. 6. What is the Popol Vuh? Answer: It is a Maya myth written after the Spanish conquests. It tells the epic tale of the hero twins and their battle with the lords of the underworld. A ball game played to the death is recounted in the story and has been used by archaeologists to interpret the ball courts found at Maya sites. 7. Describe the city of Tenochtitlán. Answer: At the time of its occupation, Tenochtitlán was the largest city in Mesoamerica. It was built on an island in Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico and was connected to the mainland by a series of causeways. At the center of the city rose the great twin pyramids of the Templo Mayor. 8. What was the relationship of the Toltec Empire to the Aztec Empire? Answer: Aztec kings traced their genealogy back to the rulers of the Toltec Empire, which developed between A. D. 950 and 1150 after the fall of Teotihuacán. The Aztec kings depict the Toltec Empire as great and powerful, though it was more modest than the Aztec Empire. The capital city of Tula was smaller than Tenochtitlán and controlled a much smaller area than did the Aztecs. 9. How did the Aztecs manage to farm the swamplands surrounding Tenochtitlán? Answer: The swamplands were farmed by utilizing raised agricultural fields known as chinampas. The plots are essentially artificial islands built up between long, straight drainage canals. By using the muck out of the canals for fertilizer, the fertility of the raised plots was maintained, and the water kept clean for fish, etc. 10. What has excavation at the Templo Mayor revealed? Answer: The Templo Mayor site is part of the modern city, Mexico City. The excavation of the pyramid at Templo Mayor showed that, like other Mesoamerican pyramids, it had been built in stages with each new pyramid encapsulating its predecessor. Within the body of the pyramid, more than 100 ceremonial caches of exotic artifacts from around the Aztec Empire were found. Caches of decorated human skulls in the temple provide evidence of the important role human sacrifice played in Aztec ritual. The site also held a rendition of the dismemberment of Coyolxauhqui, a central figure in Aztec mythology. Essay 1. Compare and contrast the Maya and Aztec Empires. Answer: Maya Empire: • Location: Located in present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and parts of Honduras and El Salvador. • Political Organization: City-states ruled by divine kingship with centralized authority in ceremonial centers like Tikal, Palenque, and Copán. • Economy: Based on agriculture (maize, beans, squash), supplemented by trade in jade, obsidian, and cacao. • Writing and Calendar: Developed a hieroglyphic writing system and accurate calendar (Long Count), emphasizing astronomy and religious rituals. • Architecture: Known for stepped pyramids (e.g., El Castillo at Chichen Itza), palaces, and ball courts. • Decline: Factors include environmental degradation, warfare, and possible collapse of centralized authority by 900 CE. Aztec Empire: • Location: Centered in central Mexico, with the capital city of Tenochtitlan (modern-day Mexico City). • Political Organization: Triple Alliance (Aztec, Texcoco, Tlacopan) under Mexica rule, led by an emperor (tlatoani) with a complex bureaucracy. • Economy: Based on tribute from conquered territories, agriculture (chinampas), and long-distance trade in luxury goods (feathers, obsidian). • Religion: Polytheistic with major deities like Huitzilopochtli (war) and Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent), central to rituals and human sacrifice. • Architecture: Temples (pyramids), palaces, and causeways (calzadas) built on artificial islands (chinampas). • Conquest: Expanded rapidly through military conquest, integrating conquered peoples through political alliances and tribute. Comparison: • Political Structure: Both had hierarchical societies with rulership by divine kings (Maya) or emperor (Aztec), supported by administrative structures and tribute systems. • Religious Practices: Both practiced elaborate rituals and human sacrifice, integral to maintaining cosmic order and appeasing gods. • Art and Architecture: Both civilizations left impressive architectural legacies (pyramids, palaces) and artistic achievements (sculpture, pottery, codices). • Decline: Maya declined due to internal conflicts and environmental factors, while the Aztec fell to Spanish conquest in the early 16th century. Contrast: • Geographical Scope: Maya city-states were decentralized and widespread across Mesoamerica, while the Aztec Empire was centralized around the Valley of Mexico. • Economic Basis: Maya relied on agriculture and trade, while the Aztec economy was heavily reliant on tribute from conquered territories. • Writing System: Maya had a complex hieroglyphic script for historical and ritual purposes, whereas Aztec writing (pictorial codices) was more limited. 