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This Document Contains Chapters 11 to 13 Chapter 11—Multilingual Nations MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. How many languages are spoken in the United States? A. 12 B. 98 C. 172 D. 253 E. 364 Answer: E 2. What is the official language of India? A. English B. Malayalam C. Hindi D. Kannada E. Punjab Answer: C 3. Standard Hindi has borrowed many words from ___________, which strengthens its prestige. A. Sanskrit B. German C. French D. Arabic E. Egyptian Answer: A 4. Decisions on whether or not to use minority languages in Indian schools are typically based on A. how uncomplicated the minority languages are. B. attitudes toward the minority languages. C. the level of monolingualism among the students. D. the rules the United States sets regarding how many languages each country may teach. E. sociological changes over time. Answer: B 5. Which statement best describes the findings of Lambert et al. (1960) regarding attitudes towards English and French in Canada? A. Anglophones had better attitudes toward French and francophones had better attitudes toward English. B. Anglophones had better attitudes toward English and francophones had better attitudes toward French. C. Both anglophones and francophones had better attitudes toward French. D. Both anglophones and francophones had better attitudes toward English. E. Both anglophones and francophones had equal attitudes toward English and French. Answer: D 6. What was the goal of Bill 101 in Canada? A. to establish French as the official language of Québec B. to establish English as the official language of Québec C. to establish French and English as the two official languages of Québec D. to eliminate an official language in Québec E. to promote French-English bilingual education in Québec Answer: A 7. What result from Bourhis’ (1985) study indicated a change from previous studies on language attitudes in Canada? A. Anglophones had better attitudes toward English than they had in the past. B. Anglophones had more negative attitudes toward French than they had in the past. C. Francophones had better attitudes toward French than they had in the past. D. Francophones had more negative attitudes toward French than they had in the past. E. Both anglophones and francophones had more positive attitudes toward English than they had in the past. Answer: C 8. Which language—other than English—is spoken by the most people in the US? A. Chinese B. French C. Vietnamese D. Tagalog E. Spanish Answer: E 9. According to Zentella’s (1997) research on a Puerto Rican neighborhood in New York City, which group is most likely to retain more Spanish in that community? A. children born in the US B. members of the lower middle class C. college students D. women E. men Answer: D 10. What model of bilingual education is most common in the US? A. transitional B. two-way C. dual language immersion D. both B and C E. none of the above Answer: A 11. What argument(s) do people have against bilingual education? A. that children will learn English more quickly by just being immersed in it B. that bilingual education is harmful to children’s naturalization chances C. that it lowers bilingual students’ self esteem D. that it slows the process of overall comprehensive learning E. that English is a superior language because it deals with more necessary concepts Answer: D 12. What argument(s) do people have for bilingual education? A. that bilingual education saves the school district money B. that bilingual education helps boost bilingual children’s self esteem C. that bilingual programs slow students learning in English and other subjects D. that it slows the process of overall comprehensive learning E. that Spanish is a superior language because it deals with more necessary concepts Answer: B 13. Studies show that acquiring more than one language can help A. children remember facts more easily. B. develop artistic skills. C. improve children’s performance in math and science. D. children excel at sports. E. in understanding the great classics. Answer: C 14. What does the Court Interpreter’s Act provide? A. funding for bilingual people to go to school to become court interpreters B. court interpreters for people who primarily speak a language other than English C. legal protection for court interpreters who make errors during trials D. funding for continuous training for court interpreters to maintain their bilingualism E. all of the above Answer: B 15. What does the Language in Government Act state? A. All government employees must use English while doing government business. B. All government employees must learn a language other than English. C. All government business must be conducted in English and at least one other language. D. All government business must be conducted in English and Spanish. E. All government buildings must have interpreters available at all times. Answer: A 16. Which law encourages the use of Native American languages in schools in order to preserve Native American cultures? A. California Proposition 227 B. the Home Languages Act C. the Native American Languages Act D. New York Proposition 115 E. the Civil Rights Act Answer: C 17. Why are efforts to promote the use of Native American languages especially important? A. Native American languages are considered strategic languages for national security purposes. B. There is growing international interest in learning Native American languages. C. Native American languages are easy to acquire, so more Americans can become bilingual by studying them. D. Many Native American languages are endangered and have only a few speakers left. E. There are so many speakers of Native American languages in the US. Answer: D 18. A language that is formed by combining linguistic features from several languages and is acquired by children as a first language is called A. a pidgin. B. a dialect. C. a creole. D. a language family. E. an isolate. Answer: C 19. What is a unique feature of pidgin languages? A. easily learned for conversational interaction B. unique pronunciation system compared to the native language of the land C. can never be written D. always a merger of other languages other than the native speakers original language E. pidgins are not the first language of any speaker Answer: E 20. What linguistic features do Gullah, Louisiana Creole, and Hawaiian Creole all share? A. extreme morphological complexity B. very well-developed aspect systems C. consistent use of plural markers D. consistent use of gender markers on pronouns E. consistent use of tense markers on verbs Answer: B IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. The elite classes in India advocate the use of __________ as an official language so they can enhance their prestige and maintain control over government and education. Answer: Hindi 22. The term anglophone refers to ___________. Answer: speakers who are monolingual in English or bilingual with English dominance 23. The theory that suggests that speakers converge to the speech styles of interlocutors they feel positively about is called __________. Answer: speech