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This Document Contains Chapters 7 to 8 Chapter 7—Learning Language MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the first area of language that children begin to acquire? A. Phonology (speech sounds) B. morphology C. syntax D. semantics E. pragmatics Answer: A 2. Which sound is among the first three sounds that children use to make words? A. /h/ B. /s/ C. /p/ D. /z/ E. /(/ Answer: C 3. Which sound is one of the last sounds to be acquired? A. /m/ B. /t/ C. /p/ D. /d/ E. /s/ Answer: E 4. The order in which children acquire phonemes may explain why the words for ___________ in so many languages use the same three phonemes that are acquired first. A. “milk” and “bottle” B. “nap” and “diaper” C. “sleepy” and “happy” D. “mother” and “father” E. “baby” and “crib” Answer: D 5. At which age do children usually say their first word? A. at about four months of age B. at about six months of age C. at about twelve months of age D. at about eighteen months E. at about two years of age Answer: C 6. At around one year of age, children enter the __________ stage of language acquisition. A. one-word B. pivot C. open D. babbling E. passive Answer: A 7. At which age do children enter the two-word stage? A. at about six months of age B. at about twelve months of age C. at about eighteen months D. at about two years of age E. at about three years of age Answer: C 8. Words such as bye-bye, all-gone, this, that, here, there, and my are in the ___________ class of words. A. local B. pivot C. open D. imagistic E. global Answer: B 9. Which inflectional morpheme is acquired first by English-speaking children? A. possessive –s on nouns B. past tense –ed on regular verbs C. plural –s on nouns D. third person –s on verbs E. present progressive –ing on verbs Answer: E 10. Which inflectional morpheme is acquired last by English-speaking children? A. possessive –s on nouns B. past tense –ed on regular verbs C. plural –s on nouns D. third person –s on verbs E. present progressive –ing on verbs Answer: D 11. What did Berko’s (1958) “wug” test demonstrate? A. how children pronounce new sounds in their language B. how children use active and passive syntactic constructions C. how children use rules to apply regular morphemes to new words D. how children of different ages make requests E. how children learn to negate sentences Answer: C 12. Which of the following words is an example of a child overregularizing a morphological rule? A. tooths B. goed C. mouses D. comed E. all of the above Answer: E 13. Which of the following sentences is an example of a child innovating a new denominal verb? A. Milk all gone! B. My feets are cold. C. Papa goed to bed. D. I want to chocolate my milk. E. Baby is eating dinner. Answer: D 14. What is the first way children acquiring English learn to negate propositions? A. They incorporate the negative marker into the internal structure of the sentence. B. They add the words no or not to the beginning or end of the sentence. C. They add denominal verbs to statements to express negation. D. They overregularize inflectional morphemes to express negation. E. They use passive constructions for negative sentences. Answer: B 15. Children have a hard time performing multiple syntactic transformations in the same sentence due to A. performance constraints. B. comprehension constraints. C. overregularization constraints. D. allophonic constraints. E. holophrastic constraints. Answer: A 16. Children acquiring Russian as a first language learn the suffixes for ___________ first because they correspond to the most concrete idea. A. nominative case B. accusative case C. possession D. gender E. number Answer: E 17. How do children acquiring Mohawk as a first language cope with long words in the early stages of acquisition? A. They say only the unstressed syllable of the word. B. They say only the stressed syllable of the word. C. They say only the first syllable of the word. D. They say only the last syllable of the word. E. They use any of the above options. Answer: B 18. Based on the examples from the textbook, the morphological systems of ___________ languages take the longest for children to acquire. A. holophrastic B. isolating C. agglutinating D. polysynthetic E. none of the above: all morphological systems are learned at the same ages Answer: D 19. What is a feature of baby talk? A. speaking with exaggerated intonation patterns B. speaking with lower pitch C. using long words D. speaking quickly and softly E. using complicated syntactic structures Answer: A 20. Another term for baby talk is __________. A. fatherese B. motherese C. pig Latin D. creole E. pidgin Answer: B IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. The theory that children acquire language with the help of the innate principles of a universal grammar is attributed to ___________ Answer: Noam Chomsky 22. The theory that the ability to use language develops along with other aspects of cognition is attributed to ___________. Answer: Jean Piaget 23. The theory that the social needs of children drive language development is attributed to ___________. Answer: Lev Vygotsky 24. In the one-word stage, children’s utterances are ___________, meaning that each word expresses a broad meaning. Answer: holophrastic 25. Children often create their own ___________ verbs, which are verbs that have been derived from nouns, such as plastered and authored. Answer: denominal 26. The locative concept that children acquire first in the language acquisition process is _________. Answer: in/on/under 27. In the United States, many people speak to babies in a special way that is referred to as baby talk or ___________. Answer: motherese 28. When caregivers fill in the missing words of a child’s utterance, they are using an instructional technique known as ___________. Answer: expansion 29. When parents comment on the semantic content of a child’s utterance, they are using a technique called ___________. Answer: modelling 30. Members of the ___________ culture use a technique called calling out to teach linguistic form and communicative style. In this technique, the child repeats what the caregiver says. Answer: Kwara’ae TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. Children are able to understand complex sentences before they can produce them. Answer: True 32. Children in the two-word stage do not combine two pivot words as a complete utterance. Answer: True 33. The length of words in agglutinating languages like Turkish makes it particularly difficult for children to acquire the morphological systems of these languages. Answer: False 34. From what linguists have found thus far, all children acquire negation, wh-questions, and locative concepts in the same sequences. Answer: True 35. In the United States, babies and children are treated by their caregivers as conversational partners with equal status throughout the language acquisition process. Answer: False ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. Compare and contrast Chomsky’s, Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of first language acquisition. Answer: Comparing and contrasting Chomsky's, Piaget's, and Vygotsky's theories of first language acquisition provides insights into different perspectives on how children learn language and the underlying cognitive processes involved. Here's a breakdown of each theory: Chomsky's Theory of Language Acquisition: Key Concepts: • Innate Language Acquisition Device (LAD): Chomsky proposed that humans are born with a biological predisposition to acquire language. The LAD is a hypothetical module in the brain that facilitates the learning of grammar and linguistic structures. • Universal Grammar: Chomsky argued that all human languages share a common underlying structure (universal grammar), which is hardwired in the brain. Children use their innate linguistic abilities to deduce the grammar rules of their native language through exposure. Focus: • Chomsky's theory emphasizes the role of innate biological factors in language acquisition, suggesting that children are predisposed to learn language and that linguistic universals guide this process. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development: Key Concepts: • Stages of Cognitive Development: Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational), each characterized by distinct cognitive abilities. • Language as a Product of Cognitive Development: Piaget viewed language development as closely tied to cognitive development. He suggested that language emerges as children's cognitive abilities, such as symbolic representation and mental operations, mature. Focus: • Piaget's theory emphasizes the cognitive prerequisites for language acquisition. He posited that language development progresses alongside cognitive milestones, with language serving as a reflection of broader cognitive abilities. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory: Key Concepts: • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): Vygotsky introduced the concept of ZPD, which refers to the difference between what a learner can achieve independently and what they can achieve with the guidance of a more knowledgeable other (e.g., parent, teacher). • Role of Social Interaction: Vygotsky emphasized the importance of social interaction and cultural context in language development. Language is viewed as a tool for communication and thought, shaped through interactions with others. Focus: • Vygotsky's theory highlights the role of social and cultural factors in language acquisition. He argued that children learn language through social interactions that provide opportunities for scaffolding and language modeling. Comparison and Contrast: Nature vs. Nurture: • Chomsky focuses on innate biological factors (nature), proposing that language acquisition is driven by the LAD and universal grammar. • Piaget emphasizes cognitive development (nurture), suggesting that language emerges as a result of broader cognitive maturation. • Vygotsky integrates both nature and nurture, emphasizing the interplay between innate abilities and social interactions in language development. Role of Environment: • Chomsky minimizes the role of external factors, emphasizing internal cognitive processes and innate mechanisms. • Piaget and Vygotsky both emphasize the importance of social interactions and cultural context in shaping language development, with