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6. Dissociative Disorders, Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Health Multiple-Choice Questions 1. The DSM-5 name for multiple personality disorder is ______. A. dissociative fugue B. dissociative identity disorder C. depersonalization disorder D. dissociative conversion Answer: B 2. In earlier versions of the DSM, dissociative disorders were classified with __________ disorders under the general term ________. A. somatoform; psychosomatic disorders B. memory; neurosis C. neurological; psychosomatic disorders D. anxiety; neurosis Answer: D 3. In DSM-5, disorders involving physical symptoms with a psychological basis are known as ______ disorders. A. psychosomatic B. somatogenic C. physioform D. somatic symptom and related disorders Answer: D 4. Dissociative and somatic symptom and related disorders were categorized as ______ in early editions of the DSM. A. neuroses B. psychoses C. affective disorders D. personality disorders Answer: A 5. In earlier versions of the DSM, dissociative and somatic symptom and related disorders were classified under the general category of “neurosis” based on the psychodynamic model, which holds that dissociative and somatic symptom and related disorders involve maladaptive ways of managing ________. A. anxiety B. addiction C. depression D. mania Answer: A 6. People with __________ disorders may report blindness or numbness, although no organic basis can be detected. A. anxiety B. somatic symptom C. dissociative D. hysterical Answer: B 7. The DSM-5 breaks tradition with the historic earliest editions of the DSM by ________ the other classical categories of neuroses—the dissociative and somatic symptom and related disorders. A. separating the anxiety disorders from B. combining the mood disorders with C. combining the anxiety disorders with D. separating the mood disorders from Answer: A 8. Many practitioners continue to use the broad conceptualization of _________ as a useful framework for grouping together anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, and somatic symptom and related disorders. A. mood disorders B. neuroses C. psychoses D. somatic symptom disorders Answer: C 9. Larry woke up this morning and found himself totally blind. His physician can find no organic basis for his blindness. Larry doesn't appear to be worried about his loss of sight. In fact, he's almost indifferent to it. He is suffering from a(n) ______ disorder. A. anxiety B. somatic symptom C. dissociative D. adjustment Answer: B 10. Andre shows no signs of overt anxiety, but says he can no longer remember who he is. He claims he cannot recognize any of his close family members, even though there is nothing medically wrong with him. Andre is suffering from a(n) _______ disorder. A. anxiety B. somatic symptom C. dissociative D. adjustment Answer: C 11. A disorder characterized by disruption of identity, memory, or consciousness is ______. A. a somatic symptom disorder B. a personality disorder C. a dissociative disorder D. a psychotic disorder Answer: C 12. ______________ is describes as an inability to recall important personal material that cannot be accounted for by medical causes. A. Depersonalization-derealization disorder B. Dissociative conversion C. Dissociative identity disorder D. Dissociative amnesia Answer: D 13. _________ is defined by the emergence of two or more distinct personalities. A. Depersonalization-derealization disorder B. Dissociative identity disorder C. Dissociative amnesia D. Dissociative conversion Answer: B 14. Episodes of feeling detached from one’s self or one’s body or having a sense of unreality about one’s surroundings characterizes _________. A. dissociative identity disorder B. depersonalization-derealization disorder C. dissociative amnesia D. dissociative conversion Answer: B 15. The key feature of ______ disorders is a change or disturbance in the functions of identity, memory, or consciousness that normally make an individual psychologically whole. A. anxiety B. somatoform C. dissociative D. adjustment Answer: C 16. ______ is the emergence of two or more distinct personalities. A. Dissociative fugue B. Dissociative amnesia C. Dissociative identity disorder D. Depersonalization-derealization disorder Answer: C 17. Laypersons often confuse dissociative identity disorder with __________. A. autism B. bipolar illness C. dissociative amnesia D. schizophrenia Answer: D 18. Individuals with dissociative identity disorders show _____________ than what is noted with individuals with schizophrenia. A. more hallucinatory experiences and delusional behavior B. more integrated functioning on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels C. less integrated functioning on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels D. less affective constriction Answer: B 19. The word “schizophrenia” comes from Greek roots meaning ____________. A. multiple selves B. fragmented mind C. split mind D. integrated mind Answer: C 20. The term ______ is now used to describe what used to be called multiple personality disorder. A. schizotypal personality disorder B. depersonalization disorder C. dissociative identity disorder D. schizoid personality disorder Answer: C 21. Martin claims to have 16 different personalities, each with its own unique traits and memories, living inside him. If his claims are accurate, he is suffering from ______. A. schizophrenia B. schizoid personality disorder C. depersonalization disorder D. dissociative identity disorder Answer: D 22. For an individual with dissociative identity disorder, the sudden transformation of one personality into another may be experienced as __________________. A. a form of possession B. an epileptic-like seizure C. an overwhelming sense of urgency D. a calming reassurance Answer: A 23. In dissociative identity disorder, the main personality is known as the ______. A. nucleus B. host C. captain D. center Answer: B 24. In dissociative identity cases, the theme of ______ is particularly common. A. different emotional disorders B. differing abilities in the same career C. teacher or boss and student or employee D. shifting sexual orientation Answer: D 25. In most cases of dissociative identity disorder, which of the following best describes the relationship of the dominant personality to the alter personalities? A. The dominant personality remains unaware of the existence of the alter personalities. B. The core personality is abusive of the alter personality. C. The dominant personality is always older than the alter personalities. D. The dominant personality is ashamed of the alter personalities. Answer: A 26. Which of the following statements about dissociative identity disorder is true? A. The disorder is found in virtually all major cultures throughout the world. B. Mental health clinician are hesitant to use the diagnosis due to the controversy surrounding its validity, thus it is underdiagnosed. C. Some clinicians may unknowingly “cue” clients about the features of multiple personality. D. Increased public attention to the disorder may result in more individuals attempting to “fake” the disorder so that they may be absolved of legal or moral responsibilities. Answer: C 27. In dissociative identity disorder, the main or dominant personality ___________ the existence of other personalities. A. may or may not know of B. always is aware of C. never is aware of D. cannot be aware of Answer: A 28. Dissociative identity disorder does appear to be culture-bound and largely restricted to __________. A. the rural poor of a given country B. North America C. the Midwest of the United States D. English-speaking countries Answer: A 29. Dissociative identity disorder is found primarily in ______. A. Europe B. Asia C. Africa D. North America Answer: D 30. Among clinicians in North America, ___________ psychiatrists and psychologists have encountered someone with multiple personalities. A. a large number of B. about half of all practicing C. relatively few D. about two-thirds of all practicing Answer: C 31. A recent survey in Japan found ______ of dissociative identity disorder. A. not a single case B. only a few cases C. several hundred cases D. several thousand cases Answer: A 32. A survey of psychiatrists in Switzerland found that ______ percent of them had never seen a case of dissociative identity disorder. A. 30 B. 50 C. 70 D. 90 Answer: D 33. A leading authority on dissociative identity disorder who did not believe it was really a distinct disorder was ______. A. Theodore Reik B. John Warkentin C. Nicholas Spanos D. Virginia Satir Answer: C 34. Nicholas Spanos believed that dissociative identity is not a distinct disorder, but describes it as a form of which of the following? A. an extreme mood disorder B. role playing C. brain damage D. a form of schizophrenia Answer: B 35. According to the text, which of the following is the likely explanation for why some clinicians seem to “discover” many more cases of dissociative identity disorder than others? A. The social reinforcement model B. There are many more skilled clinicians specializing in this field. C. The disorder has a strong genetic basis. D. It tends to be localized in certain parts of North America where these clinicians practice. Answer: A 36. The presence of individuals claiming to have dissociative identity disorder has been observed to spread ______. A. on college campuses B. in housing projects C. in inpatient psychiatric units D. in Australia and New Zealand Answer: C 37. What percent of people with multiple personalities studied in Canada had attempted suicide? A. 12 B. 32 C. 52 D. 72 Answer: D 38. The most common type of dissociative disorder is believed to be ______. A. dissociative identity disorder B. dissociative fugue C. depersonalization disorder D. dissociative amnesia Answer: D 39. Psychogenic amnesia is the original name for what is now called ______. A. dissociative amnesia B. retrograde amnesia C. dissociative fugue D. depersonalization-derealization disorder Answer: A 40. The inability to recall important personal information that cannot be accounted for by medical causes or simple forgetting is known as ______. A. dissociative identity disorder B. dissociative amnesia C. depersonalization-derealization disorder D. dissociative fugue Answer: B 41. Sudden loss of ability to recall important personal information, usually related to traumatic or stressful experiences, in the absence of any physical trauma to the brain or drug intoxication characterizes ______. A. dissociative fugue B. dissociative amnesia C. retrograde amnesia D. depersonalization-derealization disorder Answer: B 42. The memory loss in dissociative amnesia is ______. A. permanent B. specifically for names of people and places C. reversible D. is best treated by a cognitive-behavioral approach Answer: C 43. Which of the following statements is true regarding dissociative amnesia? A. The person may be confused about his or her personal identity or assumes a new identity. B. The person may start a new family or business. C. Information lost to memory is usually of traumatic or stressful experiences. D. The person may feel as if he or she were living in a dream or acting like a robot. Answer: C 44. The types of things people “forget” with dissociative amnesia tend to be memories of ______. A. early sexual experiences B. early childhood years C. classroom material D. stressful or traumatic events Answer: D 45. Ollie wakes up one morning and can't remember who he is or who any of his friends or relatives are. He can't remember where he works or even where he lives. A physician is unable to find anything physically wrong with Ollie's brain, although Ollie's friends say he's recently been under some stress. Ollie is probably suffering from ______. A. dissociative fugue B. dissociative amnesia C. retrograde amnesia D. depersonalization-derealization disorder Answer: B 46. Margaret suddenly lost her memory for important aspects of her life like her friends, family, job, and home. Nothing is wrong physically with Margaret and she is diagnosed with dissociative amnesia. Margaret’s amnesia was most likely precipitated by __________. A. brain damage B. a psychological trauma C. a psychotic breakdown D. a nervous breakdown Answer: B 47. There are ______ types of dissociative amnesia. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: D 48. Which of the following is one of the types of dissociative amnesia? A. restricted B. intermittent C. systemized D. organized Answer: C 49. The most commonly occurring type of dissociative amnesia is ______. A. selective amnesia B. generalized amnesia C. localized amnesia D. continuous amnesia Answer: C 50. The type of dissociative amnesia in which all events occurring within a specific time period are forgotten, typically those involving some stressful event that happened during that time period, is called ______ amnesia. A. selective B. generalized C. localized D. systematized Answer: C 51. Sandy was recently involved in a horrifying car accident. She was lucky to emerge from the accident with only minor physical injuries. However, she can't remember anything that happened from about two hours before the accident until she woke up in the hospital the next day. She is suffering from ______ amnesia. A. selective B. generalized C. localized D. systematized Answer: C 52. Years ago, Julie had an extramarital affair. While she can remember the period of time in which the affair took place, including all the details of her marriage and family life, she cannot remember the affair itself. She is suffering from _______ amnesia. A. selective B. intermittent C. localized D. systematized Answer: A 53. The type of dissociative amnesia in which people forget only the disturbing or stressful events which took place in a given time period, but remember everything else about that time period, is called ______ amnesia. A. selective B. intermittent C. localized D. systematized Answer: A 54. Carla has forgotten her entire life. She cannot remember who she is, what career she is pursuing, where she lives, or with whom she lives. Although she retains all of her habits, astes, skills, and objective knowledge, she has forgotten all personal information that would reveal her identity. She is suffering from ______ amnesia. A. selective B. generalized C. localized D. continuous Answer: B 55. The type of dissociative amnesia in which people forget their entire lives, repressing all personal information while retaining objective information and personal skills, tastes, and habits, is called ______. A. selective B. generalized C. localized D. continuous Answer: B 56. Rosa experienced a highly traumatic sexual assault and forgot everything from the time of he assault to the present. Rosa is suffering from ______ amnesia. A. localized B. selective C. generalized D. continuous Answer: D 57. A form of dissociative amnesia in which the person forgets everything that occurred from a particular point in time up to and including the present is ______ amnesia. A. localized B. selective C. generalized D. continuous Answer: D 58. When Howard’s sister goes to visit him, he claims that he does not have a sister and has no memories of her. He recalls every other aspect of his family and past but has lost all memories of her. Howard is suffering from ______ amnesia. A. systematized B. generalized C. localized D. selective Answer: A 59. The text cites a case example about Rutger, a businessman who was hospitalized for a few days after becoming dazed and losing his identity. Rutger was suffering from ______. A. depersonalization disorder B. dissociative identity disorder C. dissociative fugue D. dissociative amnesia Answer: D 60. The text cites a case example about Rutger, a businessman who was hospitalized for a few days after becoming dazed and losing his identity. Upon admission to the hospital, Rutger was diagnosed with ______. A. generalized amnesia B. localized amnesia C. selective amnesia D. schizophrenia Answer: A 61. The text cites a case example about Rutger, a businessman who was hospitalized for a few days after becoming dazed and losing his identity. The amnesia Rutger was showing for the period between entering the emergency room and the morning he regained his memory for prior events is an example of ______. A. generalized