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This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 6 Chapter 5—Communicative Interactions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which statement below is true of turn-taking in American conversation? A. Usually, each person takes several turns in a row before turning the floor over. B. People usually talk at the same time for long stretches of the conversation. C. There are usually long gaps between each turn. D. People sometimes briefly talk at the same time at the transition of turns. E. Each person in a multi-party conversation will get the same number of turns. Answer: D 2. Which of the following people is most likely to have the longest turns in American conversation? A. a woman B. a child C. a high-status person D. a low-status person E. none of them as turns in American conversation are usually of equal length Answer: C 3. What effect do tag questions have on conversational structure? A. They help end the conversation. B. They keep the speaker’s turn going. C. They prevent another interlocutor from entering the conversation. D. They bring a topic of conversation to a close. E. They end the speaker’s turn and select another speaker. Answer: E 4. Which option below contains a tag question? A. Is it snowing right now? B. It’s getting late, don’t you think? C. Do you want to meet for lunch tomorrow? D. Where is the closest bus station? E. What do you want to eat for dinner? Answer: B 5. People use backchannel cues in conversation to indicate that A. they want to speak. B. they are about to end their turn. C. they want to change topics. D. they are trying to start a conversation. E. they are paying attention. Answer: E 6. What is one way Cree conversational structures differ from those of American-Canadians? A. Cree speakers have a longer pause between turns. B. Cree speakers have a shorter pause between turns. C. Cree speakers do not pause between turns. D. Cree speakers do not use backchannel cues. E. Cree speakers do not engage in turn-taking. Answer: A 7. What is the purpose of repetition in conversation? A. It allows speakers to stall while they think. B. It connects turns of talk. C. It is used for humorous effect. D. It demonstrates that the addressee is listening. E. All of the above. Answer: E 8. What does the maxim of quantity state? A. Speakers should be relevant. B. Speakers should avoid ambiguity. C. Speakers should be informative. D. Speakers should take brief turns. E. Speakers should be truthful. Answer: C 9. What does the maxim of relation state? A. Speakers should be relevant. B. Speakers should avoid ambiguity. C. Speakers should be informative. D. Speakers should take brief turns. E. Speakers should be truthful. Answer: A 10. According to Gordon and Lakoff (1971), directives must meet certain __________ in order to be considered legitimate. A. downgrader conditions B. felicity conditions C. repetition conditions D. politeness conditions E. honorific conditions Answer: B 11. Which option below is an example of an imperative? A. May I have some coffee? B. Could you make me some coffee? C. I want some coffee. D. Bring me some coffee. E. That coffee looks delicious. Answer: D 12. Which option below is an example of a permission directive? A. I need to make a call. B. Can you make a call for me? C. I forgot my cell phone. D. May I use your phone? E. Do you have a phone? Answer: D 13. Which option below is an example of a hint? A. The dog is getting pretty stinky. B. Does the dog need a bath today? C. Please wash the dog today. D. Could you wash the dogs today? E. Wash the dogs! Answer: A 14. Examine the following sentence: We need to get started on dinner. This sentence is an example of a(n) ___________ directive. A. hearer-oriented B. speaker-oriented C. speaker- and hearer-oriented D. group-oriented E. impersonal Answer: C 15. Examine the following sentence: Could I use the car tomorrow? This sentence is an example of a(n) ___________ directive. A. hearer-oriented B. speaker-oriented C. speaker- and hearer-oriented D. group-oriented E. impersonal Answer: B 16. Examine the following sentence: It would be great if this report could get printed today. This sentence is an example of a(n) ___________ directive. A. hearer-oriented B. speaker-oriented C. speaker- and hearer-oriented D. group-oriented E. impersonal Answer: E 17. Examine the following sentence: I’m sorry to ask you this, but could you help for just a moment? This sentence is an example of the speaker using a ___________ strategy. A. bald on-record B. positive politeness C. neutral politeness D. negative politeness E. off-record Answer: D 18. Examine the following sentence: So, when do we get to try your famous barbecued hamburgers, buddy? This sentence is an example of the speaker using a ___________ strategy. A. bald on-record B. positive politeness C. neutral politeness D. negative politeness E. off-record Answer: B 19. Examine the following sentence: Hand me that tape measure. This sentence is an example of the speaker using a ___________ strategy. A. bald on-record B. positive politeness C. neutral politeness D. negative politeness E. off-record Answer: A 20. When do Japanese speakers use humbling forms in their utterances? A. When referring to themselves. B. When referring to their family members. C. When referring to the family members of certain interlocutors such as doctors and professors. D. Both A and B. E. Both B and C. Answer: D IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. Utterances that typically occur in a set order, such as questions and answers or requests and refusals, are known as ___________. Answer: adjacency pairs 22. People use ___________ to let other people in the conversation know they would like to speak next. Answer: turn-entry devices 23. When errors occur in conversation, people use ___________ to fix them so that the conversation begins flowing smoothly again Answer: repair mechanisms 24. The maxim of quality states that people should be __________ in conversation Answer: truthful 25. The maxim of __________ states that people should be brief, orderly, and avoid ambiguity in their utterances. Answer: manner 26. Utterances intended to get the hearer to do something are called ___________. Answer: directives 27. Politeness strategies that involve avoiding imposing on the hearer are called ___________ politeness strategies. Answer: negative 28. Politeness strategies that involve expressing solidarity with the hearer are called ___________ politeness strategies. Answer: positive 29. Politeness strategies exist to mitigate ___________, or utterances that risk imposing on the hearer. Answer: face-threatening