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This Document Contains Chapters 10 to 12 Chapter 10: Complexity without the State Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is a type within Morton Fried’s classification of societies? A. hierarchical B. communal C. ranked D. socialist Answer: C 2. Elman Service divides human societies into which of the following categories? A. savages, barbarians, and civilizations B. bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states C. egalitarian, ranked, and stratified D. foragers, pastoralists, horticulturalists, and agriculturalists Answer: B 3. Which is the following is one of V. Gordon Childe’s criteria for defining urban centers? A. pastoralism B. universal literacy C. monotheism D. taxes Answer: D 4. According to Karl Wittfogel, early state formation was the result of __________. A. response to foreign aggression B. population growth C. large-scale irrigation processes D. geographical circumscription Answer: C 5. Archaeologists suggest that the large stone heads (Moai) of Easter Island were __________. A. built by competing chiefs during periods of prosperity B. portraits of past rulers C. boundary markers for different factions on the island D. offerings to the gods Answer: A 6. Which of the following statements is true about the construction of Stonehenge? A. It was originally part of a roofed temple structure. B. It was built entirely from local materials. C. It was built over a period of more than 1000 years. D. It was built by aliens. Answer: C 7. Colin Renfrew has argued that the people who built Stonehenge were organized in __________. A. states B. chiefdoms C. tribes D. bands Answer: B 8. The discovery of __________ suggests that the people who built Stonehenge had a society that included elites. A. a cache of gold amulets B. the iceman C. the Amesbury Archer D. seven partially completed Moai Answer: C 9. Chaco Canyon was the site of the construction of spectacular multi-storied structures known as __________. A. cliff-dwellings B. kivas C. pueblos D. Great Houses Answer: D 10. What is the largest Great House in Chaco Canyon? A. Casa Grande B. Chetso Ketl C. Pueblo Bonito D. Casa Rinconada Answer: C 11. Pueblo Bonito Functioned as both an elite residence and a __________. A. temporary hunting camp B. ceremonial center C. fortress D. long-distance trade depot Answer: B 12. Archaeological evidence for social inequality at Pueblo Bonito consists of __________. A. the burials in Room 33 B. the mural on the wall of room 24 C. a cache of silver ingots in Room 50 D. sacred Kachina dolls in Room 14 Answer: A 13. What method of remote sensing has been used to discover sites and orient exploration? A. multispectral satellite imagery B. hyperspectral imaging C. ground-penetrating radar D. resistivity Answer: A 14. The __________ refers to the linkages that connect Chaco Canyon with the surrounding region through a system of roads. A. Anasazi Experience B. Anasazi Network C. Chacoan Network D. Chacoan Phenomenon Answer: C 15. The intensive occupation of Chaco Canyon came to an end in A. D. 1130 as the result of a(n) __________. A. devastating drought B. catastrophic flood C. attack from the south D. plague Answer: A 16. Which of the following phrases best describes dendrochronology? A. It uses tree ring growth to measure time. B. It uses animal dens to map storage pits. C. It can only be used in arid environments. D. It is a method of remote sensing. Answer: A 17. The large earthwork that occupies the core of Cahokia is known as __________. A. El Grande B. Monk’s Mound C. Spiro Mound D. Pueblo Bonito Answer: B 18. Which of the following best characterizes the site of Cahokia? A. It was a fortified city-state. B. It incorporated a series of dispersed living areas around a ceremonial core. C. It was a vacant center. D. It was a teeming metropolis. Answer: B 19. Which of the following best describes Mound 72 at Cahokia? A. It was constructed in the shape of an eagle. B. It has yet to be excavated. C. It yielded a burial that was vivid evidence of social inequality. D. It was the site of a ceremonial temple. Answer: C 20. Great Zimbabwe is __________. A. evidence of local development of complexity in southeast Africa B. the site of the palace of the Queen of Sheba C. a Phoenician trading port D. the site of King Solomon’s mines Answer: A True False 1. In egalitarian societies, there are no differences in status at all. Answer: False 2. Robert Carneiro’s model of state formation emphasizes the importance of large-scale irrigation projects. Answer: False 3. Stonehenge, Pueblo Bonito, Cahokia, and Great Zimbabwe were what Elman Service would describe as chiefdoms. Answer: True 4. Stonehenge was built relatively rapidly, over the span of 100 years. Answer: False 5. For logistical reasons, all the materials used to build Stonehenge came from a distance of no more than three kilometers. Answer: False 6. Stonehenge was constructed by a state-level society. Answer: False 7. Pueblo Grande is the largest Great House in Chaco Canyon. Answer: False 8. The Chacoan Network links Chaco canyon with sites in the surrounding region through a system of roads. Answer: True 9. It has been suggested that social power flowed from the centrality of Chaco Canyon in raiding and pillaging. Answer: False 10. Cahokia was the largest settlement of the Mississippian Period. Answer: True 11. The site of Cahokia consists of 22 mounds, including the huge Monk s Mound. Answer: False 12. Many archaeologists see Cahokia as a society on the verge of becoming a state. Answer: True 13. Great Zimbabwe was a foreign trading post in Shona-speaking South Africa. Answer: False 14. The elite of Great Zimbabwe lived within great enclosures that symbolized their power and status. Answer: True 15. The tower at Great Zimbabwe is called a dhaka. Answer: False Short Answer 1. How do Morton Fried and Elman Service view the development of political complexity? Answer: They both view it as a movement of authority from the kin group to a government that is not based on kinship. Fried tends to emphasize the emergence of inequality when high-status becomes concentrated within a smaller group of people, but Service focuses on the emergence of control over the legitimate use of force in state societies. 2. What was Karl Wittfogel’s theory of early state formation? Answer: Wittfogel emphasized the importance of large-scale irrigation processes. He argued that the need to organize large groups of workers to build and maintain irrigation canals allowed the formation of a hierarchical government he labeled ‘oriental despotism.’ His model is based in a single causal factor (labor organization) leading to a centralized government. 