amnesia B. localized amnesia C. selective amnesia D. depersonalization Answer: B 62. Falsely claiming amnesia as a means of escaping responsibility is an example of ______. A. malingering B. loafing C. dissembling D. obfuscating Answer: A 63. Fred, a middle-aged man, recently traveled to Las Vegas. While driving in a rented car, he struck and killed a young child. Fred was hospitalized for several days due to his own injuries. At the hospital, Fred claims to have no memory of renting the car or having the accident in which he killed the child. He recalls flying to Las Vegas and being in the ambulance. The type of memory loss Fred is experiencing is ____________. A. localized amnesia B. continuous amnesia C. systematized amnesia D. generalized amnesia Answer: A 64. Years ago, Mandy had a very "messy" extramarital affair. While she still remembers the affair, when thoughtless people bring it up in conversation, she claims to have no memory of he affair or person with whom she had it. Mandy's pretending to have amnesia is a form of ______. A. malingering B. loafing C. dissociative fugue D. depersonalization Answer: A 65. The word "fugue" derives its meaning from the term meaning ______. A. lost B. fight C. flight D. to wander Answer: C 66. Norman is a mystery. He experienced a sudden loss of memory, left his home in New York and travelled to California where he established identity for himself. He has no memory of his life in New York and had filled his mind with bogus memories which he doesn't realize are not genuine. He is suffering from ______. A. dissociative fugue B. dissociative amnesia C. depersonalization-derealization disorder D. dissociative identity disorder Answer: A 67. While in a dissociative fugue, the person may appear ____________ signs of mental disturbance. A. unusually agitated but show no other B. interpersonally distant and show moderate C. “normal” and show no other D. mute and show obvious Answer: C 68. Which of the following is true of people in a fugue state? A. Their new identity is usually more withdrawn and inhibited than their original personality. B. Their sense of self usually returns in a matter of hours or days. C. They act less purposefully than people with amnesia. D. While they typically regain most memory of their original identity, they always retain all memories of their activities during the fugue state. Answer: B 69. Which of the following statements is true? A. Fugue and amnesia are both relatively common disorders. B. While fugue is rare, amnesia is relatively common. C. While amnesia is rare, fugue is relatively common. D. Fugue and amnesia are both relatively rare disorders. Answer: D 70. Dissociative fugue has been most likely to occur as a result of ______. A. a jail sentence B. war or a comparable disaster C. breakup of a significant relationship D. a financial disaster Answer: B 71. Dissociative fugue can be difficult to distinguish from ______. A. amnesia B. multiple personality C. malingering D. schizoid personality disorder Answer: C 72. The text cites a case example of Burt, a man who unknowingly moved 2,000 miles away from his wife and family and established a new life in a new city. Although Burt knew which own he was in and the current date, he could not recognize his past nor was he concerned about this lack of recognition. Burt was suffering from ______. A. dissociative identity disorder B. depersonalization disorder C. dissociative amnesia D. dissociative fugue Answer: D 73. The text cites a case example of Burt, a man who unknowingly moved 2,000 miles away from his wife and family and established a new life in a new city. He was suffering from a dissociative fugue state. The life factor in Burt’s history that apparently led to his symptoms was ______. A. a traumatic automobile accident B. job-related stress C. a painful divorce D. early childhood sexual abuse Answer: B 74. A temporary loss or change in the usual sense of one's own reality, in which a person feels detached from mind or body is called ______. A. amnesia B. fugue C. depersonalization D. derealization Answer: C 75. Millie feels as if she is a robot, watching herself from outside her body as she begins kissing her new boyfriend. This feeling of being in a dream or operating on "automatic pilot" happens to her whenever she begins to get emotionally aroused. She appears to be suffering from ______. A. dissociative identity disorder B. dissociative fugue C. depersonalization-derealization disorder D. unconscious realization Answer: C 76. A person who feels as if he or she were living in a dream world or acting like a robot most likely suffers from ______. A. depersonalization-derealization disorder B. dissociative amnesia C. dissociative fugue D. dissociative identity disorder Answer: A 77. Jillian is talking with her best friend when she begins to feel anxious, dizzy, and fears that she might be "going crazy." Time seems to be passing in slow-motion and her friend appears to be the size of a toy baby-doll. The feelings and sensations slowly fade as her senses return to normal. Jillian has just suffered an episode of ______. A. dissociative fugue B. episodic psychosis C. depersonalization D. derealization Answer: D 78. Changes in perception of surroundings, or in the passage of time, in which people or objects may seem to change their size and shape and time may appear to pass more slowly, are called ______. A. delusions B. fugue C. depersonalization D. derealization Answer: D 79. Derealization is most commonly associated with ______. A. dissociative amnesia B. depersonalization disorder C. dissociative identity disorder D. dissociative fugue Answer: B 80. Losing one's sense of reality in one's surroundings by experiencing strange changes in the environment or passage of time is known as ______. A. derealization B. fugue C. depersonalization D. delusion Answer: A 81. Which of the following is true of people with depersonalization? A. They do not know who they are. B. They maintain contact with reality, even during a depersonalization episode. C. The feelings of depersonalization tend to come on gradually and fade suddenly. D. Their memories are rarely intact and they do not seem to know where they are. Answer: C 82. In depersonalization, the feelings of depersonalization come on ______ and fade ______. A. gradually, gradually B. suddenly, gradually C. gradually, suddenly, D. suddenly, suddenly Answer: B 83. According to the DSM-5, single, brief episodes of depersonalization are experienced by about ______ of all adults. A. one-fourth B. one-third C. one-half D. two-thirds Answer: C 84. About ______ percent of people in the general population have at least one episode of depersonalization/derealization at some point in their lives. A. 30 B. 50 C. 70 D. 90 Answer: B 85. Most adults who experience depersonalization do so ______. A. after long periods of sleep deprivation B. during periods of extreme stress C. during major life changes D. after periods of prolonged physical exertion Answer: B 86. Which of the following statements is true? A. Total amnesia concerning childhood trauma is common. B. Research evidence indicates that recovered memories are bogus. C. False memories lack the personal and specific incidental detail of real events. D. Recovered memories often occur following suggestive probing by a therapist or hypnotist. Answer: D 87. A leading memory expert who is known for her research into recovered memories is ______. A. Bem B. Loftus C. Mahler D. Halpern Answer: B 88. With regard to the issue of false memory, the text emphasizes that _____________. A. memory is like a camera B. memories recovered during a psychotherapy session can always be trusted to be free of bias and factual C. memory is not like a camera; it is reconstructive D. scientists do have the tools to distinguish between real and false memories Answer: C 89. Experimental evidence shows that false memories can be created, especially with ____________. A. exposure to a situational cue that resembles past experiences B. suggestive probing by a therapist or hypnotist C. when the client has a history of parental abuse D. when the client is struggling with depression and loneliness Answer: B 90. The distinction between true and false memories of sexual abuse ______. A. must rely on lie detector tests B. can be assessed validly with psychological tests C. can be validly assessed through specialized structured interview techniques by legitimate experts D. is not possible at this time Answer: D 91. The text cites a case example of Richie, who became shaky and dizzy at Disney World. Richie thought he was going "crazy" when time slowed down and he began to perceive people around him as mechanical creatures. Richie was suffering from an episode of ______. A. dissociative fugue B. dissociative amnesia C. depersonalization D. malingering Answer: C 92. A key feature of ___________ is episodes characterized by feelings of detachment from one’s thoughts, feelings, or sensations, or from one’s surroundings. A. dissociative identity disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. social anxiety disorder D. depersonalization-derealization disorder Answer: C 93. Which of the following is a diagnostic criterion for depersonalization disorder? A. The depersonalization experiences are discomforting but do not create marked distress. B. The individual is unable to maintain reality testing during the depersonalization state. C. The depersonalization experiences cannot be attributed to other disorders. D. The depersonalization experiences are accompanied by auditory hallucinations and disordered thinking. Answer: C 94. Depersonalization is different from other dissociative disorders in that it ______. A. protects the individual from anxiety B. is not associated with anxiety C. involves distortion of one's sense of identity D. frequently generates anxiety Answer: D 95. The only dissociative disorder in which anxiety is present and there is no disturbance of memory is ______. A. dissociative amnesia B. dissociative fugue C. dissociative identity disorder D. depersonalization-derealization disorder Answer: D 96. Depersonalization is most closely related to ______ disorders. A. psychotic B. bipolar C. anxiety D. adjustment Answer: C 97. In the college student case of depersonalization described in the text, the student experienced ______ during the period of his disorder. A. inability to develop a relationship with a girl B. improvement in his grades C. many physical complaints which he took to his college’s health centre D. too much substance abuse Answer: B 98. Evidence suggests that depersonalization and derealization experiences are ______. A. equally rare in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures B. more common in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic cultures C. more common in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures D. quite common in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures Answer: B 99. Unlike other forms of dissociative disorders that seem to protect the self from anxiety, depersonalization and derealization can lead to ________ A. aggression and acting out B. the deterioration of the sufferer’s cognitive processes C. anxiety and in turn to avoidance behavior D. depression and lethargy Answer: C 100. When John was traveling in Southeast Asia, he observed a man suddenly become highly excited, violently attack other people and throw items around the marketplace. He was later told by a friend that the man quickly recovered and had no memory of his aggressive behavior. The friend pointed out that the man had a culture-bound syndrome called _______. A. Zar B. Amok C. Koro D. Dhat Answer: B 101. "Amok" is a culture-bound syndrome occurring primarily in ______. A. North Africa B. Pacific Island cultures C. Caribbean Island cultures D. Brazil Answer: B 102. "Amok" shares common features with the Western concept of ______ disorder. A. anxiety B. conversion C. obsessive-compulsive D. dissociative Answer: D 103. A culture-bound disorder in which a person enters a trance-like state, suddenly becomes highly excited and violently attacks other people or destroys objects and later claims to have no memory of the episode, is called ______. A. amok B. koro C. dhat D. zar Answer: A 104. A culture-bound disorder in which people have episodes of unusual behavior ranging from shouting to banging their heads against a wall is known as ______. A. amok B. koro C. dhat D. zar Answer: D 105. The disorder known as "zar" is found primarily in ______. A. North Africa and the Middle East B. Pacific Island cultures C. Caribbean Island cultures D. Asia Answer: A 106. Cultures in which the disorder known as "zar" is found attribute it mainly to ______. A. spirit possession B. natural causes C. lack of religious fervor D. stress Answer: A 107. According to psychodynamic theory, dissociative disorders involve the massive use of ______. A. regression B. projection C. repression D. reaction formation Answer: C 108. According to psychodynamic theory, repression serves the purpose of splitting unacceptable impulses and painful memories off from consciousness in which of the following disorders? A. dissociative disorders B. somatoform disorders C. anxiety disorders D. mood disorders Answer: A 109. Social-cognitive theorists view dissociation as ______ disturbed acts of thoughts. A. repressing B. negatively reinforcing C. extinguishing D. distancing oneself from Answer: D 110. Using the concepts of social-cognitive theory, which of the following statements is true regarding dissociative disorders? A. Dissociative identity disorder is a form of role-playing acquired through observational learning and reinforcement. B. By splitting and repressing guilt or shame, anxiety associated with dissociative disorders is also alleviated. C. Dissociation is a learned response that involves manipulating events for reinforcement. D. The habit of not thinking about disturbing acts or thoughts is negatively reinforced by generating anxiety and feelings of guilt or shame. Answer: A 111. Recent research has shown evidence of differences in ______ between people with depersonalization disorder and healthy subjects. A. secretion of pancreatic enzymes B. levels of acetylcholine C. brain metabolic activity D. size of the pituitary gland Answer: C 112. Recent evidence points to irregularity in brain functioning while ________ for those with dissociative behaviors. A. sleeping B. having sex C. eating D. playing music Answer: A 113. The diathesis-stress model would predict that ______. A. the severity of sexual abuse would be correlated with the likelihood of development of dissociative identity disorder B. abused children who develop dissociative identity disorder would have a personality proneness for the disorder C. the development of dissociative identity disorder in sexually abused children would depend on the supportiveness of the child’s environment D. dissociative identity disorder would only occur in sexually abused children who kept the abuse secret from everyone else Answer: B 114. According to the diathesis-stress model, ______ is a characteristic that makes a sexually abused child more prone to develop dissociative identity disorder. A. timidity B. aggressiveness C. hypnotizability D. unimaginativeness Answer: C 115. Dissociative amnesia and fugue are usually ______. A. transient and disappear slowly over time B. chronic and rarely disappear without professional treatment C. recurrent and persistent D. fleeting experiences that end abruptly Answer: D 116. Episodes of depersonalization are most likely to occur ______. A. totally at random B. when people are involved in work requiring intense concentration C. when people are undergoing periods of mild anxiety or depression D. when people are relaxed and have "let their guard down" Answer: C 117. Therapists help people deal with dissociative identity disorder by ______. A. helping people learn more effective coping behaviors for current problems caused by the disorder B. helping people find their "true selves" and actualize their hidden potential C. teaching people to change maladaptive thoughts and irrational beliefs D. helping people learn to uncover and cope with early childhood trauma Answer: D 118. Psychotherapy often recommends that patients with