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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 3 Chapter 1: Getting Started in Archaeology Multiple Choice 1. The goal of archaeology is to __________. A. find treasure B. dig square holes C. understand past human lives by studying the objects they left behind D. more fully understand dinosaurs Answer: C 2. An archaeological survey maps the distribution of __________. A. the oldest stones in the region B. only sites over 100 years old C. the physical remains of human activity D. only those sites deemed to be ʺsignificantʺ Answer: C 3. Artifacts that are found in the place where they were originally deposited are said to be __________. A. in situ B. commonplace C. ex post facto D. geologically stable Answer: A 4. ________ refer to software applications that allow spatial data to be brought together and consolidated. A. U.S. Geodetic Surveys (USGS) B. Geographic Positioning Systems (GPS) C. Universal Transverse Mercators (UTM) D. Geographic Information systems (GIS) Answer: D 5. The goal of vertical excavation is to __________. A. collect as many artifacts as possible B. dig as deeply as possible C. expose the sequence of occupation at a site D. obey the law of superposition Answer: C 6. Which of these statements best describes the law of superposition? A. Sediments will be deposited in horizontal layers. B. In any undisturbed sedimentary deposits, each layer is younger than the layer beneath it. C. In any undisturbed sedimentary deposits, each layer is older than the layer beneath it. D. The uppermost sediments are the most important for archaeological analysis. Answer: B 7. Geological strata can be classified by the __________. A. the type of rock they consist of B. the diversity of fossils found within them C. the length of time it took to dig through the layer D. the moistness of the soil Answer: A 8. The sequence of depositional units at a site is referred to as the site’s __________. A. archaeology B. geology C. occupation D. stratigraphy Answer: D 9. The ________ is used as a reference for all vertical measurements on an archaeological site. A. datum point B. ground surface C. keystone D. stadia rod Answer: A 10. To recover the charred botanical remains (wood & seeds) it is often necessary to employ a method known as __________. A. filtration B. flotation C. dry screening D. piece plotting Answer: B 11. Any object that shows traces of human manufacture is referred to as a/n. __________. A. Eco fact B. artifact C. site D. feature Answer: B 12. ________ are natural objects that provide information about the environmental context of past human activity. A. Artifacts B. Eco facts C. Features D. Fossils Answer: B 13. Lithic analysis is the study of __________. A. lithium artifacts B. stone tools C. ceramic dishes D. metal weapons Answer: B 14. What is the study of the processes that affect organic remains after death? A. paleoecology B. zooarchaeology C. necro modification D. taphonomy Answer: D 15. Which of the following is a method of quantifying animal bone from an archaeological site? A. counting the number of identifiable specimens (NISP) B. calculating the maximum number of species present (MNS) C. determining the season of occupation based on geographic index of seasonality (GIS) D. estimating the age at death for each animal body recovered (AD) Answer: A 16. In zooarchaeology, MNI estimates are calculated by __________. A. counting the most numerous unique skeletal element of each species B. counting the number of identifiable specimens C. estimating the number of bones per excavation unit D. taking the total number of bones and dividing by the number of different species Answer: A 17. What is a list of artifact types for a particular archaeological context called? A. typology B. chronology C. taphonomy D. attribute Answer: A 18. Which of the following is an absolute dating method? A. relative chronology B. seriation C. radiocarbon D. regional chronology Answer: C 19. Which of the following statements characterizes relative dating techniques? A. They allow archaeologists to assign a range of calendar years to artifacts and deposits. B. They can be expressed on a number of different time scales. C. They include dendrochronology. D. They include seriation. Answer: D 20. ________ comparisons examine differences between two or more sites. A. Synchronic B. Intersite C. Diachronic D. Intrasite Answer: B True False 1. The most important archaeological sites are found within a foot of the ground surface. Answer: False 2. The goal of horizontal excavation is to expose large areas of a site to reconstruct a single point in time. Answer: True 3. The law of superposition states that each layer is younger than the layer beneath it. Answer: True 4. Anthropogenic deposits are the result of insect disturbances on an archaeological site. Answer: False 5. The Harris matrix is a method for quantifying artifacts from depositional units. Answer: False 6. To understand how feature such as a burial pit relates to the surrounding strata, it is necessary to determine the surface of origin for the pit. Answer: True 7. Wet screening is used to recover items from submerged sites. Answer: False 8. Eco facts are objects that show traces of human manufacture. Answer: False 9. Frost heave is an example of a climate related post depositional process that affects the archaeological record. Answer: True 10. Sampling is used to select a representative collection of a large group of artifacts for study. Answer: True 11. Typology is the study of the layers of the earth. Answer: False 12. Radiocarbon dating can only be used on organic materials, such as charcoal and bone. Answer: True 13. Experimental archaeology uses scientific techniques, such as DNA analysis, to interpret the past. Answer: False 14. Floral analysis is the study of animal bones from archaeological sites. Answer: False 15. The half-life of the carbon-12 atom is 5,730 years. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What is remote sensing and what is it relevance to archaeology? Answer: Remote sensing refers to technologies used to detect archaeological deposits. These methods include aerial photography and satellite imagery, and geophysical methods such as magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar. They play a critical role both in discovering sites and in orienting exploration. 2. How are geographic information systems (GIS) used in archaeology? Answer: When GIS were first introduced, they were used largely within an ecological framework, looking at relationships between site locations and availability of natural resources. Other applications were developed to model migration routes and to predict where sites would likely be found. In recent years, a number of archaeologists have begun to use GIS as a means of exploring the way people in the past would have experienced the environment. 3. Explain the difference between and the purpose of horizontal and vertical excavation. Answer: Horizontal excavations expose a broad area of a site allowing the archaeologist to examine the relationships between artifacts at a single period in time. Vertical excavation is undertaken when the archaeologist is interested in studying long term processes of culture change through time. This technique of digging down exposes the record of a sequence of occupation. 