accommodation theory 24. From the late 1700s to the mid-1800s, the US government published laws in other languages, such as ___________ in Pennsylvania, ___________ in Louisiana, and various Native American languages. Answer: German; French 25. The goal of the ___________ model of bilingual education is to transition children to complete reliance on English rather than their native languages. Answer: transitional 26. Schools that teach English to Spanish-speaking children and Spanish to English-speaking children are aiming for ___________ bilingualism. Answer: two-way 27. California Proposition 227 states that ___________. Answer: “nearly all” bilingual classes must be conducted in English 28. ___________ is a creole derived from several African languages and English that is spoken on islands off the Atlantic coast of the United States. Answer: Gullah 29. Louisiana Creole is derived from ___________ and ___________. Answer: French; African languages 30. A ___________ is a simplified language that has no native speakers and arises when speakers of different languages come into contact. Answer: pidgin TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. Hindi is typically used in government, universities and high level courts in India. Answer: False 32. Mass communication in India helps to promote the use of minority languages. Answer: False 33. English is the official language of the United States. Answer: False 34. Navajo is the most widely spoken Native American language in the US. Answer: True 35. Unlike English, Gullah uses bilabial fricatives. Answer: True ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. Describe the complicated political and social factors that affect the uses of Hindi and English in India. Answer: The uses of Hindi and English in India are influenced by a complex interplay of political, social, historical, and linguistic factors. Here’s a breakdown: Political Factors: 1. Official Language Policy: • Constitutional Provisions: The Indian Constitution recognizes Hindi as the official language of the Union Government and English as an associate official language. • Language Policy Debates: There have been ongoing debates and tensions regarding the promotion of Hindi as the sole national language versus recognizing linguistic diversity and the importance of English. 2. Regional Language Movements: • Many states in India have their own official languages and strong regional identity movements. States like Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have historically resisted attempts to impose Hindi as a sole or primary language of administration. 3. Language Agitations: • Periodically, there have been language agitations and protests, particularly in non-Hindi speaking states, against the imposition or dominance of Hindi in official and educational domains. Social Factors: 1. Linguistic Diversity: • India is incredibly diverse linguistically, with over 22 officially recognized languages and numerous dialects. Each linguistic community has its own cultural and emotional attachment to their language. 2. Education and Employment: • English is often seen as a gateway to better employment opportunities, particularly in sectors like IT, science, and higher education. Proficiency in English can lead to social mobility and economic advancement. 3. Prestige and Status: • English historically has been associated with higher social status and elite circles, leading to its continued use and preference among certain segments of society, particularly in urban areas. Historical Factors: 1. Colonial Legacy: • English was introduced by the British and served as the administrative and educational language during colonial rule. It retains its prestige and utility due to its historical association with governance and education. 2. Language Movements: • The anti-Hindi imposition movements in the mid-20th century were pivotal in shaping language policies in independent India, leading to the adoption of a bilingual approach (Hindi and English). Economic Factors: 1. Globalization and Business: • English serves as a global language of business, commerce, and technology. India's integration into the global economy has increased the demand for English proficiency. 2. Media and Entertainment: • English-language media, films, and literature have a significant influence on popular culture and contribute to the continued use and adoption of English among the younger generation. Contemporary Dynamics: 1. Bilingualism and Code-Switching: • Many Indians are proficient in multiple languages, often using Hindi and English interchangeably or in combination depending on the context (e.g., Hinglish). 2. Policy Adaptations: • The Indian government has adopted a pragmatic approach by promoting multilingualism and recognizing the importance of both Hindi and English while respecting regional linguistic identities. In conclusion, the uses of Hindi and English in India are deeply intertwined with issues of identity, politics, economics, and historical legacies. The balance between promoting Hindi as a symbol of national unity and preserving linguistic diversity remains a complex and sensitive issue in Indian society. 37. Describe the situational use of French and English by Canadian bilinguals. Answer: Canadian bilinguals, particularly in English and French, use each language situationally based on various factors: 1. Official Contexts: • English: Used predominantly in federal government settings and across most provinces. • French: Used in Quebec's provincial government and federally as per bilingualism policies. 2. Regional Preferences: • Quebec: French is widely used in everyday life, media, and public services. • Outside Quebec: English is more commonly used in public and professional settings. 3. Workplace and Education: • Language choice often depends on the workplace's linguistic policy and client base. • Bilingual education systems allow for proficiency in both languages. 4. Social and Cultural Identity: • Language choice may reflect cultural identity and familial language practices. • Bilinguals may code-switch to express affiliations or solidarity with different linguistic communities. 5. Media Consumption: • Consumption of media (TV, radio, online) may influence language preferences and proficiency maintenance. 6. Personal Preference and Comfort: • Individuals may choose a language based on personal fluency, comfort, and the linguistic composition of their social circle. Overall, Canadian bilinguals navigate language use based on context, policy, identity, and personal preference, fostering a dynamic bilingual and bicultural landscape. 38. Describe speech accommodation theory and discuss how language attitudes are connected to language choice in Canada. Answer: Here are the points: Speech Accommodation Theory: 1. Definition: Theory that explains how people adjust their speech style to match that of others in a conversation. 2. Convergence: Speakers may adapt their speech to be more similar to their conversation partner's to foster rapport. 3. Divergence: Speakers may emphasize their distinctiveness by maintaining their own speech style. 