Vygotsky placing greater emphasis on the social dimension. Developmental Progression: • Piaget provides a stage-based framework for cognitive development, with language development progressing alongside cognitive milestones. • Vygotsky's theory introduces the concept of the ZPD, suggesting that language acquisition progresses through interactions within a supportive social context. • Chomsky's theory focuses more on the innate readiness and universal principles that guide language acquisition from infancy. In summary, Chomsky's theory emphasizes innate biological factors and universal grammar, Piaget's theory focuses on cognitive development as the basis for language acquisition, and Vygotsky's theory highlights the role of social interaction and cultural context in shaping language development. Each theory offers valuable insights into different aspects of how children acquire their first language, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of language acquisition processes. 37. Describe the methodology and findings of Berko’s (1958) “wug” test. Explain what those findings reveal about the process of first language acquisition. Answer: The "wug" test, conducted by Jean Berko Gleason in 1958, was a pioneering study in psycholinguistics that investigated children's ability to apply grammatical rules to unfamiliar words, providing valuable insights into the process of first language acquisition. Here’s an overview of the methodology, findings, and implications of Berko's "wug" test: Methodology: 1. Participants: • The study included children aged 3 to 5 years, primarily preschoolers, who were at the early stages of language development. 2. Procedure: • Children were shown pictures of imaginary creatures or objects and were introduced to novel words, such as "wug," that they had not encountered before. • The researcher then provided a model sentence using the novel word in various grammatical contexts (e.g., "This is a wug," "Now there are two of them. There are two ___"). 3. Task: • The critical task was to assess whether children could correctly apply grammatical rules, particularly the plural "-s" rule, to the novel word "wug" based on the provided context. 4. Findings: • The majority of children successfully applied the plural rule, forming the plural of "wug" as "wugs." • Children demonstrated an understanding of the underlying grammatical structure and were able to generalize this rule to a novel word they had never encountered before. Implications and Findings: 1. Rule Application: • Berko's findings highlighted that even at a young age, children have an innate ability to grasp and apply grammatical rules. They showed that children are not merely imitating language but actively internalizing rules and applying them creatively. 2. Generalization: • The ability of children to apply the plural rule to a novel word ("wug") suggests that they possess a capacity for abstract thinking and rule generalization in language acquisition. • This indicates that children are not learning language through rote memorization but rather through cognitive processes that allow them to extract underlying patterns. 3. Critical Period Hypothesis: • Berko's study supported the notion of a critical period in language acquisition, suggesting that children are particularly adept at learning language during early childhood when their brains are highly plastic and receptive to linguistic input. 4. Psycholinguistic Insights: • The "wug" test contributed significantly to our understanding of psycholinguistics by demonstrating the cognitive processes involved in language acquisition, including rule formation, generalization, and creativity in language use. In summary, Berko's "wug" test provided empirical evidence that children actively internalize grammatical rules and apply them to novel linguistic contexts. The findings underscored the innate linguistic abilities of children and shed light on the mechanisms involved in first language acquisition, contributing to foundational theories in psycholinguistics and developmental psychology. 38. Compare and contrast the way children acquire the morphological systems of Russian, Turkish, and Mohawk. Give details of the process in each of the languages. Answer: Here's a comparison of how children acquire the morphological systems of Russian, Turkish, and Mohawk: Russian: 1. Inflectional Complexity: Russian has a complex system of inflectional endings that mark grammatical categories such as tense, aspect, gender, number, and case. 2. Early Exposure: Children are exposed to Russian's rich inflectional morphology from birth through everyday language use. 3. Gradual Acquisition: Children initially acquire basic forms and gradually learn more complex inflectional patterns over time. 4. Error Patterns: Common errors include overgeneralization of rules and incorrect application of inflectional endings. Turkish: 1. Agglutinative Nature: Turkish uses extensive agglutination, where morphemes are added to the root to indicate grammatical information such as tense, mood, person, and case. 2. Transparent Morphology: Morphological rules are generally straightforward, making it easier for children to analyze and apply them correctly. 