acts (FTAs) 30. Some languages express politeness through __________, or the use of special markers on nouns, verbs, and modifiers to show deference to the addressee. Answer: honorification/honorifics TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. Conversation is structured and based on turn-taking in all languages. Answer: True 32. Malagasy speakers adhere to the maxim of quantity because they readily share new information with other community members. Answer: False 33. English does not use syntactic strategies to mitigate directives, so English speakers must rely on pragmatic strategies to soften directives. Answer: False 34. In Malagasy, indirect speech is favored for directives. Answer: True 35. In Japanese, men tend to use more polite language than women. Answer: False ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. Compare and contrast the conversational structures that govern Cree conversations with those that are used in American-Canadian interactions. Answer: Comparing and contrasting conversational structures between Cree conversations and American-Canadian interactions involves examining cultural norms, communication styles, and conversational etiquette unique to each group. Here’s an exploration of their differences and similarities: Cree Conversations: 1. Community and Inclusiveness: • Cree conversations often prioritize inclusiveness and community harmony. Discussions may involve multiple participants contributing to decision-making or storytelling, emphasizing collective input and consensus-building. • Example: In Cree discussions, individuals may take turns speaking, with interruptions considered acceptable if they contribute to the overall conversation flow and understanding. 2. Oral Tradition and Storytelling: • Oral tradition is significant in Cree culture, with storytelling serving as a means of transmitting knowledge, history, and values. Conversations may be structured around narratives that blend personal experiences with cultural teachings. • Example: Elders or respected community members often lead conversations, sharing stories that educate and entertain while fostering connections between listeners. 3. Respect for Elders and Traditional Knowledge: • Respect for elders is a cornerstone of Cree conversations. Younger participants listen attentively, showing deference through their behavior and responses. • Example: Interruptions are typically minimal when elders or knowledge holders speak, with listeners showing patience and respect for their wisdom. American-Canadian Interactions: 1. Individualism and Directness: • Conversations in American and Canadian contexts often emphasize individual expression and direct communication. Participants may assert their opinions clearly and expect others to do the same. • Example: In business or professional settings, discussions are structured to achieve objectives efficiently, with participants advocating for their perspectives directly and succinctly. 2. Equality and Informality: • Conversations reflect a sense of equality and informality, where participants address each other by first names and engage in open dialogue without strict hierarchical constraints. • Example: Social interactions in American and Canadian cultures often involve informal greetings and a relaxed conversational style that encourages everyone to contribute freely. 3. Topic-Shifting and Turn-Taking: • Conversations typically involve turn-taking and topic-shifting based on individual contributions and interests. Participants may interject or redirect the conversation to explore new ideas or clarify points. • Example: In group discussions, participants may assertively express their views or challenge others’ perspectives, fostering dynamic exchanges aimed at exploring diverse viewpoints. Comparison and Contrast: • Community vs. Individual Focus: Cree conversations emphasize community cohesion and inclusiveness, whereas American-Canadian interactions prioritize individual expression and direct communication. • Storytelling vs. Objective Communication: Cree conversations often revolve around storytelling and oral tradition, while American-Canadian interactions lean towards objective communication aimed at achieving specific goals or outcomes. • Respect and Informality: Both cultures value respect, but Cree conversations show deference through attentive listening and respect for elders, while American-Canadian interactions balance respect with informality and egalitarianism. • Turn-Taking and Interruptions: Cree conversations may accommodate interruptions that contribute positively to the conversation’s flow or understanding, while American-Canadian interactions follow more structured turn-taking norms, with interruptions often seen as disruptive unless necessary. In summary, while Cree conversations and American-Canadian interactions share aspects of respect and communication, their structures and emphases differ significantly due to cultural values, historical influences, and social norms unique to each group. Understanding these differences enriches cross-cultural communication and appreciation of diverse conversational styles. 37. Compare and contrast the acquisition of directives by children learning Hungarian and Norwegian and discuss how the use of directives changes as the children grow older. Answer: Comparing and contrasting the acquisition of directives (commands or requests) by children learning Hungarian and Norwegian provides insight into how cultural and linguistic factors shape communication styles and developmental trajectories. Here’s an analysis, followed by a discussion on how the use of directives changes as children grow older in these contexts: Acquisition of Directives: Hungarian: 1. Directness and Assertiveness: • Hungarian culture and language often emphasize directness and assertiveness in communication, which may influence how directives are learned and used by children. • Example: Children learning Hungarian may be exposed to direct commands early on, such as "Gyere ide!" (Come here!) or "Adj nekem egy ceruzát!" (Give me a pencil!), reflecting a straightforward approach to requesting actions. 2. Formality and Social Hierarchies: • Hungarian also distinguishes between formal and informal registers, which may affect how children acquire and apply directives based on social contexts and relationships. • Example: Directives used with peers versus adults may vary in formality and politeness, demonstrating an early awareness of social dynamics and appropriate language use. Norwegian: 1. Politeness and Indirectness: • Norwegian communication tends to value politeness and indirectness, influencing how directives are framed and understood by children. • Example: Children learning Norwegian may hear softer directives like "Kan du komme hit?" (Can you come here?) or "Kan du gi meg en blyant?" (Can you give me a pencil?), which incorporate politeness markers and hedging strategies. 