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13. Abnormal Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Donna Williams, an autistic woman, was taken to a doctor at the age of three because her parents were concerned that she ______. A. was malnourished B. would not play with them C. lacked interest in other children D. had too many temper tantrums Answer: A 2. Many disorders with children are first identified __________. A. during a yearly check with the child’s pediatrician B. by relatives of the child C. when the child enters school D. when the child is found to have trouble making friends Answer: C 3. Many children are misdiagnosed when clinicians ________________. A. fail to take developmental expectations into account B. fail to take the child’s economic background into account C. limit information-gathering about the child to the parents D. do not consider the impact of the child’s school on how the child behaves Answer: A 4. ______ is a new diagnostic classification in the DSM-5. A. Neurodevelopment disorders B. Autism C. Separation anxiety disorder D. Major depressive disorder Answer: A 5. ______ is classified as a neurodevelopment disorder in the DSM-5. A. Enuresis B. Encopresis C. Separation anxiety disorder D. Autism spectrum disorder Answer: D 6. ______ are classified as neurodevelopment disorders in the DSM-5. A. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and pica B. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder C. Pica and separation anxiety disorder D. Enuresis and encopresis Answer: B 7. In a research study comparing American and Thai parents’ attitudes to children’s “overcontrol” and “undercontrol,” the Thai parents rated ______ as compared to the American parents. A. overcontrol as a problem but not undercontrol B. undercontrol as a problem but not overcontrol C. both sets of problems as less serious D. both sets of problems as more serious Answer: C 8. Play therapy, in which a child enacts family conflicts through play activities, such as play-acting with dolls or puppets, was developed by ______. A. psychodynamic therapists B. behavioral therapists C. humanistic therapists D. cognitive therapists Answer: A 9. Which of the following is true of psychotherapy with children? A. It is similar in most important aspects to therapy with adults. B. If treated in an inviting, nonthreatening manner, most children have the ability to sit through a therapy session. C. Children may not have the verbal skills to express their feelings through speech. D. Therapy methods must be focus on what the child wants to talk about along with rewards for participating in the session. Answer: C 10. One in ______ children suffers from a mental disorder severe enough to impair personal development. A. five B. ten C. fifteen D. twenty Answer: B 11. The most commonly diagnosed psychological problem(s) in children age 6 to 17 ______. A. are learning disabilities B. is conduct disorder C. is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder D. is major depression Answer: A 12. A recent telephone survey found that ______ percent of girls from 12 to 17 reported that they had suffered from major depression in the preceding six months. A. 4 B. 14 C. 24 D. 34 Answer: B 13. A recent telephone survey of American youth aged 12 to17 found that girls were ______ as likely as boys to suffer from major depression in the 6 months preceding the survey. A. half B. just C. twice D. five times Answer: C 14. The majority of children with mental health disorders ______. A. are referred to mental health professionals by their teachers B. are referred to mental health professionals by their pediatricians C. fail to obtain the treatment that they need D. have separation anxiety disorder Answer: C 15. Which childhood behavior problem is least likely to result in treatment? A. depression B. stealing C. setting fires D. fighting Answer: A 16. Which of the following statements is true? A. Girls are at greater risk for developing Gender Identity Disorder. B. Girls are at greater risk for developing many childhood problems, ranging from autism o hyperactivity to elimination disorders. C. In childhood, problems of anxiety and depression affect girls more often than boys. D. In adolescence, problems of anxiety and depression affect girls more often than boys. Answer: D 17. In childhood, boys are at ______ risk than girls for developing problems of anxiety and depression. A. less B. greater C. equal D. unknown Answer: B 18. Boys are more likely than girls to develop which of the following disorders? A. anorexia nervosa B. hysteria C. bulimia nervosa D. elimination problems Answer: D 19. Anxiety and mood disorders become more common among females than males for the first time during ______. A. childhood B. adolescence C. young adulthood D. middle adulthood Answer: B 20. ______ children have problems in forming healthy peer relationships and developing empathy and a sense of conscience. A. Overprotected B. Dyslexic C. Pushed and overly scheduled D. Physically abused Answer: D 21. Walter is a 13-year-old boy who tortures animals, picks fights with smaller boys, underachieves in school, and talks about committing suicide. His behavior problems suggest that he may have been ______. A. adopted B. physically abused or neglected C. a victim of fragile X syndrome D. brain damaged either before or during birth Answer: B 22. Each year, ______ children in the United States are abused or neglected. A. 550,000 B. 1.5 million C. 5.5 million D. 10.5 million Answer: B 23. __________ is defined as a set of behaviors representing persistent deficits in communication and social interactions and restricted or fixated interests and repetitive behaviors. A. A learning disorder B. Disruptive behavior disorder C. Autism spectrum disorder D. Communication disorder Answer: C 24. Autism is a ______ condition. A. mild, short-term B. severe, short-term C. mild, lifelong D. severe, lifelong Answer: D 25. The term "autism" derives from the Greek word meaning ______. A. self B. lost C. inward D. alone Answer: A 26. Autism was first used to describe a characteristic of ______. A. what we now refer to as antisocial personality disorder B. social withdrawal, attributable to