4. What are some methods that archaeologists employ in a stratigraphic analysis? Answer: Soil micromorphology is used to characterize the accumulation of sediments at a microscopic scale. The Harris matrix is a method for placing depositional units in stratigraphic order. Post depositional–process analysis examines the natural and cultural processes that have affected the formation of archaeological sites. 5. What is the goal of archaeological recording and what are some of the recording methods employed by archaeologists? Answer: The goal of recording is to allow archaeologists to go back and reconstruct that context on paper after excavation. The basic recording unit is the depositional unit. Each unit has its own recording sheet, which includes plan maps at various stages of excavation, stratigraphic sections showing the relation of the depositional unit to other depositional units, and a description of the contents of the depositional unit. A careful description of soil colour and texture is often included. 6. What are the major areas of biological analysis and what do they describe? Answer: Faunal Analysis is the study of animal bones recovered on archaeological sites. Paleoethnobotany is the study of archaeological plant remains, such as charred seeds and pollen. Human osteoarchaeology is the study of the biological characteristics of human skeletal material recovered on archaeological excavations. 7. How can an archaeologist get an accurate quantitative picture of the relative frequency of different animals in the faunal assemblage? Answer: Simply counting the number of identifiable specimens (NISP) may introduce bias due to such factors as differential preservation of bone. By calculating the minimum numbers of individuals (MNI) represented by the most frequent unique element, the archaeologist is able to get a more accurate picture of the proportions of different animals at the site. 8. How are typologies used in archaeology? Answer: Archaeologists use typologies to draw up an inventory of the artifacts they have found. Once a typology is developed, the number of objects belonging to each type can be counted to create a quantitative inventory of artifacts found in a particular context. The purpose is to register nuances of style that reflect when and where an artifact was manufactured. 9. How can seriation be used to develop a relative chronology of an artifact type? Answer: The assumption behind seriation is that the frequency of an artifact form will increase over time and then decline gradually after reaching a peak. This was graphically demonstrated by Deetzʹs study of gravestones that showed that the popularity of different motifs (deathʹs head, cherub, urn & willow) changed over time as each style displaced the one that preceded it in popularity. 10. Describe two ʺliving archaeologyʺ techniques used by archaeologists to help interpret archaeological remains. Answer: Ethnoarchaeology has to do with research carried out by archaeologists living with and observing communities in order to make a contribution to archaeology. Experimental archaeology involves attempts to replicate archaeological features or objects. Essay 1. What are the eight principles of archaeological ethics set out by the Society for American Archaeology? What is their purpose? Answer: The Society for American Archaeology (SAA) has established eight principles of archaeological ethics to guide the professional conduct of archaeologists. These principles are intended to promote responsible and ethical behavior in the practice of archaeology. The principles are: 1. Stewardship: Archaeologists should act as responsible stewards of the archaeological record, working to preserve and protect archaeological sites and materials for future generations. 2. Accountability: Archaeologists must be accountable for their actions and decisions, ensuring that they conduct their work with transparency and responsibility toward stakeholders, including indigenous communities, the public, and the scholarly community. 3. Commercialization: Archaeologists should avoid the commercialization of archaeological objects, as the buying and selling of artifacts can encourage looting and destruction of sites. The aim is to discourage the treatment of archaeological finds as commodities. 4. Public Education and Outreach: Archaeologists have a responsibility to educate the public about archaeology and the importance of preserving the archaeological record. They should engage in outreach activities to foster public appreciation and understanding of archaeology. 5. Intellectual Property: While archaeologists have rights to their research and findings, they must balance these rights with the need to share knowledge with the public and the scholarly community. This includes making data and results accessible whenever possible. 6. Public Reporting and Publication: Archaeologists should disseminate their research findings to both the academic community and the general public. This involves publishing results in a timely manner and ensuring that the information is accessible. 7. Records and Preservation: Archaeologists must ensure that they create and maintain thorough, accurate records of their work. These records should be preserved for future research and reference. 8. Training and Resources: Archaeologists must ensure that they are adequately trained and have the necessary resources to conduct their work responsibly. They should also work to train and mentor the next generation of archaeologists. Purpose: These principles aim to ensure that archaeological practice is conducted ethically and responsibly. They promote the protection and preservation of archaeological resources, foster public engagement and education, and ensure the integrity and accountability of archaeological research. 2. You have discovered a 1,000-year-old site that was occupied for only a year before being covered by a mudslide. What techniques will you employ to excavate the site? How will you record the data you collect? Answer: Excavation Techniques: • Site Survey: Conduct a detailed survey of the site using geophysical methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to identify buried structures and features without intrusive digging. • Stratigraphic Excavation: Carefully remove layers of earth to maintain the stratigraphy, which is crucial for understanding the chronological sequence of occupation. • Micro-Excavation: Use fine tools such as brushes, dental picks, and small trowels to carefully excavate delicate artifacts and features. • Wet Sieving: Utilize wet sieving techniques to recover small artifacts, ecofacts, and micro-debris from the soil matrix. Recording Data: • Detailed Mapping: Create detailed maps of the site, including a grid system to record the precise location of all finds. • Photographic Documentation: Take extensive photographs at all stages of excavation to visually document the context and condition of the site and artifacts. • Field Notes: Maintain comprehensive field notes describing the stratigraphy, soil composition, features, and any observed changes during excavation. • 3D Modeling: Employ 3D scanning and photogrammetry to create digital models of the site and its features. • Artifact Cataloging: Catalog all artifacts with detailed descriptions, including their location, stratigraphic context, and any associated features. 