2. Social Equality and Consensus: • Norwegian culture emphasizes egalitarianism and consensus-building, which may lead to more collaborative or negotiated directives among children. • Example: Directives may involve negotiation or consideration of others' preferences, fostering a cooperative communication style from an early age. Changes in Directive Use as Children Grow Older: Hungarian: • Increasing Precision and Assertiveness: As Hungarian-speaking children grow older, they tend to become more precise and assertive in their use of directives, aligning with cultural expectations of directness and clarity in communication. • Adaptation to Social Norms: Older children learn to adapt their directives to different social contexts, demonstrating an understanding of when formal versus informal language is appropriate. Norwegian: • Enhanced Politeness and Negotiation: Older Norwegian-speaking children refine their use of directives to incorporate politeness markers and negotiation strategies more effectively, reflecting cultural norms of egalitarianism and cooperation. • Navigating Social Dynamics: They develop skills in navigating social dynamics through directives, learning to balance assertiveness with respect for others' autonomy and opinions. Comparison and Contrast: • Cultural Influence: Hungarian directives tend to be more direct and assertive, while Norwegian directives emphasize politeness and collaboration. • Social Context Awareness: Hungarian children may focus on hierarchical and formal aspects of directives, whereas Norwegian children prioritize egalitarianism and consensus-building. • Developmental Trajectories: Both groups progress from basic directive acquisition to nuanced usage that reflects cultural norms and social expectations, demonstrating adaptability in communication styles as they mature. In summary, the acquisition and use of directives in Hungarian and Norwegian highlight how cultural and linguistic factors shape children's early communication skills. These skills evolve over time, reflecting cultural values and social norms, and ultimately contribute to effective interpersonal communication within their respective cultural contexts. 38. Explain how the Akan of Ghana and the Malagasy of Madagascar mitigate face-threatening acts. Answer: Mitigating face-threatening acts (FTAs) is a crucial aspect of communication in both Akan culture of Ghana and among the Malagasy people of Madagascar. FTAs refer to situations where actions or statements jeopardize the positive social identity or "face" of individuals involved. Here’s how these two cultures handle and mitigate FTAs: Akan of Ghana: 1. Indirect Communication: • Akan culture values indirectness in communication to maintain harmony and preserve face. Direct confrontation or criticism can be seen as disrespectful and may damage relationships. • Example: Instead of directly refusing a request, an Akan person might use indirect language or suggest alternatives to avoid causing offense. 2. Respect for Authority and Hierarchy: • Respect for authority and social hierarchy is paramount in Akan culture. FTAs are often mitigated through deference and respect towards elders or those in positions of authority. • Example: When correcting someone of higher status, an Akan person might use respectful language and tone to soften the impact of the correction. 3. Nonverbal Cues and Context: • Nonverbal cues and contextual understanding play a significant role in mitigating FTAs among the Akan. Body language, facial expressions, and gestures convey respect and help manage potentially face-threatening situations. • Example: During disagreements, maintaining calm demeanor and avoiding direct confrontation help uphold mutual respect and preserve face for all parties involved. Malagasy of Madagascar: 1. Indirect Communication and Ambiguity: • Malagasy communication often involves indirectness and ambiguity to soften the impact of FTAs and maintain social harmony. • Example: Instead of outright refusal, a Malagasy person might express hesitation or delay in responding to a request, allowing room for negotiation or alternative solutions. 2. Importance of Social Harmony (Fihavanana): • Fihavanana, or the concept of maintaining social harmony and solidarity, guides Malagasy interactions. FTAs are managed through collective decision-making and consensus-building. • Example: In group settings, decisions are often reached through discussion and consensus to ensure that no individual's face is unnecessarily threatened. 3. Respect for Elders and Ancestors: • Respect for elders and ancestors is deeply ingrained in Malagasy culture. FTAs are mitigated by showing deference and honoring the wisdom and guidance of older community members. • Example: Even when disagreeing with an elder, a Malagasy person might express disagreement subtly or seek mediation from another respected elder to avoid direct confrontation. Comparison: • Both Akan and Malagasy cultures emphasize indirect communication to mitigate FTAs, although their specific strategies and cultural contexts vary. • Akan culture places significant emphasis on respect for authority and hierarchy, while Malagasy culture focuses more on collective decision-making and maintaining social harmony through consensus. • Nonverbal cues and contextual understanding are essential in both cultures to navigate FTAs effectively and preserve interpersonal relationships. In summary, while the Akan of Ghana and the Malagasy of Madagascar employ distinct strategies to mitigate face-threatening acts, their approaches reflect shared values of respect, harmony, and social cohesion within their respective cultural contexts. These practices contribute to effective communication and interpersonal relations in both societies. 39. Describe the ways that Japanese speakers show deference and humility and in which situations each method of politeness is used. Answer: In Japanese culture, showing deference and humility is integral to social interactions and reflects deeply ingrained values of respect, hierarchy, and harmonious relationships. There are several methods through which Japanese speakers express politeness, each suited to different situations. Here’s an overview: Methods of Politeness: 1. Honorific Language (敬語 - Keigo): • Sonkeigo (尊敬語): This form of honorific language is used to elevate the status of the listener or the subject being discussed. It is employed to show respect towards superiors, customers, or individuals of higher social status. • Example: Instead of saying "taberu" (to eat), one would use "meshiagaru" (to eat, honorific) when referring to someone of higher status or in a formal context. • Kenjougo (謙譲語): Kenjougo is used to humble oneself or to show respect towards others by lowering one's own status or actions. • Example: Instead of saying "imasu" (to be), one would use "irassharu" (to be, honorific) when referring to someone of higher status or in a formal context. 