3. What was Stonehenge? Answer: Stonehenge was a ceremonial site on the Salisbury Plain, England, that was constructed beginning in the Early Neolithic and ending in the Early Bronze Age. The cultural context remains poorly understood; however, archaeological opinions on the meaning of Stonehenge suggest that it might not only be the product of a strong leader’s influence, but the source of that power as well. The landscape around Stonehenge is an important contextual part of how the monument functioned. 4. What was the function of Pueblo Bonito? Answer: The sites took many years to build and probably changed its function over time. The initial occupation of the site (A.D. 800–1000) indicates the site was a residence of an elite group as the population seems to have been less than 100 people. In A. D. 1000 the site expanded and the function became more ceremonial in nature. The connection between the two functions indicates that the power of the elites was based on their role in religious ceremonies, and over massive feasting activities. Though the Pueblo may have developed based on food stress or food surplus, the power of the elites was not based on any force (required to be considered a state). 5. How have archaeologists interpreted Chaco Canyon? Answer: Beginning around A. D. 800, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, became the center of a regional settlement network and the site of the construction of large multi-storied structures known as Great Houses. The Canyon may have come about due to environmental stress on the food supply or due to food surplus. Elites would have controlled goods and resources based on some kind of religious power. The network survived till A. D. 1130 when a severe, prolonged drought ended intensive occupation of the canyon. 6. How have archaeologists interpreted Cahokia? Answer: The site of Cahokia is the largest-known settlement of the Mississippian Period in eastern North America (A.D. 1000–1400). Monk’s Mound and the Grand Plaza are the monumental core of a settlement covering 4.5 kilometers around which were a series of dispersed living areas. Elites lived on temple mounds, had artisans producing exotic ceremonial items, and included sacrificial offerings. The dense population was controlled by leaders who were on the verge of being a state society. That is, the leader seems to have had both soft power and forcible power. 7. What have excavations at Mound 51 at Cahokia revealed? Answer: The excavations below Mound 51 on the great plaza at Cahokia have recovered thousands of ceramic vessels, the remains of thousands of deer and a half million tobacco seeds. The plaza appears to have served as the regional focus of feasting behavior and could have accommodated thousands of people. Organizing these events probably bolstered the power of the elite. 8. How has the archaeological interpretation of Great Zimbabwe changed over time? Answer: Initially the site was thought to be the palace of the biblical Queen of Sheba. However, recent studies of this large settlement indicate that it was a local development of political complexity in southeast Africa during the period between A. D. 1300 and 1400. The site was part of an elaborate and far-reaching trade network. Elites lived in walled compounds that became more and more associated with sacred elements of the society, especially the rain-making rituals. 9. What were the functions of the stone enclosures at Great Zimbabwe? Answer: There is no evidence that the enclosures were defensive in nature. Rather, they appear to have been built to screen the activities of elites from the view of nonelites. Their visibility of the enclosures from a great distance would also have enhanced the status of the elites. 10. How does the trade in antiquities affect archaeology? Answer: Looting of any sites is the destruction of someone’s cultural heritage. As well as raw materials, like gold and jewels, collectors, often in the West, help fuel the trade with their demand for antiquities. Archaeologists are often asked to authenticate a collectors’ objects; this poses a conflict for them. On the one hand they wish to see and study objects they would never usually get to see when held in private collections, as well as get a consultancy fee (archaeology in academics or the field is often not very well paid). On the other hand they then become part of the problem by legitimizing what is often a crime. Looting of artifacts also destroys the most important information that archaeologists seek: context. What objects are where and how those objects are related allow inferences about lifeways of past peoples. Essay 1. Compare and contrast Fried’s system for classifying societies with Service’s system. What are the implications for archaeological interpretation? Answer: Fried’s System (1967): • Social Evolution: Fried's classification is based on the evolution of societies from simpler to more complex forms through stages: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. • Key Features: Bands are small, kinship-based groups; tribes are larger with more social differentiation; chiefdoms have centralized leadership and social ranking; states have formal governments and stratification. • Implications: Archaeologically, this system suggests looking for specific material correlates (e.g., monumental architecture, craft specialization) to identify stages of social evolution. Service’s System (1962): • Cultural Evolution: Service's typology focuses on the evolution of political organization from egalitarian bands to ranked societies, chiefdoms, and states. • Chiefdoms vs States: Service emphasizes the critical transition from chiefdoms (redistributive economies and limited social hierarchy) to states (centralized authority, bureaucracy). • Implications: Archaeologically, Service's system suggests examining changes in settlement patterns, burial practices, and economic systems to identify shifts in political complexity. Implications for Archaeological Interpretation: • Methodological Approach: Both systems guide archaeologists in identifying and interpreting socio-political complexity through material culture, settlement patterns, and economic systems. • Comparative Analysis: Archaeologists can compare sites across different regions and time periods to understand how societies evolve and adapt, using typologies to contextualize changes. • Critique and Adaptation: While useful, these typologies have been critiqued for oversimplifying social evolution and ignoring internal diversity within societies. 