3. A human body is buried in a peat bog one thousand years ago. Discuss the aphonomic processes that might have occurred and how they might affect the interpretation of the burial. Answer: Taphonomic Processes in a Peat Bog Burial and Their Impact on Interpretation Taphonomic Processes: • Anaerobic Conditions: Peat bogs are anaerobic (low oxygen) environments, which slow down the decomposition of organic material, leading to excellent preservation of soft tissues. • Acidic Conditions: The acidic nature of peat bogs can lead to the preservation of skin and hair but may dissolve bones and other calcareous materials. • Waterlogging: Waterlogged conditions can prevent microbial activity, further aiding in the preservation of organic remains. Impact on Interpretation: • Preservation Bias: The excellent preservation of organic materials, such as skin, hair, and clothing, can provide a wealth of information about the individual's appearance, health, and attire. However, the poor preservation of bones can limit osteological analysis, hindering the ability to determine age, sex, and any skeletal pathologies. • Contextual Information: The preservation of associated artifacts and environmental evidence can offer insights into the burial practices, diet, and lifestyle of the individual. Peat bogs often preserve pollen, seeds, and insects, which can be analyzed to reconstruct the environment at the time of burial. • Chemical Alterations: The chemical environment of the bog can alter the preserved materials, potentially complicating analyses such as radiocarbon dating. It's essential to account for these alterations when interpreting the data. 4. Discuss the application of ethnoarchaeology to archaeological interpretation. What areas of past human behavior can it help the archaeologist understand? What are the limitations of ethoarchaeology? Answer: Application of Ethnoarchaeology to Archaeological Interpretation Application: • Understanding Subsistence Strategies: Ethnoarchaeology helps archaeologists understand past human behavior related to subsistence, such as hunting, gathering, agriculture, and animal husbandry, by observing contemporary practices. • Technology and Tool Use: Observing modern traditional societies can provide insights into the manufacture, use, and discard of tools and technology, helping to interpret archaeological tool assemblages. • Settlement Patterns: Ethnoarchaeological studies can shed light on the organization of living spaces, including the distribution of domestic, ritual, and public areas within settlements. • Social and Economic Organization: Understanding the social and economic structures of contemporary societies can help archaeologists infer the organization of past communities, including aspects of trade, hierarchy, and kinship. Limitations: • Cultural Specificity: Modern societies observed in ethnoarchaeological studies may not be direct analogs to ancient societies, leading to potential inaccuracies when making inferences. • Temporal Changes: Societies and their practices evolve over time, so contemporary behaviors may not accurately reflect past behaviors. • Ethnocentrism: Researchers must be cautious of imposing their own cultural biases when interpreting the behaviors of other societies. • Environmental Differences: The environmental context of modern societies may differ significantly from that of ancient societies, affecting the applicability of observations. 5. How does radiocarbon dating work? What are the advantages and limitations of this technique? Answer: Radiocarbon Dating: How It Works, Advantages, and Limitations How It Works: • Principle: Radiocarbon dating is based on the decay of carbon-14 (C-14), a radioactive isotope of carbon. Living organisms continuously absorb C-14 through respiration and ingestion. • Decay Process: When an organism dies, it stops absorbing C-14, and the existing C-14 begins to decay into nitrogen-14 (N-14) at a known rate (half-life of approximately 5730 years). • Measurement: By measuring the remaining C-14 in a sample and comparing it to the initial C-14 levels, scientists can estimate the time elapsed since the organism's death, thus dating the sample. Advantages: • Wide Applicability: Radiocarbon dating can be used on a variety of organic materials, including wood, charcoal, bone, shell, and textiles. • Chronological Range: It is effective for dating materials up to about 50,000 years old, covering a significant portion of human history. • Precision: With advancements in techniques such as Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), radiocarbon dating provides relatively precise age estimates. Limitations: • Sample Contamination: Contamination with modern carbon or other sources can skew results, making accurate dating challenging. • Calibration: The concentration of C-14 in the atmosphere has varied over time, requiring calibration curves to adjust raw radiocarbon dates to calendar dates. • Material Limitations: Radiocarbon dating is limited to organic materials; it cannot date metals, ceramics, or other inorganic artifacts directly. • Age Range: Beyond about 50,000 years, the remaining C-14 levels become too low to measure accurately, limiting the technique's applicability to more recent history Chapter 2: Putting the Picture Together Multiple Choice 1. Ideas that archaeologists have developed about the past and about the way we come to know about the past are referred to as ___________. A. antiquarianism B. archaeological theories C. hermeneutics D. historicism Answer: B 2. Which of the following represents the first clear evidence for the use of excavation to recover and explore the past? A. the exploration of a mound by Thomas Jefferson B. the recovery of ʺthunderstonesʺ by Antoine de Jussieu C. an emblem book written by Johannes Sambucus D. John Frereʹs report on a Paleolithic site at Hoxne, England Answer: C 3. Which of the following scholars helped establish the antiquity of humanity? A. Charles Lyell B. John Frere C. Lewis Binford D. Ian Hodder Answer: A 4. The Three-Age system divided prehistory into the __________ Ages. A. Savage, Barbarian, and Civilized B. Stone, Bronze, and Iron C. Foraging, Pastoral, and Agrarian D. Animist, Theistic, and Secular Answer: B 5. Why did the publication of On the Origin of Species upset the church? A. It removed divinity from creation. B. It proved the earth was created 4004 BC. C. It showed the inheritance of acquired characteristics. D. It helped Heinrich Schliemann explain Troy. Answer: A 6. The Neolithic and the Paleolithic were defined by whom? A. Christian Thomsen B. John Frere C. John Lubbock D. Heinrich Schliemann Answer: C 7. ________ pioneered the methods of stratigraphic excavation and seriation to create a chronology in his work in Egypt. A. Abbe Henri Breuil B. Sir Flinders Petrie C. V. Gordon Childe D. Heinrich Schliemann Answer: B 8. Toward the end of the 19th century, the __________ approach was characterized by the emergence of modern methods of excavation and analysis and formal schemes of classification. A. processual B. post-processual C. culture history D. evolutionary Answer: C 9. ________ twisted the archaeological record to reinforce German nationalism and support the Nazi party. A. Gustav Kossinna B. Flinders Petri C. John Lubbock