2. Polite Forms (丁寧語 - Teineigo): • Teineigo is the standard polite form of Japanese used in everyday interactions. It demonstrates respect towards the listener and is appropriate in most social situations. • Example: Using "desu" or "masu" at the end of sentences to indicate politeness, such as "tabemasu" (I eat). Situational Usage: • Formal Settings: Honorific language (sonkeigo and kenjougo) is extensively used in formal settings such as business meetings, official ceremonies, or when speaking with elders or superiors. • Customer Service: Japanese speakers use honorific language (especially sonkeigo) to show respect to customers, ensuring a polite and respectful interaction. • Requests and Commands: Even in casual settings, polite forms (teineigo) are used when making requests or giving commands to maintain a respectful tone. • Family and Informal Settings: While honorific language is less common in informal settings among peers or family members, politeness through teineigo remains important to show consideration and respect. Deference and Humility in Practice: • Japanese speakers demonstrate deference and humility through their choice of words, tone of voice, and body language. • Respect is shown not only through language but also through actions such as bowing, maintaining eye contact, and using appropriate honorific titles. • The hierarchical structure in Japanese society dictates when and how honorific language is used, reinforcing social norms and demonstrating respect for individuals of higher status or age. In summary, Japanese speakers employ various forms of politeness—such as honorific language (sonkeigo, kenjougo) and polite forms (teineigo)—to demonstrate deference and humility in different social contexts. These linguistic and cultural practices underscore the importance of respect and harmonious relationships within Japanese society. 40. Explain how politeness in Japanese is affected by age, gender, and context. Answer: Politeness in Japanese is intricately influenced by age, gender, and context, reflecting deeply ingrained cultural norms and social hierarchies. Understanding how these factors shape politeness helps navigate Japanese society effectively. Here’s an exploration of their impacts: Age: 1. Respect for Elders (敬老): • Age plays a significant role in determining levels of politeness in Japanese culture. Respect for elders (keirou) is paramount, and younger individuals are expected to show deference and humility towards older generations. • Example: Younger individuals use honorific language (keigo) such as sonkeigo (尊敬語) and kenjougo (謙譲語) when addressing or referring to older people to convey respect. 2. Language Use: • Older individuals may be addressed with more formal and polite language forms (teineigo and keigo), whereas peers or younger individuals may use less formal language in casual settings. • Example: Using "desu" and "masu" forms in speech with older individuals or in formal contexts to show respect and politeness. Gender: 1. Differentiated Language: • Traditional gender roles influence politeness expressions in Japanese. Men and women may use slightly different language styles or honorifics, although this distinction is less pronounced in modern Japanese. • Example: Women may use more polite language forms in certain contexts or when addressing superiors, reflecting societal expectations of femininity and deference. 2. Social Interactions: • Politeness in Japanese can also be influenced by gender dynamics in social interactions. Men and women may adjust their language and behavior to align with traditional expectations of politeness and respect. • Example: Women may be more inclined to use softer and more indirect language to convey politeness, while men may emphasize clarity and directness. Context: 1. Formality and Informality: • Context strongly dictates the level of politeness in Japanese interactions. Formal settings (e.g., business meetings, ceremonies) demand higher levels of politeness using honorific language (keigo). • Example: Using sonkeigo (尊敬語) when addressing clients or superiors in business settings to demonstrate respect and professionalism. 2. Familiarity and Intimacy: • In informal contexts among friends, family, or close acquaintances, politeness may be expressed through less formal language forms or casual speech styles. • Example: Dropping honorifics and using plain forms (kudaketa kotoba) like "taberu" (eat) instead of "tabemasu" (eat, polite form) among peers to convey familiarity and comfort. Cultural Implications: • Hierarchical Structure: Japanese politeness reflects the hierarchical structure of society, with language forms and behaviors emphasizing respect for authority and seniority. • Maintaining Harmony: Politeness in Japanese serves to maintain harmony (wa) and social order by acknowledging and respecting one's place within the social hierarchy. • Adaptability: Japanese speakers demonstrate adaptability in adjusting their politeness expressions based on the specific age, gender, and context of the interaction, ensuring appropriate communication and social etiquette. In summary, politeness in Japanese is deeply influenced by age, gender, and context, with language forms and behaviors reflecting cultural norms of respect, hierarchy, and social harmony. Understanding these nuances is essential for effective communication and cultural competence in Japanese society. Chapter 6—Digital Communication and Signed Languages MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. In which type of telephone interaction do callers have an advantage over the answerer from the beginning? A. calls between very close friends B. calls from Telemarketers C. calls from family members D. calls from strangers E. calls from non-governmental organizations Answer: A 2. In both face-to-face and telephone conversations, A. participants are on equal footing at the beginning of the interaction. B. participants do not usually need to identify themselves by name. C. people structure the conversations at the beginning and end. D. the person who initiates the conversation always interrupts the other interlocutor. E. people