2. How did the Maya govern and how was that governance linked to inequality? Answer: Maya Governance: • City-States: Governed independently by divine kingship (ajaw), each city-state had its own ruler and administrative hierarchy. • Political Structure: Rulership passed through dynastic lines, with nobles (k'uhul ajaw) and priests (ah k'in) forming an elite class. • Administrative Centers: Power centralized in ceremonial centers with palaces, temples, and administrative buildings. • Law and Justice: Codified laws regulated social conduct, trade, and resource management, enforced by royal decrees and judicial councils. Inequality: • Social Stratification: Society stratified into nobles, commoners (farmers, artisans), and slaves (captives of war or debt bondage). • Wealth Disparity: Elite classes controlled land, resources, and surplus production, reinforcing economic inequality. • Access to Power: Political authority, economic opportunities, and access to religious rites were monopolized by the elite, perpetuating social hierarchy. Link to Governance: • Ritual and Religious Control: Maya rulership legitimized through divine lineage, controlling access to religious rituals and ceremonies crucial for societal cohesion. • Economic Control: Tribute and taxation from commoners supported elite lifestyles and urban development, reinforcing social stratification. • Urban Planning: Layout of cities emphasized ceremonial and administrative centers, showcasing elite power and religious authority. 3. Describe the city of Teotihuacán and how the city influenced the later Aztecs. Answer: Teotihuacán: • Location: Located northeast of modern-day Mexico City, Teotihuacán was one of the largest pre-Columbian cities in Mesoamerica. • Urban Planning: Grid-like layout with monumental architecture including the Pyramid of the Sun, Pyramid of the Moon, and the Avenue of the Dead. • Population: Estimated population of over 100,000 inhabitants at its peak (200-600 CE), making it one of the largest cities of its time. • Art and Culture: Known for mural paintings, pottery, obsidian artifacts, and religious iconography reflecting cosmological beliefs. • Trade Hub: Central to long-distance trade networks, exchanging goods like obsidian, pottery, and luxury items across Mesoamerica. Influence on Aztecs: • Religious Syncretism: Teotihuacán’s religious iconography, cosmological beliefs, and deities (e.g., the Feathered Serpent) influenced Aztec religion. • Urban Planning: Aztec cities like Tenochtitlan adopted Teotihuacán’s grid layout and monumental architecture in their own urban planning. • Economic Legacy: Trade networks and economic practices established by Teotihuacán continued to influence Aztec commerce and tribute systems. • Political Legitimacy: Aztec rulers appropriated Teotihuacán's symbols of power and religious rituals to legitimize their own authority. 4. Discuss the role of trade and tribute in the Aztec Empire. Answer: Trade: • Long-Distance Trade: Aztecs engaged in extensive trade networks, facilitated by the Triple Alliance’s control over territories and tribute routes. • Goods: Traded goods included luxury items (feathers, gold, obsidian), agricultural products (maize, cacao), and manufactured goods (pottery, textiles). • Markets: Tlatelolco market in Tenochtitlan was a major trading hub, where goods from various regions of Mesoamerica were exchanged. Tribute: • System: Tribute (tecpatl) was central to Aztec governance, extracted from conquered territories as a form of political control and economic redistribution. • Types: Tribute included goods, agricultural produce, and labor (mita) from subject peoples, supporting elite lifestyles and urban development in Tenochtitlan. • Religious Significance: Tribute was also a religious obligation, honoring Aztec deities through rituals and offerings. Role in Empire: • Economic Power: Tribute and trade enriched the Aztec elite, sustaining political alliances, and financing monumental construction projects. • Political Control: Tribute reinforced Aztec hegemony over client states and provinces, ensuring loyalty through economic dependency and military alliances. • Cultural Exchange: Trade and tribute facilitated cultural exchange, spreading Aztec influence and integrating diverse Mesoamerican societies into the empire. 