2. Discuss the stages of the development of Stonehenge. How have archaeologists interpreted the increasing complexity of the site? Answer: Development Stages: • Phase 1 (3100-3000 BCE): Stonehenge began as a circular earthwork enclosure (Henge) with a ditch and outer bank, likely used for ritual purposes. • Phase 2 (c. 3000-2500 BCE): The introduction of large sarsen stones and smaller bluestones arranged in a double circle with an inner horseshoe shape. • Phase 3 (c. 2500-1600 BCE): Alterations included rearranging stones, adding the Avenue (a ceremonial approach), and burial pits indicating ongoing ritual use. Interpretations of Complexity: • Ceremonial Center: Initially interpreted as a ceremonial or astronomical observatory aligned with solar and lunar events. • Social Organization: Later phases suggest increasing social complexity, possibly with elite control over resources and construction, reflected in the scale and precision of stone placement. • Symbolism and Ritual: The evolving design and alignment of Stonehenge reflect changing beliefs and rituals, possibly linked to ancestor worship, fertility rites, or seasonal ceremonies. Archaeological Evidence: • Excavations and Dating: Radiocarbon dating of artifacts and cremation burials provides a timeline for construction phases and cultural changes. • Material Culture: Analysis of pottery, tools, and human remains found at the site offers insights into daily life, diet, and social interactions of the builders. 3. Compare and contrast the elite of Chaco Canyon with the elite of Cahokia. Answer: Chaco Canyon: • Location: Located in present-day New Mexico, USA, Chaco Canyon was a center of ancestral Puebloan culture. • Elite Characteristics: Elite at Chaco Canyon controlled extensive trade networks for exotic goods like turquoise, controlled large-scale construction projects (e.g., Great Houses), and possibly religious authority. • Social Organization: Hierarchical with distinct elite residences (e.g., Pueblo Bonito) and evidence of wealth differentiation. Cahokia: • Location: Located near present-day St. Louis, Missouri, Cahokia was the largest urban center of Mississippian culture. • Elite Characteristics: Cahokia's elite likely controlled surplus food production, managed large-scale mound construction (e.g., Monks Mound), and possibly regulated trade and religious activities. • Social Organization: Highly stratified society with evidence of elite residences (e.g., Emerald Mound), craft specialization, and centralized political authority. Comparison: • Economic Basis: Both elites controlled agricultural surplus but relied on different ecological strategies (dry farming vs. floodplain agriculture). • Cultural Influence: Cahokia's influence extended over a larger area with more hierarchical control, while Chaco Canyon's influence was more regional and possibly religious. • Architectural Achievements: Both sites demonstrate impressive architectural feats but with distinct styles reflecting their cultural and environmental contexts. 4. How does the function of the site of Cahokia compare with that of Pueblo Bonito? Answer: Cahokia: • Function: Cahokia functioned as a political, religious, and economic center with monumental earthen mounds, a central plaza (Grand Plaza), and a Woodhenge ceremonial site. • Social Complexity: Hierarchical society with elite control over agriculture, trade networks (including exotic goods like shells), and possibly religious ceremonies (e.g., Birdman Cult). Pueblo Bonito (Chaco Canyon): • Function: Pueblo Bonito served as a ceremonial and administrative center within Chaco Canyon, with its Great Kiva and aligned architectural features reflecting astronomical alignments. • Social Organization: Hierarchical with elite control over regional trade networks for resources like turquoise, macaws, and other luxury goods, possibly associated with religious ceremonies. Comparison: • Architectural Layout: Cahokia's layout includes large-scale earthen mounds and plazas, whereas Pueblo Bonito features multi-story adobe structures arranged around a central plaza and Great Kiva. • Regional Influence: Cahokia had a broader regional influence, possibly controlling trade routes and influencing other Mississippian centers, while Pueblo Bonito's influence was more localized within the Chacoan region. 5. What is the basis for the power of the elites at Great Zimbabwe? Answer: Great Zimbabwe: • Location: Located in modern-day Zimbabwe, Great Zimbabwe was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe during the Late Iron Age. • Elite Power: The power of the elites at Great Zimbabwe was based on several factors: • Control of Trade: Elites controlled trade routes connecting the interior with coastal trading networks, facilitating the exchange of gold, ivory, and other commodities. • Architectural Symbolism: The Great Enclosure and the Hill Complex served as symbols of elite authority and religious significance, possibly associated with ancestral worship or royal rituals. • Resource Control: Elites controlled access to agricultural land and grazing areas, supporting a population engaged in cattle herding, agriculture, and specialized craft production. Archaeological Evidence: • Trade Goods: Excavations have uncovered imported goods such as Chinese ceramics, Persian pottery, and glass beads, indicating long-distance trade networks under elite control. • Monumental Architecture: The construction of stone walls, platforms, and the Great Enclosure reflects centralized authority and the ability to mobilize labor for large-scale building projects. Legacy and Interpretation: • Cultural Legacy: Great Zimbabwe's architectural achievements and political organization influenced later kingdoms in southern Africa, shaping regional identities and historical narratives. • Interpretative Challenges: Archaeologists continue to debate the nature of political authority at Great Zimbabwe, considering factors such as economic control, ritual practices, and external trade relations. Chapter 11: Cities, Pyramids and Palaces: Early States of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Aegean Multiple Choice 1. This epic tale, set in the Uruk period, is known from cuneiform tablets recovered from Mesopotamia. A. the Bible B. Gilgamesh C. the Odyssey D. the Iliad Answer: B 2. Mesopotamia is found between the Tigris and Euphrates, centered in what modern country? A. Iran B. Iraq C. Syria D. Turkey Answer: B 3. Most of the early cities in Mesopotamia were either within or on the edge of __________. A. rolling upland B. extensive marshlands C. desert wasteland D. grassy savannah Answer: B 4. The first cities in Mesopotamia developed during the __________ period. A. Chalcolithi B. Uruk C. Neolithic D. Ubaid Answer: B 5. What is the oldest known city in the world? A. Hamourkar B. Habuba Kebira