D. Heinrich Schliemann Answer: A 10. Which archaeologist proposed the idea of a Neolithic Revolution characterized by agricultural villages? A. John Frere B. John Lubbock C. V. Gordon Childe D. Lewis Binford Answer: C 11. Who was the catalyst for the New Archaeology? A. Walter Taylor B. Lewis Binford C. Flinders Petrie D. Ian Hodder Answer: B 12. Binford thought that for archaeology to be considered a science it must work by ________ from general laws and models. A. drawing B. induction C. extrapolation D. deduction Answer: D 13. Observations of archaeological materials in the present that can help create and test hypotheses about the past are called __________. A. middle-range research B. the culture history approach C. postprocessual archaeology D. systems theory Answer: A 14. Which of the following statements best describes systems theory? A. It was heavily influenced by the works of Marx. B. It views society as an interconnected network of elements. C. It represented a conservative alternative to the New Archaeology. D. Systems theory plays a significant role in contemporary archaeology. Answer: B 15. New laws requiring archaeological work to be done before damaging construction work created which of the following? A. a wealth of artifacts for museums B. a rejection of the New Archaeology C. the New Archaeology D. Cultural Resource Management (CRM) archaeology Answer: D 16. Which of the following statements best describes post processual archaeology? A. It argues that archaeologists should emulate historians. B. It is rooted in an etic approach to archaeology. C. It avoids hypotheses in Favor of more subjective analyses. D. Post processual archaeologists study only on historical populations. Answer: A 17. The goal of post processual archaeology is to __________. A. formulate general laws governing human behavior B. offer interpretations based on contextual data C. write culture history D. test hypotheses Answer: B 18. Which of these theories stresses the interaction between the presuppositions we bring to a problem and the independent empirical reality of our observations and experiences? A. systems theory B. hermeneutics C. heuristics D. induction Answer: B 19. ________ focuses on the way archaeologists study and represent gender in the archaeological record, as well as gender biases of the investigator. A. Feminist archaeology B. Gynocentric archaeology C. Masculinist archaeology D. Post processual archaeology Answer: A 20. __________ stressed the importance of the actions of the individual living in past society. A. Lewis Binfordʹs writings B. Feminist archaeology C. Processual archaeology D. Agency theory Answer: D True False 1. King Tutankhamen conducted an early archaeological dig at the site of the Sphinx. Answer: False 2. In Medieval Europe, prehistoric stone tools found in fields were thought to be ʺthunderstonesʺ formed where lightning struck. Answer: True 3. Thomas Jeffersonʹs excavations of a mound on his property proved it was not made by Indians. Answer: False 4. Danish antiquarian, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, developed the Three Age System in 1816. Answer: False 5. The struggle between evolution and religion predates the publication of Charles Darwin’s On The Origin of Species. Answer: True 6. In 1865, John Lubbock divided the Stone Age into the Neolithic (New Stone Age) and Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), terms that are still used to this day. Answer: True 7. During the 19th century, archaeologists spread across the world to dig in such places as Africa, Mesopotamia, and Turkey. Answer: True 8. The Pecos Classification and Midwest Taxonomic system typified the culture history periodʹs concern with classification. Answer: True 9. Graham Clark led a multi-disciplinary team to study the remains at Star Carr. Answer: True 10. Albert Spaulding argued that archaeologists should impose categories on material culture in order to study it. Answer: False 11. Lewis Binford pronounced that archaeology should be science or it should be nothing at all. Answer: True 12. Deduction involves taking available data and inferring general models from it. Answer: False 13. Hermeneutics views our knowledge of past societies as static and unchanging. Answer: False 14. Feminist archaeologists see males as responsible for most of the trouble in prehistory. Answer: False 15. Evolutionary archaeology, ironically, rejects the theory of evolution as having any application to modern archaeology. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What is the significance of the Three-Age system? Answer: During the rise of archaeology in the 19th century, artifacts poured into museums, but there was no way to know how old they were or how to organize them. Christian Thomsenʹs solution was to divide them into relics of three periods— the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age—based on the material of manufacture. He recognized that though this was the relative chronology some stone and bronze artifacts continued to be manufactured in the later periods. He therefore augmented his classification by considering designs found on the objects. 2. What was the contribution of V. Gordon Childe to archaeology? Answer: Although his only excavation was a small village in Orkney, Childe is known for his ability to compare and to recognize patterning in the archaeological collections across Europe. Archaeology showed him that around the world societies had undergone two revolutions: the Neolithic revolution (a sedentary life brought about by the adoption of agriculture) and the urban revolution (the rise of cities and complex governments). Childe shifted the focus of archaeology from just the artifacts to societies of people living in a network of social and economic relationships. 3. What was Graham Clarkʹs contribution to scientific archaeology? Answer: Clark brought together botanists, zoologists, and archaeologists to excavate Star Carr, a prehistoric hunter-gatherer site in England. Because the site was waterlogged, perishable items, such as wood, were well-preserved. Clarkʹs goal was to understand the subsistence practices of late prehistoric hunter-gatherers and he realized that he needed the expertise of many other disciplines to help him achieve that. 4. What were the goals of the New Archaeology? Answer: The processual archaeologists were interested in the dynamics of past societies, but what they had to study were the static objects of the archaeological record. The fundamental method of archaeology should be testing hypotheses. Archaeologists were not limited to just describing the archaeological record, but theory and method had the potential for extending into all aspects of past society. 5. What is the difference between induction and deduction? Answer: Induction involves drawing inferences on the basis of available data (the particular) and reaching a conclusion (generality) based on an examination of that data. Deduction is guided by general laws and model and testing those on the available data. 6. What is middle-range research? Answer: Middle-range research allows us to make secure statements about past dynamics on the basis of observations made on archaeological material. The key is to look at processes that we can observe in the present and then analyze the material patterning left by those processes. We can then develop hypotheses about the past that can be tested by reference to our observations in the present. 