4. Factors: Accommodation is influenced by social status, context, and goals of communication. Language Attitudes and Language Choice in Canada: 1. Bilingualism: Canada has two official languages, English and French. 2. Language Attitudes: Influence perceptions of social status, identity, and belonging. 3. Code-Switching: Common in bilingual communities as speakers switch between languages based on context and interlocutors. 4. Policy: Canadian language policies promote bilingualism, affecting education, government services, and cultural expression. 5. Identity: Language choice reflects personal and group identities, influencing social interactions and integration. 39. Discuss the research on the cognitive benefits of bilingualism (Kessler and Quinn, 1985) and explain how these findings are connected to the theory of linguistic relativity. Answer: Here's a concise breakdown: Research on Cognitive Benefits of Bilingualism (Kessler and Quinn, 1985): 1. Executive Function: Bilingual individuals often show enhanced abilities in executive functions such as task switching, problem-solving, and cognitive flexibility. 2. Metalinguistic Awareness: Bilingualism can improve metalinguistic awareness—awareness and control over language as a system. 3. Delay in Dementia: Research suggests bilingualism may delay the onset of dementia symptoms in older adults. Connection to Theory of Linguistic Relativity: 1. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Proposes that language shapes cognition and perception. 2. Enhanced Cognitive Abilities: Bilingualism supports the idea that language experience can influence higher cognitive functions, supporting a weak form of linguistic relativity. 3. Cultural Perspective: Bilinguals navigate between linguistic and cultural frameworks, potentially influencing how they perceive and interact with the world. 4. Research Implications: Studies on bilingualism's cognitive benefits contribute to understanding how language affects thought processes, supporting the theory's principles. 40. Describe the governmental policies that addressed Native American languages in the nineteenth century and explain how those policies are different today. Answer: Here's a succinct overview: Governmental Policies Addressing Native American Languages in the 19th Century: 1. Assimilation Policies: Emphasized English-only education and discouraged Native languages. 2. Boarding Schools: Forced assimilation through residential schools where Native children were prohibited from speaking their languages. 3. Federal Suppression: Policies aimed to eradicate Native languages to facilitate cultural assimilation and control. Contrast with Today's Policies: 1. Revitalization Efforts: Current policies focus on preserving and revitalizing Native languages. 2. Tribal Control: Many initiatives are led by Native tribes and communities rather than imposed by federal authorities. 3. Bilingual Education: Support for bilingual education programs that incorporate Native languages alongside English. 4. Legislation: Laws like the Native American Languages Act (1990) support the preservation and protection of Native languages. 5. Cultural Recognition: Recognition of Native languages as integral to cultural identity and sovereignty. Chapter 12—Bilingual Communities MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which sound did English eventually add as a result of prolonged contact with French? A. /z/ B. /s/ C. /ž/ D. /ǰ/ E. /h/ Answer: C 2. What feature of English grammar did French influence? A. some past tense conjugations (e.g. go/went) B. some comparative and superlative constructions (e.g. dangerous/more dangerous) C. some determiners (e.g. a/an) D. some question formations (e.g. You like pasta./Do you like pasta?) E. some verb agreements (e.g. you walk/she walks) Answer: B 3. Which grammatical construction was discouraged in English due to influence from Latin? A. ending a sentence with a preposition B. using double negatives C. wh-questions D. using conjunctions to join phrases E. ending a sentence with a question word Answer: A 4. From which languages has English borrowed words? A. Greek , Hindi, Italian, Hebrew, Chinese, and Spanish B. Syrian Arabic C. Japanese D. Norwegian E. New Guinean Islander Answer: A 5. Words that have been borrowed from French are usually considered ___________ than the English words with the same meaning. A. less sophisticated B. less intelligent C. less expressive D. more polite E. more informal Answer: D 6. In a diglossic situation, the language that is spoken in public arenas and has a long literary tradition is referred to as the __________. A. right language B. left language C. high language D. low language E. forward language Answer: C 7. In a diglossic situation, the language that is spoken in private and informal contexts with family and friends is referred to as the ____________. A. right language B. left language C. high language D. low language E. forward language Answer: D 8. What influences a Paraguayan to decide to use Spanish or Guarani in an interaction? A. where the interaction occurs B. how formal the interaction is C. how intimate the interlocutors are D. how serious the conversation is E. all of the above Answer: E 9. When is a Paraguayan likely to use Guarani? A. when talking to a stranger in an urban area B. when talking to a close friend C. when talking to a doctor D. when talking to a police officer E. when talking to a teacher Answer: B 10. Which statement below describes the language attitudes of Paraguayans? A. There is a positive attitude toward Guarani because it is perceived as a symbol of Paraguayan nationalism. B. There is a negative attitude toward Guarani because it is perceived as unsophisticated. C. There is a negative attitude toward Spanish because it is associated with international culture and literacy. D. Both A and B. E. Both A and C. Answer: D 11. English, French, and Swahili are all examples of ___________. A. lingua francas B. pidgins C. creoles D. endangered languages E. both A and B Answer: A 12. What is Thonga? A. a pidgin arising from contact between language groups in southeast Asia B. a lingua franca created by Swiss missionaries in eastern South Africa and Mozambique C. a creole derived from several Native American languages in the US D. an endangered Australian language being revived through immersion programs E. an extinct language that was spoken in northern Europe until 1066 Answer: B 13. Zentella (1997) found that Puerto Rican Spanish-English bilinguals in New York City tended to accommodate to the language of their addressee. This system of accommodation was especially based on the ___________ of the interlocutor. A. gender B. social status C. age D. socioeconomic class E. profession Answer: C 14. The recent history of the Basque language demonstrates that A. incorporating a language into the educational system hinders revitalization efforts. B. if a language has too many dialects, it has too much diversity to be revitalized. C. a strong link between ethnic identity and language does not help revitalize languages. D. languages cannot be revitalized, even with extensive