3. Early Proficiency: Children typically achieve fluency in Turkish morphology at an early age due to its regular and predictable patterns. 4. Error Types: Errors often involve misapplication of specific suffixes or overuse of certain morphological structures. Mohawk: 1. Polysynthetic Complexity: Mohawk is polysynthetic, forming complex words through incorporation of many morphemes into a single word. 2. Contextual Learning: Children learn Mohawk morphology through immersion in everyday contexts, where elders and family members use the language. 3. Integration of Culture: Acquisition of Mohawk morphology involves not only linguistic rules but also cultural knowledge embedded in the language. 4. Challenges: Learning Mohawk morphology can be challenging due to its polysynthetic nature and incorporation of cultural context. Comparison: • Complexity: Russian and Mohawk have complex morphological systems, while Turkish is more regular and transparent. • Learning Environment: Russian and Turkish children learn primarily through daily interaction, whereas Mohawk learning is deeply integrated with cultural practices. • Error Patterns: Russian and Turkish learners tend to make errors in applying specific morphological rules, while Mohawk learners may struggle with the overall complexity of polysynthesis. This comparison highlights how language-specific factors like morphological complexity and learning environment shape children's acquisition of language morphology in Russian, Turkish, and Mohawk. 39. Describe the various instructional strategies that are used by African-American and Anglo-American caregivers in the United States. Answer: In the United States, African-American and Anglo-American caregivers employ various instructional strategies to support child development and education. Here are some common strategies used by each group: African-American Caregivers: 1. Storytelling and Oral Tradition: Emphasis on storytelling and oral narratives to transmit cultural values, history, and knowledge. 2. Direct Instruction: Providing clear and explicit instructions and explanations to children, often in a nurturing and supportive manner. 3. Role Modeling: Demonstrating behaviors and values through personal example, emphasizing respect, resilience, and community involvement. 4. Cultural Relevance: Integrating cultural traditions, practices, and experiences into everyday learning and teaching moments. 5. Community Involvement: Engaging children in community activities and events that reinforce learning through social interaction and collective participation. Anglo-American Caregivers: 1. Structured Learning Activities: Using structured activities and routines to teach concepts and skills, such as alphabet and number recognition. 2. Positive Reinforcement: Using praise, rewards, and encouragement to reinforce desired behaviors and academic achievements. 3. Critical Thinking: Encouraging children to ask questions, think independently, and solve problems through exploration and experimentation. 4. Literacy Focus: Promoting early literacy skills through reading books, storytelling, and educational media. 5. Educational Toys and Materials: Providing access to educational toys, games, and materials that stimulate learning and creativity. Commonalities: • Love and Support: Both groups prioritize providing emotional support and love as foundational elements in child development. • Respect for Education: Valuing education and promoting a positive attitude toward learning and achievement. • Adaptation to Environment: Adapting teaching strategies based on the child's developmental stage, interests, and learning style. 40. Compare and contrast the instructional strategies used by caregivers in two cultures outside of the Unities States (e.g. Samoa, Kaluli, Kwara’ae, or Basotho). Answer: Let's compare and contrast the instructional strategies used by caregivers in two different cultures outside of the United States: Samoa and Kwara'ae. Samoa: 1. Communal Learning: Learning in Samoa is often communal, with children observing and participating in daily activities alongside adults. 2. Oral Tradition: Knowledge and cultural values are transmitted through oral tradition, including storytelling, songs, and myths. 3. Hands-on Experience: Emphasis on practical skills and experiential learning, where children learn through doing and active participation. 4. Respect for Elders: Elders play a significant role in education, serving as repositories of knowledge and wisdom. 5. Role Modeling: Adults model behaviors and skills for children to emulate, fostering socialization and cultural continuity. Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands): 1. Observational Learning: Children learn by observing and imitating adults and older siblings in everyday tasks and rituals. 2. Apprenticeship Model: Formal education is often informal, with children apprenticing under skilled individuals to learn specific trades and knowledge. 3. Ritual and Ceremony: Educational practices are intertwined with rituals and ceremonies that mark important life stages and community events. 4. Nature-based Learning: Knowledge about plants, animals, and the environment is passed down through generations, emphasizing sustainability and ecological stewardship. 