dissociative identity disorder establish direct contact with their other personalities. As a result, the alters are woven into a cohesive self. This is known as _________. A. fragmentation B. derealization C. integration D. EMDR Answer: C 119. Reports on the effectiveness of psychoanalytic and other forms of therapy, such as behavior therapy, in treating dissociative disorders rely mostly on uncontrolled ______ studies. A. case B. correlational C. naturalistic observation D. experimental Answer: A 120. The Coons (1986) study found that ______ of patients with dissociative identity disorder were completely reintegrated using psychodynamic treatment methods. A. 25 percent B. 50 percent C. 75 percent D. 100 percent Answer: A 121. ______ have been developed to help people with multiple personalities integrate their alter personalities. A. No drugs B. Several antidepressant drugs C. Several mild tranquilizers D. Several major tranquilizers Answer: A 122. What has hampered efforts to conduct controlled experiments that compare different forms of treatments for dissociative disorders? A. The relative infrequency of the disorder B. Lack of public interest C. Lack of funding D. The fact that the disorder doesn’t even exist Answer: A 123. There is compelling evidence of a connection between dissociative identity disorder and ______. A. damage to the cerebellum B. childhood abuse C. adjustment problems during adolescence D. a family history of borderline personality development Answer: B 124. Physical or sexual abuse of a child by a relative or _______ is most frequently involved in the development of dissociative disorders. A. teacher B. priest C. caretaker D. doctor Answer: C 125. Researchers report that ______ percent of people with dissociative identity disorder had been sexually abused in childhood. A. 16-25 B. 36-45 C. 56-75 D. 76-95 Answer: D 126. The psychological disorder most closely linked to a history of child abuse is ______. A. conversion disorder B. dissociative identity disorder C. dissociative fugue D. depersonalization disorder Answer: B 127. Dissociative identity disorder appears to ______. A. serve an escape function by blocking out painful memories of abuse B. serve a wish-fulfilment role for people with inadequate self-esteem and poor self- identity development C. be statistically linked to a family history of paranoid schizophrenia D. result from the id breaking through into conscious awareness Answer: A 128. A cross-cultural similarity to the US was noted with a study in Turkey, which showed that the great majority of dissociative identity disorder patients reported ________ A. parental disengagement during childhood B. living with an alcoholic parent during childhood C. sexual or physical abuse in childhood D. marital discord between their parents during childhood Answer: C 129. The word "soma" derives from the Greek word meaning ______. A. illness B. body C. fantasy D. exaggerate Answer: B 130. Somatic symptom and related disorders was formerly called _________ in the previous edition of the DSM. A. somatoform disorders B. anxiety disorders C. mood disorders D. fantasy disorders Answer: A 131. In ______ disorders, people show or complain of physical symptoms that have no identifiable physical cause. A. dissociative B. anxiety C. somatic symptom and related D. adjustment Answer: C 132. Many anxiety-related complaints such as trouble swallowing or breathing, or a "lump in the throat" can be traced to overactivity of the ______ nervous system. A. somatic B. peripheral C. sympathetic branch of the autonomic D. parasympathetic branch of the autonomic Answer: C 133. In DSM-5, which of the following is a somatic symptom and related disorder? A. somatic stress disorder B. hysteria C. factitious disorder D. traumatic stress disorder Answer: C 134. Which of the following is a diagnosable somatic symptom and related disorder? A. somatization disorder B. conversion disorder C. body dysmorphic disorder D. pain disorder Answer: B 135. People with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) not only have troubling physical symptoms, but they ___________ their symptoms to the extent that it affects their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in daily life. A. are excessively concerned about B. chronically ignore C. lie about D. exaggerate Answer: A 136. In order for someone to be diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder, the physical symptoms must be which of the following? A. Intermittent and associated with either significant personal distress or interference with daily functioning. B. Persistent and associated with either significant personal distress or interference with daily functioning. C. Significant enough to warrant intrusive medical intervention. D. Life-threatening and interfering with daily functioning. Answer: B 137. People with somatic symptom disorder have ______ somatic complaints. A. singular and isolated B. singular but recurrent C. multiple but isolated D. multiple and persistent Answer: D 138. Anna complains of physical problems, which date back to her adolescence. She has suffered from seizures, muscle weakness, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, menstrual problems, chest pains, and urinary problems. Although she really suffers from these symptoms, her doctors have never been able to find a physical cause. She is most likely suffering from ______. A. somatic symptom disorder B. conversion disorder C. hypochondriasis D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: A 139. Although no longer a distinct diagnostic category in the DSM, the term hypochondriasis reflected individuals __________. A. who deny the presence of serious diagnosed conditions B. with a fear of hospitals and treatment C. with physical complaints who believed their symptoms were due to a serious, undetected illness D. using illness to obtain love and attention from others Answer: C 140. The great majority of cases that were previously diagnosed as hypochondriasis would be classified as having __________ in the DSM-5 system. A. illness anxiety disorder B. factitious disorder C. somatic symptom disorder D. functional neurological symptom disorder Answer: C 141. A study that tracked use of medical care by patients with excessive somatic concerns found them to be heavy users of ________. A. alcohol B. caffeine C. medical services D. illegal drugs Answer: C 142. In previous versions of the DSM, people who are preoccupied or fearful that they have a serious or deadly illness are suffering from ______. A. somatization disorder B. conversion disorder C. hypochondriasis D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: C 143. In order to be diagnosed as suffering from Somatic Symptom Disorder, the symptoms must persist for at least ______ months. A. 3 B. 6 C. 9 D. 12 Answer: B 144. Which of the following is a diagnostic feature of hypochondriasis? A. The disturbance has persisted for one year or longer. B. The person is preoccupied with the fear of having a serious illness. C. There are no fears of physical illness persist despite medical evidence. D. There is a dramatic change in or loss of physical abilities or functioning. Answer: B 145. Marty has intense anxiety about his health. He focuses on slight changes in his heartbeat and greatly exaggerates minor aches and pains. He frequently “doctor shops" because he resents doctors telling him that nothing is physically wrong with him. He is suffering from _______. A. somatization disorder B. conversion disorder C. somatic symptom disorder D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: C 146. People who develop somatic symptom disorder have ______ health worries and ______ psychiatric problems than other people. A. fewer, fewer B. fewer, more C. more, fewer D. more, more Answer: D 147. Compared to other psychiatric patients, people who develop hypochondriasis are _____ likely to have reported being sick as children and are _____ likely to have experienced childhood trauma. A. less, less B. more, less C. less, more D. more, more Answer: D 148. Mitch has hypochondriasis. As such, he is most likely to also suffer from which of the following psychological disorders? A. depression B. conversion disorder C. an eating disorder D. a personality disorder Answer: A 149. Maggie has hypochondriasis. As such, she is most likely to also suffer from which of the following psychological disorders? A. an anxiety disorder B. bipolar affective disorder C. conversion disorder D. a personality disorder Answer: A 150. Which of the following childhood background factors are people who suffer from hypochondriasis more likely to have? A. chronic illness B. a mother seeking medical attention for their illness C. an alcoholic parent D. victimization by physical violence Answer: D 151. Which of the following is true of people with hypochondriasis? A. They are consciously faking their symptoms. B. They do not experience their reported discomfort. C. They express grave concern about their symptoms. D. There is usually an underlying organic basis for their symptoms. Answer: C 152. Hypochondriasis is believed to affect about ______ of the general population. A. 1% -5% B. 10%-20% C. 50%-60% D. 80%-90% Answer: A 153. The great majority of cases previously diagnosed as hypochondriasis would be diagnosed as __________ in the DSM-5. A. dissociative identity disorder B. somatic symptom disorder C. conversion disorder D. mood disorder with somatization Answer: B 154. People with hypochondriasis often report having been __________ as children. A. sick B. athletic C. shy D. hyperactive Answer: A 155. The DSM-5 introduced a new diagnostic category that includes a subgroup of people with hypochondriasis who complain of relatively minor or mild symptoms that they take to be signs of a serious undiagnosed illness. This diagnostic category is known as which of the following? A. Hypochondriacal disorder B. Conversion disorder C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder D. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) Answer: D 156. Juan has consistently experienced tightness in his chest and aches throughout his body for the last few years. Although medical tests have come back negative, he is chronically worried that these are symptoms of a serious illness. Juan most likely can be diagnosed as having which of the following according to the DSM-5? A. hyperactive disorder B. hypochondriasis C. illness anxiety disorder (IAD) D. conversion disorder Answer: C 157. The two general subtypes of illness anxiety disorder (IAD) are ________ and ______. A. care-avoidant; care-seeking B. attention-avoidant; attention-seeking C. acute; chronic D. chronic; persistent Answer: A 158. The illness anxiety disorder (IAD ) subtype that applies to people who postpone or avoid medical visits or lab tests because they fear what might be discovered is which of the following? A. care-avoidant B. care-seeking C. acute D. chronic Answer: A 159. The illness anxiety disorder (IAD) subtype ___________ describes people who jump from doctor to doctor in the hope of finding the one medical professional who might confirm their worst fears. A. obsessive B. care-seeking C. lethargic D. persistence Answer: B 160. A major change or loss of physical functioning that is not faked, even though there are no medical findings to support the physical symptom or deficit is called _______. A. hypochondriasis B. conversion disorder C. somatization disorder D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: B 161. Which of the following statements is true of conversion disorder? A. The symptoms are intentionally produced. B. The person is not malingering. C. The physical symptoms appear gradually. D. The physical symptoms appear in a variety of stressful and no stressful situations. Answer: B 162. The symptoms of conversion disorder usually come on ______ in a ______ situation. A. gradually, calm B. suddenly, calm C. suddenly, stressful D. gradually, stressful Answer: C 163. Conversion disorder was formerly called _______. A. manic-depression B. hebephrenic disorder C. hysterical neurosis D. cataplexy Answer: C 164. Conversion disorder is called _______ in the DSM-5. A. manic-depression B. hebephrenic disorder C. functional neurological symptom disorder D. cataplexy Answer: C 165. One change in the DSM-5 is that conversion disorder is called which of the following? A. functional neurological symptom disorder B. malingering disorder C. illness anxiety disorder D. hypochondriasis Answer: A 166. Conversion disorder is believed to involve the conversion or transformation of _____ into significant symptoms in the motor or sensory domain (Becker et al., 2013; Reynolds, 2012). A. emotional distress B. physical stress C. high blood pressure D. past experiences with psychoactive drugs Answer: A 167. Conversion disorder has been linked to ______. A. parental illness B. a rigid moral upbringing C. childhood sexual and physical abuse D. sibling rivalry Answer: C 168. Most classic conversion symptoms mimic ______ conditions. A. neurological B. adjustment C. anxiety D. genetic Answer: A 169. Which of the following is a classic symptom of conversion disorder? A. myopia B. paranoia C. epilepsy D. accelerated heart rate Answer: C 170. Epilepsy, blindness, paralysis, problems in coordination, and loss of the sense of hearing or smell are all "classic" symptoms of ______. A. hypochondriasis B. malingering C. somatization disorder D. conversion disorder Answer: D 171. Which of the following is a diagnostic feature of conversion disorder? A. The symptoms are restricted to complaints of pain or problems in sexual functioning B. The bodily symptoms match the medical conditions they suggest C. The loss of physical functioning suggests the presence of a physical disorder D. The symptoms involved involuntary motor movements and autonomic nervous system functions. Answer: C 172. La belle indifference is a characteristic symptom of ______. A. somatization disorder B. conversion disorder C. hypochondriasis D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: B 173. John has been under a lot of stress at work lately. One morning he awakens to find he is totally blind. His physician can find nothing physically wrong with his eyes, and John appears to have no trouble maneuvering around the furniture in the physician's office. John is not consciously faking and swears he cannot see. John is suffering from ______. A. somatization disorder B. conversion disorder C. hypochondriasis D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: B 174. Peter has been under a lot of stress at work lately. One morning he awakens to find he is totally blind. At his physician's office, Peter says he is upset by the loss of his eyesight, but he appears to be totally calm about it. He doesn't seem to be nearly as upset as one would normally expect for someone who has just lost his eyesight. Peter's lack of emotional reaction is an example of ______. A. malingering B. emotional compensation C. la belle indifference D. Munchausen syndrome Answer: C 175. When a person feigns an illness but is not consciously doing it for any specific motivation they might be suffering from __________. A. hypochondriasis B. conversion disorder C. somatization disorder D. factitious disorder Answer: D 176. Münchausen syndrome is an example of a(n) ______ disorder. A. dissociative B. adjustment C. factitious D. conversion Answer: C 177. Unlike malingerers, people with factitious disorders are classified in DSM-5 because ______. A. their numbers are growing while the number of malingerers has dramatically decreased B. malingerers are male by definition and DSM-5 excludes single gender disorders C. they lack a specific motivation for gain from their symptoms D. they must also have a comorbid anxiety or mood disorder for the diagnosis to be utilized Answer: C 178. Baron Karl von Münchausen was notorious because of his ______. A. extraordinary number of physical complaints B. avoidance of combat because of feigned illness C. sexual escapades D. ability to tell tall tales Answer: D 179. Tonya is admitted to the hospital covered in blood. She reports that she has been bleeding uncontrollably from her mouth. Later, a nurse finds a syringe filled with blood thinner among Tonya’s personal items in the hospital room. Tonya denies that