efforts. E. languages can successfully be revitalized. Answer: E 15. Which continent faces losing the largest percentage of its indigenous languages? A. North America B. South America C. Australia D. Asia E. Europe Answer: C 16. Which language has been successfully revived as a result of immersion programs? A. Scots Gaelic B. Hawaiian C. Arapaho D. Dutch E. Yiddish Answer: B 17. What is a feature that characterizes many varieties of New English? A. subjects and objects are always distinguished for gender B. definiteness and indefiniteness are always marked more than once C. consonant clusters are usually simplified D. there is often no way to mark tense E. all of the above Answer: C 18. In which situations do bilingual speakers often code switch? A. when they forget a word in one language B. when they want to highlight a certain part of their speech C. when they repeat information for emphasis D. when they shift topics in a conversation E. all of the above Answer: E 19. Bilinguals who code switch demonstrate that they A. do not fully speak either language. B. have mastered the grammatical features of the languages, but do not have communicative competence. C. have communicative competence in both languages but do not understand the grammar. D. have thorough grammatical knowledge of and communicative competence in both languages. E. have been educated in the literacy practices of both languages. Answer: D 20. How are Japanese communicative norms different from American ones? A. Japanese speakers greet strangers more frequently and ask strangers more questions. B. Japanese speakers tend to take shorter turns in conversation and distribute the turns more equally. C. Japanese communicative norms stress directness and avoidance of ambiguity. D. Japanese communicative norms encourage speakers to express their personal opinions in any context. E. All of the above Answer: B IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. Words that have been borrowed from another language are called borrowed words or ___________. Answer: loanwords 22. The largest sources of borrowed words in English are from ___________ and ___________. Answer: Latin; French 23. When speakers borrow a word from another language, they often modify the ___________ of the word to fit the system used in their language. Answer: phonology/pronunciation 24. In bilingual communities, the term _________ refers to situations where each language is systematically used in a different context. Answer: diglossia 25. A ___________ is a language chosen to be the language of wider communication between different linguistic groups. Answer: lingua franca 26. When an entire language community shifts from their native language to their second language so that the native language is no longer being acquired by any children, that language has undergone the process of ____________. Answer: language death/language obsolescence 27. English is used as a language of wider communication around the globe. The unique varieties of English that have been affected by local languages in countries around the world are known as ___________. Answer: New Englishes 28. The process of integrating words and phrases from two languages into the same discourse segment is called ___________. Answer: code switching 29. The process of integrating morphemes from one language into the word structure of another language is known as ____________. Answer: code mixing 30. When people come to a conversation with different communicative norms as a result of cultural differences, they may experience an ___________ that can have very negative repercussions, especially in gatekeeping situations such as interviews. Answer: interethnic miscommunication/ intercultural miscommunication TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. Languages remain constant over time unless major social upheaval occurs. Answer: False 32. Gal’s (1978) study of language shift revealed the dramatic increase in the use of Hungarian in Austria. Answer: False 33. While the Puerto Rican communities in New York and Indiana are experiencing a shift toward English, Spanish-English bilinguals in these communities have very positive attitudes toward Spanish. Answer: True 34. The Mohawk language is now extinct because the community’s efforts to integrate Mohawk into local schools were unsuccessful. Answer: False 35. Most speakers of New English consider it to be a neutral language for communication and/or a language of high status. Answer: True ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. Compare and contrast the use of Swahili and English in Kenya and Tanzania. Answer: Here's a comparison of the use of Swahili and English in Kenya and Tanzania: Kenya: • Official Languages: English and Swahili are both official languages. • Language Use: • Swahili: Widely spoken as a lingua franca across ethnic groups. • English: Used in formal education, government, business, and media. • Education: • Swahili is the medium of instruction in primary schools. • English is the medium of instruction in secondary and higher education. • Media: • Both Swahili and English are used extensively in newspapers, radio, and television. • Cultural Significance: • Swahili plays a significant role in cultural expression and everyday communication. • English is associated with higher education, formal settings, and international communication. Tanzania: • Official Languages: Swahili and English are official languages. • Language Use: • Swahili: Widely spoken as the national language and primary medium of communication. • English: Used in higher education, government, and business. • Education: • Swahili is the primary medium of instruction at all levels of education. • English is taught as a subject from primary school onwards and used as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education. • Media: • Swahili is dominant in newspapers, radio, and television. • English is used in some newspapers and for international communication. • Cultural Significance: • Swahili is deeply rooted in Tanzanian culture and identity. • English is associated with formal education, government, and international relations. Comparison: • Official Status: Both countries have Swahili and English as official languages. • Education: Kenya uses Swahili more extensively in primary education compared to Tanzania. • Media: Swahili has a stronger presence in Tanzanian media compared to Kenya, where English is more prevalent. • Cultural Influence: Swahili is more culturally entrenched in Tanzania, while English holds greater prestige in Kenya's formal and international contexts. Contrast: • Primary Education: Swahili is the primary medium of instruction in Tanzania throughout education levels, whereas in Kenya, it shifts to English in secondary and higher education. • Media Dominance: Swahili dominates Tanzanian media more comprehensively compared to Kenya, where English holds a stronger presence. • Cultural Integration: Swahili is more deeply integrated into Tanzanian cultural identity compared to Kenya, where both Swahili and English play distinct roles in cultural expression and communication. 