C. Uruk D. Ur Answer: C 6. During the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia the __________ recorded transactions involving the exchange of land for goods. A. hieroglyphic stones B. kuduru texts C. cylinder seals D. Habuba scrolls Answer: B 7. Where is the Nile Delta found? A. Lower Egypt B. Upper Egypt C. the Fayum Depression D. Nubia Answer: A 8. Why did the Nile farmers not have the salination problems that plagued Mesopotamian farmers? A. The Aswan dam made irrigation unnecessary. B. They used fertilizers rich in potassium salts. C. There is no salt in the Egyptian soil. D. The annual flooding of the Nile replenished the soil. Answer: D 9. The earliest evidence for the unification of Egypt under a single ruler is a slab of carved slate known as the __________. A. Abydos Slab B. Narmer Palette C. Saqqara Tablet D. Scorpion Chronicle Answer: B 10. The first capital of a unified Egypt was in this Upper Egyptian city. A. Cairo B. Giza C. Hierakonpolis D. Memphis Answer: C 11. Egyptian kingly power was tied to the concept of __________, which combines the virtues of balance and justice. A. karma B. Saqqara C. ma’at D. destiny Answer: C 12. The Tomb of Ty at Saqqara shows the integral role that __________ played in managing the economy of the Old Kingdom. A. farmers B. priests C. bureaucrats D. scribes Answer: D 13. The first true pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid, was built by King __________ of the fourth dynasty. A. Cheops B. Akhenaten C. Snefru D. Djoser Answer: C 14. Excavations at __________ in Mali show that urban centers predate external contact in West Africa. A. Axum B. Timbuktu C. Songhay D. Jenne-Jeno Answer: D 15. In the Ethiopian highlands, an impressive kingdom developed around what city? A. Timbuktu B. Nubia C. Amarna D. Axum Answer: D 16. Where did the Minoans live? A. Crete B. Thera C. Peloponnese D. Troy Answer: A 17. The concept of heterarchy is based on __________. A. the relation of unranked elements B. space inter-syntax C. oracle bone writing D. standardized bricks and rations Answer: A 18. The title of the rule in Linear B tablets is the __________. A. wanax B. thorax C. lorax D. borax Answer: A 19. Which of these towns may have been destroyed by a volcanic eruption? A. Santorini B. Knossos C. Akritiri D. Venice Answer: C 20. Minoan naval forces may have been destroyed by __________. A. a tsunami B. the Mycenaeans C. disease D. pirates Answer: A True False 1. The Epic of Gilgamesh recounts the exploits of the king of Uruk. Answer: True 2. Mesopotamia was bounded by the Nile and the Euphrates Rivers. Answer: False 3. In southern Mesopotamia, crops can be grown only with irrigation. Answer: True 4. Most Paleolithic and Neolithic sites in southern Mesopotamia are accessible to archaeologists because they are not deeply buried. Answer: False 5. The growth of Mesopotamian cities was based on the production of agricultural surplus. Answer: True 6. Although warfare in between Mesopotamian city-states was common, the level of violence was limited. Answer: True 7. Upper Egypt refers to the northern part of the Egyptian Nile Valley. Answer: False 8. Like the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys, the Nile River valley is rich in mineral resources. Answer: False 9. Hieratic was an alternative script to hieroglyphics developed during the fourth dynasty. Answer: True 10. The painted wall of Tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis contradicts the information on the Narmer Palette. Answer: False 11. The First and Second Dynasty royal tombs at Abydos are simple brick chambers. Answer: True 12. Originally, the great pyramid of Cheops at Giza was sheathed in a casing of polished limestone. Answer: True 13. The Minoans had a form of social organization that was complex without the emergence of urban centers. Answer: True 14. Peer polity interactions may explain the interaction between the Minoans and the Mycenaeans. Answer: True 15. The core of Minoan and Mycenaean society was the palace. Answer: True Short Answer 1. How have the cities of Mesopotamia impacted their environment? Answer: The sites of early cities were once in marshlands, but are now in desert areas. Early farming practices caused salt to be concentrated in soils near the surface. As a result of this salination, the soil will no longer support agriculture. 2. What was the Code of Hammurabi? Answer: Dating to around 1800 B.C., the code is an extensive legal document carved in stone. The laws set out penalties for perjury, robbery, and murder and also cover marriage, adoption, slavery, and economic transactions. It gave the king supreme legal authority over commerce, violence, and community. 3. How are the bevel-rim bowls that are commonly found on Uruk sites used to infer social structure? Answer: The small undecorated bowls are made of unremarkable coarse clay. Theories about the function of these bowls suggest that they were used to distribute grain rations in a standard measure to workers or they were molds for baking bread, also used as a ration. Both interpretations imply a controlling authority that could regulate aspects of daily life. 4. How do archaeologists interpret Habuba Kebira? Answer: Habuba Kebira is a walled town on the Euphrates River in northern Syria. The artifacts found there are only in the style of the Uruk heartland. As this expansion of Uruk was not militaristic, archaeologists have argued that it is a trading post or settlement built to protect important trade routes. 5. What made Egypt an ideal place for the rise of social complexity? Answer: The area is protected from invasion by deserts to the east and west and river rapids to the south. All human habitation was also concentrated along the Nile within this protection. The Nile served as a transportation conduit and its annual flooding annually replenished the farmland. The surrounding deserts supplied metals and mineral resources. 6. What was the Sed festival? Answer: Known from engravings in the Djoser complex, this was an event during which the king would run a course in an important ritual of renewal. The performance of the king was essential for maintaining order in the world. 7. What is the importance of the site of Jenne-Jeno? Answer: Excavations at this site in Mali have demonstrated that urban centers in West Africa predate extensive external contacts. It was an important trade center for caravans coming from Timbuktu. It was the center of an area that was densely inhabited by A. D. 300. 