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This Document Contains Chapters 4 to 6 Chapter 4: From Homo erectus to Neanderthals Multiple Choice 1. The ________ is the geological era beginning 1.8 million years ago and characterized by glacial activity. A. Jurassic B. Pleistocene C. Pliocene D. Holocene Answer: B 2. The record of global climate fluctuations can be found in the __________. A. oxygen isotope curve B. tree rings of the bald cypress C. oxygen reduction line D. straight line regression curve Answer: A 3. What does the climate record produce by the analysis of deep sea cores show? A. The world was covered by glaciers for the past 800,000 years. B. There were only two distinct ice ages. C. Today’s global warming is unique in geologic history. D. The extent of glaciation and the rapidity of climate change vary considerably. Answer: D 4. Which of the following European sites have occupations dating to over 500,000 years ago? A. Atapuerca B. Boxgrove C. Bose D. Schoningen Answer: A 5. This simple flake tool industry was an English contemporary of the Acheulian. A. Levallois B. Boxgrovian C. Clactonian D. Mousterian Answer: C 6. What 400,000 year-old, remarkable find has been discovered at the site of Schöningen, Germany? A. over 100,000 stone tools, all chippers and flakes B. a mammoth vertebra with a spear point embedded in it C. the remains of more than 40 Homo erectus individuals D. three wooden spears Answer: D 7. Examples of tools as funerary offerings can be found at __________. A. Kebara Cave B. Sima de los Huestos C. Lascaux Cave D. Divje Babe 1 Cave Answer: B 8. Which of the following scenarios has been advanced to account for the evolution of Neanderthals? A. Neanderthals were the direct ancestors to modern humans. B. Neanderthals evolved from Homo erectus, and modern humans evolved from Homo habilis. C. Neanderthals and modern humans each evolved separately from Homo erectus. D. Neanderthals and modern humans were separated by time and by geography. Answer: C 9. Which of the following features distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans? A. physical adaptations to cold weather B. a hairy, brutish caveman appearance C. a larger than average brain size D. reduced sexual dimorphism Answer: A 10. The recovery of a hyoid bone from the Kebara site suggests that Neanderthals were __________. A. closely related to chimpanzees B. physically capable of speech C. fully bipedal D. incapable of making stone tools Answer: B 11. What specimen from Atapuerca has been proposed as intermediate between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens? A. Homo habilis B. Homo rudolphensis C. Homo ergaster D. Homo antecessor Answer: D 12. Where was the oldest fossil that can clearly be classified as Neanderthal (175,000 years ago) discovered? A. Biache-Saint-Vaast B. Le Moustier C. Mezmaiska Cave D. Shanidar Cave Answer: A 13. What is the cultural period associated with the Neanderthals? A. Mousterian B. Lower Paleolithic C. Oldowan D. Middle Paleolithic Answer: D 14. The recognition that the shape of stone tools evolves throughout their use-life is referred to as the __________. A. adaptive cycle B. Darwin effect C. Frison effect D. lithic tool cycle Answer: C 15. The ________ refers to the entire life history of a stone tool, from gathering the raw material to discard. A. lithic use cycle B. method lithique C. artifact genesis effect D. chaîne opératoire Answer: D 16. A prepared core technology characteristic of Middle Paleolithic tools is the _________ method. A. Aurignacian B. Neanderthal C. Acheulian D. Levallois Answer: D 17. The site of La Cotte de St. Brelade shows evidence of __________. A. cannibalism B. the controlled use of fire C. hunting by stampeding animals over a cliff D. intentional human burial Answer: C 18. Which site has sparked claims of intentional Neanderthal burials? A. Shanidar Cave B. Lascaux Cave C. Moula-Guercy D. La Cotte de St. Brelade Answer: A 19. Skeletal evidence from the site of Moula-Guercy suggests that Neanderthals __________. A. buried their dead B. could speak C. practiced cannibalism D. hunted Homo erectus Answer: C 20. Mary Stiner characterized Neanderthal populations as -__________. A. warlike and savage B. exceptionally small and mobile C. quite civilized and peaceful D. fully sedentary cave-dwellers Answer: B True False 1. Marcelin Boule’s characterization of the Neanderthal as a degenerate side branch of human evolution has been recognized as generally correct. Answer: False 2. The Pleistocene is characterized by the frequent buildup and retreat of continental ice sheets. Answer: True 3. The global climate record, as revealed by the oxygen isotope curve has been remarkably stable for the past 100,000 years. Answer: False 4. The hand axe is the characteristic tool of the Eurasian Acheulian. Answer: True 5. The site of Box grove, England is among the youngest-known Mousterian sites in Europe. Answer: False 6. Artifacts were left in place during excavations at Box grove to preserve context. Answer: True 7. The Clactonian is contemporary with the Acheulian. Answer: True 8. The site of Zhoukoudian, near Beijing, has produced a number of fossils of Homo antecessor. Answer: False 9. The hominin Homo antecessor is intermediate between Neanderthals and modern humans. Answer: False 10. The hyoid bone found at Kebara suggests that Neanderthals hunted the herds of hyoids found in the prehistoric Middle East. Answer: false 11. DNA recovered from Neanderthal fossils indicates that Neanderthal DNA is significantly different from the DNA of any living human. Answer: True 12. The Levallois technique for making stone tools was much simpler than the preceding Acheulian industry. Answer: False 13. Wooden artifacts, such as the spears found at Schöningen, are so rare on hominin sites because during the Stone Age most tools were made of stone. Answer: False 14. Stable isotope studies of skeletons from Europe suggest that Neanderthals were actually mostly vegetarian. Answer: False 15. Excavations have produced conclusive evidence for intentional burial of Neanderthal dead. Answer: True Short Answer 1. What is the basis for our stereotype of Neanderthals as hulking ape-men ? Answer: This image of the Neanderthal caveman dates back to 1908 with the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton at the site of La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Marcelin Boule, the paleoanthropologist who studied the fossil, had the preconceived notion that they were a degenerate branch of human evolution. Subsequent analyses of the fossil show that Boule ignored the effects of arthritis and other pathologies on the skeleton. 2. What might explain the absence of handaxes in the east Asian Acheulian? Answer: One approach attributes the absence of hand axes to ecological factors. Geoffrey Pope has proposed that their absence in East Asia coincides with the limits of the distribution of bamboo and that hominins of that region made many of their tools from bamboo. Ethnoarchaeological research has shown that a wide range of bamboo tools could be fashioned with simple choppers and flakes. 