5. Discuss the role of human sacrifice in the religious and political realms of the Aztec. How does the archaeological evidence compare with popular culture depictions of this culture? Answer: Role in Religion: • Cosmic Balance: Human sacrifice (tlamictiliztli) was believed necessary to appease and sustain Aztec gods, ensuring agricultural fertility and cosmic order. • Ritual Practices: Victims (often prisoners of war or slaves) were ritually sacrificed in ceremonies led by priests, with their hearts offered to deities. • Symbolism: Represented rebirth, regeneration, and the renewal of life cycles, crucial for religious festivals like the New Fire Ceremony. Role in Politics: • Political Theater: Public sacrifices reinforced Aztec political authority and the divine mandate of rulership (tlatoani), legitimizing conquests and territorial expansion. • Social Control: Fear of sacrificial rituals instilled social cohesion, obedience, and adherence to Aztec cultural norms, reinforcing hierarchy and religious orthodoxy. • Archaeological Evidence: Excavations at Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan reveal sacrificial artifacts, human remains, and ritual contexts confirming historical accounts. Comparison with Popular Culture: • Historical Accuracy: Popular culture often sensationalizes Aztec human sacrifice without context, focusing on sensationalism rather than cultural and religious significance. • Complexity: Archaeological findings provide nuanced understanding of sacrificial practices within broader religious frameworks and political contexts, challenging simplistic portrayals. • Cultural Context: Understanding sacrificial rituals requires consideration of Aztec cosmology, worldview, and social organization, beyond sensationalized depictions. Chapter 14: Bringing the Four Parts Together Multiple Choice 1. A Cotton Preceramic Period ceremonial center that preceded the Inca was established in the Andes by 900 B.C. at what location? A. Chavín de Huántar B. Moche C. Cuzco D. Nasca Answer: A 2. The use of staffs today continues an Andean tradition that __________. A. was borrowed from Amazonian peoples B. is a marker of political office C. is a relatively new phenomena D. was introduced by the Spanish. Answer: B 3. Which of the following statements describes Chavín de Huántar? A. It is a simple village site in the South American rain forest. B. It was the capital of the Inca Empire. C. It was the burial site of the Lord of Sipán. D. It is a ceremonial site that documents the beginning of social complexity in the Andes. Answer: D 4. What was the Lanzón? A. the core of the temple at Chavín de Huántar B. the leader of the Nasca C. the raised fields used in the Andean highlands D. the system of knotted string used to keep records Answer: A 5. What is the presumed function of the famed Nasca Lines? A. processions or observations B. landing strips for extraterrestrial aircraft C. human sacrifice D. territorial markings Answer: A 6. The intact tomb of a Moche elite found at __________ illustrates the wealth of the Moche society. A. Chavín de Huántar B. Nasca C. Cuzco D. Sipán Answer: D 7. Which of the following statements describes Nasca polychrome pottery? A. It was reserved for members of the elite. B. It is found widely distributed around the Nasca area. C. It was traded from Mesoamerica. D. It was not made of clay. Answer: B 8. Which of the following statements describes the Huaca del Sol? A. It was built of stone cut bricks. B. It had sacrificial victims buried in it. C. It was partly destroyed by the Spanish looking for gold. D. It is found in the highlands of the Andes. Answer: C 9. Political entities that bring together a diverse and heterogeneous group of societies under one ruler are called __________. A. states B. chiefdoms C. coalitions D. empires Answer: D 10. The Inca Empire was known as __________. A. Tawantinsuyu B. Atawallpa C. Tiwanaku D. Waskhar Answer: A 11. Which of the following best characterizes Moche metallurgy? A. Hammers were used to shape artifacts. B. It