dismiss the use of adjacency pairs to structure the conversation at the beginning and end. Answer: C 3. According to the textbook, when are people most likely to omit giving their names in telephone conversations? A. when calling a business to inquire about a job opening B. when calling a stranger for a work-related purpose C. when calling an acquaintance to invite him or her to a party D. when calling an estranged family member to reconnect E. when calling a close friend just to chat Answer: E 4. According to the textbook, when are people most likely to omit greetings in telephone conversations? A. when calling a business B. when calling a stranger C. when calling an acquaintance D. when calling an estranged family member E. when calling a close friend Answer: A 5. What is the first thing that Dutch speakers usually say when they answer the telephone? A. They ask why the person is calling. B. They give a routinized greeting such as “Good morning.” C. They ask who is calling. D. They give their own name. E. They say nothing and wait for the caller to identify him/herself. Answer: D 6. Reading and responding to posts on a forum is an example of A. synchronous computer-mediated communication. B. asynchronous computer-mediated communication. C. face-to-face communication. D. communicating solely through emoticons. E. none of the above. Answer: B 7. Which of the following options is an example of a synchronous mode of computer-mediated communication? A. email B. blogs C. message boards D. chat rooms E. website analysis Answer: D 8. How can people interacting through computer-mediated communication emphasize certain words in their utterances? A. parentheses B. lower case letters C. capital letters D. abbreviations E. hedges Answer: C 9. Which of the following is an example of an emoticon? A. an ellipses to indicate words have been omitted from a text B. an exclamation mark to indicate surprise C. parentheses to indicate a related thought D. a smiley face to indicate happiness E. italics to indicate emphasis Answer: D 10. What linguistic feature is characteristic of men’s communicative style online? A. hedges and qualifiers B. talking about feelings C. asking questions D. apologizing E. absolute statements of certainty Answer: E 11. Chinese Internet Language has been influenced most heavily by which language? A. Dutch B. English C. German D. Japanese E. Korean Answer: B 12. What does prelingual deafness mean? A. A person is born deaf or becomes deaf before the age of three. B. A person becomes deaf between the ages of three and nineteen. C. A person becomes deaf between the ages of nineteen and sixty. D. A person becomes deaf after the age of sixty. E. A person becomes deaf at any age. Answer: A 13. When is fingerspelling used in American Sign Language (ASL)? A. When there is no sign for a particular word. B. When the signer has not learned to read or write a spoken language. C. When the signer does not want to take the time to use the ASL signs for a word. D. Fingerspelling is used all the time since it is the primary way to communicate in ASL. E. Fingerspelling is never used in ASL. Answer: A 14. What is a unique feature of signed language communities that is not found in communities that use spoken language? A. Users of signed languages generally needs to be face-to-face to interact. B. Signed languages have variation based on social factors such as race or gender. C. Children usually begin acquiring formal method of signing until they enter school. D. Users of signed languages are not marginalized by language ideologies like many users of spoken language. E. Styles exist at the person-level. Answer: C 15. Which of the statements below is true of signed language communities? A. Community members have language ideologies about how signed languages should be used. B. Signed languages have phonological variation that reflects social groups. C. Signed languages change over time. D. All of the above. E. The standard is the variety used by the dominant group. Answer: E 16. Why are the gender-specific forms of signs in Irish Sign Language disappearing? A. The male and female forms are being abandoned for a set of new, gender-neutral forms. B. Female users of Irish Sign Language are beginning to use the male forms of signs. C. Women are no longer using Irish Sign Language. D. The female forms of signs referred to objects and events that are no longer relevant for Irish society. E. Users of Irish Sign Language are switching to American Sign Language. Answer: B 17. Which group of women is most likely to use the female forms of signs in Irish Sign Language? A. Teenagers B. college students C. older women D. hearing women E. deaf hospital volunteers Answer: C 18. Rural Indian Sign Language (RISL) is similar to A. fingerspelling methods. B. artificial signed languages. C. Exact Signed Hindi. D. prelingual communication. E. home sign systems. Answer: E 19. Which statement describes Urban Indian Sign Language (UISL)? A. Most of the people who use UISL are members of the working class. B. UISL is used by educated people as part of their Deaf identity. C. Users of UISL use pantomime frequently to convey meaning. D. There is no standardization of syntactic constructions in UISL. E. UISL has a very limited number of signs in its lexicon. Answer: B 20. What effect has modern computer technology had on signed languages? A. Users of signed languages have to sign more quickly when communicating online. B. Users of signed languages can use their home signing systems with strangers. C. Users of signed languages can acquire a formal signing system earlier in life. D. Users of signed languages no longer need to interact in person. E. Users of signed languages no longer need to use fingerspelling. Answer: D IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 21. The language used most on the internet is ___________. Answer: English 22. The three languages with the highest percentage of speakers using the internet are ___________, ___________, and ___________. Answer: Japanese, Korean, and German 23. The type of computer-mediated communication that is found in emails is referred to as ___________ computer-mediated communication because of the time delays between responses. Answer: asynchronous 24. ___________ computer-mediated communication involves ongoing, real-time interaction with at least one other conversation participant. Answer: Synchronous 25. People engaged in computer-mediated communication use ___________ to indicate their facial expressions or reactions. Answer: emoticons 26. A signed version of a spoken language is an __________. Answer: artificial signed language 27. The signed system called ___________ follows the grammatical rules of spoken English, including some grammatical features that are not present in American Sign Language. Answer: Signing Exact English 28. The method of representing words by signing each letter in the word is known as ___________. Answer: fingerspelling 29. The unique sign systems that families with Deaf children use before the children learn a standardized signed language at school are called ___________. Answer: home sign systems 30. When users of signed languages combine elements from natural and artificial signed languages, they are using a form of communication known as __________. Answer: contact signing TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 31. Unlike face-to-face interactions, telephone conversations are not based on turn-taking. Answer: False 32. Asynchronous computer-mediated communication does not follow the turn-taking norms of face-to-face interactions. Answer: True 33. Chinese Internet Language differs from Mandarin both lexically and syntactically. Answer: True 34. Rural Indian Sign Language is an unstructured system of communication that does not have standardized syntactic rules or a full lexicon. Answer: True 35. Most countries have educational policies requiring that the primary language used in schools for the deaf be a signed language. Answer: False ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary. 36. Compare and contrast telephone greetings in English, French and Dutch. Answer: Telephone greetings vary in English, French, and Dutch, reflecting cultural norms, formality levels, and linguistic conventions. Here’s a comparison and contrast of telephone greetings in these languages: English: 1. Standard Greetings: • Informal: "Hello," "Hi," or "Hey" are commonly used in casual phone conversations among friends, family, or colleagues. • Formal: "Good morning/afternoon/evening," followed by the caller's name or the organization's name, is used in more formal settings or business calls. 2. Identifying Oneself: • It is common to identify oneself immediately after the initial greeting in both formal and informal contexts. • Example: "Hello, this is John Smith calling." 3. Closing the Call: • Standard closings include "Goodbye," "Talk to you later," or "Take care," depending on the familiarity and context of the conversation. French: 1. Standard Greetings: • Informal: "Allo," often used for casual calls among friends or family members. • Formal: "Bonjour," used for formal calls, especially in business or professional contexts. 2. Identifying Oneself: • Similar to English, it is customary to state one's name or the purpose of the call after the initial greeting. • Example: "Bonjour, je suis Marie Dupont." 3. Closing the Call: • Common closings include "Au revoir," "À bientôt," or "Bonne journée," depending on the time of day and level of formality. Dutch: 1. Standard Greetings: • Informal: "Hallo" or "Hoi," used in casual conversations among friends or acquaintances. • Formal: "Goede morgen" (Good morning), "Goede Middag" (Good afternoon), or "Goedenavond" (Good evening) are used in formal or business calls. 2. Identifying Oneself: • Dutch speakers typically introduce themselves or state the purpose of the call shortly after the initial greeting. • Example: "Goede Middag, met Jan Jansen." 3. Closing the Call: • Common closings include "Tot ziens," "Tot straks," or "Fijne dag/avond," depending on the time of day and level of familiarity with the caller. Comparison and Contrast: • Formality Levels: English and Dutch share similar formality distinctions with informal and formal greetings, while French tends to emphasize formality more prominently with "Bonjour" for formal situations. • Identification: All three languages emphasize the importance of identifying oneself early in the conversation, though the specific phrasing and timing may vary slightly. • Closing Phrases: English and Dutch use a variety of casual and formal closing phrases, whereas French tends to have more standardized formal closings reflecting politeness and etiquette. • Cultural Nuances: Each language’s telephone etiquette reflects cultural norms and expectations regarding communication styles, politeness, and respect for social hierarchies. In summary, while there are similarities in how telephone greetings are conducted in English, French, and Dutch, subtle differences in formality, identification practices, and closing remarks reflect each language’s cultural context and social norms. Understanding these nuances helps facilitate effective communication across different linguistic and cultural settings. 37. Compare and contrast the linguistic features of computer-mediated communication with those of traditional oral and written communication. Answer: Computer-mediated communication (CMC) differs significantly from traditional oral and written communication in several key linguistic features. Here’s a comparison and contrast between these forms: Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC): 1. Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes: • Synchronous: CMC in real-time, such as instant messaging or video calls, allows for immediate interaction and rapid exchanges. • Asynchronous: Platforms like email or discussion forums enable delayed responses, affecting the pace and style of communication. 2. Linguistic Features: • Abbreviations and Acronyms: CMC often employs abbreviations (e.g., LOL for "laugh out loud") and acronyms to convey messages efficiently. • Emoticons and Emoji: Symbols like 🙂 or 😊 are used to express emotions or tone that might be lost in text-only communication. 3. Informality and Flexibility: • CMC tends to be more informal and flexible in language use compared to traditional written communication. Informal language, slang, and non-standard grammar are more common. 4. Anonymity and Disinhibition: • The anonymity afforded by CMC platforms can lead to more uninhibited language use, including stronger opinions, sarcasm, or controversial statements. Traditional Oral Communication: 1. Immediate Feedback and Interaction: • Oral communication provides immediate feedback through verbal cues (e.g., tone, pitch) and non-verbal cues (e.g., facial expressions, gestures). 2. Richness of Context: • Contextual cues such as intonation, emphasis, and body language contribute to understanding and conveying meaning in oral communication. 3. Formality and Politeness: • Oral communication often adheres to formalities and politeness norms based on cultural context and social hierarchy. 4. Spontaneity and Fluidity: • Speech is typically more spontaneous and fluid, allowing for real-time adjustments in language and expression. Traditional Written Communication: 1. Structured and Formal: • Written communication often follows formal structures with clear organization, grammar, and punctuation. 