3. What is the significance of the site of Zhoukoudian? Answer: Zhoukoudian is a series of caves outside of Beijing excavated in the 1920s. The site yielded the remains of over 40 Homo erectus specimens and over 100,000 stone tools. Locality 1 dates to between 500,000 and 300,000 BP and has provided the earliest evidence for the use of fire, though this has been recently questioned. 4. What is the Berekhat Ram figurine? Answer: It is a small pebble of volcanic rock found at the Lower Paleolithic of Berekhat Ram, Golan Heights. It exhibits signs of human modification and may be representative of a human female. At 230,000 years old it may be the earliest evidence of a human representation. 5. What is the genetic relationship of Neanderthals to modern humans? Answer: The sequences of Neanderthal DNA that have been analyzed are significantly different from modern human DNA. This finding suggests that the Neanderthal lineage evolved separately from the modern human lineage for a very long time. 6. What is the Frison Effect? Answer: Stone tools have a lifetime of use, or use life, that includes resharpening. This quality of stone technology is known as the Frison effect. During its use-life, a single piece might pass through several forms as it undergoes resharpening. Variability in Middle Paleolithic stone tool industries could be explained on the basis of access to raw material and the degree of mobility of the inhabitants of the site. 7. What was the role of meat in the Neanderthal diet? Answer: The evidence for hunting is overwhelming. Studies of the bone chemistry of Neanderthal fossils suggest that Neanderthals were essentially meat eaters. The chemical signature of Neanderthal bones matches the signature of bones of predators such as the giant lion and wolves. 8. How did the Neanderthal dispose of their dead? Answer: On the basis of evidence from several sites (e.g., Kebara & Amud caves) it appears that Neanderthals did at times bury their dead in small pits, perhaps placing objects in with the deceased. However, at other times there may be signs of cannibalism (Moula-Guercy) as the remains are treated like other animal bones that were used for food. 9. What is micromorphology and how can it help interpret an archaeological site? Answer: Soil micromorphology is a method used to make a detailed examination of the deposits that make up an anthropological site. It works by taking a block of sediment out of a stratum and then looking at the microscopic traces of stratigraphy. Micromorphologists have shown that what may look like a single depositional unit is in fact made up of a very large number of micro-discrete events. It can tell us a great deal about how a feature was formed. 10. What was Stiner’s hypothesis on the nature of Neanderthal group size and mobility? Answer: On the basis of Mary Stiner’s observations of the faunal assemblages of Neanderthal sites, she suggests that Neanderthal populations were exceptionally small and that they did not spend much time foraging in any one vicinity. Stiner’s observations appear to contradict the picture of Neanderthals as quasi-sedentary hunter-gatherers in favor of small mobile populations. Essay 1. Discuss the various theories explaining the variation in the Lower Paleolithic tool assemblages. Answer: The Lower Paleolithic, spanning approximately 3.3 million to 300,000 years ago, is characterized by diverse tool assemblages. Various theories explain this variation: Cultural Variation: • Different Traditions: The Acheulean and Oldowan tool industries represent distinct cultural traditions. The Acheulean is characterized by handaxes and bifacial tools, while the Oldowan features simpler, core and flake tools. • Cultural Transmission: Variations in tool assemblages could result from differences in cultural transmission and learning among hominin groups. Local traditions and techniques could be passed down and modified over generations. Functional Variation: • Tool Functions: Different tools were created for specific functions. For example, bifacial handaxes might have been used for butchering large animals, while simple flakes could serve various cutting tasks. Functional requirements led to the development of different tool types. • Environmental Adaptation: Tool variation could also reflect adaptation to different environments. Hominins living in forested areas might have used different tools than those in open savannas, depending on available resources and prey. Cognitive and Motor Skills: • Cognitive Abilities: The complexity of tools reflects the cognitive abilities of their makers. The more sophisticated Acheulean tools suggest higher cognitive capabilities and planning compared to the simpler Oldowan tools. • Skill Levels: Variation in tool assemblages can also result from differing skill levels among toolmakers. More experienced individuals might produce more refined tools, while novices create simpler ones. Raw Material Availability: • Resource Availability: The availability and quality of raw materials influence tool production. Regions with abundant high-quality stone might see more complex tool production, while areas with limited resources might produce simpler tools. • Local Adaptations: Hominins adapted their tool-making techniques based on the types of raw materials available in their local environments, leading to regional variations in tool assemblages. 2. Discuss the three scenarios that have been proposed for the evolution of Neanderthals. Answer: Scenario 1: Out of Africa: • Single Origin Hypothesis: This theory posits that modern humans evolved in Africa and then dispersed, replacing local hominin populations, including Neanderthals, without significant interbreeding. • Evidence: Genetic studies suggest a recent common ancestor between modern humans and Neanderthals, supporting a single origin of modern humans. Fossil evidence also shows a migration pattern out of Africa around 60,000 years ago. Scenario 2: Multiregional Evolution: • Continuity with Gene Flow: This hypothesis suggests that modern humans evolved from earlier hominins in multiple regions simultaneously, with continuous gene flow between populations. Neanderthals would have contributed to the gene pool of modern humans in Europe and Asia. • Evidence: Regional continuity in certain morphological traits supports this model, as well as genetic evidence showing some interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans. Scenario 3: Assimilation Model: • Hybridization: This model combines elements of both the Out of Africa and Multiregional Evolution theories. It proposes that modern humans originated in Africa but interbred with local populations, including Neanderthals, as they dispersed. • Evidence: Genetic evidence shows that non-African modern humans have 1-4% Neanderthal DNA, indicating interbreeding. This model also explains the presence of Neanderthal traits in modern humans outside Africa. 