7. How has systems theory been applied to archaeology? Answer: The system approach makes it possible to look at periods of rapid change in the archaeological record as the result of feedback among elements of a complex system. As a result, change could be understood as the effect of internal processes— processes that took place within a society. Systems theory has been particularly valuable in giving archaeologists tools to integrate evidence of ecological change into models of social change. 8. How has gender been misinterpreted by archaeologists? Answer: Archaeologists have tended to treat society as homogenous. Feminist archaeologists have drawn on ethnographic studies to show that the experience of individuals is shaped by their role in society. They have also demonstrated that there is a strong bias toward viewing men as active and productive agents and women as passive in society. 9. What is evolutionary archaeology? Answer: Evolutionary archaeology was developed by processual archaeologists who stress the importance of evolutionary theory as a potential unifying theory for archaeology. In recent years, it has come to encompass a range of approaches, from ecological studies that look at changes in culture as changes in human adaptation to attempts to apply Darwinian theory to changes in the frequencies and types of artifacts found at a site. 10. What did Ian Hodder mean when he said that archaeology begins ʺat the edge of the trowelʺ? Answer: He meant that archaeologists should change archaeological theory from a top down approach (i.e., guided by theory) to one that builds from observations. Drawing on the theory of hermeneutics, he argues that archaeological theory should build upon what archaeologists actually do, rather than prescribing what they should do. Essay 1. What was new about the New Archaeology? Answer: New Archaeology, also known as Processual Archaeology, emerged in the 1960s and 1970s as a response to the earlier, more descriptive approaches in archaeology. The main innovations introduced by New Archaeology include: • Scientific Approach: Emphasis on the scientific method, including hypothesis testing, rigorous data collection, and quantitative analysis. • Systems Thinking: Viewing societies as complex systems with interacting components, where changes in one part of the system could affect others. • Functionalism: Focus on understanding the functions of social and cultural practices and how they contributed to the overall system. • Adaptation and Environment: Examination of how human societies adapt to their environments and the role of ecological factors in shaping cultural development. • Behavioral Processes: Interest in uncovering the underlying behavioral processes that produce the archaeological record, rather than just describing artifacts and features. • Cross-Cultural Comparisons: Use of ethnographic analogies and cross-cultural comparisons to generate hypotheses about past human behavior. • Explicit Theory: Making the theoretical underpinnings of research explicit and subject to scrutiny and debate. 2. Compare and contrast the theoretical underpinnings of processual and post processual archaeology. Answer: Processual Archaeology: • Positivism: Rooted in a positivist philosophy of science, emphasizing objective observation, hypothesis testing, and the search for general laws of human behavior. • Systems Theory: Views societies as systems with interrelated parts and focuses on the functions and interactions of these parts within an ecological context. • Quantitative Methods: Strong emphasis on the use of quantitative methods, statistical analysis, and mathematical models to interpret the archaeological record. • Determinism: Often deterministic, with a focus on environmental and economic factors as primary drivers of cultural change. Post processual Archaeology: • Interpretivism: Rejects the positivist approach, emphasizing the subjective and interpretive nature of understanding past human behavior. • Agency and Ideology: Focuses on the role of human agency, ideology, and individual actions in shaping the past, rather than viewing people as passive responders to environmental pressures. • Symbolism and Meaning: Emphasizes the importance of symbols, meanings, and cultural practices in interpreting the archaeological record. • Reflexivity: Advocates for reflexivity, recognizing that the archaeologist's own perspective, background, and biases influence their interpretation of the past. • Contextual Analysis: Stresses the importance of context and the detailed analysis of specific sites and assemblages, rather than seeking broad generalizations. • Critical Theory: Incorporates elements of critical theory, questioning power dynamics, social inequalities, and the influence of contemporary social and political contexts on archaeological interpretation. Comparison: • While processual archaeology seeks objective, scientific explanations for cultural phenomena, post processual archaeology embraces a more subjective, interpretive approach. • Processualists focus on environmental and economic factors, whereas postprocessualists emphasize human agency, ideology, and symbolism. • Processual archaeology aims for broad generalizations and laws, while postprocessual archaeology values context-specific interpretations and the role of individual actions. 3. How do Systems Theory and Hermeneutics help archaeologists understand the past? Answer: Systems Theory: • Holistic Approach: Systems theory provides a holistic framework for understanding past societies by considering them as integrated wholes composed of interrelated subsystems (e.g., economic, social, political, and environmental systems). • Interconnections and Feedback: It emphasizes the interconnections and feedback loops between different components of a society, helping archaeologists understand how changes in one part of the system can affect others. • Adaptation and Resilience: Systems theory helps archaeologists analyse how societies adapt to environmental changes, manage resources, and maintain resilience in the face of challenges. • Modeling: It allows for the creation of models to simulate past social processes and predict the outcomes of different variables, providing insights into the dynamics of ancient societies. Hermeneutics: • Interpretive Framework: Hermeneutics offers an interpretive framework for understanding the meanings and symbols embedded in the archaeological record. It focuses on interpreting the cultural and symbolic aspects of past societies. • Contextual Understanding: Emphasizes the importance of context in interpreting artifacts, features, and sites, considering the broader cultural, historical, and social contexts in which they were created and used. • Human Agency and Intentionality: Highlights the role of human agency, intentionality, and subjective experiences in shaping the archaeological record. It seeks to understand the motivations and meanings behind human actions. • Reflexivity: Encourages reflexivity, acknowledging that the archaeologist's perspective and biases influence their interpretations. It promotes a self-critical approach to archaeological analysis. Combined Contribution: • Together, systems theory and hermeneutics offer a comprehensive approach to understanding the past. Systems theory provides a macro-level analysis of societal structures and processes, while hermeneutics offers a micro-level, interpretive understanding of individual actions, meanings, and symbols. • They enable archaeologists to balance objective, scientific analysis with subjective, interpretive insights, leading to a more nuanced and holistic understanding of past human behavior. 