the syringe is hers. The syringe is not made by a company the hospital uses. This fact leads hospital staff to wonder if, rather than having a valid illness, Tonya has a DSM-5 mental disorder called __________. A. factitious disorder imposed on another B. factitious disorder on self C. delusional disorder D. hysterical personality disorder Answer: B 180. In Sickened, Julie Gregory recounts her heart catheterization due to ______. A. hypochondriasis B. somatization disorder C. a birth defect D. her mother’s insistence Answer: D 181. Münchausen syndrome by proxy can be viewed as a form of ______. A. abusive behavior B. hypochondriasis C. medical malpractice D. manipulation of the legal system Answer: A 182. A motive proposed in the text for parents who induce sickness in their children is acquisition of ______. A. money B. medical knowledge C. sympathy D. the right to provide home schooling Answer: C 183. In the DSM-5, Münchausen syndrome by proxy is called ____________. A. factitious disorder imposed on another B. familial factitious disorder C. juvenile factitious disorder D. illness transference disorder Answer: A 184. Which of the following refers to a disorder in which people intentionally falsify or induce physical or emotional illness or injury in another person, often a child or dependent person? A. illness transference disorder B. familial factitious disorder C. juvenile factitious disorder D. factitious disorder imposed on another Answer: D 185. Factitious disorder imposed on another is a controversial diagnosis and remains under study by the psychiatric community because ____________. A. the individuals imposing the illness most likely already would meet criteria for another diagnosis in the DSM-5 B. it appears to put a diagnostic label on abusive behavior C. intent on the part of the caregiver is hard to quantify D. the abusive behavior toward the child may be reflective of an underlying borderline personality disorder Answer: B 186. The koro and dhat syndromes of the Far East share some clinical features with ______. A. Münchhausen syndrome B. hypochondriasis C. conversion disorder D. Briquette’s syndrome Answer: B 187. Koro syndrome is found primarily in ______. A. China B. Egypt C. Austria D. Lithuania Answer: A 188. Koro syndrome involves ______. A. fears of female sexuality and genitalia B. excessive fears of loss of seminal fluid during nocturnal emissions C. fears that one's genitals are shrinking and retracting into the body D. males' fears of having intercourse with females during menstruation Answer: C 189. Koro syndrome is found primarily among ______. A. young males B. older males C. young females D. older females Answer: A 190. Koro syndrome tends to be ______. A. short-lived and episodic B. chronic and episodic C. short-lived but persistent D. chronic and persistent Answer: A 191. Which of the following is true of people with koro syndrome? A. They tend to be more religious than others. B. Medical reassurances that their fears are unfounded rarely helps to alleviate their worries. C. Their intelligence levels tend to be lower than no sufferers. D. They are more questioning of koro-related folk beliefs than no sufferers. Answer: C 192. Dhat syndrome is found primarily in ______. A. China B. India C. Japan D. Korea Answer: B 193. Dhat syndrome involves ______. A. fears of female sexuality and genitalia B. excessive fears of loss of seminal fluid during nocturnal emissions C. fears that one's genitals are shrinking and retracting into the body D. males’ fears of having intercourse with females during menstruation Answer: B 194. Which of the following is a belief related to dhat syndrome? A. Semen is lost because it mixes with urine during urination. B. Preservation of semen guarantees ascendance to a higher level of afterlife upon death. C. Ejaculation during sexual intercourse allows males to gain life energy by draining it from females. D. Loss of semen depletes the body of physical and energy but increases mental attentiveness. Answer: A 195. The word "hysterical" derives from the Greek word meaning ______. A. out of control B. genitals C. convulsion D. uterus Answer: D 196. Hippocrates prescribed ______ as a cure for conversion hysteria. A. long periods of rest B. sexual abstinence C. marriage D. bleeding Answer: C 197. Brain imaging studies of patients with hysterical paralysis points to possible disruptions occurring in brain circuitry responsible for controlling ____________. A. movement and emotional responses B. learning and memory C. speech D. planning and abstract thinking Answer: A 198. Which important figure in the history of psychoanalysis was known for treating hysteria with hypnosis? A. Jung B. Horney C. Adler D. Breuer Answer: A 199. According to psychodynamic theory, gains that allow a person to keep internal conflicts repressed are called ______. A. primary gains B. secondary gains C. intrinsic gains D. extrinsic gains Answer: A 200. According to psychodynamic theory, gains that allow people to avoid burdensome responsibilities and at the same time gain the support, rather than the condemnation, of those around them are called ______. A. primary gains B. secondary gains C. intrinsic gains D. extrinsic gains Answer: B 201. According to Freud, hysterical symptoms provide ______. A. neither primary nor secondary gains B. primary, but not secondary gains C. secondary, but not primary gains D. primary and secondary gains Answer: D 202. A hysterical paralysis of an arm that prevents someone from acting out an unacceptable murderous impulse is what Freud called a(n) ______ gain. A. primary B. secondary C. intrinsic D. extrinsic Answer: A 203. A soldier experiences sudden paralysis of his hand which prevents him from firing his rifle in battle. Instead of having to face enemy fire he is sent to a field hospital to recover. Since he is not "faking," he is not perceived negatively by fellow soldiers, but instead is cared for and given sympathy by the hospital staff. According to psychodynamic theory, the soldier has achieved ______ gains by getting sympathy from the hospital staff. A. primary B. secondary C. intrinsic D. extrinsic Answer: B 204. La Belle Indifférence is believed to occur in hysteria because ______. A. negative feelings are displaced B. the apathy of depression sets in when anxiety is repressed C. the physical symptoms alleviate anxiety D. the person no longer has to deal with any underlying conflicts Answer: C 205. From the learning perspective, somatic symptom and related disorders serve mainly to ______. A. develop control over others B. avoid or escape anxiety C. force a person to withdraw from physically stressful situations D. gain attention from others Answer: B 206. According to the learning perspective, the symptoms of conversion and other somatic symptom and related disorders may be due to ______. A. unconscious conflicts B. reinforcement of the "sick role" C. dissociation D. la belle indifférence Answer: B 207. Some learning theorists see the hypochondriacally pattern of repeatedly seeking medical advice as a form of ______ disorder. A. paranoid B. panic C. obsessive-compulsive D. adjustment Answer: C 208. Which disorder has been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder by learning theorists? A. somatization disorder B. conversion disorder C. pain disorder D. body dysmorphic disorder Answer: D 209. Cognitive theorists argue that people with hypochondriasis use their complaints as a ______ strategy. A. withdrawal B. passive-aggressive C. self-aggrandizing D. self-handicapping Answer: D 210. According to cognitive theorists, attention to physical complaints can serve as a means of ______ other life problems. A. avoiding B. exaggerating C. exacerbating D. solving Answer: A 211. A distorted way of thinking about minor physical complaints is attributed to people with ______ by cognitive theorists. A. depersonalization disorder B. body dysmorphic disorder C. hypochondriasis D. pain disorder Answer: C 212. A distorted way of thinking about minor physical complaints is attributed to people with hypochondriasis by ______ theorists. A. learning B. cognitive C. psychodynamic D. humanistic Answer: B 213. Cognitive theorists speculate that hypochondriasis and ______ share a common cause in distorted thinking, leading to misinterpretation of minor bodily changes as catastrophic. A. pain disorder B. somatization disorder C. bipolar disorder D. panic disorder Answer: D 214. Recently, investigators proposed that symptoms associated with conversion disorder may involve a disconnect in the neural connections between parts of the brain that control certain functions such as speech and other parts involved in regulating _______. A. anxiety B. speech C. planning D. pain regulation Answer: A 215. Freud began his treatment approach, psychoanalysis, with the treatment of ______. A. hysteria B. hypochondriasis C. somatization disorder D. dissociative amnesia Answer: A 216. Which statement is true concerning the treatment of conversion disorders? A. Controlled research has not been conducted even though the number of contemporary conversion disorder cases is adequate for such research. B. Case studies of psychoanalytic treatment of conversion disorder have shown success. C. Outcome research disputes the success of the psychoanalytic treatment of conversion disorders. D. Freud’s and Breuer’s treatment of conversion disorders might have been successful, but the treatment of more modern psychoanalysts has not been successful. Answer: B 217. The behavioral approach to treating somatic symptom and related disorders focuses on ______. A. punishing hysterical behaviors B. rewarding sources of primary gain C. removing sources of secondary gain D. stimulus generalization Answer: C 218. Recent research has shown that ______ is(are) effective in treating somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder. A. modeling B. cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention C. psychodynamic insights into one's family of origin D. aversion therapy Answer: B 219. Therapists have reported that many with hypochondriasis terminate psychotherapy when told that ______. A. their problems are psychological B. they must stop reading the newspaper C. they must do household tasks assigned to them by their parents or spouses D. their therapy will be long term Answer: A 220. Recent research has found that ______ can be used to treat hypochondriasis and factitious disorder. A. mild tranquilizers B. phenothiazines C. analgesics D. antidepressants Answer: D 221. Physical disorders in which psychological factors play a causal or contributing role are known as ______ disorders. A. psychosomatic B. dissociative C. adjustment D. malingering Answer: A 222. Asthma and headaches have traditionally been labelled ______ disorders. A. phrenophysiologic B. body psyche C. psychosomatic D. cranophysical Answer: C 223. Ulcers have historically been viewed as being psychosomatic illness. However, recent research indicates that __________, not stress or diet is the major cause of peptic ulcers. A. a virus B. a bacterium C. a prion D. an abnormal protein formation in the blood Answer: B 224. It has been found that the ______ bacterium is cause of the majority of peptic ulcers. A. E.coli B. strep C. h pylori D. cmoberin Answer: C 225. It is currently believed that ulcers are caused mainly by ______. A. stress B. diet C. chronic anger D. a bacterium Answer: D 226. The treatment of choice for ulcers is currently ______. A. behavior therapy B. antibiotics C. stress management D. improved diet Answer: B 227. The field of psychosomatic medicine explores health-related connections between which of the following? A. the mind and the body B. the heart and the lungs C. fat and the muscles D. the soul and the mind Answer: A 228. The most frequent kind of headache is the ______ headache. A. cluster B. sinus C. sinus D. tension Answer: D 229. Sean has a headache. It developed gradually throughout the day. He feels like a tight steel band is wrapped around his forehead resulting in a dull steady pain on both sides of his head. His headache is best most likely a ______ headache. A. cluster B. sinus C. sinus D. tension Answer: D 230. About ______ million Americans suffer from migraine headaches. A. 30 B. 56 C. 128 D. 256 Answer: A 231. Julia suffers from migraine headaches. Her pain is usually experienced ______. A. for about 30 minutes at a time B. behind an eye C. for about 15 minutes at a time D. with piercing or throbbing sensations on both sides of the head Answer: B 232. About two out of three migraine sufferers are ___________. A. young adult males between the ages of 20 and 35 B. women between 15 and 55 years of age C. middle-aged males between 40 and 60 years of age D. elderly adults over the age of 70 Answer: B 233. A cluster of warning signs preceding migraine headache, consisting of flashing lights, bizarre images, or blind spots, is known as a(n) ______. A. prelude B. project C. halo D. aura Answer: D 234. Which of the following is considered a likely cause of migraines? A. diet B. poor visual acuity C. an underlying central nervous system disorder D. falling levels of acetylcholine Answer: C 235. Which of the following statements is true of migraines? A. Migraines are always precipitated by an epileptic seizure. B. Migraines occur only in females. C. Migraines occur only in individuals of European ancestry. D. Migraines can occur daily. Answer: D 236. Which neurotransmitter has been implicated in the cause of migraine headaches? A. adrenaline B. serotonin C. dopamine D. cortisol Answer: B 237. Scott has debilitating headaches which last several hours daily. They are preceded by his sense of flashing lights, and he experiences the pain on one side of his head. Scott probably has ______ headaches. A. migraine B. tension C. sinus D. stress Answer: A 238. MSG, menstruation, and changes in barometric pressure can trigger ______. A. ulcers B. asthmatic attacks C. an increase in adrenaline D. migraine headaches Answer: D 239. Although migraines can affect people of both genders and of all ages, about _______________ cases occur in women between 15 and 55 years of age. A. one out of four B. two out of four C. two out of three D. three out of four Answer: C 240. Which of the following have been effective in the treatment of tension headaches? A. fish oil B. aspirin C. vitamin C D. St. John’s Wort Answer: B 241. Drugs that ______ blood vessels in the ______ are used to treat migraine headaches. A. constrict dilated, brain B. dilate constricted, brain C. constrict dilated, neck and shoulders D. dilate constricted, neck and shoulders Answer: A 242. A training method to help people get control over involuntary bodily function is ______. A. biofeedback B. systematic desensitization C. reciprocal inhibition D. biocontrol training Answer: A 243. Biofeedback concerning muscle tension is called ______ biofeedback. A. electroencephalographic B. aura C. electromyographic D. physiocratic Answer: C 244. In biofeedback, people learn about their physiological processes through ______. A. auditory or visual signals B. bodily feelings C. signs from a partner D. a test score Answer: A 245. Biofeedback has relieved the pain of migraine headaches by ______. A. teaching the client how to breathe deeply B. smoothing out the muscles in the forehead C. decreasing the rate of eye blinks D. raising finger temperature Answer: D 246. A technique for relieving the discomfort to migraine headaches by regulating blood flow is ______ biofeedback. A. muscular B. thermal C. epidural D. vascular Answer: B 247. Consciously raising the temperature of the finger can help people to cope with ______. A. panic attacks B. back pain C. migraine headaches D. ulcers Answer: C 248. Stress induces bodily arousal such as excessive levels of ______ nervous system arousal which can ______ the risk of stress-related illnesses. A. sympathetic, decrease B. parasympathetic, decrease C. sympathetic, increase D. parasympathetic, increase Answer: C 249. ______ comprises several ways of narrowing consciousness to moderate the stressors of the outside world. A. Meditation B. Hypnosis C. Progressive relaxation D. Wish fulfilment fantasy Answer: A 250. There are many meditation methods, but they share the common thread of ______ one’s attention by focusing on ______ stimuli. A. narrowing, novel B. broadening, novel C. narrowing, repetitive D. broadening, repetitive Answer: C 251. Narrowing of one’s attention by focusing on repetitive stimuli is the common thread of different forms of ______. A. meditation B. progressive relaxation C. biofeedback D. behavior therapy Answer: A 252. Relaxing, simple sounds, repeated by meditators to help them block out stressful thoughts are called ______. A. mandalas B. incantations C. chants D. mantras Answer: D 253. Simple visual symbols used by Yogis to focus their attention while meditating are called ______. A. mandalas B. incantations C. chants D. mantras Answer: A 254. Which statement is true about Transcendental Meditation? A. It was brought to the United States by Mahatma Gandhi. B. It increases delta brain waves. C. It helps reduce sympathetic nervous system arousal. D. It involves creating a mental hierarchy of stress. Answer: C 255. Meditation has the effect on the nervous system of ______. A. increasing sympathetic arousal B. stabilizing sympathetic arousal C. decreasing sympathetic arousal D. decreasing parasympathetic arousal Answer: C 256. A stress-reduction technique practiced by Tibetan Buddhists is ______ meditation. A. transcendental B. progressive C. mindfulness D. imagery Answer: C 257. In mindfulness meditation, a person focuses on ______. A. a mantra B. a mandala C. past experiences D. conscious experience Answer: D 258. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the brains of long-term practitioners of meditation have higher levels of activity in the areas involved in which of the following? A. attention and decision making B. sexual activity C. appetite regulation D. sleep and dreaming Answer: A 259. Research conducted by Brefczynski-Lewis et al., ( 2007) has lead scientists to speculate that regular practice of meditation may alter brain functioning in ways that may be therapeutic to children with ________________. A. affective regulation disorder B. autism spectrum disorder C. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) D. cerebral palsy Answer: C 260. Progressive relaxation was originated by ______. A. Kobasa B. Selye C. Bandura D. Jacobson Answer: D 261. The progressive relaxation technique heightens awareness of ______. A. environmental stressors B. finger temperature C. time passage D. muscle tension Answer: D 262. For progressive relaxation to be effective, the client must learn to ______. A. differentiate muscle tension from relaxation B. repeat a mantra C. tense their muscles when under stress D. use aerobic exercise along with weight exercises of the different muscular groups Answer: A 263. Jacobson’s progressive relaxation technique was adapted by ______ therapists. A. meditation B. humanistic C. biofeedback D. behavior Answer: D 264. What is the leading cause of death in the United States? A. cancer B. cardiovascular disease C. accidents D. homicide Answer: B 265. Cardiovascular disease accounts for about ______ deaths in the United States. A. one in ten B. one in five C. one in three D. one in two Answer: C 266. Cardiovascular disease is a disease of the ______. A. endocrine system B. muscles and bones C. heart and arteries D. lymph nodes and immune system Answer: C 267. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death for ______. A. neither men nor women B. men but not women C. women but not men D. both men and women Answer: D 268. A condition known commonly as “hardening of the arteries,” in which artery walls become thicker, harder, and less elastic, is ______. A. angina B. atherosclerosis C. myocardial infarction D. arteriosclerosis Answer: D 269. The process involving the buildup of fatty deposits along artery walls that leads to the formation of artery-clogging plaques is called ______. A. angina B. atherosclerosis C. myocardial infarction D. arteriosclerosis Answer: B 270. A myocardial infarction is the technical term for a ______. A. stroke B. blood clot C. heart attack D. seizure Answer: C 271. Coronary heart disease is ______. A. not preventable B. resistant to most forms of prevention C. largely preventable D. completely preventable Answer: C 272. Which is a risk factor for coronary heart disease? A. a diet high in fish B. a diet high in fruit C. excessive exercise D. family history Answer: D 273. You heard that your new roommate is a Type A personality. You would expect the roommate o be ______. A. withdrawn and submissive B. shy and immature C. impatient and ambitious D. adventurous and irresponsible Answer: C 274. The element of the Type A pattern most closely linked to cardiovascular risk is ______. A. ambition B. impatience C. drive D. hostility Answer: D 275. The most toxic elements of the Type A profile are ______. A. lust and greed B. impatience and ambition C. anger and hostility D. drive and competitiveness Answer: C 276. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are examples of ______. A. relaxation hormones B. stress hormones C. viruses D. bacterium Answer: B 277. Under high amounts of emotional stress, the body releases ______ amounts of epinephrine and ______ amounts of norepinephrine into the bloodstream. A. small, small B. small, large C. large, small D. large, large Answer: D 278. In “broken heart syndrome,” ______. A. sudden surges in cholesterol rapidly clog previously healthy arteries leading to sudden death B. the person’s brain unconsciously “wills” the heart and lungs to stop working C. stress hormones “stun” the heart, preventing it from pumping normally D. people’s blood pressure skyrockets, causing sudden, massive, and usually fatal strokes Answer: C 279. “Broken heart syndrome” ______. A. while reported anecdotally, has never been medically documented B. is rare C. is common after the unexpected loss of a loved one, but not common in other situations D. is relatively common after any unexpected loss Answer: B 280. A Swedish study revealed that ______ stress tripled the risk of recurrent cardiac events in women. A. marital B. financial C. job D. menstrual Answer: A 281. Which is one of the top three major contributing factors associated with heart disease among Black women and men? A. Type A personality B. poor social networks C. religious affiliation D. diabetes Answer: D 282. The incidence of coronary heart disease and deaths from heart disease has been ______ during the past 50 years. A. declining steadily B. declining rapidly C. increasing steadily D. increasing rapidly Answer: A 283. A respiratory disorder in which the main tubes of the windpipe constrict, become inflamed, and produce large amounts of mucus, is ______. A. emphysema B. colitis C. pneumonia D. asthma Answer: D 284. Rates of asthma have ______ over the last 30 years. A. been cut in half B. declined slightly C. increased slightly D. more than doubled Answer: D 285. Which of the following is true of asthma? A. Sufferers should be encouraged to lead a sedentary lifestyle. B. The occurrence of attacks appears to have little relationship to stress. C. It is caused almost exclusively by psychological factors. D. Under the right circumstances, attacks can be lethal. Answer: D 286. Which factor or activity contributes to susceptibility to asthmatic attacks? A. eating a diet high in vitamin C B. excessive sleep C. overeating D. depression Answer: D 287. Identify a goal of behavioral treatment for asthma sufferers. A. increase aerobic activity B. decrease anger and hostility C. increase of assertiveness D. develop relaxation skills Answer: D 288. In recent years, the cancer death rate has been _________, in large part due to ____________. A. inching downward; better screening and treatment B. inching downward; better personal lifestyle practices C. inching upward; the increase in environment toxins D. inching upward; the increase in the availability of processed foods Answer: A 289. Men have a 1 in ______ chance of developing cancer at some point in their lives. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 Answer: A 290. Women have a 1 in ______ chance of developing cancer at some point in their lives. A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 Answer: A 291. When cancer is not contained early, it may ______. A. replicate B. reproduce C. malignant D. metastasize Answer: D 292. Heavy alcohol consumption, high fat intake, and excessive sunbathing can contribute to the development of ______. A. migraine headaches B. cancer C. asthma D. hypertension Answer: B 293. In ______, people eat less animal fat than Americans, helping to reduce the rate of cancer. A. France B. Japan C. Argentina D. Russia Answer: B 294. When cancer cells have are no longer contained in their reproduction and have spread to multiple sites in the body, they are said to have _______. A. eliminated the effectiveness of helper Z cells in the body B. mutated C. metastasized D. infiltrated Answer: C 295. A weakened ______ may increase susceptibility to cancer. A. heart B. system of ego defense mechanisms C. ego D. immune system Answer: D 296. What is the most accurate conclusion about the relationship between stress and cancer? A. It requires further study. B. Stress makes people more susceptible to cancer. C. Stress has no effect on susceptibility to the various cancers. D. It has only been proven that stress contributes to susceptibility to breast and prostate cancer. Answer: A 297. Investigators also recently reported that cognitive therapy that included a mindfulness meditation training component improved _________ in cancer patients. A. red blood cell count B. levels of hope and optimism C. overall functioning by reducing levels of depression and anxiety D. attitudes toward healthy persons Answer: C 298. Approximately how many new cases of HIV infection are reported annually in the United States? A. 10,000 B. 25,000 C. 55,000 D. 100,000 Answer: C 299. HIV attacks a person’s ______ system. A. cardiovascular B. respiratory C. nervous D. immune Answer: D 300. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by _____________. A. human papilloma virus B. human immunodeficiency virus C. prions D. bacteria Answer: B 301. Treatment of HIV has been revolutionized by the use of highly effective ______________. A. antibiotic drugs B. antiretroviral drugs C. antidepressant drugs D. mindfulness therapies Answer: B 302. Two therapies that have been particularly helpful assisting individuals adapt to living with AIDS and its psychological symptoms are coping skills therapy and _________ therapy. A. cognitive-behavioral B. person centered C. family D. humanistic Answer: A 303. Identify the type of psychiatric medication that is most helpful in treating the psychological symptoms of HIV patients. A. mood stabilizers B. antidepressants C. antipsychotics D. anxiolytics Answer: B True-False Questions 304. In somatic symptom and related disorders and dissociative disorders, anxiety is directly observed in behavior. Answer: False 305. The key feature of the dissociative disorders is anxiety. Answer: False 306. Multiple personality has been traditionally classified as a somatic symptom or related disorder. Answer: False 307. The term “split personality” refers to schizophrenia. Answer: False 308. Some people with multiple personalities also show behaviors associated with schizophrenia. Answer: False 309. Each personality in people with multiple personalities is so distinct that the personality may have its own allergies and eyeglass prescription. Answer: True 310. In dissociative identity disorder, themes of sexual ambivalence and ambiguity are common. Answer: True 311. Clinicians treating someone with dissociative identity disorder can sometimes elicit alternate personalities to make themselves known by asking, “Is there another part of you that wants to say something to me?” Answer: True 312. The dominant personality in dissociative identity disorder is always aware of the other alters existing in the afflicted individual. Answer: False 313. The majority of diagnosed cases of dissociative identity disorder are male. Answer: False 314. Multiple personality actually occurs more commonly than schizophrenia. Answer: False 315. Suicidal behavior is common in people with multiple personalities. Answer: True 316. Most cases of people with multiple personalities involve criminal behavior. Answer: False 317. The memory loss resulting from dissociative amnesia is irreversible. Answer: False 318. Dissociative amnesia can persist for years. Answer: True 319. Dissociative amnesia and fugue are usually transient and disappear abruptly. Answer: True 320. Localized amnesia is the most common form of dissociative amnesia. Answer: True 321. Most instances of dissociative amnesia are selective amnesia. Answer: False 322. People can be led to believe that they experienced events that did not actually take place. Answer: True 323. Experienced clinicians can reasonably determine whether or not people are faking amnesia for their misdeeds. Answer: True 324. Fugue states commonly last for months or even years. Answer: False 325. The fugue state is considered psychotic because people with the disorder are unable to think or behave normally. Answer: False 326. Very few of us have episodes of feeling detached from our bodies or thought processes. Answer: False 327. Depersonalization and derealization can motivate anxiety and avoidance behavior. Answer: True 328. Despite some sensationalistic cases in the media, the great majority of people with multiple personalities were not physically or sexually abused as children. Answer: False 329. The majority of children subjected to severe abuse in childhood develop some type of dissociative disorder. Answer: False 330. Available research suggests that treating dissociative disorders does not reduce symptoms. Answer: False 331. Dissociative identity disorder responds well to treatment with phenothiazines. Answer: False 332. No drugs have been developed to integrate alternate personalities in people with multiple personalities. Answer: True 333. Some people show up repeatedly at hospital emergency rooms, feigning illness and seeking treatment for no apparent reason. Answer: True 334. People with somatic symptom disorder are not overly concerned about their troubling physical symptoms. Answer: False 335. The great majority of cases previously diagnosed as hypochondriasis, would now be diagnosed under the DSM-5 criteria as having somatic symptom disorder. Answer: True 336. People with hypochondriasis are consciously faking their symptoms. Answer: False 337. Individuals who express an extremely high level of health anxiety are likely to receive a diagnosis of the newly recognized disorder in DSM-5 called illness anxiety disorder. Answer: True 338. The DSM-5 lists conversion disorder as a subtype of illness anxiety disorder. Answer: False 339. Most of the time, the bodily symptoms found in conversion disorder match the medical conditions they suggest. Answer: False 340. Hysteria or conversion disorder cases are more common today than in Freud’s era. Answer: False 341. The fact that conversion symptoms first appear in the context of, or are aggravated by, conflicts or stressors suggests a psychological connection. Answer: True 342. Conversion disorder is so named because of the psychodynamic belief that it represents the channeling, or conversion, of repressed sexual or aggressive energies into physical symptoms. Answer: True 343. Persons with factitious disorders are motivated to feign physical illness in order to avoid work or to qualify for disability benefits. Answer: False 344. Munchausen syndrome is a somatic symptom and related disorder. Answer: True 345. Factitious disorder is classified as a mental disorder because it serves an individual’s underlying psychological need through assuming a sick role. Answer: True 346. In the DSM-5, Munchausen syndrome by proxy is now called “factitious disorder on another.” Answer: True 347. Many Indian males believe that preservation of semen guarantees health and longevity. Answer: True 348. There was an epidemic in China in the 1980s affecting more than 2,000 people who fell prey to the belief that their genitals were shrinking and retracting into their bodies. Answer: True 349. The term “hysteria” derives from the Greek word for “testicle.” Answer: False 350. According to psychodynamic theory, hysterical systems are not