3. What was the basis for the Binford-Bordes debate regarding the interpretation of Neanderthal stone tools? Answer: François Bordes: • Cultural Typology: Bordes argued that the variation in Neanderthal stone tools reflected different cultural traditions or ethnic groups. He classified tools into distinct types and saw the variation as indicative of diverse cultural practices among Neanderthals. Lewis Binford: • Functional Interpretation: Binford countered that the variation in tools was primarily functional, related to different activities or tasks rather than distinct cultural groups. He believed that differences in tool types could be explained by their use in specific contexts, such as hunting or butchery. Debate Impact: • Methodological Differences: The debate highlighted different methodological approaches in archaeology—typological classification versus functional analysis. It underscored the importance of considering both cultural and functional factors in interpreting the archaeological record. • Modern Consensus: Contemporary archaeologists recognize that both cultural and functional factors contribute to tool variation. The debate has led to more nuanced interpretations, considering multiple lines of evidence. 4. What is the evidence relating Neanderthal diet? Answer: Zooarchaeological Evidence: • Animal Bones: Analysis of animal bones at Neanderthal sites shows that they hunted a variety of large and medium-sized animals, such as mammoths, deer, and bison. Cut marks on bones indicate butchery practices. • Stable Isotope Analysis: Isotope analysis of Neanderthal bones reveals a high reliance on meat, with nitrogen isotopes indicating they were top-level carnivores similar to large predators like wolves and hyenas. Plant Remains: • Dental Calculus: Microscopic analysis of dental calculus (hardened plaque) shows that Neanderthals also consumed plant materials. Starch grains and phytoliths (plant silica bodies) found in dental calculus indicate the consumption of a variety of plants, including seeds, nuts, and tubers. Cooking Evidence: • Fire Use: Evidence of hearths and burned bones suggests that Neanderthals used fire for cooking, which would have made food more digestible and nutrient-rich. Cooking also indicates a level of cognitive and cultural development. Bone Chemistry: • Microwear Patterns: Microscopic wear patterns on Neanderthal teeth provide insights into their diet. Heavy wear and scratches suggest a diet that included tough, fibrous plant materials alongside meat. 5. What has archaeology revealed about Neanderthal residence patterns and social life? Answer: Settlement Patterns: • Caves and Rock Shelters: Neanderthals often lived in caves and rock shelters, which provided natural protection from the elements. These sites show evidence of repeated occupation, suggesting stable home bases. • Open-Air Sites: In addition to caves, Neanderthals used open-air sites, particularly in more temperate climates. These sites often show signs of temporary camps, possibly used during hunting expeditions. Spatial Organization: • Hearths and Activity Areas: Archaeological evidence shows spatial organization within Neanderthal sites, with designated areas for specific activities such as cooking, tool-making, and sleeping. Hearths were central to their living spaces, providing warmth, light, and a focal point for social activities. Burial Practices: • Intentional Burials: Some Neanderthal sites show evidence of intentional burials, indicating a concern for the dead and possibly the existence of ritualistic practices. Grave goods and the careful positioning of bodies suggest complex social and symbolic behaviors. Social Structure: • Group Size and Composition: Evidence suggests that Neanderthals lived in small, mobile groups. Analysis of site remains indicates cooperative hunting and sharing of resources, pointing to a well-developed social structure. • Care for the Injured and Elderly: Skeletal evidence shows that Neanderthals cared for injured and elderly group members, as individuals with severe injuries or debilitating conditions lived long enough to show signs of healing. This care indicates a high degree of social cooperation and empathy. Chapter 5: The Origin of Modern Humans Multiple Choice 1. The oldest know fossil of a modern human was discovered at __________. A. Swartkrans B. Klasies River Mouth C. Herto D. Howiesons Poort Answer: C 2. Which of these physical skull traits distinguishes modern humans from Neanderthals? A. big brain B. pronounced brow ridges C. vertical forehead D. minimal chin Answer: C 3. The archaeological period of the earliest modern humans in Africa is referred to as the __________. A. Middle Stone Age B. Middle Paleolithic C. Acheulian D. Old Stone Age Answer: A 4. Which of the following is a Middle Stone Age tool industry? A. Acheullean B. Aterian C. Olduwan D. Osteodontokeratic Answer: B 5. What Middle Stone Age tool industry, found at Klasies River Mouth, South Africa, is characterized by the appearance of microliths? A. Howiesons Poort B. Levallois C. Aterian D. Acheulian Answer: A 6. The oldest known bone harpoons have been found at the Middle Stone Age site of __________. A. Kebara Cave, Israel B. Katanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo C. Klasies River Mouth, S. Africa D. Blombos Cave, S. Africa Answer: B 7. Two pieces of incised ochre and a collection of pierced shells, which may be some of the earliest examples of art, were found at what Middle Stone Age site? A. Klasies River Mouth B. Border Cave C. Chauvet Cave D. Blombos Cave Answer: D 8. Modern human skeletons have been found in the Middle Paleolithic levels of __________. A. Blombos Cave, South Africa B. Skhul Cave, Israel C. Border Cave, South Africa D. Shanidar Cave, Iraq Answer: B 9. What type of absolute dating makes use of irregularities in the crystalline structure of materials such as flint, teeth, and sand grains? A. uranium B. argon C. luminescence D. radiocarbon Answer: C 10. The __________ is marked by a dramatic change in material culture, including cave and mobiliary art. A. Upper Paleolithic B. Middle Paleolithic C. Middle Stone Age D. Lower Paleolithic Answer: A 11. The oldest modern human remains in Europe (ca. 36,000 years old) were found in __________. A. Herto B. Peştera cu Oase Cave C. Klasies River Mouth D. St. Cesaire Answer: B 12. Fossils of modern humans dated to between 120,000 and 70,000 years ago have been discovered at __________. A. Klasies River Mouth, South Africa B. Lascaux Cave, France C. Kebara Cave, Israel D. Howiesons Poort, South Africa Answer: A 13. Which of the following industries is transitional between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic? A. Chatelperronian B. Mousterian C. Olduwan D. Magdalenian Answer: A 14. Which late refugia site has yielded relatively recent Neanderthal remains? A. Shanidar Cave, Iraq B. Vindija Cave, Croatia