4. According to postprocessual archaeologists, what is the relationship of archaeology to modern society? Answer: Postprocessual archaeologists view the relationship of archaeology to modern society as deeply interconnected and mutually influential: • Cultural and Political Context: They argue that archaeological interpretations are shaped by the cultural, political, and social contexts of the present. This means that contemporary issues, ideologies, and power structures influence how archaeologists interpret the past. • Reflexivity and Critique: Postprocessualists advocate for reflexivity, encouraging archaeologists to critically examine their own biases, assumptions, and the socio-political influences on their work. They seek to make the practice of archaeology more self-aware and transparent. • Social Relevance: They emphasize the importance of making archaeology socially relevant and engaging with contemporary social issues. This includes addressing topics such as social justice, inequality, identity, and heritage preservation. • Public Engagement: Post processual archaeologists advocate for greater public engagement and collaboration with local communities, indigenous groups, and other stakeholders. They believe that archaeology should be inclusive and participatory, involving those who have a direct connection to the archaeological record. • Critical Perspectives: They incorporate critical perspectives, such as feminism, postcolonialism, and indigenous archaeology, to challenge traditional narratives and highlight marginalized voices and experiences. 5. What is gender and how can it be identified in the archaeological record? Discuss how feminist archaeology can radically alter our interpretation of the past. Answer: Definition of Gender: • Social Construct: Gender is a social construct that refers to the roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men, women, and other gender identities. It is distinct from biological sex, which is based on physical characteristics. Identifying Gender in the Archaeological Record: • Artifacts and Tools: Analysis of artifacts and tools associated with specific gendered activities (e.g., weaving tools, hunting equipment) can provide insights into gender roles and divisions of labor. • Burial Practices: Examination of burial practices, including grave goods, body positioning, and tomb structure, can reveal gender-specific rituals and status differences. • Iconography and Art: Analysis of iconography, art, and symbolic representations can offer clues about gender roles, identities, and ideologies in past societies. • Spatial Analysis: Study of spatial organization within settlements (e.g., domestic spaces, workshops) can indicate gendered use of space and social organization. • Skeletal Analysis: Bioarchaeological analysis of skeletal remains can provide information on health, diet, activity patterns, and physical stress, which can be linked to gender roles and labor divisions. Impact of Feminist Archaeology: • Challenging Biases: Feminist archaeology challenges traditional, androcentric interpretations of the past that often marginalize or ignore women's contributions and experiences. It seeks to uncover and highlight the roles of women and other marginalized groups. • Inclusive Perspectives: It promotes the inclusion of diverse perspectives and voices in archaeological research, encouraging a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of past societies. • Reinterpreting Evidence: Feminist archaeologists reinterpret existing evidence to reveal previously overlooked aspects of gender relations, social dynamics, and power structures. • Highlighting Inequalities: It emphasizes the study of social inequalities, including gender, class, and ethnicity, and how these intersect and shape past human experiences. • Empowering Communities: Feminist archaeology often involves collaboration with contemporary communities, particularly those historically marginalized, to ensure their histories and perspectives are represented and respected in archaeological narratives. Chapter 3: Early Hominins Multiple Choice 1. ________ refers to the evolutionary history of a species. A. Cladistics B. Phylogeny C. Ontogeny D. Taxonomy Answer: B 2. ________ is genetic material inherited exclusively from the mother. A. Nuclear DNA B. Nuclear RNA C. Mitochondrial DNA D. Mitochondrial RNA Answer: C 3. What taxon includes all members of the human lineage after it split with the chimpanzees? A. hominin B. prosimian C. anthropoid D. hominoid Answer: A 4. What is the oldest known fossil thought to belong to the hominin lineage? A. Paranthropus bosei B. Ardipithecus ramidus C. Australopithecus afarensis D. Sahelanthropous tchadensis Answer: D 5. A(n) ________ is the biological term for a period when there is a rapid increase in the number of species in a single lineage. A. diaspora B. exodus C. dispersal D. radiation Answer: D 6. Which of the following genera of hominin are found in Asia? A. Australopithecus B. Homo C. Paranthropus D. Kenyanthropus Answer: B 7. The discovery of footprints at __________ indicated that Australopithecus afarensis was bipedal. A. Olduvai Gorge B. Koobi fora C. Hadar D. Laetoli Answer: D 8. This genus represents a robust early hominin with massive molars and chewing muscles that dates to between 2.5–1.4 million years ago. A. Paranthropus B. Australopithecus C. Ardipithecus D. Sahelanthropus Answer: A 9. This fossil genus was ultimately proven to be a fraud. A. Australopithecus B. Eoanthropus C. Ardipithecus D. Paranthropus Answer: B 10. Why is Olduvai Gorge a good place to look for fossil hominins? A. There were more hominins living in that region than in other parts of Africa. B. There has been little human activity in the area, which preserved the fossils. C. It has a good depositional environment that preserved fossils. D. It has always been an arid environment. Answer: C 11. The earliest stone tool tradition is known as the __________. A. Acheulian B. Oldowan C. Auregnacian D. Mousterian Answer: B 12. What tool, associated with Homo erectus, is perhaps the most successful tool humans ever invented? A. Oldowan pebble chopper B. Acheulian hand axe C. Mousterian spear point D. Clovis fluted point Answer: B 13. Volcanic ash can be dated using what radiometric method? A. paleomagnetism B. radiocarbon C. argon dating D. luminescence Answer: C 14. The evidence for early hominin subsistence suggests that they __________. A. may have scavenged when they needed to B. were vegetarians C. were essentially ʺkiller apesʺ D. relied primarily on aquatic food resources Answer: A 15. The stone circle found at the DK site __________. A. has been dismissed as a hoax B. was a crude fortification for protection against predators C. was a raw material stockpile for make tools D. might be evidence of a temporary structure built on a home-base site Answer: D 16. A ________ is an archaeological site produced by a series of distinct, but brief, occupations. A. dispersal event B. palimpsest C. serial occupancy D. base camp Answer: B 17. Evidence for controlled use of fire during the Lower Paleolithic ________. A. has been tentatively identified at Koobi Fora and Chesowanja B. is a well-established fact C. is found only outside of Africa D. consists of piles of fire-cracked rock Answer: A 18. What is the first hominin species to be found outside of Africa? A. Homo erectus B. Homo ergaster C. Homo habilis D. Homo floresiensis Answer: A 19. What is the oldest known well-dated archaeological site (1.7–1.8 mya) outside of Africa? A. Dmanisi B. Ubeidiya C. Nihwan Basin D. Hadar Answer: A 20. The first Homo erectus fossils found on the island of Java, were found by __________. A. Mary Leakey B. Raymond Dart C. Donald Johanson D. Eugene Dubois Answer: D True False 1. Ontogeny is the evolutionary history of a species. Answer: False 2. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited exclusively from the mother. Answer: True 3. Genetic evidence shows that gorillas have the greatest similarity to humans of all the great apes. Answer: False 4. According to the molecular clock, chimpanzees and humans diverged four to six million years ago. Answer: True 5. Paleoanthropologists study past human societies. Answer: False 6. The Miocene era saw a reduction in the number of hominoid species due to predation. Answer: False 7. The earliest evidence for walking upright is found in Ardipithecus ramidus. Answer: True 8. Homo habilis is the first primate with a brain size over 500 cc. Answer: True 9. Australopithecus afarensis footprints at Laetoli indicate that this species walked quadrapedally. Answer: False 10. The earliest known member of genus Homo is habilis. Answer: True 11. Only humans have the ability to use tools. Answer: False 12. Analysis of tools from the site of Lokalalei indicates that the manufacturing process was relatively simple. Answer: False 13. Acheulian tools are associated with the Australopithecines. Answer: False 14. Raymond Dart characterized the australopithecines as “brutal hunters.” Answer: True 15. Hominins of the genus Paranthropus were the first to disperse out of Africa. Answer: False Short Answer 1. How can genetics be used to calculate the human phylogeny? Answer: Calculating when lineages diverged on the basis of the degree of genetic similarity rests on the concept of the molecular clock. The assumption underlying this concept is that genetic mutations accumulate at a constant rate. If one knows the genetic similarity between two species, one can use the molecular clock to calculate when their lineages diverged. 2. What are the characteristics that distinguish early hominins from the other hominoids? Answer: All members of the three early genera (Australopithecus, Kenyanthropus, Paranthropus) were adapted to walking upright. It is notable that these hominins lacked the pronounced canine teeth characteristic of the living great apes. The mean brain size was consistently between 450 and 475 cubic centimeters. Thus, within the hominin lineage, bipedalism and the loss of large canines preceded a significant increase in brain size. 3. Discuss the skeleton found at the site of Nariokotome, Kenya. Answer: This was the complete skeleton of a juvenile adolescent Homo erectus. The individual was over 5 feet tall and died roughly one-and-a-half million years ago. His tall, thin shape was typical of tropical populations among modern humans. He lived in a landscape of open grasslands and swamps and may have died of a tooth infection. 4. What was the Lower Paleolithic? Answer: This was the period during which early hominins (Paranthropus and Homo) began making stone tools. In Africa, it is often called the Early Stone Age. It includes two major tool industries: the Oldowan and the Acheulian. It covers the time between two-and-a-half million years ago and roughly 200,000 years ago. 5. What is lithic analysis? Answer: The archaeological study of stone tools is known as lithic analysis. When looking at stone tools, archaeologists see not only formal properties of the artifact (color, shape, size, and weight) but also evidence of how the tool was manufactured and used. 6. Discuss the evidence for the earliest use of tools at the Gona site in Africa. Answer: At the Gona site, close to three thousand stone tools were found in a single layer in an area covering 22 square meters. Although simple, there is no question they were manufactured by hominins. The major types of tools are sharp-edged flakes and cores, including choppers. The stones were Argon dated to sometime between 2.9 and 2.3 million years ago. 7. How was Raymond Dartʹs ʺkiller apeʺ hypothesis called into question? Answer: The hypothesis was called into question through a series of taphonomic studies of how bones accumulated in the dens of hyenas. When these bones were compared to bones that Dart identified as tools, it was clear that the ʺtoolsʺ were a product of carnivore gnawing. There was also evidence (puncture marks in an Australopithecus skull matching the spacing of canines in a leopard’s jaw) that these hominins were actually prey to other animals. 8. How can chimpanzees be used as an analogy for hominin hunting activity? Answer: Chimpanzees hunt without tools, but rely on cooperation (some chase while others wait in ambush) to catch and kill animals. From the way chimpanzees hunt, it is safe to assume that early hominins may have hunted small animals. It is likely that early hominins were capable of the same level of cooperation exhibited by hunting chimpanzees. 9. What is the home-base/food-sharing model? Answer: Unlike chimpanzee sharing, which takes place on the spot where the kill was made, sharing among hunter-gatherers takes place when meat is brought back to camp. According to Glynn Isaac, hominins created places on the landscape to which meat was brought to share among the community. It is the ability to share and cooperate, rather than kill, that is the driving force behind human evolution. 10. What evidence is there for use of fire among early hominins? Answer: At site FxJj 20 at Koobi Fora, two round features of reddish brown soil roughly a meter in diameter exhibit magnetic properties that suggest that it was burnt. At the site of Chesowanja, Kenya, dated to 1.4 million years ago, lumps of burnt clay were found in the same context as stone tools and animals. The clay has been interpreted as the scattered remains of a hearth. Essay 1. Discuss the rise and adaptive radiation of the primates during the Miocene. Answer: Rise of Primates: • The Miocene Epoch (23 to 5 million years ago) was a critical period for primate evolution, marked by significant diversification and the emergence of many modern primate lineages. • The climate during the Miocene was generally warmer and more humid, which led to the expansion of forests and the creation of diverse habitats suitable for primate evolution. • The early Miocene saw the rise of the first hominoids (apes) in Africa, with genera such as Proconsul representing some of the earliest known members of this group. Adaptive Radiation: • Ecological Niches: Primates diversified into various ecological niches, exploiting different habitats, from tropical rainforests to more open woodlands and savannas. • Morphological Diversity: This period witnessed the development of a wide range of morphological adaptations, including variations in body size, limb proportions, and dental morphology, allowing primates to exploit different food sources and locomotion strategies. • Key Genera: Important genera from the Miocene include Proconsul, Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus, and Gigantopithecus. These genera show a variety of adaptations, from arboreal to terrestrial lifestyles. • Geographic Expansion: Primates expanded their range out of Africa into Europe and Asia. For example, Sivapithecus, found in Asia, is considered an ancestor of modern orangutans, while Dryopithecus in Europe exhibited features that may relate to later African apes and humans. 