8. Discuss the various arguments about how Minoan and Mycenaean societies interacted on the political level. Answer: They were both autonomous political units who Renfrew contends were early state modules. The interactions between them, he terms peer polity interactions, may have fuelled social complexity and change to both cultures. Evidence that supports this view includes competition, emulation, symbolic entertainment, and exchange. Other researchers refute the hierarchy that such interactions would require, instead using the heterarchy model. This model allows for complexity and a highly structured society without hierarchy. Crumley argues for no clearly defined ranking of members in both societies. 9. What role did palaces have in Aegean society? Answer: They functioned as the core of the society, with the central court hosting large public events. Some 1,500 to 5,000 participants are inferred. The palaces incorporated administrative offices, storage rooms for basic commodities, and workshops for making finished goods and textiles. The palaces also controlled land in the countryside and taxed people living there. One of the few differences between Mycenaean and Minoan palaces is that the Mycenaeans had funerary structures at their palaces while the Minoans did not. 10. What kind of violence and warfare existed in Aegean society? Answer: According to frescoes found at palaces, military conflicts and ritual contests, such as boxing and bullfighting or leaping, were very important to both societies. The Mycenaeans were more militarily aggressive than the Minoans, inferred from the Lion Gate defensive structure at Mycenae. The short sword used by both societies could only inflict serious injuries (life threatening) if used with training and skill. This speaks to the more competitive nature of warfare, rather than sheer ability to kill, and fits in well with peer polity interaction models. Essay 1. Compare how Egypt and Mesopotamian societies were governed and controlled. Answer: Egypt: • Centralized State: Egypt was governed by a centralized bureaucratic state with the pharaoh at the apex, considered divine and wielding absolute authority. • Administrative Structure: The state was organized into administrative divisions (nomes), overseen by officials appointed by the pharaoh. These officials managed taxation, resource allocation, and public works. • Legal System: Egyptian law was based on royal decrees and religious principles, administered by scribes and judges. Punishments for crimes varied based on social status. • Social Hierarchy: Society was hierarchically structured with the pharaoh, nobles, priests, scribes, artisans, and peasants. Social mobility was limited but possible through royal favor or military service. Mesopotamia: • City-States: Mesopotamia comprised city-states like Sumer, Akkad, and Babylon, each governed independently by a king (lugal) who derived authority from the gods. • Decentralized Power: Unlike Egypt, Mesopotamian governance was more decentralized with city-states often competing for resources and dominance. • Legal Codes: Mesopotamian societies developed early legal codes, such as the Code of Ur-Nammu and the famous Code of Hammurabi, which regulated behavior, commerce, and social order. • Social Structure: Mesopotamian society was stratified with kings, priests, bureaucrats, merchants, artisans, and farmers. Slavery was prevalent, often as a result of debt or war. Comparison: • Divine Authority: Both societies justified rulership through divine authority, but in Egypt, the pharaoh's divine status was central to governance, while Mesopotamian kingship derived authority from gods and city-state loyalty. • Administrative Systems: Egypt had a more centralized bureaucracy for resource management and public works, while Mesopotamian city-states had more fluid political boundaries and competitive economies. • Legal Systems: Both developed legal systems but differed in scope and enforcement; Egyptian law focused more on religious and royal decrees, while Mesopotamian law was codified and publicly displayed. • Impact of Geography: Egypt's geographic isolation fostered more stability and continuity in governance compared to the more volatile and competitive city-state system of Mesopotamia. 2. How did writing develop in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and how did the use of writing differ between the two cultures? Answer: Mesopotamia: • Cuneiform Script: Mesopotamian writing began around 3200 BCE with the development of cuneiform script, initially pictographic and later evolving into syllabic and phonetic forms. • Clay Tablets: Writing was primarily recorded on clay tablets using reed styluses, baked to preserve records of economic transactions, legal codes, literature (such as the Epic of Gilgamesh), and administrative documents. • Use: Cuneiform was used for record-keeping, legal documents, literature, and correspondence between city-states, facilitating trade and administrative control. Egypt: • Hieroglyphic Script: Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged around 3200 BCE, initially pictorial and later incorporating phonetic elements. Hieratic and Demotic scripts developed as cursive forms for administrative and literary texts. • Papyrus: Writing in Egypt was recorded on papyrus scrolls using reed pens and ink. This medium preserved texts such as religious texts (e.g., Book of the Dead), administrative records, literature, and monumental inscriptions. • Use: Hieroglyphs were used for monumental inscriptions (temples, tombs), religious texts (pyramid texts, Coffin Texts), administrative records (taxation, census), and personal correspondence. Comparison: • Script Complexity: Egyptian hieroglyphs maintained a more complex system with ideographic and phonetic elements, while Mesopotamian cuneiform evolved through various stages of complexity and abstraction. • Medium of Writing: Mesopotamians primarily used clay tablets for durability and record-keeping, while Egyptians used papyrus for its flexibility and portability, allowing for a wider dissemination of texts. • Literary and Administrative Focus: Mesopotamian writing focused on economic and administrative records, legal codes, and literature (epics, myths), whereas Egyptian writing emphasized religious texts, royal decrees, and monumental inscriptions glorifying rulers and deities. 