functional. Answer: False 351. Empirical evidence supports the psychodynamic view of hysteria. Answer: False 352. Psychodynamic theory does not explain how energies from unconscious conflicts become transformed into physical symptoms. Answer: True 353. Psychodynamic theory and learning theory concur that the symptoms in conversion disorders relieve anxiety. Answer: True 354. People with factitious disorder reduced their symptoms through the use of antidepressants in a research study. Answer: True 355. Ulcers are caused solely by stress. Answer: False 356. Tension headaches result from changes in blood flow to the brain. Answer: False 357. Hormonal changes during menstruation can trigger migraine headaches. Answer: False 358. People can relieve the pain of migraine headaches by raising the temperature in a finger. Answer: True 359. Transcendental Meditation was brought to the U.S. by Herbert Benson. Answer: False 360. Meditation should be performed once or twice daily. Answer: True 361. Clenching teeth can be a part of the progressive muscular relaxation technique. Answer: False 362. Ulcers are psychosomatic. Answer: False 363. You can actually die from a broken heart. Answer: True 364. African Americans have the lowest rate of death due to coronary heart disease. Answer: False 365. Overtime work has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Answer: True 366. The incidence of deaths from heart disease has stayed approximately the same in this country for the past 50 years. Answer: False 367. Rates of asthma have decreased since 1980. Answer: False 368. Cancer can be caused by viruses. Answer: True 369. Japanese are genetically less susceptible to cancer than Americans. Answer: False 370. Many cancer cases could be prevented if people adopted healthier lifestyles. Answer: True 371. Cancer causes one in four deaths in the United States. Answer: True 372. HIV can be transmitted through oral-genital contact. Answer: True 373. A cure for HIV has been found. Answer: False Essay Questions 374. Distinguish the dissociative and somatic symptom and related disorders from the anxiety disorders in terms of the theorized role of anxiety. Answer: Dissociative Disorders and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: • Dissociative Disorders: These disorders involve disruptions or gaps in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior. Theorized role of anxiety in dissociative disorders is typically related to the experience of trauma or overwhelming stress, where dissociation serves as a defense mechanism to protect the individual from overwhelming emotions or memories. • Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: These disorders involve physical symptoms or concerns that are disproportionate or inconsistent with medical findings and cannot be fully explained by a medical condition. Anxiety in somatic symptom disorders often revolves around health-related concerns or fears of having a serious illness, leading to excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to the symptoms. Anxiety Disorders: • Anxiety Disorders: These disorders are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety and related behavioral disturbances. Anxiety in anxiety disorders typically centers on perceived threats, danger, or anticipated future events, leading to avoidance behaviors, physiological arousal, and distress. Key Differences in Theorized Role of Anxiety: • Dissociative and Somatic Symptom Disorders: Anxiety is theorized to play a role in triggering dissociative episodes (in dissociative disorders) or exacerbating physical symptoms (in somatic symptom disorders) as a result of underlying psychological distress or unresolved conflicts. • Anxiety Disorders: Anxiety is the central feature, manifesting as excessive worry, fear, or apprehension about various aspects of life, often without a clear trigger related to dissociation or physical symptoms. In summary, while anxiety can be present in all these disorders, its role differs significantly in terms of how it is manifested and its relationship to the primary symptoms of dissociation, somatic symptoms, or anxiety itself. 375. What are the key features of dissociative identity disorder (DID)? List and describe each. Answer: Key Features of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): 1. Presence of Two or More Distinct Identities or Personality States: Individuals with DID experience distinct identities or personality states, each with its own way of perceiving and interacting with the world. These identities may have unique names, mannerisms, memories, and behaviors. 2. Amnesia Between Identities: Gaps in memory (amnesia) are typically present when one identity is dominant, and another takes control. This amnesia is not due to ordinary forgetfulness and cannot be explained by other medical or psychological conditions. 3. Distress or Impairment: The presence of these identities and associated amnesia causes distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. 4. Not a Normal Part of Cultural or Religious Practices: The symptoms are not a result of culturally sanctioned practices (e.g., possession trance in certain cultures) or fictitious play (e.g., pretending to be a character). 5. Symptoms Not Due to Substance Use or Medical Condition: The symptoms cannot be attributed to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., drug abuse) or another medical condition (e.g., seizures). 6. High Comorbidity with Other Mental Disorders: Individuals with DID often have co-occurring mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. 376. Describe how DID is often confused with schizophrenia by laypersons. Why does this confusion occur? Answer: Confusion between DID and Schizophrenia: Reasons for Confusion: 1. Symptom Overlap: Both DID and schizophrenia can involve alterations in perception, self-experience, and reality testing. For example, individuals with DID may experience auditory hallucinations or distorted perceptions during identity switches, which can resemble symptoms of schizophrenia. 2. Misunderstanding of Dissociative Symptoms: Laypersons may not be familiar with dissociative symptoms such as amnesia or identity alteration, leading them to interpret these experiences as signs of schizophrenia. 3. Media Portrayal: Popular media often sensationalizes and inaccurately portrays dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia, contributing to public misunderstanding and confusion. 4. Diagnostic Complexity: Both disorders can be diagnostically challenging, requiring thorough clinical assessment by mental health professionals to differentiate between them based on specific criteria and clinical presentation. 5. Stigma and Stereotypes: There is stigma associated with both disorders, and misconceptions about symptoms and behaviors can reinforce stereotypes and confusion among the general public. Key Differences: • DID: In DID, the primary features include distinct identity states, amnesia between identities, and a history of trauma or severe stress. Symptoms are typically related to dissociation rather than psychosis. • Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia involves a range of symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impaired functioning. It is characterized by a chronic course and often requires antipsychotic medication for management. In summary, while DID and schizophrenia share some overlapping features, such as alterations in perception and self-experience, they are distinct disorders with different underlying mechanisms, clinical presentations, and treatment approaches. Clear understanding and accurate diagnosis are essential to provide appropriate care and support for individuals experiencing these complex mental health conditions. 377. Describe dissociative amnesia, identifying and briefly explaining its five specific types and discuss how it differs from other types of amnesia. Answer: Dissociative Amnesia: Dissociative amnesia involves the inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. Here are the five specific types of dissociative amnesia: 1. Localized Amnesia: Involves the inability to recall events that occurred during a specific period of time, usually beginning with a traumatic event and extending for a period afterward. 2. Selective Amnesia: Refers to the inability to recall some, but not all, of the events that occurred during a specific period of time, often centered around a traumatic or stressful event. 3. Generalized Amnesia: Occurs when individuals cannot recall their entire life history, including personal identity and life events. This is rare and typically associated with severe psychological stress or trauma. 4. Systematized Amnesia: Involves the inability to recall certain categories of information, such as memories related to a specific person, place, or topic. 5. Continuous Amnesia: In this type, individuals are unable to recall events occurring after a specific time up to the present moment. This can be associated with ongoing stress or trauma. Differences from Other Types of Amnesia: • Organic Amnesia (e.g., Anterograde Amnesia): Typically caused by brain injury or neurological conditions, such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease, leading to impairment in forming or recalling memories due to brain damage. • Psychogenic Amnesia: Another term sometimes used interchangeably with dissociative amnesia, referring specifically to amnesia that arises from psychological factors rather than physical brain damage. Key Differences: • Cause: Dissociative amnesia is primarily psychological, often triggered by trauma or stress, whereas organic amnesia is neurological in origin. • Memory Retrieval: Individuals with dissociative amnesia may eventually recall the lost memories, whereas organic amnesia due to brain injury often results in permanent memory loss. 378. Describe dissociative fugue in terms of its symptoms and prevalence. Also, discuss what malingering is and its relationship to diagnosing fugue or amnesia. Answer: Dissociative Fugue: Dissociative fugue is a subtype of dissociative amnesia characterized by sudden, unexpected travel away from home or one's usual surroundings, accompanied by an inability to recall one's past and confusion about personal identity. Here are its symptoms and prevalence: Symptoms: • Abrupt departure from home or work. • Inability to recall one's past, including personal identity and life history. • Confusion about one's identity or assumption of a new identity. • Distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. • The episode is typically reversible and ends abruptly. Prevalence: Dissociative fugue is rare, with estimates suggesting it occurs in less than 1% of the population. It can occur at any age but often manifests in adulthood, typically in response to severe stress or trauma. Malingering: Malingering refers to the intentional production or exaggeration of physical or psychological symptoms for external incentives such as avoiding work, obtaining financial compensation, or seeking drugs. Relationship to Diagnosing Fugue or Amnesia: Diagnosing dissociative fugue or amnesia involves careful assessment to differentiate between genuine psychological distress and malingering. Clinicians use various methods, including clinical interviews, psychological testing, and collateral information from family or friends, to evaluate the consistency and validity of reported symptoms. Malingering is suspected if there is evidence of external motivation or inconsistency in symptom presentation. 379. Explain the controversies surrounding recovered memories. Answer: Controversies: Recovered memories refer to the phenomenon where individuals recall long-forgotten traumatic events, often through therapy or other means, after a period of amnesia or repression. Controversies surrounding recovered memories include: 1. Accuracy and Reliability: Critics argue that memories recovered through techniques such as hypnosis or suggestive questioning may be unreliable or influenced by therapist suggestion. 2. False Memory Syndrome: Some individuals may develop false memories that feel real but are based on suggestions or beliefs rather than actual events. This can lead to accusations and legal implications, particularly in cases involving alleged childhood abuse. 3. Ethical Concerns: There are ethical concerns regarding the potential for harm when encouraging the retrieval of traumatic memories, as it can lead to distress and confusion for individuals. 4. Scientific Validity: The scientific validity of repressed memories as a psychological defense mechanism is debated, with some researchers questioning the extent to which memories can be accurately repressed and later recalled. 5. Legal Ramifications: Recovered memories have implications in legal contexts, where the validity and admissibility of such memories as evidence can influence legal proceedings and outcomes. In summary, while some individuals may genuinely recover memories of traumatic events, the controversy surrounding recovered memories highlights the complexities involved in memory retrieval, suggestion, and the potential for false memories. 380. Describe the symptoms and prevalence of depersonalization-derealization disorder. Answer: Symptoms: Depersonalization-derealization disorder involves persistent or recurrent experiences of depersonalization (feeling detached from one's body, thoughts, or emotions) and/or derealization (feeling detached from one's surroundings, experiencing the world as unreal or dreamlike). Key symptoms include: • Feeling like an outside observer of one's thoughts, feelings, sensations, or actions (depersonalization). • Perceiving objects or people as unreal, distant, foggy, or distorted (derealization). • Intact reality testing (individuals are aware that their experiences are not shared by others or are not indicative of psychosis). • The symptoms cause distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. • Symptoms are not attributable to substance use, another medical condition, or another mental disorder. Prevalence: Depersonalization-derealization disorder is relatively uncommon, with estimated prevalence rates ranging from 0.8% to 2% in the general population. It often begins in adolescence or early adulthood and can be chronic if untreated, fluctuating in severity over time. In summary, depersonalization-derealization disorder involves distressing experiences of detachment from oneself or the world, distinct from psychosis or substance-related experiences. Understanding its symptoms and prevalence helps in accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning for affected individuals. 381. Recount various theoretical perspectives on the dissociative disorders. Answer: Recount various theoretical perspectives on the dissociative disorders. Theoretical perspectives on dissociative disorders explore the underlying mechanisms and factors contributing to these conditions: 1. Psychodynamic Perspective: According to Freudian theory, dissociative disorders result from unconscious defense mechanisms that serve to protect the individual from overwhelming anxiety or trauma. Dissociation is seen as a way to compartmentalize distressing memories or experiences. 2. Trauma and Stressor-Related Perspective: This perspective emphasizes the role of severe trauma or stress in triggering dissociative symptoms. Dissociation is viewed as a coping mechanism to escape or detach from traumatic experiences that exceed the individual's ability to cope effectively. 3. Neurobiological Perspective: Neurobiological theories suggest that dissociative disorders may involve alterations in brain function and structure, particularly in regions associated with memory (e.g., hippocampus), emotion regulation (e.g., amygdala), and sense of self (e.g., prefrontal cortex). These alterations may predispose individuals to dissociative symptoms in response to stress. 4. Attachment Theory: Some researchers propose that disruptions in early attachment relationships, particularly experiences of neglect, abuse, or inconsistent caregiving, contribute to the development of dissociative disorders. Dissociation is seen as a strategy to manage distress stemming from insecure attachment experiences. 5. Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective: This perspective focuses on learned responses to stress and trauma, where dissociative symptoms develop through conditioning and reinforcement processes. Cognitive factors such as attentional biases towards threat or cognitive distortions may also play a role in maintaining dissociative experiences. 6. Sociocultural Perspective: Cultural factors, societal norms, and the availability of certain coping strategies within a cultural context influence the expression and interpretation of dissociative symptoms. Dissociative disorders may manifest differently across cultures due to varying beliefs about the self and psychological distress. These theoretical perspectives provide frameworks for understanding the complex interplay of psychological, neurobiological, interpersonal, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of dissociative disorders. 382. Compare and contrast the various methods for treating dissociative disorders. Answer: Methods for Treating Dissociative Disorders: 1. Psychotherapy: • Trauma-Focused Therapy: Therapies such as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) focus on processing traumatic memories and reducing dissociative symptoms. • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): Helps individuals regulate emotions and develop distress tolerance skills, addressing emotion dysregulation common in dissociative disorders. • Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy: Focuses on understanding and integrating dissociated parts of the personality. 2. Medication: • Antidepressants: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be prescribed to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety commonly associated with dissociative disorders. • Antipsychotics: Used in some cases to manage dissociative symptoms, particularly in the context of psychosis or severe distress. 3. Psychosocial Interventions: • Psychoeducation: Providing information about dissociative symptoms, triggers, and coping strategies. • Supportive Therapy: Offering emotional support and validation to individuals experiencing distressing symptoms. • Cognitive Restructuring: Addressing maladaptive thought patterns and cognitive distortions related to trauma and dissociation. Comparison: • Psychotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for dissociative disorders, focusing on processing trauma and integrating dissociated parts of the self. • Medication may be used adjunctively to manage symptoms of depression, anxiety, or psychosis. • Psychosocial interventions such as psychoeducation and cognitive restructuring support overall treatment goals. Contrast: • Psychotherapy addresses the underlying trauma and dissociative symptoms directly, promoting long-term recovery. • Medication primarily targets symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) rather than the core dissociative experiences. • Psychosocial interventions provide additional support and coping strategies but may not directly address trauma processing. 383. Describe the features of the somatic symptom and related disorders, explaining how they are different than either the dissociative disorders or malingering. Answer: Features of Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: Somatic symptom and related disorders involve excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to physical symptoms, which may or may not have a medical cause. Key disorders include: • Somatic Symptom Disorder: Persistent, distressing somatic symptoms that may or may not be explained by medical conditions, accompanied by excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to the symptoms. • Illness Anxiety Disorder (Hypochondriasis): Preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals that one is healthy or the symptoms are mild. • Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder): Neurological symptoms (e.g., paralysis, tremors) that cannot be explained by medical conditions, but are associated with psychological factors. Differences from Dissociative Disorders: • Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: Focus on physical symptoms and health concerns, with symptoms often fluctuating and varying in severity. Psychological distress is related to the interpretation of symptoms rather than dissociation or altered identity states. • Dissociative Disorders: Involve disruptions in memory, identity, consciousness, or perception, often triggered by trauma or stress. Symptoms include amnesia, identity alteration, or derealization/depersonalization experiences. Differences from Malingering: • Malingering: Involves the intentional production or exaggeration of symptoms for external incentives (e.g., financial gain, avoiding responsibility), without genuine distress or impairment. • Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: Symptoms are genuine and distressing to the individual, regardless of whether they are medically explained. They cause significant impairment in daily life and are not consciously fabricated for personal gain. In summary, somatic symptom and related disorders involve distressing physical symptoms with psychological factors, whereas dissociative disorders involve disruptions in identity or memory, and malingering is deliberate symptom fabrication for secondary gain. 384. Describe the features and prevalence of conversion disorder. How does it differ from hypochondriasis? Answer: Features and Prevalence of Conversion Disorder: Conversion disorder, also known as functional neurological symptom disorder, involves neurological symptoms (e.g., paralysis, tremors, seizures) that cannot be explained by medical conditions. Features include: • Symptoms are not intentionally produced and are inconsistent with neurological or medical findings. • The symptoms cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. • Onset is often associated with stress or psychological conflict. • The prevalence of conversion disorder is estimated to be around 0.01% to 0.02% in the general population. Differences from Hypochondriasis (Illness Anxiety Disorder): • Conversion Disorder: Involves neurological symptoms such as motor or sensory deficits (e.g., blindness, paralysis) that are inconsistent with neurological findings. Symptoms are not consciously produced and may resolve suddenly or shift between different presentations. • Hypochondriasis (Illness Anxiety Disorder): Involves persistent preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, despite medical reassurance that symptoms are mild or nonexistent. The focus is on perceived health threats rather than neurological or motor symptoms. Key Differences: • Nature of Symptoms: Conversion disorder presents with neurological symptoms affecting motor or sensory functions, while hypochondriasis involves excessive health-related fears or beliefs about illness. • Underlying Mechanisms: Conversion disorder is often associated with unresolved psychological conflicts or stressors, whereas hypochondriasis may involve cognitive distortions and excessive health monitoring. In summary, conversion disorder and hypochondriasis are distinct disorders characterized by different types of symptoms and underlying psychological mechanisms. Understanding these differences is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. 385. Describe the prevalence and features of somatic symptom disorder. How does it differ from conversion disorder and body dysmorphic disorder? Answer: Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD): Prevalence and Features: Somatic Symptom Disorder involves excessive and distressing thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to somatic symptoms, which may or may not be associated with a diagnosed medical condition. The prevalence varies but is estimated to be around 5-7% in primary care settings. It typically starts in early adulthood and can persist over many years if untreated. Key Features: • Persistent and distressing somatic symptoms that may or may not be fully explained by medical findings. • Excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to the somatic symptoms, such as disproportionate anxiety or excessive time and energy spent on health concerns. • Symptoms are not intentionally produced (as in factitious disorder) or feigned (as in malingering). Differences from Conversion Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder: • Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder): Involves neurological symptoms (such as paralysis, tremors, seizures) that cannot be explained by medical or neurological conditions but are thought to be related to psychological factors. Unlike SSD, where the focus is on somatic symptoms in general, conversion disorder specifically affects voluntary motor or sensory function. • Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD): Involves a preoccupation with perceived flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or are very slight to others. While SSD involves somatic symptoms (such as pain, digestive issues), BDD focuses on appearance concerns, often leading to repetitive behaviors or mental acts (e.g., excessive grooming, mirror checking). 386. Describe the features of illness anxiety disorder. List and detail the features of the two subtypes. Answer: Illness Anxiety Disorder (Hypochondriasis): Features: Illness Anxiety Disorder (formerly known as hypochondriasis) is characterized by excessive worry or preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, despite minimal or no physical symptoms. Individuals may frequently seek medical advice, or avoid medical settings altogether due to fear of receiving a dreaded diagnosis. Key Features: • Preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, based on misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. • Minimal or no physical symptoms, or mild symptoms that are misinterpreted as indicative of a severe illness. • High anxiety about health, often persisting despite medical reassurance. • Excessive health-related behaviors (e.g., frequent checking of the body for signs of illness, excessive researching of medical conditions). Subtypes: • Care-seeking Type: Individuals with this subtype frequently seek medical attention for perceived symptoms, often moving from one healthcare provider to another in search of a diagnosis or reassurance. • Care-avoidant Type: Individuals with this subtype avoid medical care as much as possible due to fear of being diagnosed with a serious illness. They may avoid doctor visits or medical tests, fearing confirmation of their health worries. 387. Describe the features of both Munchausen’s disorder and Munchausen’s by proxy. Why do researchers believe that people with these disorders act the way they do? Answer: Munchausen's Disorder: Munchausen's Disorder (Factitious Disorder Imposed on Self) involves intentionally producing, feigning, or exaggerating physical or psychological symptoms in oneself, motivated primarily by a desire to assume the sick role. People with this disorder may go to great lengths to create the appearance of illness, including undergoing unnecessary medical procedures or tampering with medical equipment to falsify test results. Munchausen's by Proxy: Munchausen's by Proxy (Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another) involves intentionally causing or fabricating illness or injury in another person (often a dependent, such as a child or elderly relative), typically to gain attention or assume the role of a caregiver. This can involve administering substances to induce symptoms, falsifying medical histories, or tampering with medical equipment. Motivations: Researchers believe individuals with Munchausen's and Munchausen's by Proxy disorders may act the way they do due to complex psychological factors: • Need for Attention and Care: Individuals may have an intense need for attention, sympathy, and nurturance that they feel they cannot obtain in any other way. • Identity and Control Issues: Some individuals may have a deeply ingrained sense of insecurity or low self-esteem, finding comfort or validation in the role of a patient or caregiver. • Past Trauma or Loss: Personal experiences of trauma, loss, or neglect could contribute to the development of these disorders as maladaptive coping mechanisms. In summary, each of these disorders—Somatic Symptom Disorder, Conversion Disorder, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Illness Anxiety Disorder, Munchausen's Disorder, and Munchausen's by Proxy—represents distinct patterns of behavior and psychological mechanisms, each with its own diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and underlying motivations. Understanding these differences is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning in clinical settings. 388. Explain what culture-bound syndromes are and describe the features of Koro and Dhat syndromes. Answer: Definition: Culture-bound syndromes refer to clusters of symptoms and behaviors that are recognized and considered a recognizable illness or disorder only within a specific cultural or ethnic group. These syndromes often involve somatic symptoms or altered states of consciousness that are shaped by cultural beliefs, norms, and practices. Features of Koro and Dhat Syndromes: Koro Syndrome: • Description: Koro is primarily found in Southeast Asian cultures. It involves a sudden and intense fear that the genitals (often in males) are retracting into the body, potentially leading to death. This fear is often accompanied by efforts to prevent retraction through various means, such as using weights or even clamping objects to the genitals. Dhat Syndrome: • Description: Dhat syndrome is prevalent in South Asian cultures. It involves excessive concern about loss of semen through nocturnal emissions, urination, or defecation. Individuals with Dhat syndrome believe that such loss leads to physical and mental debilitation, including weakness, fatigue, and anxiety. Common Features: • Both syndromes are characterized by culturally specific beliefs about bodily functions (genital retraction in Koro, semen loss in Dhat) that are linked to fears of physical or psychological harm. • The symptoms often lead to significant distress and impairment in social and occupational functioning within the affected cultural context. • Treatment typically involves culturally sensitive approaches that address the underlying beliefs and concerns. 389. Identify and describe the various theoretical perspectives on the somatic symptom and related disorders. Answer: Theoretical Perspectives on Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: Psychodynamic Perspective: • Explanation: Psychodynamic theories emphasize unconscious conflicts and unresolved psychological issues as underlying causes of somatic symptoms. For instance, somatic symptoms may serve as symbolic expressions of underlying emotional distress or conflicts. • Strengths: Focuses on exploring deep-seated issues that may not be consciously recognized, offering potential insights and resolutions through therapy. • Weaknesses: Limited empirical support, lengthy treatment duration, and the potential for subjective interpretation of symptoms. Behavioral Perspective: • Explanation: Behavioral theories view somatic symptoms as learned behaviors reinforced by environmental factors (e.g., attention, avoidance of responsibilities). Treatment focuses on changing maladaptive behaviors through techniques such as relaxation training, behavioral activation, and exposure therapy. • Strengths: Empirically supported interventions, clear focus on observable behaviors, and structured treatment protocols. • Weaknesses: May overlook underlying emotional factors, especially those not directly observable; challenges in addressing complex and multifaceted symptoms. Cognitive Perspective: • Explanation: Cognitive theories highlight maladaptive thought patterns and cognitive distortions that contribute to the development and maintenance of somatic symptoms. Treatment involves identifying and challenging cognitive distortions, restructuring beliefs, and promoting adaptive coping strategies. • Strengths: Focuses on cognitive processes that influence symptom perception and maintenance; effective for addressing anxiety and catastrophic thinking. • Weaknesses: Less effective for somatic symptoms not primarily driven by cognitive factors; challenges in addressing somatic preoccupation without clear cognitive distortions. 