is known for is strong iron spear points. C. The only material used by the Moche was gold. D. It was only used for utilitarian items. Answer: A 12. The Inca empire fell to a small group of Spaniards under the command of __________. A. Francisco Pizarro B. Francisco Coronado C. Heran Cortez D. Hernando de Soto Answer: A 13. Raised field agriculture __________. A. was shown to not be that useful B. was used at Tiwanaku C. did not involve irrigation D. was used only for root crops Answer: B 14. The property of the Inca emperor became the property of his descendants, who were known as his __________. A. panaqa B. khipu C. urubamba D. pago Answer: A 15. This famous Inca royal estate is located at the western end of the Urubamba Valley. A. Machu Picchu B. Hua'nuco Pampa C. Cuzco D. Moche Answer: A 16. What ceremonial outpost of the Inca Empire is located 600 kilometers north of the capital, Cuzco? A. Tiwanaku B. La Tisa C. Hua’nuco Pampa D. Aguas Caliente Answer: C 17. In Inca society, feasting and exchanging goods __________. A. was only for the ruler B. played a central role for elites C. was started by Atawallpa D. was always associated with sacrifice Answer: B 18. Which of the following describes roads in the Inca Empire? A. They did not exist. B. They were only passable by llama or alpaca. C. They were used by relay messengers. D. They were symbolic roads for the gods. Answer: C 19. ________ was a system of knotted strings used by the Inca to record information. A. Inti B. Khipu C. Pago D. Tampu Answer: B 20. One way to track ancient disease __________. A. involves the study of preserved stomach contents B. is performed on bones only C. uses polymerase chain reaction science D. requires destruction of a large quantity of dental material Answer: C True False 1. The Cotton Preceramic ceremonial center was at Machu Picchu. Answer: False 2. The Staff God is a recurring motif throughout Andean prehistory. Answer: True 3. The site of Chavín de Huántar represents a major turning point in Andean social complexity. Answer: True 4. The Nasca Lines are deliberate designs made by moving rocks on the desert surface. Answer: True 5. The discovery of the intact tomb of Sipán has given archaeologists a sense of the wealth and violence of Moche society. Answer: True 6. The Inca Empire is known as Tawantinsuyu, which means “Land of High Places.” Answer: False 7. The resistance that the Inca were able to mount against the Spanish invaders points to the resilience of an empire built around a divine ruler. Answer: False 8. The history of the Inca is a long one of orderly succession of the ruling elite, which peacefully expanded the empire through trade and alliances. Answer: False 9. The son, who became the new ruler after the emperor died, inherited all of his father’s property. Answer: False 10. Machu Picchu was a royal estate of the Inca elite. Answer: True 11. Feasting and exchanging goods played a central role in Inca society. Answer: True 12. Even when rulers were dead, their mummified bodies exerted power. Answer: True 13. Inca roads could be up to 4 meters wide, and involved ingenious bridges for people and animals to use. Answer: True 14. The Inca kept track of commercial transactions by a pictographic writing known as khipu. Answer: False 15. Soft tissue does not preserve well at Andean archaeological sites. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What is Chavín de Huántar? Answer: It is a pre-Inca ceremonial site located in a narrow valley in the north-central Andes of Peru. It consists of roughly 3,000-year-old major temple platforms, decorated with enigmatic rock sculptures and containing many maze-like underground passages. 2. What was the Nasca culture, and why was it important? Answer: The Nasca culture in the Nasca valley of Southern coastal Peru developed about 2,000 years ago. It had a highly complex religious system, and may have been a state level society. They created large, elaborate patterns of humans and animals on the desert floor by moving dark rocks aside thus leaving the lighter colored ground visible. A number of large Nasca sites have been found, such as the pilgrimage site of Cahuachi. The site was probably a ceremonial site as little habitation debris has been located, but it was the source of elaborate polychrome pottery found across the Nasca villages. Smaller sites, such as Marcaya were villages where people lived. The culture set the scene for the later Inca Empire. 