3. Compare and contrast the pyramids of Egypt with those of the Maya (Ch.13). Include their evolution, uses, and construction technology. Answer: Pyramids of Egypt: • Evolution: Egyptian pyramids evolved from step pyramids (e.g., Djoser's Step Pyramid) to true pyramids with smooth, angled sides (e.g., Great Pyramid of Giza), reflecting advancements in engineering and royal ambition. • Uses: Egyptian pyramids served as royal tombs for pharaohs, containing elaborate burial chambers, sarcophagi, and funerary goods to ensure the pharaoh's passage to the afterlife. • Construction Technology: Built using limestone or granite blocks quarried locally, with precision-cutting techniques, ramps, and organized labor (possibly corvée labor) to construct monumental structures. Pyramids of the Maya: • Evolution: Maya pyramids evolved from simple structures to complex temple-pyramids with multiple platforms and stairways, serving as religious and ceremonial centers. • Uses: Maya pyramids were used for religious rituals, astronomical observations (e.g., alignments with celestial events), and possibly royal burials, though not as primary tombs as in Egypt. • Construction Technology: Constructed using limestone blocks and stucco, with steep stairways leading to temple sanctuaries at the summit. Maya pyramids often adorned with elaborate sculptures and hieroglyphic inscriptions. Comparison: • Function: Egyptian pyramids primarily served as tombs and symbols of royal power and afterlife beliefs, while Maya pyramids functioned as religious and ceremonial centers, often integrated with urban complexes and ball courts. • Technological Differences: Egyptian pyramids utilized large, precisely cut stone blocks and ramps for construction, emphasizing monumental scale and royal prestige, whereas Maya pyramids integrated with urban planning, plaster, and decorative arts. • Cultural Context: Egyptian pyramids reflected divine kingship and the afterlife journey of the pharaoh, while Maya pyramids symbolized cosmic order, ritual performance, and celestial cycles in the context of complex city-states. 4. What is petrographic analysis and how has it been used to track trade routes? Answer: Petrographic Analysis: • Definition: Petrographic analysis involves studying the mineral composition, texture, and structure of pottery or other ceramic artifacts using microscopic and chemical techniques. • Purpose: It helps identify the geological source of raw materials used in pottery production, revealing trade networks, cultural exchange, and economic interactions. Application in Tracking Trade Routes: • Source Identification: By comparing ceramic samples to known geological sources, petrographic analysis can pinpoint where ceramics were manufactured and track their distribution. • Trade Patterns: Patterns in ceramic composition and distribution indicate trade routes and networks, revealing economic relationships, cultural exchanges, and the extent of regional interaction. • Case Studies: For example, studies of Minoan pottery in the Aegean identified trade routes from Crete to mainland Greece, Egypt, and the Levant, illuminating Bronze Age maritime trade. 5. What was the effect of Santorini on Aegean society? Answer: Effect of Santorini (Thera) Eruption: • Catastrophic Event: The eruption of Santorini around 1600 BCE was one of the largest volcanic events in human history, causing tsunamis, ashfall, and climatic disturbances. • Minoan Civilization: The Minoan civilization on Crete, closest to Santorini, was severely impacted. Coastal towns were destroyed by tsunamis, and ashfall disrupted agriculture. • Cultural Disruption: The eruption led to the decline of Minoan palaces and centralized authority, affecting political stability and economic networks. • Archaeological Evidence: Layers of volcanic ash in archaeological sites (e.g., Akrotiri on Santorini, Knossos on Crete) preserve a snapshot of life before and after the eruption, aiding in reconstructing societal responses and recovery efforts. • Regional Impact: Beyond Crete, the eruption affected Aegean trade routes, cultural exchange, and environmental resilience, contributing to a period of upheaval and societal transformation. Chapter 12: Locating the Source of Authority: Early States in Asia Multiple Choice 1. Urban cities developed along this river during the Harappan Period. A. Nile B. Ganges C. Tigris-Euphrates D. Indus Answer: D 2. The prowess of the Harappan state is expressed in __________. A. compulsory public education B. their truly egalitarian society C. advanced science and mathematics D. meticulously planned, urban construction Answer: D 3. Harappan trade networks covered the area from __________. A. the Arabian Peninsula to Afghanistan B. North Africa to Mesopotamia C. the Cyclades to Crete D. the Yi Lou Valley to Rizhao Answer: A 4. Which of the following were the largest Harappan cities? A. Akrotiri and Thera B. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro C. Knossos and Mycenae D. Rizhao and Yanshi Answer: B 5. Space syntax is the study of __________. A. architectural space B. gaps in written languages C. how people move across a landscape D. regional hierarchies Answer: A 6. The site of Dholavira is associated with the __________. A. Harappan culture B. Xia Dynasty C. Kofun period D. kingdom of Angkor Answer: A 7. At what site was the Great Bath located? A. Erlitou B. Mohenjo-Daro C. Yingpan D. Sanxingdui Answer: B 8. The Harappan script is known mostly from which of the following? A. small stone seals used to mark vessels and bundles B. paintings on tomb walls C. cylinder seals for authenticating documents D. fired clay tablets Answer: A 9. Carefully standardized bricks and weights in Harappan society speak to __________. A. one specialized factory next to the great bath B. proof of a religious ceremony C. a highly militaristic dictator D. a highly organized bureaucracy Answer: D 10. What is the most impressive evidence of royalty in Harappan society? A. the massive palace at Harappa B. a small steatite sculpture of a ‘priest-king’ from Mohenjo-Daro C. the ‘granary’ at Menrgarh D. the lavishly furnished royal tomb at Mohenjo-Daro Answer: B 11. Which of these is an early Chinese dynasty that dates to between 2,000 B.C. and 500 B.C.? A. Ming B. Zhou C. Qing D. Tang Answer: B 12. A four tier hierarchy system was inferred for the __________. A. Yi Lou Valley B. Knossos region C. Chifeng area D. entire Harappan area Answer: A 13. What is the capital of the Late Shang dynasty and China’s oldest city? A. Xia B. Banpo C. Anyang D. Beijing Answer: C 14. A possible second capital of the Shang dynasty was __________. A. Banpo B. Beijing C. Sanxingdui D. Pengtoushan Answer: C 15. Which of these was an important feature for establishing the power of rulers in early Chinese states? A. religion B. ritual C. artwork D. warfare Answer: B 16. What unique burial monuments appeared in Japan around 200 A. D.? A. keyhole shaped tombs B. bronze urns C. granite headstones D. slender obelisks Answer: A 17. Who was discovered in Tomb 15 at Yingpan? A. the first emperor of Japan B. a woman decorated in elaborate jewelry C. a sacrificed child D. a tall, 30-year-old man Answer: D 18. The ancient