37. Describe Gal’s (1978) study of the use of Hungarian and German in an Austrian town. Discuss the language shift that she observed and explain how gender is a factor in this shift. Answer: Here's a summary: Gal's (1978) Study of Hungarian and German in an Austrian Town: • Location: Conducted in the town of Oberwart (Hungarian: Felsőőr), Austria. • Context: Historically Hungarian-speaking enclave in a German-speaking region. • Research Focus: Studied language use patterns and shifts over time. Language Shift Observed: • Generational Change: Found that older generations predominantly spoke Hungarian. • Younger Generations: Increasingly adopted German due to social and economic pressures. • Reasons for Shift: Economic opportunities, education, and social integration favored German. Gender as a Factor in Language Shift: • Women's Role: Often the primary transmitters of language and culture within families. • Impact: Women's adoption of German influenced language use patterns in households. • Generational Transmission: Women's language choices affected the language spoken by children. • Shift Acceleration: Greater adoption of German by women contributed significantly to the overall language shift observed in Oberwart. Conclusion: • Gal's study highlighted how societal changes, particularly among women, influenced the linguistic landscape of Oberwart, leading to a notable shift from Hungarian towards German over generations. 38. Compare and contrast the levels of bilingualism and linguistic shift among the Chol Maya, Chorti Maya, and Chontal of Chiapas. Answer: Here's a comparison of the levels of bilingualism and linguistic shift among the Chol Maya, Chorti Maya, and Chontal of Chiapas: Chol Maya: • Bilingualism: • Many Chol Maya are bilingual, speaking both Chol (a Mayan language) and Spanish. • Bilingualism is common due to interactions with Spanish-speaking populations and national educational policies. • Linguistic Shift: • There is ongoing pressure towards Spanish dominance, especially among younger generations. • Spanish is increasingly used in education, media, and government, leading to a gradual decline in the use of Chol. Chorti Maya: • Bilingualism: • Chorti Maya are typically bilingual in Chorti (a Mayan language) and Spanish. • Bilingualism is prevalent due to historical interactions with Spanish-speaking groups and modern educational influences. • Linguistic Shift: • Similar to Chol Maya, there's a notable shift towards Spanish among younger generations. • Spanish is used in formal settings, leading to reduced use of Chorti in domains like education and media. Chontal of Chiapas: • Bilingualism: • Chontal Maya speakers are bilingual, using both Chontal (a Mixe-Zoquean language) and Spanish. • Bilingualism is maintained due to historical contact with Spanish speakers and educational policies. • Linguistic Shift: • There is a gradual shift towards Spanish, especially in urban areas and formal domains. • Spanish dominates in education, government, and media, influencing language use among younger Chontal speakers. Comparison: • Bilingualism Levels: All three groups exhibit high levels of bilingualism, speaking their indigenous languages alongside Spanish. • Linguistic Shift: Each group faces pressures towards Spanish dominance, particularly among younger generations influenced by formal education and urbanization. • Cultural Context: Differences in historical interaction with Spanish speakers and regional development influence the extent and pace of linguistic shift. Contrast: • Language Families: Chol and Chorti Maya belong to the Mayan language family, while Chontal belongs to the Mixe-Zoquean family, influencing linguistic dynamics. • Social Factors: Variations in socio-economic factors and government policies contribute differently to bilingualism and language shift among these groups. • Community Resilience: Despite linguistic shifts, efforts to maintain indigenous languages and cultural identity vary among the Chol Maya, Chorti Maya, and Chontal of Chiapas. 39. Explain the factors that have caused the Gaelic language to become endangered. Answer: Here are the factors that have contributed to the endangerment of the Gaelic language: • Historical Suppression: Policies of linguistic and cultural suppression by the British government, such as the Statutes of Iona and the Highland Clearances. • Language Shift: Increasing dominance of English as the language of education, administration, and commerce. • Urbanization: Rural depopulation and migration to urban centers where English is the dominant language. • Social Prestige: English seen as more prestigious and associated with better economic opportunities. • Media Influence: English-language media (TV, internet, etc.) marginalizing Gaelic-language media. • Educational Policies: Prioritization of English-medium education over Gaelic-medium education in schools. • Intermarriage: Intermarriage with English-speaking partners leading to reduced transmission of Gaelic to children. • Lack of Support: Insufficient governmental support for Gaelic language promotion and revitalization efforts. 40. Compare and contrast the communicative norms used by Chinese and American businesspeople and explain how these different norms lead to interethnic miscommunication between the two groups. Answer: Here's a comparison in bullet points: Chinese Business Communication Norms: • Indirect Communication: Often relies on implicit cues and non-verbal signals. • Hierarchy Emphasis: Respect for authority and seniority is crucial. • Face Saving: Avoiding embarrassment or loss of face is prioritized. • Building Relationships: Establishing trust and guanxi (connections) is essential. • Contextual Understanding: Communication often depends on understanding context and subtext. American Business Communication Norms: • Direct Communication: Emphasis on clarity and explicitness in verbal communication. • Egalitarianism: More focus on equality and meritocracy over hierarchy. • Task Orientation: Efficiency and task completion are prioritized. • Open Feedback: Constructive criticism and open discussion are common. • Contracts and Legal Framework: Reliance on legal agreements and contracts for clarity. Interethnic Miscommunication: • Direct vs. Indirect Communication: Americans may find Chinese communication too indirect, leading to misunderstandings or missed cues. • Hierarchy vs. Egalitarianism: Chinese may perceive Americans as disrespectful if hierarchy norms are not observed, while Americans might view Chinese as overly hierarchical. • Face Saving vs. Open Feedback: Chinese may avoid direct criticism to save face, while Americans may interpret this as lack of honesty or transparency. • Relationship vs. Task Orientation: Chinese focus on relationship-building may seem time-consuming to task-oriented Americans, who prioritize efficiency. • Cultural Context: Differences in cultural context and understanding of norms can lead to unintentional offense or misinterpretation of intentions. These differences in communicative norms contribute to interethnic miscommunication between Chinese and American businesspeople, impacting