C. St. Cesaire, France D. Arcy-sur-Cure, France Answer: B 15. Which of these is a tool industry of the Upper Paleolithic? A. Olduwan B. Aurignacian c Mousterian D. Acheulian Answer: B 16. Beginning in the __________ Period, burials of individuals or groups are found with rich ornamentation. A. Auregnacian B. Magdalenean C. Gravettian D. Solutrean Answer: C 17. __________ found with the Gravettian industry are portable art objects depicting the female body. A. Venus figurines B. Eve idols C. Lady stones D. Graven images Answer: A 18. What is the earliest-known painted cave (ca. 38,000–33,000 years old)? A. Qafzeh, Israel B. Lascaux, France C. Altamira, Spain d Chauvet, France Answer: D 19. Which of these have been suggested as an interpretation of the purpose of cave art? A. recordings of debt and payments B. early writing of the group’s history C. fertility magic D. mathematics Answer: C 20. What important human trait does Richard Klein suggest accounts for the Upper Paleolithic art and material culture? A. bipedalism B. religion C. dexterity D. language Answer: D True False 1. The term “modern humans” refers to several subspecies of Homo sapiens, including Neanderthals. Answer: False 2. The earliest modern Homo sapiens human fossil was discovered at the site of Hadar, Ethiopia. Answer: False 3. There are no modern human fossils found in southern Africa. Answer: False 4. The Middle Stone Age refers to the archaeological period of the earliest modern humans in Africa. Answer: True 5. Middle Stone Age tool industries included Gravettian and Solutrean. Answer: False 6. Unlike the Middle Paleolithic in Europe, artwork has been found at Middle Stone Age sites such as Blombos Cave. Answer: True 7. Bone tools, such as harpoons, have been found on Middle Paleolithic sites in England. Answer: False 8. Neanderthal skeletons have been found at such Middle Paleolithic sites as Qafzeh and Skhul Caves. Answer: False 9. It is common to find remains of Neanderthals and modern humans at the same sites in the Middle East. Answer: False 10. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is marked by a gradual elaboration of material culture associated with Neanderthals. Answer: False 11. The Châtelperronian is a transitional tool industry between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic. Answer: True 12. The Neanderthals died out shortly after the appearance of modern humans in Europe. Answer: False 13. The stone tool industries of the Upper Paleolithic remain remarkably unchanged through time. Answer: False 14. The hallmark of the Upper Paleolithic is the dramatic appearance of a spectacular range of art objects. Answer: True 15. The earliest known painted cave is Lascaux in northern France. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What is a modern human? Answer: The term refers to members of the species Homo sapiens, which includes all living humans. They exhibit a low degree of species diversity. The low genetic variation within modern humans reflects a relatively recent common ancestry. 2. What is the African Middle Stone Age? Answer: The African Middle Stone Age refers to the archaeological period of the earliest modern humans in Africa. It began between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago and ended around 40,000 years ago. It includes a number of distinct industries including the Aterian, Sangoan/Lupemban, and Howiesons Poort industries. 3. What is the significance of the Blombos Cave objects? Answer: The Blombos Cave artifacts include pieces of ochre with incised decoration in a Middle Stone Age level dated to 77,000 years ago. They are the oldest evidence of human artwork or symbolic behavior. Whether they are meant to represent something or were incised with an aesthetic goal in mind has been one of the most difficult challenges facing Paleolithic archaeologists. 4. What is the archaeological evidence for the fate of the Neanderthals? Answer: The archaeological evidence supports the hybrid theory. The arrival of modern humans did not signal the immediate disappearance of Neanderthals. Transitional industries, such as the Châtelperronian, suggest prolonged interaction between Neanderthals and modern humans. 5. How do Upper Paleolithic tools differ from the Middle Paleolithic industries? Answer: The Upper Paleolithic industries had more varied tools than the preceding period, including microliths and bone tools, unknown in the repertoire of the Middle Paleolithic. Upper Paleolithic tools are made on blades. Perhaps the most striking aspect is the presence of sophisticated points used as light projectiles. 6. What have we learned about social inequality from burials of the Upper Paleolithic? Answer: Some burials reveal evidence of inequality in Upper Paleolithic societies. In a child burial at Sungir, Russia, there was a tremendous wealth of artifacts buried with children who would not have had time to accumulate such wealth. Additionally, in Dolní Vĕstonice, Moravia three young individuals were buried in an elaborate way. This suggests that some individuals were born into positions of high status. 7. What is use-wear analysis? Answer: It is a means by which archaeologists infer the function of a tool on the basis of microscopic traces of wear left on the edge of the tool. Low power magnification documents damage to the edge of the tool. High power magnification examines polishes on the edge. Use-wear hinges on experiments where tools are used for particular tasks, such as hide-scraping or butchering, and then examined for comparative purposes. 8. What evidence is there of open air Upper Paleolithic sites? Answer: At Mezherich in the Ukraine, a large circular mass of mammoth bones has been interpreted as the remains of a structure. The distribution of animal bones and artifacts make it possible to determine where the walls of tents once stood at Magdalenian sites in the Paris Basin. 9. What differences are evident in the subsistence of modern humans and Neanderthals? Answer: At Klasies River Mouth and other Middle Stone age sites, large quantities of shellfish were found, along with seal bones. In contrast, marine resources are rare on Neanderthal sites. The Katanda site in the Congo has produced impressive evidence of fishing. 