city of Angkor was located in what is now the nation of __________. A. Thailand B. India C. Cambodia D. Malaysia Answer: C 19. Which of these sites is located in modern-day Vietnam? A. Yingpan B. Noen U-Loke C. Oc Eo D. Angkor Borei Answer: C 20. What distinguishes archaeologists from treasure hunters? A. the ability to sell artifacts to the highest bidder B. the focus on recovering expensive items from shipwrecks C. the lack of emphasis on documenting the site D. a respect for the careful recording of the context of discoveries Answer: D True False 1. The Harappan civilization developed in the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley in Pakistan. Answer: False 2. Harappan cities, while large, show almost no sign of urban planning in their construction. Answer: False 3. Malaria – not conquest - may have led to Harappan decline. Answer: True 4. Most Harappan settlements were small villages, not urban centers. Answer: True 5. The Harappan script has recently been translated and provides a wealth of information concerning trade with Mesopotamia. Answer: False 6. Harappan elites had elaborate burials with rich grave goods. Answer: False 7. Shang dynasty settlements are mostly within a few inches of the surface. Answer: False 8. Palaces in China were built first at Anyang. Answer: False 9. Bronze vessels from Anyang served as politically all-important ritual symbols. Answer: True 10. Oracle bones recovered from Anyang may represent the very beginning of Chinese writing. Answer: False 11. The Chifeng region was located in what is now known as Inner Mongolia. Answer: True 12. The emphasis on feasting during the Shang Dynasty indicates an egalitarian social structure. Answer: False 13. State societies in China can trace their roots to pre-Shang dynasty. Answer: True 14. The Three Gorges Dam has improved access to a number of important archaeological sites. Answer: False 15. The Southern Silk Route spread ideas as well as commerce throughout southern Asia. Answer: True Short Answer 1. Discuss the collapse of the Harappan civilization. Answer: The cause of the fall of the Harappan Period is a subject of much archaeological debate. Some feel that invading forces were responsible; others think malaria may have played a part. Most emphasize that the decline was a gradual process, taking a number of years, perhaps brought on by a shift in the course of the Indus River. 2. What characterizes Harappan cities? Answer: Harappan cities have a number of common features. Structures are laid out in a regular grid pattern of streets. Elaborate covered drains serviced the houses and water was supplied by brick-lined wells. Even the bricks were made to a uniform size. Most of the settlements were small villages. 3. What evidence is there for social inequality in Harappan society? Answer: There is very little evidence of inequality in the archaeological record. The Harappan elites did not appear to live very differently from other members of society or to have expressed their power by constructing monuments or burying their dead in elaborate tombs. Only a handful of sculptures that might depict royalty have been uncovered. 4. What was Chinese society like in the area of Anyang before Anyang? Answer: Before Anyang gained power, the Yi-Lou Valley was an important area. The site of Erlitou may have been the capital of the Xia Dynasty between 1,800 and 1,600 B.C. The site had two large palaces, and many elite grave goods have been recovered, including bronze ritual vessels and jade. At the same time the site of Shaochia existed, though in a somewhat secondary role to Erlitou. Yanshi is another site in the area that arose after the downfall of Erlitou. Before even Erlitou, Shaochia, and Yanshi, the area had large village settlements correlated with the Early Longshan period. Archaeologists have identified a four-tier settlement hierarchy from urban centers to villages. 5. What is the importance of Anyang to Chinese history? Answer: Anyang was the capital of the Late Shang Dynasty (1200–1045 B.C) and oldest known city in China. It is distinguished by its fine bronzes and elaborate burials that show ample evidence of social inequality. Huge numbers of inscribed oracle bones found at the site are the earliest record of systematic Chinese writing. 6. Describe oracle bones and what they mean, both at a site level and in the broader sense. Answer: Oracle bones were discovered at antiquity markets; subsequently the origin of the bones was found to be the previously unknown site of Anyang. When the king needed to know something from the ancestors he would ask them the question. The bones were a way for the ancestors to communicate the answer. The bones were prepared and heated, with the resultant cracks being interpreted by the king to answer his problem. A lot of the later oracle bones were notated to describe the problem and the resulting answer, allowing a unique insight into the working of Shang dynasty of early Chinese society. The site of Anyang is a large city, and its discovery and excavation has provided much information about burials, elites, city planning and layout, ritual, status, and day-to-day life during the Shang 3,000 yrs ago. 7. How has the Three Gorges Dam project threatened Chinese archaeology? Answer: The project is intended to generate power and to control flooding on the Yangze River. The dam will ultimately displace over 1 million people, and will lead to the flooding of hundreds of archaeological sites. This is only one example of the many dam projects around the world that destroy archaeological sites which, by their very nature, are nonrenewable resources. 8. How did the Silk Route influence the development of complex societies in southern Asia? Answer: The Silk Route was a trade route that linked Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. This trade network allowed for the exchange of goods and technology, as well as introduced the migration of new populations and ideas. Religious traditions, including Hinduism and Buddhism, appear to have spread throughout southern Asia primarily through this route. 9. What is the significance of the great city of Angkor? Answer: Angkor was a thriving urban center, built on intensive rice agriculture, taxation, military force, and the ritual position of the rulers. The huge city was built amid a multitude of canals, artificial lakes, and basins, creating a completely humanmodified landscape for this urban center. 