5. Community Participation: Learning occurs within the context of community activities and events, fostering social cohesion and cultural identity. Comparison: • Learning Environment: Both cultures emphasize learning through practical experience and community involvement, though Samoa integrates more oral tradition and Kwara'ae emphasizes observational learning and apprenticeship. • Role of Elders: Both cultures value the role of elders in education, but Samoa places a stronger emphasis on elders as teachers and storytellers. • Formality of Education: Kwara'ae education is more informal and apprenticeship-based compared to Samoa, where there is a blend of informal and formal learning elements. • Cultural Transmission: Both cultures prioritize the transmission of cultural values, traditions, and practical skills, but the methods and emphasis differ based on their unique social structures and environments. • Sustainability and Ecology: Kwara'ae education incorporates a stronger focus on ecological knowledge and sustainability practices related to their natural environment compared to Samoa. These differences and similarities in instructional strategies reflect the cultural values, social structures, and environmental contexts of Samoa and Kwara'ae, highlighting the diverse approaches to child-rearing and education across different cultural settings outside of the United States. Chapter 8—The Acquisition of Communicative Competence MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Seeing language as a tool to express one’s thoughts and emotions is the ___________ model of language. A. instrumental B. regulatory C. personal D. heuristic E. representational Answer: C 2. Which model of language sees language as a tool to control others? A. interactional B. representational C. heuristic D. regulatory E. imaginative Answer: D 3. The ___________ model of language sees language as a means of getting information about the world. A. heuristic B. interactional C. instrumental D. imaginative E. representational Answer: A 4. Samoan children are socialized to express their emotions with A. tag questions. B. affect particles. C. directives. D. interrogatives. E. greetings. Answer: B 5. Children are often unsuccessful at getting their parents’ attention, which demonstrates that children A. talk too softly for adults to hear clearly. B. do not understand how turn-taking works. C. have lexicons that are underdeveloped. D. do not know how to use backchannel cues. E. have less power than adults. Answer: E 6. Which statement is true of interruptions? A. Mothers interrupt children more than fathers do. B. Mothers and fathers interrupt their children equally. C. Children interrupt parents more than parents interrupt children. D. Both parents interrupt daughters more than sons. E. Both parents interrupt sons more than daughters. Answer: D 7. American fathers socialize their sons by A. using tag questions often. B. using direct imperatives frequently. C. mitigating requests. D. asking frequent questions. E. calling them by complimentary nicknames. Answer: B 8. According to Sachs (1987), what kind of oblige do girls use most often? A. prohibitions B. information questions C. tag questions D. declarative directives E. imperatives Answer: C 9. According to Sachs (1987), what kind of oblige do boys use most often? A. prohibitions B. information questions C. tag questions D. declarative directives E. imperatives Answer: E 10. Which vocabulary marker of gender do children associate with men? A. damn it B. oh dear C. adorable D. my goodness E. won’t you please Answer: A 11. The textbook explains how Samoan children are socialized to use two different imperative forms. The choice of imperative form is based on the ___________ of the addressee, which determines his or her social status in the household. A. height B. weight C. age D. household responsibilities E. all of the above Answer: C 12. Which of the following options is an example of a discourse genre members of societies must learn? A. diatribes B. relationships C. locative D. computational E. conversational Answer: E 13. Why do children use fillers such as y’know or um as they acquire knowledge of conversation structure? A. They are trying to keep their turn going. B. They are trying to interrupt a speaker. C. They are being active listeners. D. They are turning the floor over to another speaker. E. They are trying to end the conversation. Answer: A 14. Using pronouns, demonstratives, and substitutions are ways of creating ___________ in discourse. A. backchannel cues B. cohesion C. obliges D. imperatives E. cooperation Answer: B 15. The textbook explains the ways that children achieve interactional cooperation as they negotiate appropriate ___________. A. requests for information B. requests for help C. apologies D. requests for permission E. invitations Answer: D 16. Which component of a narrative ends the story? A. the orientation B. the evaluation C. the coda D. the complicating action E. the abstract Answer: C 17. Which element of a narrative describes events in chronological order? A. the evaluation B. the result or resolution C. the orientation D. the abstract E. the