collaboration, negotiation, and overall business relationships. Chapter 13—Language and Institutional Encounters MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. In most modern nations, ___________ entail practices that select and promulgate a standard or “legitimate” language for use in public contexts. A. cultural practices B. social practices C. norms D. ideological standards E. language ideologies Answer: E 2. In Great Britain, the standard (now usually referred to as __________) was a dialect originally associated with upper-class speakers regionally centered around London. A. high society B. proper pronunciation [PP] C. Received Pronunciation [RP] D. Standard Dialect [SD] E. British Standard [BS] Answer: C 3. What English dialect alters some English words by changing syllables to highlight cultural and political meanings? For example, the word politics is transformed into politricks, the word system becomes shitstem, and oppression becomes downpression. A. AVE B. Afro-Lingua C. Hispano-Inglis D. Black dialect E. Southern Answer: C 4. In societies with standard language ideologies, the standard becomes __________. A. adopted B. naturalized C. natural D. normal E. normalized Answer: B 5. Mikhail M. Bakhtin refers to “authoritative discourse” as something that creates __________ among the narrator, the text quoted, and the listener. A. understanding B. discursive arrangement syndrome C. distance D. creative differences E. language malaptations Answer: C 6. Why would one quote authoritative sources? A. to demonstrate one’s research abilities B. to create a false sense of security C. to change the argument D. to show that others share the same view E. to manipulate an audience for a desired end Answer: E 7. DELs are __________. A. Designed English Lexicons B. Designed English Language (standards) C. Deleterious English Labels D. Derogatory Ethnic Labels E. Direct Energetic Languages Answer: D 8. Interrelationships between __________ and hierarchical social models can also be demonstrated by contrasts in evaluations of speaking styles associated with different groups. A. language B. social practices C. norms D. ideological standards E. language ideologies Answer: A 9. Differences in status are not only expressed in words and speech patterns but are also demonstrated how? A. cultural practices B. in assignment of rights to speak and to determine topics of talk C. norms D. ideological standards E. language ideologies Answer: B 10. According to Bonnie Erickson and her co-workers, low-status speakers react to their situation by developing a style that the researchers identify as __________. A. creative B. sociologically depraved C. normless D. powerless E. ideological Answer: D 11. Jürgen Habermas referred to development of a __________ that affects our ways of thinking (our worldview) in institutional spheres and is extended to other interactional contexts. A. technocratic consciousness B. technocratic process C. set of norms D. ideological standard E. language ideology Answer: A 12. How are communicative behaviors in classrooms of the United States typified? A. direct questioning B. discursive discourse C. interlocutor interchange with the student leading the discussion D. question and answer sequences E. interrogative interrogation by the teacher Answer: D 13. In most US classrooms, questions are used explicitly to measure pupils’ __________ and absorption of knowledge. A. attentiveness B. socialization C. normalization D. ideology E. language ideology Answer: A 14. In medical encounters, doctors routinely exert authority and control, and patients __________ their authority. A. acquiesce to B. agree to accept C. bridle against D. respect E. often rebel against Answer: A 15. An intriguing issue that underlies an analysis of medical encounters is the creation of __________ between doctor and patient despite the fact that it is the patient who is the ultimate initiator. A. a fictive bond B. a normative relationship C. asymmetry D. symmetry E. tension Answer: C 16. According to Nancy Ainsworth-Vaughn what strategy do patients use to claim power in an interaction with their physician? A. direct argumentation B. indirect queries about the doctor’s medical qualifications C. hyper-friendliness D. asking for a second opinion E. proposing treatments through declarative statements or questions. Answer: E 17. __________ are among the most highly structured interactional events in our culture. A. Legal proceedings B. Classroom settings C. Doctor’s office visits D. Court hearings E. Legal depositions Answer: A 18. How does language used in legal proceedings, in both written and oral form, maintains its prestige? A. usage of Latin as a substitute for English B. usage of French as a substitute for English C. convoluted contract language D. complete disregard for the normal grammatical rules of English E. its dissimilarities with colloquial English Answer: E 19. Authority and control are paramount recurring themes in __________ settings. A. medical B. legal C. educational D. bureaucratic E. normative Answer: B 20. The __________ (and other instruments of public knowledge) operate on the basis of shared cultural myths, central among them the myth of neutrality. A. legal profession B. medical profession C. educational system D. media E. government Answer: D IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. What type of media personalities endeavor to put callers on the defensive, again aggravating conflict. __________ Answer: talk radio hosts 22. In the United States, in contrast, issues of class were publicly less salient than in Great Britain; instead, __________ distinctions were more prominent. Answer: racial and ethnic 23. The development of a __________ often coincides with processes of state formation and centralization through which the state exerts both linguistic and cultural control. Answer: standard language 24. In all modern countries, the __________ is one of the prime arenas for the promulgation of standard languages and standard language ideologies. Answer: educational system 25. Studies of language ideologies and __________ to dominant varieties can attempt to connect the processes of face-to-face interaction with social, economic, and political orders. Answer: resistance 26. Use of derogatory labels for people based on their gender, ethnicity, or race is an example of expressing and imposing __________ through rights to name and refer. Answer: social beliefs 27. The field of __________ is particularly relevant in the analysis of communicative behavior in institutional contexts, although it adds significant perspectives to the study of informal interactions as well. Answer: critical discourse analysis 28. Many __________ children are socialized to refrain from behavior that isolates their performance in a competitive manner in front of peers. Answer: Native American 29. Law school __________ are characterized by the professor’s rigid control over the students. Answer: classrooms 30. Doctors also exert their __________ by providing or withholding information requested by patients who are in the process of making medical decisions. Answer: influence TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. The United States legal profession has recently endeavored to simplify the language it uses in the courtroom setting. Answer: False 32. The media promotes a mythology of neutrality via several methods. Answer: True 33. In most modern nations, language ideologies entail practices that select and promulgate a standard or “legitimate” language for use in public contexts. Answer: True 34. Most languages are structured to give rights and values to all. Answer: False 35. The primary mode of linguistic interaction in courts is the question-and-answer sequence. Answer: True ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. How do language ideologies entail practices that select and promulgate a standard or “legitimate” language for use in public contexts? Answer: Language ideologies influence the selection and promotion of a standard or "legitimate" language for use in public contexts in the following ways: 1. Standardization: Ideologies define what constitutes a "correct" or standard form of language based on societal norms and values. 2. Prescriptive Grammar: They prescribe rules and norms for language usage, dictating what is considered proper or acceptable in formal settings. 3. Educational Policies: Ideologies influence educational curricula, emphasizing the teaching of standardized forms of language in schools. 4. Media and Publishing: Media outlets and publishing industries often adhere to language ideologies by promoting standardized language in public communications. 5. Social Hierarchies: They reinforce social hierarchies by valuing certain dialects or accents over others, privileging those who conform to the standard. 6. Legal and Official Use: Governments and institutions often codify language standards in laws and regulations, promoting their use in official contexts. 7. Prestige and Power: Standard language varieties are associated with prestige and power, influencing their adoption in public discourse and professional environments. 8. Language Planning: Governments and language authorities engage in language planning to formalize and promote a standard language for administrative and national unity purposes. 9. Resistance and Variation: Despite efforts to standardize, language ideologies coexist with linguistic diversity and variations, which may challenge or subvert dominant norms. 10. Identity and Representation: The promotion of a standard language can shape perceptions of identity and representation, influencing how individuals and groups are perceived based on their language use. In summary, language ideologies play a pivotal role in selecting and promoting a standard or "legitimate" language for use in public contexts by institutionalizing norms, reinforcing social hierarchies, and influencing educational, legal, and media practices. 37. How is the authority of the teacher in the classroom established? Answer: The authority of the teacher in the classroom is established through various means, including: 1. Knowledge and Expertise: Demonstrating proficiency and mastery in the subject matter being taught builds credibility and respect among students. 2. Professional Demeanor: Presenting oneself professionally through attire, speech, and behavior fosters a sense of authority. 3. Classroom Management: Effectively managing the classroom environment, maintaining order, and establishing clear expectations for behavior and participation. 4. Fairness and Consistency: Being fair and consistent in enforcing rules and policies contributes to the perception of authority and fosters a conducive learning environment. 5. Confidence and Assertiveness: Displaying confidence in one's abilities and decisions, as well as being assertive when necessary, helps establish authority. 6. Building Relationships: Developing positive relationships with students based on trust, respect, and understanding can enhance the teacher's authority. 7. Communication Skills: Effective communication, including clear instructions, explanations, and feedback, helps in gaining students' attention and respect. 8. Setting Learning Goals: Articulating clear learning objectives and guiding students toward achieving them reinforces the teacher's role as an educational leader. 9. Professional Development: Continuously updating knowledge and skills through professional development activities enhances the teacher's competence and authority. 10. Role Modeling: Acting as a role model for students by demonstrating qualities such as integrity, empathy, and enthusiasm for learning reinforces authority. Overall, the establishment of authority in the classroom is a dynamic process that involves both explicit actions and subtle interactions aimed at creating a positive and productive learning environment. 38. How do cultural differences between ethnic groups result in differences in expected student behavior? Use examples in your answer. Answer: Cultural differences between ethnic groups can lead to variations in expected student behavior in educational settings. Here are some examples illustrating this phenomenon: 1. Respect for Authority: • In many East Asian cultures such as Chinese or Korean, there is a strong emphasis on respect for authority figures, including teachers. Students are expected to listen attentively, obey instructions without question, and show deference to their teachers. For instance, students might bow or address teachers using formal titles like "Teacher" or "Sir/Madam." • In contrast, in Western cultures such as the United States or parts of Europe, while respect for teachers is also important, there may be more emphasis on questioning authority, critical thinking, and engaging in open dialogue. Students are encouraged to express their opinions and challenge ideas respectfully. 2. Classroom Participation: • In some cultures, such as in many Asian countries, students are often expected to be more passive and listen quietly during lessons. Speaking out of turn or interrupting the teacher may be considered disrespectful. For example, students might hesitate to ask questions or participate actively in class discussions. • In Western cultures, there is typically more encouragement for students to engage actively in classroom discussions, ask questions, and contribute their thoughts freely. Students are often expected to voice their opinions and participate in group activities or debates. 3. Individualism vs. Collectivism: • Cultures that emphasize collectivism, such as many Asian cultures, often prioritize group harmony and conformity. Students may be more inclined to work cooperatively, avoid standing out, and prioritize the needs of the group over individual desires. This can influence behavior in group projects or collaborative learning environments. • Conversely, in individualistic cultures like those found in Western societies, there is often a stronger emphasis on individual achievement, independence, and personal expression. Students may be encouraged to pursue personal goals, express their unique perspectives, and take initiative in their learning. 