10. What happened at the end of the Middle Stone Age/Paleolithic that led to the elaboration of the Upper Paleolithic? Answer: Richard Klein suggests that around 50,000 years ago there was a genetic mutation in modern human populations leading to a change in the organization of the brain. This gave modern humans the cognitive capacity for language, leading to the production of symbolic artifacts and an explosive growth and expansion. Essay 1. Compare and contrast the African Middle Stone Age with the European Middle Paleolithic. Answer: Time Periods and Regions: • African Middle Stone Age (MSA): Spanning approximately 300,000 to 30,000 years ago, the MSA is characterized by the emergence and development of anatomically modern humans in Africa. • European Middle Paleolithic (MP): Occurring roughly between 300,000 and 40,000 years ago, the MP is associated with Neanderthals in Europe and parts of western Asia. Technological Differences: • MSA Technology: The MSA is marked by the production of more advanced and diverse tools, including points, blades, and microliths. The Levallois technique, a method of producing predetermined flake shapes, is prominent. MSA tools often exhibit more sophisticated hafting techniques. • MP Technology: The MP is characterized by the Mousterian industry, associated with Neanderthals. Tools are primarily made using the Levallois technique, and the assemblages include scrapers, points, and denticulates. However, the variety and sophistication of tools are generally less than in the MSA. Behavioral and Cognitive Aspects: • MSA Behavior: Evidence from the MSA suggests complex behaviors, including symbolic activities such as the use of ochre, shell beads, and engravings. There is also evidence of long-distance exchange networks and the construction of shelters. • MP Behavior: Neanderthals in the MP demonstrated advanced hunting strategies, controlled use of fire, and possible symbolic behavior (e.g., burials and use of pigments). However, evidence for symbolic behavior is less extensive than in the MSA. Subsistence Strategies: • MSA Subsistence: MSA populations exploited a wide range of resources, including large and small game, fish, and shellfish. There is evidence of specialized hunting techniques and seasonally driven mobility. • MP Subsistence: Neanderthals in the MP were primarily big-game hunters, focusing on large herbivores. There is also evidence of plant use, but their diet was less diverse than that of MSA populations. Demographic and Social Differences: • MSA Demographics: MSA populations were likely more numerous and widely dispersed across diverse environments in Africa. This may have facilitated greater cultural exchange and innovation. • MP Demographics: Neanderthal populations in the MP were smaller and more isolated, which could have limited cultural exchange and technological innovation compared to MSA populations. 2. Explain the principle behind luminescence dating. What are the different types of luminescence dating and what materials can they date? Answer: Principle of Luminescence Dating: • Luminescence dating measures the amount of trapped electrons accumulated in mineral grains (such as quartz or feldspar) since they were last exposed to heat or sunlight. When these minerals are exposed to light or heat, the trapped electrons are released, emitting light (luminescence). The intensity of this light is proportional to the time elapsed since the last exposure, allowing for age estimation. Types of Luminescence Dating: • Thermoluminescence (TL): Measures the accumulated radiation dose in minerals that were last heated (e.g., ceramics, burnt flint). When the sample is heated in the lab, the trapped electrons are released, and the emitted light is measured. • Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL): Measures the accumulated radiation dose in minerals that were last exposed to sunlight. The sample is exposed to light in the lab, releasing the trapped electrons and emitting luminescence. • Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL): A variation of OSL that uses infrared light to stimulate the release of trapped electrons, often used for feldspar minerals. Materials that Can Be Dated: • Ceramics and Burnt Flint: TL dating is commonly used for dating ceramics, burnt stones, and hearths. • Sediments: OSL and IRSL dating are used to date sediments, such as sand and silt, which were last exposed to sunlight during transportation and deposition. • Loess and Aeolian Deposits: OSL dating is particularly useful for dating wind-blown sediments like loess. 3. Discuss the scenarios for the fate of the Neanderthals. Answer: Scenario 1: Extinction through Competition: • Competition with Modern Humans: One scenario suggests that Neanderthals went extinct due to competition with anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) who migrated into Europe and Asia. Modern humans had more advanced tools, better hunting strategies, and possibly more complex social structures, which gave them a competitive advantage over Neanderthals. Scenario 2: Interbreeding and Assimilation: • Genetic Evidence: Genetic studies have shown that non-African modern human populations carry 1-4% Neanderthal DNA, indicating interbreeding. This suggests that Neanderthals did not completely disappear but were assimilated into the modern human gene pool through interbreeding. • Cultural Exchange: There is evidence of cultural exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans, such as similar tool technologies and symbolic practices. This supports the idea of interaction and assimilation rather than complete replacement. Scenario 3: Environmental and Climatic Factors: • Climate Change: Neanderthals lived through several glacial and interglacial periods. The rapid climate fluctuations towards the end of the last glacial period (around 40,000 years ago) could have disrupted their habitats and food sources, making survival more challenging. • Habitat Fragmentation: Changing climates may have fragmented Neanderthal populations, isolating them and making them more vulnerable to extinction. Small, isolated groups are more susceptible to demographic fluctuations, disease, and resource scarcity. Scenario 4: Disease and Epidemics: • Pathogen Transfer: The arrival of modern humans could have introduced new pathogens to which Neanderthals had no immunity. Epidemics could have significantly reduced Neanderthal populations, contributing to their decline. 4. Discuss the major differences between the Middle Paleolithic and the Upper Paleolithic. How do archaeologists account for these dramatic differences? Answer: Technological Innovations: • Middle Paleolithic (MP): Characterized by the Mousterian industry, primarily associated with Neanderthals. Tools were mostly flake-based, produced using the Levallois technique, and included scrapers, points, and denticulates. • Upper Paleolithic (UP): Marked by a significant increase in tool diversity and complexity. Blade technology became prominent, with tools including blades, burins, and microliths. The UP also saw the introduction of bone, antler, and ivory tools. Symbolic and Artistic Expression: • MP: Limited evidence of symbolic behavior, with few examples of personal adornment or art. Some sites show possible use of pigments and simple engravings. • UP: Flourishing of symbolic and artistic expression, including cave art, portable art (e.g., figurines), personal ornaments (e.g., beads and pendants), and musical instruments. This period is often referred to as the "creative explosion." Social Organization: • MP: Evidence suggests small, mobile groups with relatively simple social structures. Sites indicate repeated use of specific locations, such as