10. What is underwater archaeology, and is it scientific? Answer: Underwater archaeology is very much archaeology. It is not treasuring hunting (like salvage), but seeks the same answers about the past as land-based enquiry, including political, religious and social organizations, and interactions. Underwater archaeologists use the same methods of survey, mapping and stratigraphic analysis, though with modified equipment. Also, artifact conservation is often somewhat different to land archaeology. Context, provenience, and exhaustive documentation are still required. Essay 1. Discuss the rise and fall of Harappan society. Answer: Rise: • Emergence: The Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley civilization, emerged around 2600 BCE in the fertile plains of the Indus River Valley (present-day Pakistan and northwest India). • Urbanization: Characterized by well-planned cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, featuring grid-like street layouts, advanced drainage systems, and standardized brick sizes. • Economic Foundations: Flourished due to agricultural productivity supported by sophisticated irrigation networks, trade in raw materials (such as copper, tin, and semi-precious stones), and craft specialization in pottery, metallurgy, and bead-making. • Cultural Achievements: Known for its distinctive seals with pictographic script, indicating administrative control and possibly ritual or economic symbolism. Fall: • Decline: Around 1900 BCE, the Harappan civilization entered a period of decline marked by urban abandonment, depopulation of major centres, and shifts in settlement patterns. • Factors: The decline may have been due to environmental factors such as climate change leading to decreased monsoon rainfall, soil salinization from irrigation practices, and deforestation. • Cultural Disruption: Invasions or migrations by Indo-Aryan speaking peoples from central Asia, possibly contributing to cultural and demographic changes. • Legacy: Despite its decline, the Harappan civilization left a lasting legacy in South Asian culture, influencing subsequent societies and religious practices. 2. What is distinctive about the Harappan script? Answer: Harappan Script: • Characteristics: The Harappan script is one of the few ancient scripts that has not been deciphered, limiting our understanding of its linguistic and administrative use. • Appearance: Consists of around 400 symbols or characters, primarily found on seals and small tablets made of steatite (soapstone). • Possible Writing System: Scholars hypothesize it may be a logographic or logo-syllabic script, representing both ideas (logograms) and syllables (syllabograms). • Purpose: Likely used for administrative purposes such as marking ownership or trade goods, but could also have had ritual or religious significance. • Legacy: The inability to decipher the script limits our understanding of Harappan society's language, literature, and cultural practices. 3. Discuss what Chinese society existed before Anyang. Answer: Pre-Anyang Chinese Society: • Neolithic Cultures: Before the establishment of the Shang Dynasty at Anyang (around 1600-1046 BCE), China was inhabited by several Neolithic cultures. • Economic Basis: Primarily agrarian societies practicing agriculture, animal husbandry, and hunting-gathering, with pottery and stone tool production. • Cultural Development: Artifacts from sites like Yangshao and Longshan cultures show advancements in ceramics, social organization, and ritual practices. • Social Structure: Likely organized into small villages or settlements, with evidence of communal activities and proto-urban centers. • Technological Advancements: Development of advanced pottery techniques, including painted pottery, and innovations in agriculture such as irrigation and terraced farming. Transition to Anyang (Shang Dynasty): • Urbanization: Anyang marks the beginning of urbanization in China, with walled cities, palace complexes, and bronze metallurgy becoming prominent. • Social Hierarchy: The Shang Dynasty introduced social hierarchy with the king (wang) at the top, ruling over nobles, artisans, and farmers, supported by a bureaucratic system. • Writing System: The oracle bone script emerged during the Shang Dynasty, used for divination and recording events, reflecting a more complex society. 4. What is the significance of the mummified remains found in the Tarim Basin? Answer: Tarim Basin Mummies: • Discovery: The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, China, has yielded mummified human remains dating from 1800 BCE to 200 CE, belonging to different cultural groups. • Cultural Diversity: Mummies include individuals of European or Caucasian appearance, suggesting ancient migrations and cultural exchanges along the Silk Road. • Technological Insights: Well-preserved clothing, textiles, and artifacts found with the mummies provide insights into ancient weaving techniques, textile trade, and cultural practices. • Genetic and Linguistic Studies: DNA analysis of the mummies has shed light on population movements and genetic diversity in ancient Central Asia. • Cultural Impact: The presence of non-East Asian populations challenges traditional views of ancient Chinese history and highlights the region's role as a crossroads of cultures. 5. Discuss the impact of Chinese society on cultures of southern Asia. Answer: Impact: • Cultural Diffusion: Chinese cultural influence spread to southern Asia through trade, diplomatic missions, and religious interactions, particularly during the Tang and Song Dynasties. • Buddhism: Chinese support for Buddhism led to its spread into Southeast Asia, influencing religious practices, art, architecture, and societal norms. • Technological Exchange: Chinese innovations such as papermaking, printing, and porcelain production were transmitted to southern Asia, stimulating economic growth and cultural development. • Political Influence: Chinese dynastic authority and administrative practices, including imperial governance and examination systems, influenced political structures in neighbouring regions. • Art and Literature: Chinese artistic traditions, including painting, calligraphy, and poetry, were adopted and adapted by cultures in southern Asia, contributing to artistic diversity and regional identities. Legacy: • Long-Term Impact: Chinese cultural and technological contributions left a lasting legacy in southern Asia, shaping religious beliefs, political systems, artistic expression, and intellectual pursuits. • Cultural Integration: Despite political changes and conflicts, Chinese cultural elements continue to be integrated into the diverse tapestry of southern Asian societies, fostering mutual understanding and exchange. Test Bank for World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways Through Time Michael Chazan 9780205953721, 9780205953103, 9780205953394

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