complicating action Answer: E 18. What function does the evaluation have in a narrative? A. to summarize the main point of the story B. to convey the attitudes of the speaker or other characters C. to hook the listener’s interest at the beginning of the story D. to teach the listener a moral at the end of the story E. to provide the point of the story Answer: B 19. Which two elements must narratives have? A. complicating action and resolution B. abstract and coda C. orientation and result D. evaluation and resolution E. coda and complicating action Answer: A 20. Which of the following sentences is the best example of expository discourse? A. I told her when she called that I can’t give her a ride on Saturday. B. Do you know where I can find the campus library? C. Take the dogs for a walk after you clean your room, please. D. The traffic problem in our city can be solved with improved public transportation options. E. I saw a really great movie the other night that I think you would like. Answer: D IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. The ability to use language according to cultural norms is a person’s ___________. Answer: communicative competence 22. The ___________ model of language sees language as a tool to get things done. Answer: instrumental 23. Seeing language as a way to convey messages is the ___________ model of language. Answer: representational 24. Japanese children are socialized to have ___________ with others and learn to interpret the covert feelings of their interlocutors. Answer: empathy (or agreement) 25. A linguistic construction that requires the addressee to respond in some way is known as an __________. Answer: oblige 26. The family dynamic in which the father functions as the audience and judge of family events is referred to as ___________. Answer: “Father knows best” 27. The biggest flaw in young children’s narratives is the lack of ___________, which conveys the attitudes and emotions of the storyteller or the characters. Answer: evaluation 28. Children learn how narratives are developed and structured by ___________. Answer: listening to stories/being asked questions while they are telling stories 29. Children learn to use ___________ discourse to report information at school. Answer: expository 30. The discourse type that is common in school settings and consists of the three-part exchange of initiation, reply, and evaluation is called a __________. Answer: quiz TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. Boys are more likely to ignore a directive they do not want to comply with than girls are. Answer: False 32. Children being socialized to Samoan norms learn that they cannot use an imperative that expresses the power to control another’s actions unless they are addressing a baby or a pet. Answer: True 33. Backchannel cues are one of the first aspects of conversation structure acquired by children. Answer: False 34. The most common cohesive device that children use in the early stages of acquisition is pronouns. Answer: True 35. Children usually learn only one way to request permission and then stick to that strategy. Answer: False ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. Describe the ways that Japanese children are socialized into the appropriate communicative style. Answer: Japanese children are socialized into the appropriate communicative style through various cultural practices and educational settings. Here are several key ways this socialization occurs: 1. Family Dynamics: • Hierarchy and Respect: From a young age, children learn to respect hierarchical relationships within the family and society. They are taught to use honorific language (keigo) to address elders and those in authority. • Implicit Communication: Parents often communicate indirectly, expecting children to understand unspoken cues and context. This teaches sensitivity to non-verbal communication and situational awareness. 2. School Environment: • Formal Language Use: Schools reinforce formal language use, where teachers and students use respectful language and honorifics in interactions. • Group Dynamics: Emphasis on group harmony (wa) encourages children to consider the feelings and opinions of others, fostering cooperative and collective communication styles. • Rituals and Etiquette: School ceremonies and daily routines instill proper etiquette and respectful behavior, shaping children’s communication styles in formal settings. 3. Media and Popular Culture: • Role Models: Media portrayals of respectful and polite behavior, especially towards authority figures, serve as models for children. • Anime and Manga: While not always formal, these cultural forms often depict nuanced social interactions and communication styles, influencing children’s understanding of interpersonal dynamics. 4. Peer Interactions: • Group Norms: Children learn informal communication styles through peer interactions, where they negotiate roles and hierarchies within their social groups. • Play and Imagination: Role-playing games and imaginative play provide opportunities for children to practice different communicative styles and social roles. 