2. How has culture affected the path of human biological evolution? Answer: Interaction of Culture and Biology: • Tool Use and Brain Size: The development of tool use and technology has been a significant driver of human brain evolution. The complexity of tools and the cognitive demands of their production and use likely exerted selective pressures for increased brain size and cognitive abilities. • Diet and Digestion: Cultural practices related to diet, such as cooking, have impacted human biology. Cooking makes food easier to digest and can increase the nutritional value, which may have supported the evolution of smaller teeth and shorter digestive tracts. • Social Structures: The development of complex social structures and cultural practices, including cooperative hunting, child-rearing, and social learning, have influenced human evolutionary trajectories by fostering increased social intelligence, communication skills, and empathy. • Agriculture: The advent of agriculture around 10,000 years ago led to significant changes in human biology, including shifts in diet, sedentism, and population density. These changes have affected human health, leading to an increase in certain diseases and influencing genetic adaptations related to diet and metabolism (e.g., lactase persistence). • Medicine and Technology: Advances in medicine and technology have altered natural selection pressures. For example, medical interventions can reduce mortality from diseases and genetic disorders, potentially changing the course of human evolution. 3. How have hoaxes, such as Piltdown and Kama-takamori, affected our interpretation of human biological and cultural evolution? Answer: Piltdown Hoax: • Background: The Piltdown Man, discovered in England in 1912, was presented as a crucial missing link between apes and humans. It was later revealed to be a forgery, composed of a modern human skull and an orangutan jaw. • Impact: The Piltdown hoax misled the scientific community for decades, diverting attention from genuine fossils and hindering the understanding of human evolution. It created a false narrative that supported a European origin of modern humans, delaying acceptance of African-origin evidence. • Lessons Learned: The exposure of the hoax emphasized the importance of rigorous scientific scrutiny, peer review, and the need for multiple lines of evidence in paleoanthropology. Kama-takamori Hoax: • Background: Less well-known than Piltdown, the Kama-takamori hoax involved the planting of artifacts in an archaeological site in Japan to support claims of an ancient human presence. • Impact: This hoax led to temporary acceptance of erroneous interpretations of early human migration and cultural development in East Asia. It highlighted the vulnerability of the field to fraudulent claims and the need for careful verification of archaeological findings. • Lessons Learned: The Kama-takamori hoax reinforced the necessity for transparency, ethical standards, and replication of findings in archaeological research. 4. Discuss the evidence for tool-use among non-humans and the implications for the interpretation of early hominin cultural development. Answer: Non-Human Tool Use: • Primates: Several primate species, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and capuchin monkeys, use tools. Chimpanzees use sticks to extract termites, stones to crack nuts, and leaves as sponges to soak up water. • Birds: Some bird species, like crows and parrots, have demonstrated tool use. New Caledonian crows, for instance, fashion tools from twigs and leaves to extract insects from crevices. • Marine Mammals: Dolphins have been observed using marine sponges to protect their snouts while foraging on the seafloor. Implications for Early Hominin Cultural Development: • Continuity: The presence of tool use in non-human animals suggests a continuity of cognitive abilities between humans and other animals, indicating that the roots of tool use predate the emergence of hominins. • Cognitive Evolution: Observations of non-human tool use provide insights into the cognitive and motor skills required for tool production and use, shedding light on the evolutionary precursors of human technology. • Cultural Transmission: Non-human primates exhibit social learning and cultural transmission of tool use behaviors, suggesting that early hominins may have similarly transmitted technological knowledge within groups, leading to cultural accumulation and innovation. 5. Discuss the evidence for early hominins being hunters and/or scavengers. How does their mode of subsistence affect our interpretation of other aspects of their culture? Answer: Evidence for Hunting and Scavenging: • Cut Marks and Bones: Archaeological sites with animal bones bearing cut marks indicate that early hominins used tools to process meat. These marks can distinguish between hunting (e.g., cut marks on meaty parts) and scavenging (e.g., cut marks on bones after carnivores had accessed the meat). • Tool Assemblages: The presence of sophisticated stone tools, such as hand axes and flake tools, suggests that early hominins had the capability to hunt and process large animals. • Stable Isotope Analysis: Isotope analysis of hominin fossils reveals dietary patterns, showing a significant consumption of meat, which supports the idea of active hunting or efficient scavenging. • Bone Assemblages: Patterns of bone assemblages at archaeological sites, including the types and ages of animals represented, can indicate whether hominins were primary hunters or scavengers. Cultural Implications: • Social Organization: Hunting and scavenging likely required coordination and cooperation, suggesting the development of complex social structures and communication among early hominins. • Tool Development: The need for effective hunting and processing tools would have driven technological innovation and the refinement of tool-making techniques. • Division of Labor: The roles in hunting, scavenging, and processing meat may have led to a division of labor within early hominin groups, contributing to social complexity and the differentiation of roles based on age, sex, or skill. • Symbolic Behavior: The procurement and sharing of meat could have fostered social bonds and may have had symbolic or ritualistic aspects, indicating the emergence of early cultural practices and social rituals. Test Bank for World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways Through Time Michael Chazan 9780205953721, 9780205953103, 9780205953394

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