2. Lack of Immediate Feedback: • Feedback in written communication is delayed, allowing for more thoughtful and deliberate responses. 3. Standard Language Use: • Written communication tends to adhere to standard language conventions with minimal use of abbreviations or informal expressions. 4. Permanent and Recordable: • Written texts are permanent and can be reviewed or referenced later, unlike oral communication which is transient. Comparison and Contrast: • Speed and Timing: CMC allows for both real-time interaction (synchronous) and delayed responses (asynchronous), whereas oral communication is immediate and continuous. • Language Use: CMC is characterized by informal language, abbreviations, and emoticons, whereas traditional oral and written communication typically adhere to formal language norms. • Feedback and Context: Oral communication relies heavily on immediate feedback and contextual cues, while written communication provides delayed feedback and lacks non-verbal cues. • Permanence: Written communication (both traditional and CMC) is permanent and can be archived, while oral communication is fleeting unless recorded. In summary, while all forms of communication serve the purpose of conveying information and maintaining social relationships, the distinct linguistic features of computer-mediated communication versus traditional oral and written forms highlight how technology has influenced language use, interaction styles, and social dynamics in modern communication contexts. 38. Describe the gender differences found in computer-mediated communication in English and Thai. Answer: Gender differences in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in English and Thai reflect cultural norms, linguistic styles, and social expectations unique to each language and society. Here’s an overview of how gender influences CMC in these two contexts: English: 1. Communication Styles: • Directness vs. Indirectness: Gender differences in English CMC often reflect broader societal norms. Men tend to use more direct and assertive language, whereas women may employ more indirect and polite expressions. • Example: Men might state opinions or requests more straightforwardly ("I think we should do this"), whereas women may soften their language with qualifiers or hedges ("I think maybe we could consider this"). 2. Use of Emoticons and Emoji: • Studies suggest that women in English CMC are more likely to use emoticons and emoji to convey emotions and facilitate rapport-building. • Example: Using smiley faces or hearts to express friendliness or positive sentiment in text-based communication. 3. Topics and Engagement: • Gender differences can also manifest in the topics discussed and engagement levels. Men may dominate discussions on technical or competitive subjects, while women may focus more on social and relational topics. • Example: Men might engage in debates or problem-solving discussions, whereas women may initiate and sustain conversations around personal experiences or relationships. Thai: 1. Politeness and Respect: • Thai culture places a strong emphasis on politeness and respect, which influences gendered communication styles in CMC. Women are generally expected to use more polite and deferential language compared to men. • Example: Women may use honorifics and polite particles (ค่ะ - kha for women) more frequently to show respect, especially when addressing superiors or in formal contexts. 2. Formality and Language Choices: • Gender differences in Thai CMC also include variations in formality and language choices. Men may use more assertive and direct language, while women may adopt softer and more indirect expressions. • Example: Men might prefer using plain language forms, while women may opt for more formal or polite language to adhere to cultural expectations. 3. Emotional Expression: • Thai women may express emotions more openly and use language that reflects sensitivity and empathy in CMC, aligning with cultural norms of nurturing and emotional awareness. • Example: Using phrases that convey care and concern, even in digital communication settings. Cultural Influences: • Societal Expectations: Gender roles and societal expectations shape how men and women communicate in both English and Thai CMC. These expectations influence language use, topic preferences, and interaction styles. • Adaptation and Fluidity: While gender differences exist, individuals may also adapt their communication styles based on the context and the platform of CMC, demonstrating flexibility in their language use. • Technology and Change: The advent of digital communication platforms has influenced how gendered communication norms are expressed and negotiated, with individuals navigating both traditional and modern expectations. In conclusion, gender differences in CMC in English and Thai are influenced by cultural norms, linguistic styles, and social roles. Understanding these differences enhances our appreciation of how language and communication practices evolve in digital environments, reflecting broader cultural values and societal dynamics. 39. Describe how race and age create variation in American Sign Language and discuss the historical and social factors that have affected this variation. Answer: Race and age play significant roles in shaping variation within American Sign Language (ASL), influenced by historical and social factors that have evolved over time. Here’s an exploration of how race and age contribute to variation in ASL, along with the historical and social factors affecting this variation: Race and Variation in ASL: 1. Regional Dialects: • Similar to spoken languages, ASL exhibits regional variations influenced by race and geographic distribution. Different racial communities may develop distinct signs or variations in ASL vocabulary and grammar. • Example: African American Vernacular ASL (AAV-ASL) is recognized for its unique lexical and phonological features, influenced by the cultural and linguistic experiences of Black Deaf individuals. 2. Cultural Expressions: • Racial and ethnic communities within the Deaf culture may express cultural identity through ASL, incorporating signs and gestures that reflect their heritage and experiences. • Example: Signs related to food, music, traditions, and cultural practices may vary based on racial or ethnic background, enriching ASL's diversity. 