5. Language Education: • Formal Instruction: Language classes in school teach proper grammar, vocabulary, and speech patterns, reinforcing formal and polite language use. • Cultural Context: Teachers often explain the cultural significance of language and communication styles, helping children understand the social expectations associated with different contexts. Overall, Japanese children learn appropriate communicative styles through a combination of formal education, familial guidance, peer interactions, and exposure to cultural norms and media representations. This socialization process emphasizes respect, harmony, and sensitivity to social cues, preparing children to navigate various interpersonal and professional settings in Japanese society. 37. Describe the dispute strategies that Goodwin and Goodwin (1987) observed American children using. Explain the gender differences in the use of these strategies. Answer: Goodwin and Goodwin (1987) identified the following dispute strategies used by American children: 1. Direct confrontation: Asserting dominance through direct challenges or arguments. 2. Appeals to authority: Invoking rules, norms, or adult intervention to support their position. 3. Indirection: Using subtle cues or hints rather than direct confrontation. 4. Third-party involvement: Bringing in peers or adults as mediators or supporters. Gender differences in strategy use: • Boys tend to favor direct confrontation and appeals to authority, often using more assertive and direct language. • Girls are more likely to use indirection and involve third parties, emphasizing cooperation and negotiation over direct conflict. These differences reflect broader socialization patterns and expectations regarding communication and conflict resolution strategies among genders. 38. Describe the role of interruptions in the language socialization process and discuss the gender differences that have been found in regards to interruptions and the acquisition of communicative competence. Answer: Interruptions play a significant role in language socialization by influencing how individuals learn to participate in conversations and assert themselves within social interactions. Here’s how interruptions impact language socialization and the associated gender differences: 1. Role in Language Socialization: • Learning conversational norms: Through interruptions, individuals learn when and how it is appropriate to interject in conversations. • Asserting participation: Interruptions teach individuals how to assert themselves and gain speaking turns in social settings. • Power dynamics: They reflect and reinforce power dynamics within conversations, influencing who holds conversational control. 2. Gender Differences: • Frequency: Research often finds that men interrupt more frequently than women in mixed-gender interactions. • Reasons for interruption: Men tend to interrupt to assert dominance or to redirect the conversation, while women may interrupt to express support or agreement. • Impact on communicative competence: Girls and boys may develop different strategies for managing interruptions. Girls may learn to navigate interruptions by using politeness strategies or by asserting themselves in subtler ways, while boys may learn to assert dominance more directly. 3. Acquisition of Communicative Competence: • Socialization into gendered communication styles: Interruptions contribute to the socialization process by teaching individuals how to navigate and understand gendered communication norms. • Development of conversational skills: Learning to manage interruptions helps individuals develop communicative competence, including turn-taking, negotiation, and the ability to assert oneself without dominating. In summary, interruptions are integral to language socialization as they shape how individuals learn to participate in conversations and assert themselves within social contexts. Gender differences in interruption patterns reflect broader social norms and influence the acquisition of communicative competence differently for boys and girls. 39. Describe how children are socialized to use and respond to directives and discuss the gender differences in this socialization process. Answer: Children are socialized to use and respond to directives through various processes that involve learning norms, expectations, and appropriate responses within their cultural and social contexts. Here's an overview of how this socialization occurs and the gender differences involved: Socialization to Use Directives: 1. Observation and Imitation: Children learn how to give directives by observing adults and peers. They imitate the language, tone, and strategies used by others in authoritative roles. 2. Feedback and Correction: Adults provide feedback to children on the appropriateness and effectiveness of their directives. They correct misunderstandings and guide children in refining their communication skills. 3. Role Play and Practice: Children often engage in role-playing activities where they practice giving directives in various social scenarios. This helps them internalize appropriate ways to assert authority or request actions. Gender Differences in Directive Use: 1. Assertiveness vs. Politeness: Research suggests that boys are often socialized to use more direct and assertive language when giving directives. They may employ imperatives and straightforward commands to convey authority. 