4. Nonverbal Communication: • Nonverbal communication norms vary widely across cultures and can impact student behavior in subtle ways. For example, in cultures where maintaining eye contact with authority figures is a sign of respect, students may be expected to look directly at the teacher when speaking or being spoken to. • In contrast, in cultures where avoiding direct eye contact with authority figures is more respectful, students might lower their gaze or speak more softly when addressing teachers. These examples demonstrate how cultural differences can influence expectations regarding student behavior in educational settings. Understanding and respecting these cultural nuances is crucial for educators to create inclusive and effective learning environments that accommodate diverse cultural backgrounds. 39. In medical encounters, doctors routinely exert authority and control, and patients acquiesce to their authority. Describe the mechanisms doctors use to do this. Answer: In medical encounters, doctors often exert authority and control over patients through several mechanisms: 1. Medical Knowledge and Expertise: • Doctors typically possess specialized medical knowledge and expertise acquired through extensive training and experience. This knowledge differential establishes the doctor as the authority figure who possesses critical information about diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis. 2. Professional Demeanor and Confidence: • Doctors maintain a professional demeanor characterized by confidence, competence, and assertiveness. This demeanor reassures patients and reinforces the doctor's authority as someone capable of addressing their health concerns effectively. 3. Use of Technical Jargon: • Doctors often use medical terminology and technical jargon that may be unfamiliar to patients. This linguistic barrier can contribute to the perception of the doctor's authority, as patients rely on the doctor's expertise to interpret and explain complex medical concepts. 4. Body Language and Nonverbal Cues: • Nonverbal communication, such as posture, eye contact, and gestures, can convey authority and control. Doctors may maintain direct eye contact, exhibit a calm and composed demeanor, and use gestures to emphasize key points, thereby influencing patient perceptions. 5. White Coat and Symbols of Authority: • The traditional white coat worn by doctors symbolizes professionalism, expertise, and authority. This attire can evoke trust and confidence in patients, reinforcing the doctor's role as a knowledgeable healthcare provider. 6. Decision-Making and Recommendations: • Doctors guide decision-making processes by providing recommendations based on medical expertise and evidence-based practices. Patients often defer to the doctor's recommendations due to the perceived authority and trustworthiness associated with their medical knowledge. 7. Information Gatekeeping: • Doctors control the flow of information by selectively sharing medical details, test results, and treatment options with patients. This gatekeeping role positions the doctor as the primary source of information and decision-making authority. 8. Hierarchy within Healthcare Settings: • Within healthcare settings, there is often a hierarchical structure where doctors occupy positions of authority over other healthcare professionals. This organizational hierarchy reinforces the doctor's authority and control in medical encounters. 9. Legal and Ethical Frameworks: • Doctors operate within legal and ethical frameworks that define their responsibilities and obligations toward patients. These frameworks emphasize the doctor's duty to act in the best interest of the patient, further legitimizing their authority in medical decision-making. 10. Patient Trust and Compliance: • Over time, patients develop trust in their doctors based on positive outcomes, effective communication, and compassionate care. This trust facilitates patient compliance with medical recommendations and reinforces the doctor's authority in ongoing healthcare interactions. Overall, the mechanisms through which doctors exert authority and control in medical encounters are multifaceted, encompassing medical expertise, professional demeanor, communication strategies, symbolic representations, organizational hierarchies, and ethical responsibilities. These mechanisms collectively shape the dynamics of doctor-patient relationships and influence patient perceptions of authority and trust in healthcare settings. 40. List and describe the phases around which talk radio episodes are constructed. You may want to use examples here. Answer: Talk radio episodes typically follow a structured format consisting of several distinct phases. Here are the phases commonly found in talk radio episodes: 1. Opening/Cold Open: • Introduces the show and sets the tone. • Example: "Good morning, listeners! Welcome to [Show Name]. Today, we're diving into the hot topic of..." 2. Introduction of Topic: • Host introduces the main topic or theme of the episode. • Example: "Today, we're discussing the impact of climate change on coastal communities." 3. Monologue/Opener: • Host provides background information, personal perspective, or a brief monologue related to the topic. • Example: "I recently visited a coastal town facing rising sea levels firsthand..." 4. Guest Introduction: • Introduction of any guests or experts participating in the discussion. • Example: "Joining us today is Dr. Jane Smith, an environmental scientist specializing in coastal ecosystems." 5. Discussion and Debate: • Host and guests engage in a structured discussion, presenting viewpoints, arguments, and analysis related to the topic. • Example: "Dr. Smith, could you explain how climate change is affecting these coastal areas?" 6. Caller Participation/Phone-ins: • Open lines for listeners to call in, ask questions, share opinions, or provide personal experiences related to the topic. • Example: "We have John from New York on the line. John, what's your perspective on this issue?" 7. Commercial Breaks/Promotions: • Breaks in the discussion for advertisements, promotions, or station identification. • Example: "Stay tuned, we'll be right back after these messages." 8. Deeper Exploration or Debate: • Further exploration of subtopics, deeper analysis, or debate among guests and callers. • Example: "Let's delve deeper into the economic implications of these environmental changes." 9. Wrap-Up/Conclusion: • Summarizes key points, insights, or conclusions drawn from the discussion. • Example: "That wraps up our discussion on climate change today. Remember to tune in next time for more insightful conversations." 10. Closing Remarks/Sign-Off: • Host bids farewell to listeners, provides contact information, and previews upcoming episodes. • Example: "Thanks for joining us. This is [Host Name] signing off. Stay informed and stay tuned!" These phases provide a structured framework for organizing talk radio episodes, ensuring clarity, engagement, and flow throughout the broadcast. Test Bank for Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages Nancy Bonvillain 9780205953561

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