3. What was the Moche state? Answer: Beginning 2,000 years ago, the Moche state flourished along the Moche Valley on the Pacific coast of Peru. They built impressive mud brick structures, including the Pyramid of the Sun, and had dense population centers. The burials of the Moche display an incredible range of gold and turquoise artifacts, as well as sacrificial victims, which give archaeologists a sense of the wealth, inequality, and violence of their society. 4. What is the importance of the Huaca del Sol and Huaca de la Luna? Answer: Made of millions of mud bricks, the Huacas are found at the site of Moche. The Huaca del Sol was severely damaged during looting by the Spanish, who diverted a river to dissolve and wash away the adobe so they could get to the gold. At the Huaca de la Luna, sacrificial victims, in various states of dismemberment were uncovered. These rituals had been long known from Moche artwork, specifically painted pots, but the burials speak to the actuality of those rituals taking place. The society was complex, with a powerful religious system, and was contemporary with the Nasca culture. 5. Describe the Inca Empire. Answer: The Inca Empire was known as Tawantinsuyu, ‘The Four Parts Together’ and thrived for over a century, tying together a vast realm under the royal Inca in the capital city, Cuzco. At the peak of the empire, the Inca ruled over 12 million people in a geographically diverse region that stretched across 3,000 kilometers from north Chile to Ecuador. It included large cities, a road network, a record keeping system, and a multi-level hierarchy. In 1533, the Inca fell to a small group of Spaniards under the command of Francisco Pizarro. 6. Explain why research into raised field agriculture is important. Answer: While working on the site of Tiwanaku, trying to understand how the people at the site produced food, evidence of raised field agriculture was found. In this system, ditches are excavated, the earth piled in the area between ditches, and water is then diverted from rivers to fill the ditches. This system effected irrigation and drainage, insulated the vegetation from the cold, and produced fertilizer from rotting vegetation in the ditches. Using experiments the archaeologists reintroduced the systems to the poor people currently living in the area. Yields were good and the areas used less fertilizer, creating promise for the future. 7. What happened to Inca rulers after their deaths? Answer: After death, the emperor was mummified as part of an elaborate collective ritual of mourning. The mummified ruler continued to play an active role in the ceremonial and political life of Cuzco. Food was burnt in front of such mummies, and, through mediums, they were able to communicate their wishes. The dead leaders’ possessions became the property of their descendants, known as his panaqa, but were not inherited by the successor. 8. How did the Inca conduct warfare? Answer: The Inca were able to field large, diverse armies consisting of tens of thousands of troops. Weapons included arrows, sling stones, and javelins. Tactics included massed frontal assaults followed by hand to hand combat, and clever diversionary tactics. Forts and garrisons were placed in strategic locations. 9. What are the characteristics of an empire? Answer: Empires are political entities that bring together a diverse and heterogeneous group of societies under a single ruler. Often, empires rely on the brutal use of military power and warfare to achieve domination. They also require the development of communication systems to allow for the transmission of information and for record keeping; in this case roads and khipu, respectively. 10. How has archaeology answered the question of whether tuberculosis was endemic or introduced to the Americas? Answer: A mummified body recovered from the southern Peruvian coast that dated to A. D. 1040. DNA extracted from a lesion on the right lung showed clearly that that individual suffered from TB, thus demonstrating that the disease was in South America prior to Spanish contact. Essay 1. Compare and contrast the Aztec and Inca empires. Answer: Aztec Empire: • Location: Centered in the Valley of Mexico, with the capital city of Tenochtitlan (modern-day Mexico City). • Political Organization: Triple Alliance (Aztec, Texcoco, Tlacopan) under Mexica rule, with an emperor (tlatoani) at