2. Indirectness and Politeness: Girls, on the other hand, tend to be socialized towards indirect and polite directive strategies. They may use questions, suggestions, or softened language to achieve compliance without appearing overly authoritative. 3. Response to Authority: Boys may receive different responses to their directives compared to girls. They might be more likely to encounter immediate compliance, whereas girls might need to negotiate or justify their directives more often. 4. Role Models and Cultural Norms: Children learn gender-specific directive styles from their role models and cultural norms. Media portrayals, parental behavior, and peer interactions all contribute to shaping how boys and girls learn to use and respond to directives. Implications: • Communication Skills: Socialization influences children's development of communication skills related to assertiveness, negotiation, and persuasion. • Gender Roles: Directive socialization reinforces traditional gender roles where boys are encouraged to take charge and girls are expected to be more cooperative and accommodating. • Adaptability: Children learn to adapt their directive styles based on context and social expectations, which contributes to their overall communicative competence. In conclusion, socialization processes play a crucial role in teaching children how to use and respond to directives. Gender differences in directive use reflect broader societal expectations and norms regarding communication styles and authority roles. 40. Explain how children learn the structure of conversation, including what strategies they use to engage other people in conversation and what strategies they use to overcome obstacles in conversation. Answer: Children learn the structure of conversation through a process known as conversational socialization, which involves acquiring the rules, norms, and strategies necessary for effective communication. Here’s how children learn and develop their conversational skills: Learning the Structure of Conversation: 1. Observation and Imitation: • Children observe how adults and peers initiate, maintain, and end conversations. • They imitate the language, turn-taking patterns, and nonverbal cues (like eye contact and gestures) they observe in others. 2. Explicit Teaching: • Adults often provide direct instruction or guidance on conversational rules and etiquette. • This includes teaching about taking turns, staying on topic, and using appropriate greetings and farewells. 3. Practice and Feedback: • Children practice conversational skills through everyday interactions with family, friends, and peers. • They receive feedback from others on their conversational abilities, which helps them refine their skills over time. Strategies to Engage Others in Conversation: 1. Initiation: • Asking questions: Children learn to initiate conversations by asking questions about the other person’s interests or activities. • Sharing information: They may share relevant information or experiences to start a conversation. 2. Maintaining Engagement: • Active listening: Children learn to listen attentively to others and respond appropriately to keep the conversation flowing. • Showing interest: They use verbal cues (like "Oh, really?" or "That's interesting!") and nonverbal cues (nodding, smiling) to show interest and encourage the other person to continue talking. Strategies to Overcome Obstacles in Conversation: 1. Repair Strategies: • Clarification: Children ask for clarification when they don’t understand something ("What do you mean by...?"). • Repetition: They may repeat or rephrase their own statements if they feel misunderstood. • Summarization: Children summarize what they’ve heard to check their understanding and ensure they’re on the same page with their conversation partner. 2. Turn-taking Skills: • Children learn when to take turns speaking and when to yield the floor to others. • They use conversational markers (like pauses or completion points) to signal the end of their turn and invite others to speak. Cultural and Contextual Variations: • Cultural norms: Conversational rules and strategies may vary across cultures, influencing how children learn and practice conversational skills. • Individual differences: Children may differ in their natural conversational abilities and styles based on personality traits and socialization experiences. Developmental Progression: • As children grow and gain more experience, their conversational skills become more sophisticated. • They learn to navigate complex social interactions, understand implicit meanings, and adapt their communication style to different contexts and relationships. In summary, children learn the structure of conversation through observation, practice, and feedback. They develop strategies to engage others in conversation and overcome obstacles, which are essential for building effective communication skills across various social contexts. Test Bank for Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages Nancy Bonvillain 9780205953561

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