caves and rock shelters. • UP: Larger, more complex social groups with increased evidence of long-distance trade networks, social stratification, and elaborate burial practices. UP sites often show evidence of semi-permanent or seasonal settlements. Subsistence Strategies: • MP: Neanderthals primarily relied on big-game hunting, supplemented with plant resources. Subsistence strategies were less diverse compared to the UP. • UP: Broader subsistence strategies, including a wider range of prey species, fishing, and plant gathering. The development of complex hunting tools, such as spear-throwers and bow and arrows, improved hunting efficiency. Explanations for Differences: • Cognitive and Cultural Evolution: The transition from the MP to the UP is often attributed to a cognitive and cultural revolution, possibly linked to the development of complex language, social structures, and symbolic thought. • Population Increase and Social Complexity: Increasing population densities and social complexity could have driven technological and cultural innovations, as well as the need for more efficient subsistence strategies and social coordination. • Interbreeding and Cultural Exchange: Interaction and interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals might have facilitated the transfer of technological and cultural innovations, contributing to the dramatic changes observed in the UP. 5. Discuss the various interpretations for the function of cave art in the Upper Paleolithic. Answer: Shamanistic and Religious Practices: • Shamanism: Some scholars suggest that cave art was part of shamanistic rituals, where shamans entered trance states to communicate with the spirit world. The depictions of animals and other symbols could represent spiritual journeys or visions. • Religious Expression: Cave art might have served religious or ritualistic purposes, possibly related to hunting magic, fertility rites, or ancestral worship. The placement of art in deep, remote cave areas supports the idea of sacred spaces. Social and Educational Functions: • Teaching and Learning: Cave art could have been used to teach and transmit knowledge about hunting strategies, animal behavior, and survival skills. The depictions of animals and hunting scenes could serve as visual aids for education. • Social Cohesion: Creating and viewing cave art might have fostered social cohesion and group identity. The collective effort involved in producing the art and the shared experience of viewing it could strengthen social bonds. Symbolic Communication: • Storytelling and Mythology: Cave art might represent storytelling and myth-making, preserving oral traditions and cultural narratives. The images could depict important events, myths, or legends central to the group's identity. • Territorial Markers: Art could serve as territorial markers, signaling group presence and identity. The placement of art in specific locations might demarcate hunting territories or sacred areas. Aesthetic and Artistic Expression: • Aesthetic Pleasure: Some interpretations emphasize the aesthetic and artistic expression of cave art. The creators might have derived pleasure and satisfaction from producing art, showcasing their creativity and skill. • Individual Expression: Art could also reflect individual expression and experimentation, with artists exploring different styles, techniques, and themes. Chapter 6: The Peopling of Australia and the New World Multiple Choice 1. The initial hominin occupation of Australia and the Americas was by which species? A. Homo erectus B. Homo floresiensis C. Neanderthals D. Homo sapiens Answer: D 2. The most recent known Homo erectus fossil is from what site? A. Nauwalabila Island, Australia B. Ngandong, Java C. Lake Mungo, Australia D. Sahul Land Answer: B 3. What is the boundary that separates Sunda and Sahul called? A. the Marianas Trench B. the Wallace Line C. Arnhem Land D. Beringia Answer: B 4. This controversial tiny hominin was discovered on an island northwest of Australia and dates to between 46,000 to 27,000 years ago. A. Homo sapiencitas B. Homo wallacea C. Homo floresiensis D. Homo hobbitensis Answer: C 5. Where is the earliest evidence for human occupation of Australia found? A. Nauwalabila I B. Wallacea C. Lake Mungo D. Tasmania Cave Answer: A 6. Large mammals that lived during the Pleistocene are collectively known as __________. A. mastodons B. megafauna C. gigamammals D. marsupials Answer: B 7. __________ refers to the use of controlled burning to improve hunting conditions. A. Fire-starting B. Fire-stick farming C. Swidden horticulture D. Pyrohusbandry Answer: B 8. The Australian rock art site at __________ contains a 4,000-year-old beeswax depiction of a turtle. A. Nauwalabila I B. Ngandong C. Gunbilngmurrung D. Lake Mungo Answer: C 9. The earliest agreed upon evidence of human occupation in North America is called the __________. A. Olsen-Chubbock site B. Clovis culture C. Folsom culture D. Atlantean culture Answer: B 10. Folsom points can be recognized by what distinctive feature? A. a bifacial edge B. a shiny, black surface C. a basal notching D. a center flute Answer: D 11. Which of these is a model for the human occupation of the Americas? A. Beringia B. Indigenous development C. Clovis First D. Wallacea Ancestry Answer: C 12. The land bridge that connected Asia and North America during periods of low sea level is called _________. A. the ALCAN highway B. Beringia C. Wallacea D. the Aleutian Islands Answer: B 13. Which migration route has been proposed for entry of humans into the Americas? A. northward along the eastern North American coast B. through the ice-free corridor C. across the Pacific Ocean D. across the southern Atlantic Ocean Answer: B 14. The earliest culture in Beringia, dated to 14,000 to 12,800, is called the __________ culture. A. Nenana B. Early Arrival C. Folsom D. Clovis Answer: A 15. Which of the following is a pre-Clovis site? A. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, Pennsylvania B. Ngandong, Indonesia C. Nauwalabila I, Australia D. Pedra Furada, Brazil Answer: A 16. The site that poses the most serious threat to the Clovis First hypothesis is __________. A. Blackwater Draw, New Mexico B. Monte Verde, Chile C. Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru D. Pedra Pintada, Brazil Answer: B 17. Discoveries at __________ demonstrate that people were living in the Brazilian rain forest at the same time as the Clovis culture in North America. A. Blackwater Draw B. Pedra Pintada C. Quebrada Tacahuay D. Monte Verde Answer: B 18. Which of the following statements is true concerning the skeleton found in Kennewick, Washington? A. The remains are clearly of Nez Pierce ancestry, and have been returned to tribal lands. B. It provides strong evidence that the earliest Americans arrived from Europe. C. The skeleton is more than 9,000 years old. D. The find was a fraud; the skeleton is only a few hundred years old. Answer: C 19. The __________ hypothesis argues that the origin of the Clovis culture lies in the European Upper Paleolithic. A. Solutrean B. Chatelperronian C. Auregnacian D. Gravettian Answer: A 20. Excavations at the __________ site revealed evidence of a mass bison kill. A. Blackwater Draw B. Olsen-Chubbock C. Folsom D. Nenana Answer: B True False 1. The first hominins in Australia and the Americas were Homo erectus. Answer: False 2. The Wallace Line separates the prehistoric landmasses known as Sunda and Sahul. Answer: True 3. Homo floresiensis is the first hominin species to appear in China. Answer: False 4. Early modern humans were able to cross over to Australia on the Wallacea land bridge between 53,000–60,000 years ago. Answer: False 5. Fire-stick farming refers to the use of controlled burning to clear area for crops. Answer: False 6. Folsom points have a flute or channel down the middle to allow blood from the wounded animal to drain efficiently. Answer: False 7. Clovis culture is the earliest evidence of human occupation in Australia. Answer: False 8. The Nenana culture is the earliest culture in Beringia. Answer: True 9. The ratio of Carbon-14 to nonradioactive carbon is a global constant. Answer: False 10. Monte Verde is the earliest known site in Australia. Answer: False 11. An alternative to the ice-free corridor route into North America is a coastal migration route. Answer: True 12. The Solutrean hypothesis argues that human migration from the Americas was responsible for the Solutrean culture of the Upper Paleolithic of Western Europe. Answer: False 13. Kennewick Man, found in Washington state, is a 40,000-year-old skeleton that bolsters the Early Arrival hypothesis. Answer: False 14. The North American megafauna were driven to extinction after an asteroid struck the earth approximately 13,000 years ago. Answer: False 15. Excavation of the bison kill at the Olsen-Chubbock site provided conclusive proof that humans were responsible for the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Answer: False Short Answer 1. What was the geography of Southeast Asia and Australia like during periods of glacial advance and low sea level? Answer: During periods of low sea level, Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea were linked in a landmass known as Sahul, and much of Southeast Asia was connected to a form known as Sunda. Sunda and Sahul were separated by the Wallace Line. 2. What happened to the Pleistocene megafauna? Answer: Throughout the world, there was widespread extinction of large animals, known as megafauna, at the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. Some have suggested that the extinction of megafauna was largely the result of hunting by modern humans; others argue that a more broadly based ecological explanation is needed. 3. What is the significance of Australian rock art? Answer: The hunter-gatherer way of life in Australia persisted until contact with Europeans. However, this characterization of the aborigines does little to express the richness and diversity of their culture, such as their highly developed mythological and ritual traditions. Archaeological research on rock art has shown that these myths are expressed as spectacular rock art and that some of these paintings have great antiquity. 4. What is Clovis culture? Answer: Clovis culture is the earliest evidence of human occupation in North America. The definition is based largely on the form of spearpoints. These date to between 13,500 and 12,500 years ago. 5. What is the significance and controversy surrounding Meadowcroft Rockshelter? Answer: Meadowcroft Rockshelter is a site in western Pennsylvania dating between 23,000 and 15,000 years ago. These dates together with stone tools make a compelling case for the Pre-Clovis model. However, the dates are disputed by archaeologists claiming that they were contaminated by “old carbon” carried by groundwater from nearby coal beds. 6. Why is the site of Monte Verde significant? Answer: Monte Verde is an extremely early (15,000 BP) site located in Chile. Due to the unusual nature of the site, preservation of organic remains is extraordinary and includes artifacts made of rope and wood. If the date is correct, this is the earliest known site in the Americas. Dates from possible tools in possible earlier occupation layers have suggested humans were there 33,000 years ago, although this is not so accepted. 7. How do Anna Roosevelt’s excavations at Pedra Pintada challenge the Clovis First model? Answer: Pedra Pintada, in the Lower Amazon, is a cave site dating between 13,000 and 11,500 years ago. The discoveries there demonstrate that people in the Brazilian rain forest subsisted on a wide range of resources, including plants, nuts, fruits, and fish. It cast doubts on the simple megafauna-dependent subsistence strategy of the Clovis culture and suggests that Clovis was only one of several adaptive strategies. 8. What is K. R. Fladmark’s alternative to migration to North America through an ice-free corridor? Answer: In the 1970s, Fladmark advanced a model of human migration into the Americas along the West Coast. One advantage of this model is that it better explains the early finds in South America. Also, geologists have cast serious doubt on whether an ice-free corridor existed or, if it did, could it have provided viable conditions for human survival during migrations. 9. What is the Early Arrival Model for migration into the Americas? Answer: A small number of archaeologists argue that initial human occupation of the Americas was actually well before the dates suggested by the Clovis First or PreClovis models. They place the arrival of humans into the Americas as early as 50,000 years ago. Recent discoveries in Siberia and Northwestern North America and even South America have suggested human activity far earlier than previously thought. However, the evidence is not widely accepted and more needs to be done before this model finds acceptance. 10. What is the Solutrean hypothesis? Answer: The lack of evidence of antecedents of Clovis points in Siberia and the questions concerning the viability of the ice-free corridor have raised doubts about Beringia as being the source of migration into the Americas. Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley argue that the origin of the Clovis culture lies in the Solutrean culture of the Upper Paleolithic Western Europe. They point to similarities in the tool industries of the two cultures, though significant differences also exist along with temporal issues. Essay 1. What is the significance of and controversy surrounding Homo floresiensis? Answer: Significance: • Unique Morphology: Homo floresiensis, discovered in 2003 on the Indonesian island of Flores, is notable for its small stature (approximately 1 meter tall) and small brain size (around 380 cc). Despite its diminutive size, it shows advanced tool-making capabilities, which challenges existing paradigms about the correlation between brain size and cognitive abilities. • Evolutionary Insights: The discovery of H. floresiensis suggests the existence of a previously unknown hominin species that coexisted with modern humans until relatively recently (around 50,000 years ago). It provides insights into the diversity and adaptability of hominins and suggests that island dwarfism, a phenomenon seen in other animal species, could also occur in humans. Controversy: • Pathological vs. Distinct Species: One of the major controversies centers around whether H. floresiensis represents a distinct species or whether the fossils are of modern humans with pathological conditions, such as microcephaly or Laron syndrome. However, most evidence supports the distinct species hypothesis due to consistent morphological differences across multiple individuals. • Dating and Coexistence: The dating of the fossils and artifacts associated with H. floresiensis has been debated. Precise dating is crucial for understanding their coexistence with modern humans and other hominins, and some researchers question the reliability of initial dating methods. 2. Discuss the evidence for the possible causes of extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna in Australia and North America. Answer: Australia: • Human Overkill Hypothesis: Evidence suggests that human arrival in Australia around 50,000 years ago coincides with the extinction of many megafaunal species. The rapid disappearance of these species shortly after human arrival supports the idea that hunting pressure and human-induced environmental changes contributed to their extinction. • Climate Change: The end of the Pleistocene saw significant climatic shifts, including increased aridity and changes in vegetation patterns. These environmental changes would have affected the availability of resources for megafauna, contributing to their decline. North America: • Overkill Hypothesis: Similar to Australia, the arrival of Clovis people around 13,000 years ago is closely linked with the extinction of North American megafauna. Archaeological evidence shows that humans hunted species like mammoths and mastodons, supporting the overkill hypothesis. • Climate Change: The end of the last Ice Age brought dramatic climate changes, including the melting of glaciers and shifts in habitats. These changes would have created stress on megafaunal populations, leading to their decline. • Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis: Some researchers propose that an extraterrestrial impact event around 12,800 years ago caused rapid cooling (the Younger Dryas) and widespread environmental changes, contributing to megafaunal extinctions. 3. Discuss the various scenarios for the different migration routes into the New World. What is the evidence for and against each scenario? Answer: Bering Land Bridge (Beringia) Route: • Evidence For: Genetic studies show a close relationship between Native American populations and Siberian populations, supporting migration through Beringia. Archaeological sites in Alaska and Canada, such as Bluefish Caves, provide evidence of early human presence. • Evidence Against: Some argue that the timing of ice-free corridors opening up might not align with the earliest archaeological evidence of human presence in the Americas. Pacific Coastal Route: • Evidence For: Sites like Monte Verde in Chile suggest that humans reached South America as early as 18,500 years ago, which could imply coastal migration. Kelp forests along the Pacific coast could have provided a rich food source for early migrants. • Evidence Against: Coastal sites are difficult to find due to rising sea levels since the Pleistocene, leaving a scarcity of direct archaeological evidence. Atlantic Crossing (Solutrean Hypothesis): • Evidence For: Proponents argue that similarities between Solutrean tools in Europe and Clovis points in North America indicate a trans-Atlantic migration. • Evidence Against: Genetic evidence does not support a link between European populations and early Native Americans. The hypothesis is widely criticized due to a lack of credible evidence and significant temporal gaps between Solutrean and Clovis cultures. 4. What is NAGPRA and what are the ramifications of it on archaeological research? Answer: NAGPRA: • The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) is a U.S. federal law enacted in 1990. It requires federal agencies and institutions that receive federal funding to return Native American cultural items, including human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony, to their respective tribes. Ramifications: • Repatriation and Respect: NAGPRA has led to the repatriation of thousands of cultural items and human remains to Native American tribes, addressing historical injustices and respecting tribal sovereignty and cultural heritage. • Collaboration and Consultation: NAGPRA has fostered greater collaboration and consultation between archaeologists and Native American communities. This has led to more culturally sensitive and ethically responsible research practices. • Impact on Research: Some researchers argue that NAGPRA has restricted access to important archaeological materials, potentially limiting scientific study. However, others emphasize the importance of ethical considerations and the benefits of incorporating indigenous perspectives in research. • Documentation and Inventory: Institutions are required to inventory and document Native American collections, leading to improved cataloging and management of collections. This process has uncovered previously unrecognized items and has enhanced the transparency of museum collections. 5. How are the flutes on Clovis and Folsom points made, and what are their functions? Answer: Manufacturing Flutes: • Clovis Points: The flutes on Clovis points are created by removing a long, central flake from the base of the point. This process involves carefully preparing the point's base and then striking it to detach a flake that extends partway up the point. • Folsom Points: The fluting process for Folsom points is more complex and involves removing a single, large flake from both sides of the point's base, often extending nearly the entire length of the point. This requires precise preparation and skillful striking to achieve the desired flake removal. Functions: • Hafting: The primary function of fluting is to facilitate hafting. The flutes create a flat surface that allows the point to be securely attached to a spear shaft or handle. This enhances the point's stability and effectiveness as a hunting tool. • Aerodynamics and Penetration: Fluted points may also have improved aerodynamic properties, allowing for better flight stability and penetration when used as projectile points. The flutes might reduce drag and help the point penetrate deeper into the target. Test Bank for World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways Through Time Michael Chazan 9780205953721, 9780205953103, 9780205953394

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