the top and a hierarchical bureaucratic system. • Economy: Based on tribute from conquered territories, agriculture (chinampas), and long-distance trade in luxury goods. • Religion: Polytheistic with major deities like Huitzilopochtli (war) and Tlaloc (rain), central to rituals and human sacrifice. • Architecture: Temples (pyramids), palaces, and causeways built on artificial islands (chinampas). • Conquest: Expanded through military conquest, integrating conquered peoples through political alliances and tribute. Inca Empire: • Location: Centered in the Andean region of South America, stretching from present-day Ecuador to central Chile and Argentina. • Political Organization: Centralized state ruled by a divine king (Sapa Inca) believed to be descended from the sun god, with bureaucratic administration (mit'a labor system). • Economy: Based on state control of agricultural production (terrace farming), storage facilities (qollqa), and extensive road networks (qhapac ñan). • Religion: Polytheistic with emphasis on sun worship (Inti), agricultural fertility (Pachamama), and ancestor veneration, featuring elaborate rituals. • Architecture: Stone construction without mortar, including Machu Picchu, Sacsayhuamán, and the city of Cusco. • Conquest: Expanded through military conquest and diplomacy, incorporating diverse ethnic groups through cultural assimilation and religious syncretism. Comparison: • Political Structure: Both empires had centralized rule with powerful rulers (tlatoani and Sapa Inca), supported by administrative systems and tribute collection. • Religious Practices: Both practiced human sacrifice and complex rituals to appease gods, crucial for maintaining cosmic order and societal stability. • Economic Systems: Aztecs relied on tribute and trade, while Incas focused on state-controlled agriculture and labor (mit'a) to sustain their economy. • Architectural Achievements: Both cultures left impressive architectural legacies (pyramids, temples), showcasing their engineering prowess and cultural achievements. Contrast: • Geographical Scope: Aztec Empire was concentrated in central Mexico, whereas the Inca Empire spanned the rugged Andean mountains, with diverse ecological zones. • Economic Basis: Aztecs relied heavily on tribute and trade, whereas Incas emphasized state-controlled agriculture and labor to support their economy. • Territorial Expansion: Aztecs expanded through military conquest and alliances, while Incas integrated diverse ethnic groups through administrative control and religious syncretism. • Cultural Legacy: Aztec culture was centered on urban life, arts, and warfare, while Inca culture emphasized statecraft, engineering feats, and agrarian productivity. 2. Discuss the Chavín de Huántar site and the Chavín horizon. Answer: Chavín de Huántar Site: • Location: Located in the northern highlands of Peru, Chavín de Huántar was a major ceremonial center dating from 1200 to 400 BCE. • Architecture: Central to the site is the Old Temple, New Temple, and Plaza Circular, featuring stone carvings, labyrinthine galleries, and drainage systems. • Artifacts: Iconography includes anthropomorphic and zoomorphic stone sculptures (such as the Lanzón), reflecting religious beliefs and shamanic practices. • Religious Center: Likely served as a pilgrimage site for religious rituals, including hallucinogenic ceremonies involving San Pedro cactus and visionary experiences. Chavín Horizon: • Cultural Influence: The Chavín horizon refers to the spread of Chavín culture and religious iconography across ancient Peru during the Early Horizon period (900-200 BCE). • Artistic Style: Characterized by expressive stone carvings depicting fanged deities, jaguars, and supernatural beings, influencing subsequent Andean cultures. • Religious Practices: Shamanistic practices and rituals centered on the worship of nature, transformational experiences, and spiritual connections to the cosmos. • Legacy: The Chavín culture laid the foundation for Andean religious and artistic traditions, influencing civilizations such as Moche, Nazca, and later, the Inca Empire. 