390. Discuss the strengths and weakness of psychodynamic, behavioral, and cognitive methods for treating the somatic symptom and related disorders. Answer: Treatment Approaches for Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: Psychodynamic Methods: • Strengths: Offers a comprehensive exploration of underlying emotional issues; provides a therapeutic relationship that can be healing for individuals with deep-seated conflicts. • Weaknesses: Limited empirical validation; lengthy treatment duration; potential for therapist bias in interpretation. Behavioral Methods: • Strengths: Empirically supported; focuses on observable behaviors; structured and time-limited interventions. • Weaknesses: May overlook underlying emotional factors; challenges in addressing complex symptoms not solely behaviorally driven. Cognitive Methods: • Strengths: Targets cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs; effective for anxiety-related symptoms; structured and evidence-based interventions. • Weaknesses: Less effective for symptoms not primarily driven by cognitive factors; challenges in engaging patients with severe somatic preoccupation. 391. Authors of abnormal psychology textbooks invariably group dissociative and the somatic symptom and related disorders in one chapter. Explain your theory on how these types of disorders fit together, citing specific disorders to illustrate your points. Answer: Theory: Dissociative disorders and somatic symptom and related disorders share commonalities in terms of how individuals experience and express distress, often through physical symptoms or altered states of awareness. Illustration: • Conversion Disorder: Both categories include disorders like conversion disorder, where psychological distress manifests as physical symptoms (e.g., paralysis, blindness) without identifiable medical causes. • Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD): SSD involves distressing somatic symptoms that may or may not be linked to medical conditions, reflecting a heightened focus on physical health often driven by underlying psychological factors. • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): DID involves disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states, often accompanied by amnesia or other dissociative symptoms. This illustrates how severe psychological trauma can manifest in dissociative symptoms rather than somatic complaints. Integration: Both categories highlight the profound impact of psychological factors on physical health and identity, emphasizing the need for comprehensive biopsychosocial assessments and integrated treatment approaches. Understanding these disorders together can enhance diagnostic accuracy, treatment planning, and therapeutic outcomes by addressing the interconnected nature of psychological and somatic distress. In summary, these essay responses explore the nuanced aspects of culture-bound syndromes, theoretical perspectives on somatic symptom and related disorders, treatment approaches, and the integration of dissociative and somatic symptom disorders. Each topic underscores the complexity of understanding and treating these disorders within a biopsychosocial framework that considers cultural, psychological, and physiological factors. 392. Compare and contrast the different types of headaches, their causes, effects, and types of treatments for them. Answer: Types of Headaches: Causes, Effects, and Treatments Tension Headaches: • Causes: Often related to stress, muscle tension in the head and neck, poor posture, or anxiety. • Effects: Dull, aching pain typically on both sides of the head, tightness or pressure sensation. • Treatment: Over-the-counter pain relievers (e.g., acetaminophen, ibuprofen), stress management techniques, relaxation exercises, improving posture. Migraine Headaches: • Causes: Genetic predisposition, triggers like hormonal changes, certain foods, stress, sensory stimuli. • Effects: Intense throbbing pain, often on one side of the head, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, visual disturbances (aura in some cases). • Treatment: Medications for acute attacks (e.g., triptans), preventive medications (e.g., beta-blockers, antidepressants), lifestyle changes (e.g., identifying and avoiding triggers, stress reduction techniques). Cluster Headaches: • Causes: Exact cause unclear, possibly related to abnormalities in the hypothalamus. • Effects: Intense, piercing pain usually around one eye or temple, redness or tearing of the eye, nasal congestion. • Treatment: High-flow oxygen therapy, triptans, calcium channel blockers, preventive medications (e.g., verapamil), corticosteroids. Sinus Headaches: • Causes: Inflammation of the sinuses due to infection or allergies. • Effects: Pressure and pain in the forehead, cheeks, and around the eyes, worsened by bending forward or sudden movements. • Treatment: Treating underlying sinus infection or allergies with antibiotics (if bacterial), decongestants, nasal corticosteroids, saline nasal irrigation. Treatment Considerations: • Non-pharmacological Approaches: Stress reduction techniques (e.g., relaxation exercises, biofeedback), acupuncture, physical therapy (for tension headaches related to muscle tension). • Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, prescription medications (for migraines and cluster headaches), and preventive medications to reduce frequency and severity. 393. Provide a detailed description of either the Progressive Muscular Relaxation or Meditation technique. Answer: Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) Description: Progressive Muscle Relaxation is a technique that involves tensing and then relaxing specific muscle groups in a systematic manner to promote relaxation and reduce stress. It was developed by Edmund Jacobson in the 1920s. Technique: 1. Preparation: Find a quiet and comfortable environment. Sit or lie down in a relaxed position. 2. Progressive Muscle Tensing: Start with a specific muscle group (e.g., hands, arms, shoulders) and tense the muscles for about 5-10 seconds. 3. Relaxation: Release the tension suddenly and completely, focusing on the sensation of relaxation for about 15-20 seconds. 4. Progression: Move systematically through different muscle groups, from feet to head, repeating the tense-relax cycle. 5. Breathing: Throughout the exercise, focus on slow, deep breathing to enhance relaxation. Benefits: • Reduces muscle tension and physical stress. • Promotes overall relaxation and a sense of calm. • Helps alleviate symptoms of anxiety and insomnia. • Can be practiced independently or guided by a trained therapist. 394. Discuss the factors that can make a person more prone to cardiovascular disease and the steps that can be used to moderate these factors. Answer: Factors Contributing to Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Moderation Strategies Contributing Factors: • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Elevated blood pressure increases strain on the heart and blood vessels. • High Cholesterol: Excess cholesterol can lead to plaque buildup in arteries (atherosclerosis), increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. • Smoking: Tobacco use damages blood vessels and increases the risk of atherosclerosis. • Diabetes: Poorly managed diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. • Obesity: Excess weight contributes to high blood pressure, diabetes, and unhealthy cholesterol levels. Moderation Strategies: • Healthy Diet: Emphasize fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and limit saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. • Regular Exercise: Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week. • Smoking Cessation: Quit smoking or avoid tobacco use altogether. • Blood Pressure Control: Monitor blood pressure regularly and manage hypertension through lifestyle changes and medication if necessary. • Cholesterol Management: Monitor cholesterol levels and manage with diet, exercise, and medication as prescribed. • Diabetes Management: Control blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medication under medical supervision. • Weight Management: Maintain a healthy weight through balanced diet and regular physical activity. 395. Describe the Type A Personality and its relationship to health. Answer: Type A Personality and its Relationship to Health Description: Type A personality is characterized by competitiveness, time urgency, hostility, and a strong desire for achievement. It was originally identified by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman in relation to coronary heart disease. Relationship to Health: • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD): Early research suggested that Type A individuals, due to their competitive and high-stress nature, were at higher risk for coronary heart disease. • Behavioral Patterns: Type A individuals may engage in behaviors that increase cardiovascular risk, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, and inadequate stress management. • Psychophysiological Response: Chronic stress and hostility associated with Type A behavior can lead to physiological changes like increased blood pressure, heart rate variability, and altered immune function, potentially contributing to cardiovascular disease. Criticism and Further Understanding: • Cultural and Gender Variations: Type A behavior may manifest differently across cultures and genders, influencing its impact on health outcomes. • Modification: Individuals can modify Type A behaviors through stress management techniques, relaxation exercises, and adopting healthier lifestyle habits. • Comprehensive Approach: Recognizing the multidimensional nature of health risks, interventions should address both behavioral and physiological factors to mitigate cardiovascular risks associated with Type A behavior. In summary, these essay responses provide comprehensive insights into different types of headaches, their causes, effects, and treatments; the techniques of Progressive Muscle Relaxation; factors contributing to cardiovascular disease and moderation strategies; and the characteristics and health implications of Type A personality. Each topic emphasizes the importance of understanding individual variability and adopting tailored approaches to promote physical and psychological well-being. 396. Explain what asthma is, and discuss its causes, prevalence, and treatments. Answer: What is Asthma: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways characterized by episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. These symptoms occur due to narrowing and swelling of the airways, which can be triggered by various factors. Causes: • Genetic Factors: Asthma tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition. • Environmental Factors: Exposure to allergens (e.g., pollen, pet dander), irritants (e.g., smoke, pollution), respiratory infections, and cold air can trigger asthma symptoms. • Hygiene Hypothesis: Early childhood exposure to certain infections and allergens may influence immune system development and asthma risk. Prevalence: • Asthma affects people of all ages, but symptoms often begin during childhood. • Globally, approximately 300 million people are affected by asthma. • Prevalence varies by region and tends to be higher in urban areas with greater exposure to environmental pollutants. Treatments: • Medications: • Quick-relief medications (Short-acting bronchodilators): Used during asthma attacks to quickly relax the muscles around the airways and improve breathing (e.g., albuterol). • Long-term control medications: Reduce airway inflammation and prevent asthma symptoms (e.g., inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, long-acting bronchodilators). • Lifestyle and Home Remedies: • Identifying and avoiding asthma triggers (e.g., allergens, irritants). • Using a peak flow meter to monitor lung function. • Developing an asthma action plan with a healthcare provider to manage symptoms effectively. • Allergy Shots (Immunotherapy): For individuals with allergic asthma, allergen immunotherapy may help reduce sensitivity to triggers over time. 397. What is known about the role of psychological factors in the cause, prevention, and treatment of cancer? Answer: Psychological Factors in Cancer: Cause, Prevention, and Treatment Cause: • Stress and Immune Function: Chronic stress may weaken the immune system, potentially affecting cancer progression. • Health Behavior: Psychological factors influence health behaviors such as smoking, diet, and physical activity, which are linked to cancer risk. • Quality of Life: Psychological factors like depression and anxiety can impact quality of life and treatment adherence among cancer patients. Prevention: • Stress Management: Techniques such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), relaxation exercises, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help manage stress and potentially improve immune function. • Health Behavior Change: Counseling and motivational interviewing can promote healthy behaviors that reduce cancer risk, such as smoking cessation and regular exercise. • Screening and Early Detection: Psychological interventions can support adherence to cancer screening guidelines, leading to early detection and treatment. Treatment: • Psychotherapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive therapy, and group therapy can help cancer patients cope with emotional distress, anxiety, and depression. • Mind-Body Interventions: Techniques like yoga, meditation, and guided imagery may improve quality of life, reduce treatment-related symptoms, and enhance overall well-being. • Palliative Care: Integrating psychological support into palliative care can address pain management, emotional distress, and end-of-life issues for cancer patients and their families. 398. Explain why AIDS should be included in a discussion of significant psychological factors in physical illness, and how psychological interventions can be useful to people with HIV/AIDS. Answer: AIDS and Psychological Factors in Physical Illness: Role and Interventions Inclusion of AIDS in Psychological Factors: • Stigma and Discrimination: People living with HIV/AIDS often face stigma, which can lead to psychological distress, isolation, and poor mental health outcomes. • Mental Health Comorbidities: Depression, anxiety, and substance abuse are common among individuals with HIV/AIDS, impacting treatment adherence and overall health outcomes. • Coping and Adjustment: Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS requires significant psychological adjustment, coping with uncertainty about the future, and managing complex treatment regimens. Usefulness of Psychological Interventions: • Supportive Counseling: Provides emotional support, addresses stigma-related concerns, and facilitates adjustment to living with HIV/AIDS. • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Helps manage anxiety, depression, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). • Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Mindfulness meditation and stress reduction techniques can enhance emotional well-being and coping skills. • Peer Support Groups: Offer social support, reduce isolation, and provide practical advice from others living with HIV/AIDS. • Health Behavior Change: Psychological interventions can promote healthy behaviors such as safer sex practices, adherence to medication, and regular medical follow-ups. Conclusion: These essay responses provide an overview of asthma, including its causes, prevalence, and treatments; the role of psychological factors in cancer concerning cause, prevention, and treatment; and the significance of AIDS in discussions of psychological factors in physical illness, alongside effective psychological interventions. Each topic underscores the interconnectedness of physical health and psychological well-being, emphasizing the importance of integrated approaches to healthcare that address both aspects comprehensively. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene 9780205965014, 9780135821688, 9780134458311, 9780205961719, 9780130052162

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