3. Social Networks and Exposure: • Social networks and exposure to different signing communities contribute to variation in ASL. Racially diverse communities may have distinct signing norms and practices shaped by shared experiences and interactions. • Example: Deaf individuals of different racial backgrounds may attend different schools, clubs, or events where signing practices and linguistic norms are influenced by community dynamics. Age and Variation in ASL: 1. Generational Shifts: • ASL undergoes generational shifts where older and younger signers may exhibit differences in vocabulary, signing styles, and grammatical structures. • Example: Older signers may use signs that have fallen out of favor or evolved over time, while younger signers may introduce new signs influenced by modern culture or technology. 2. Language Change: • Language change in ASL, similar to spoken languages, occurs over time due to societal shifts, technological advancements, and cultural influences. • Example: Signs for technology-related terms may differ between older and younger signers, reflecting the introduction of new concepts and vocabulary. Historical and Social Factors: 1. Educational Policies: • Historical educational policies have impacted ASL variation, particularly regarding racial segregation and access to sign language education. • Example: Deaf education policies historically segregated students by race, influencing the development of distinct signing norms and communities within racial groups. 2. Community Integration: • Social factors such as community integration and participation in Deaf culture events shape ASL variation. Racially diverse Deaf communities may maintain distinct signing traditions and linguistic practices. • Example: Urban vs. rural settings, access to Deaf clubs, and participation in cultural events influence exposure to diverse signing styles and linguistic norms. 3. Identity and Cultural Pride: • Deaf individuals of different racial backgrounds may assert cultural pride through ASL, incorporating signs that reflect their heritage and identity. • Example: Signs for family relationships, gestures, and storytelling styles may vary based on cultural traditions and values within racial communities. In summary, race and age contribute to variation in American Sign Language through regional dialects, cultural expressions, generational shifts, and historical and social factors. Understanding these dynamics enriches our appreciation of ASL's diversity and the intersection of language, culture, and identity within the Deaf community. 40. Explain how Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL) was created and discuss the differences in the expression of path and movement among the three cohorts of NSL users. Answer: Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL) provides a fascinating case study in the spontaneous creation and evolution of a new sign language. It emerged in the late 20th century among deaf Nicaraguan children who attended special education schools in Managua. Here’s an explanation of how NSL was created and an exploration of the differences in the expression of path and movement among the three cohorts of NSL users: Creation of Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL): 1. First Cohort (1970s): • Initial Development: In the 1970s, deaf children in Nicaragua attended schools where they had limited exposure to formal sign language. They developed basic gestural systems to communicate with each other. • Home Sign: Initially, these children used home signs and basic gestures, which lacked a standardized grammar and vocabulary. 2. Second Cohort (1980s): • Emergence of NSL: A pivotal development occurred when a new generation of deaf children entered these schools in the 1980s. These children built upon the rudimentary signs of the first cohort and developed a more structured and systematic sign language. • Creolization: NSL emerged as a creole-like language, combining elements of the home signs from the first cohort with influences from the structured sign systems introduced by educators. 3. Third Cohort (1990s and later): • Expansion and Refinement: By the 1990s and beyond, NSL continued to expand and refine. The third cohort of children benefited from a more established NSL community and formal instruction in the language. • Standardization: NSL began to stabilize with clearer grammar rules, vocabulary expansion, and more standardized linguistic features among users. Differences in the Expression of Path and Movement: The study of NSL has revealed differences in how path and movement are expressed among the three cohorts: 1. First Cohort: • Basic Gestures: The earliest users of NSL, primarily from the first cohort, relied on basic gestures and home signs that often lacked standardized forms for expressing complex path and movement. • Limited Complexity: Path and movement were communicated using simple gestures and spatial indicators without sophisticated grammar or syntax. 2. Second Cohort: • Development of Grammar: With the emergence of NSL among the second cohort, there was a notable advancement in the expression of path and movement. • Iconicity and Descriptive Signs: Signs became more iconic and descriptive, allowing for more nuanced expression of directional movement and spatial relationships. 3. Third Cohort: • Refinement and Standardization: By the time of the third cohort, NSL had further refined its grammatical rules and expanded its vocabulary. • Clearer Syntax: Path and movement were expressed with clearer syntax and structural rules, reflecting the maturation and standardization of NSL as a full-fledged sign language. Factors Influencing Variation: • Age and Exposure: Differences in the expression of path and movement among NSL cohorts reflect variations in age of acquisition and exposure to formalized language input. • Social Interaction: Each cohort's interaction with peers and educators shaped the development and evolution of NSL, influencing how signs for path and movement were created and adopted. • Educational Practices: Changes in educational practices and linguistic interventions over time also played a crucial role in the evolution of NSL's grammar and vocabulary, including signs related to path and movement. In summary, Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL) evolved through the spontaneous development among deaf children in Nicaragua, with differences in the expression of path and movement reflecting the linguistic evolution across three distinct cohorts. The study of NSL provides valuable insights into how new sign languages can emerge and evolve within specific cultural and educational contexts. Test Bank for Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages Nancy Bonvillain 9780205953561

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