3. How have archaeologists interpreted the Nasca Lines? Answer: Nasca Lines: • Location: Located in the Nasca Desert of southern Peru, the Nasca Lines are geoglyphs dating from 500 BCE to 500 CE. • Types: Geometric shapes, animals (spider, hummingbird), plants, and humanoid figures etched into the desert floor. • Purpose: Hypothesized to serve astronomical, ritualistic, or agricultural functions, visible from nearby ceremonial centers and pathways. • Creation: Created by removing reddish pebbles to reveal lighter-colored ground beneath, preserving their visibility over centuries. • Interpretations: • Astronomical Alignment: Some lines align with solstices and constellations, suggesting an astronomical calendar or ritual significance. • Water Cult: Linked to rituals invoking water deities (like Viracocha), influencing agricultural fertility and ensuring seasonal rains. • Pilgrimage Routes: Possibly served as pathways for ceremonial processions and pilgrimages, connecting sacred sites and cultural centers. Archaeological Approaches: • Aerial Photography: Utilized since the 1930s to document and study the expansive geoglyphs, revealing their intricate patterns and alignments. • Ground Surveys: Mapping techniques and remote sensing technologies (LiDAR, satellite imagery) aid in identifying new geoglyphs and understanding their spatial relationships. • Contextual Analysis: Study of nearby settlements, ceramics, and artifacts provide cultural context and possible links to ceremonial practices. 4. How did the Inca build and maintain their empire? Answer: Building the Empire: • Expansion: Inca expansion (1438-1533 CE) incorporated diverse ethnic groups through military conquest, diplomacy, and strategic alliances. • Infrastructure: Built an extensive road network (qhapac ñan) spanning over 25,000 miles, facilitating communication, trade, and military mobilization. • Territorial Control: Established administrative centers (tambo) and storage facilities (qollqa) to manage resources, tribute, and labor across the empire. • Agricultural Innovation: Utilized terrace farming (andenes) and irrigation systems to maximize agricultural productivity in diverse ecological zones. Maintaining the Empire: • Political Organization: Centralized rule under the Sapa Inca, with provincial governors (kurakas) overseeing local administration and tribute collection. • Economic System: Implemented the mit'a labor system, requiring rotational labor for public works projects (road maintenance, agricultural terracing). • Religious Syncretism: Integrated conquered peoples through religious syncretism, adopting local deities and rituals to promote cultural unity. • Communication: Relay runners (chasquis) facilitated rapid communication along the qhapac ñan, transmitting messages and logistical information. 5. What are khipu, and how do they compare with the methods that other early states used to keep records? Answer: Khipu: • Definition: Khipu are knotted textile cords used by the Inca and pre-Inca societies in the Andean region as a mnemonic device and record-keeping tool. • Structure: Consist of primary cords from which subsidiary cords (pendants) hang, each with various types and colors of knots encoding numerical and possibly narrative information. • Function: Used for accounting, census data, administrative records, and historical narratives, interpreted by specialized khipu keepers (quipucamayocs). Comparison with Other Record-Keeping Methods: • Mesopotamian Cuneiform: Written on clay tablets using wedge-shaped characters, documenting economic transactions, legal codes, and administrative records. • Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Inscribed on papyrus scrolls or temple walls, recording historical events, religious rituals, and administrative decrees. • Chinese Oracle Bone Script: Inscribed on turtle shells or animal bones, used for divination and recording events, reflecting religious and bureaucratic practices. Distinctive Features of Khipu: • Non-Linguistic: Unlike written scripts, khipu rely on a system of knots and colors, possibly representing numerical data and qualitative information. • Cultural Specificity: Unique to Andean societies, reflecting their numerical and hierarchical organization, and possibly linked to ritual and religious practices. • Interpretation Challenges: Deciphering khipu remains challenging due to the lack of a comprehensive key or dictionary, requiring interdisciplinary approaches combining archaeology, linguistics, and ethnography. Test Bank for World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways Through Time Michael Chazan 9780205953721, 9780205953103, 9780205953394

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