depression C. schizophrenic thinking D. the manic phase of bipolar disorder Answer: C 27. The term “autism” was introduced by ______. A. Carl Jung B. Emil Kraeplin C. Ivor Lovaas D. Eugen Bleuler Answer: D 28. In 1943, the phrase “early infantile autism” was first applied to a group of disturbed children by ______. A. Ivar Lovaas B. Leo Kanner C. Fred Volkmar D. Eugen Bleuler Answer: B 29. Autistic thinking is the tendency to ______. A. engage in persistently obsessive thought patterns B. see oneself as the center of the universe C. see oneself as being "swallowed up" by the universe D. engage in abstract thinking patterns that no one else can understand Answer: B 30. Children with autism seem to ______ input from the outside world. A. shut out any B. under-respond to all C. distort all D. focus only on Answer: A 31. In the previous version of the DSM, ___________ were used to describe distinct disorders within the autism spectrum. A. Asperger’s disorder and childhood disintegrative disorder B. Asperger’s disorder and Tourette’s syndrome C. Tourette’s syndrome and Rett’s disorder D. childhood disintegrative disorder and Tourette’s syndrome Answer: A 32. Charlie is an eight-year-old who has not developed friends or relationships, is obsessed with dinosaurs, displays repetitive behaviors, but has normal speech abilities. Charlie is probably exhibiting signs of ______. A. Asperger’s disorder B. Rett’s disorder C. Wilson’s disorder D. Tourette’s syndrome Answer: A 33. Marty is in middle school. He is an intelligent boy with good language skills. He is fascinated with the local train schedule and likes to make sure that the train arrives and leaves on time every day. Marty does not like to play with other children and he has difficulty making eye contact with anyone. Marty has diagnostic features of ______. A. Rett’s disorder B. childhood disintegrative disorder C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder D. Asperger’s disorder Answer: D 34. An autism spectrum disorder characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behavior but without the significant language or cognitive delays associated with autism is ______. A. Rett’s disorder B. intellectual developmental disorder C. Asperger’s disorder D. childhood disintegrative disorder Answer: C 35. A pervasive developmental disorder that involves the loss of previously acquired skills and abnormal functioning following a period of normal development during the first two years of life is ______. A. Rett’s disorder B. Asperger’s disorder C. childhood disintegrative disorder D. autism Answer: C 36. Pat is two and a half years old. Although he has been developing normally, he is beginning to lose control of his bladder and bowels. Upon examination, his pediatrician finds no medical causes. By his third birthday, Pat’s understanding of language begins to deteriorate and his social skills are becoming impaired. Pat has features of ______. A. childhood disintegrative disorder B. Rett’s disorder C. autism D. Asperger’s disorder Answer: A 37. Childhood disintegrative disorder is a ______ condition and occurs more commonly among ______. A. common, males B. common, females C. rare, males D. rare, females Answer: C 38. About 1 in ______ children in the United States suffer from an autism spectrum disorder. A. 15 B. 50 C. 110 D. 300 Answer: B 39. In 2013, researchers estimated that __________ percent of children in the United States have an autism spectrum disorder. A. 1 B. 2 C. 5 D. 10 Answer: B 40. The number of reported cases of autism spectrum disorders has ______ in the past twenty years and _________ since 2007. A. increased slightly; increased dramatically B. increased slightly; decreased slightly C. decreased slightly; increased slightly D. increased dramatically; increased even more dramatically Answer: A 41. The increase in the number of children in the United States diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder may be due to a(n)__________. A. increase in the numbers of vaccinations given B. increase in the amount of food dyes and food additives C. decrease in the numbers of cases of Asperger’s disorder and other milder forms of autism spectrum disorder D. increase in the numbers of cases of Asperger’s disorder and other milder forms of autism spectrum disorder Answer: D 42. Some parents of children with _________ worry that their children may not meet the DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder and thus not receive treatment services or reimbursement for these services. A. Rett’s Disorder B. Tourette’s syndrome C. Asperger’s disorder D. autism Answer: C 43. Investigators have linked an increased risk of both autism and schizophrenia in children with __________. A. older fathers B. older mothers C. younger fathers D. younger mothers Answer: A 44. Scientists have ______ between autism and childhood vaccines. A. failed to find any association B. found only minor correlations C. found a moderate connection D. found a very strong link Answer: A 45. Autism occurs ______ in boys as compared to girls. A. equally B. two-thirds as much C. twice as much D. nearly five times as much Answer: D 46. The clinical features of autism generally become evident between ______ of age. A. 5 and 10 months B. 12 and 18 months C. 18 and 30 months D. 30 and 36 months Answer: C 47. Autism is usually not accurately diagnosed until age ______. A. two B. four C. six D. eight Answer: C 48. Which factor would result in a poorer prognosis for autistic children? A. delay in diagnosis B. an autistic sibling C. urban residence D. restricted diet Answer: A 49. Children who are eventually diagnosed with autism are often described by their parents as having been ______ babies early in infancy. A. demanding B. active C. passive D. good Answer: D 50. The most poignant feature of autism is the child's ______. A. ritualistic behavior B. communication difficulties C. panic episodes D. utter aloneness Answer: D 51. Which of the following is true of children with autism? A. They maintain good eye contact but typically are not drawn to social exchanges. B. As they develop, they begin to reject affectionate contacts such as hugging, kissing, and cuddling with their parents. C. They are often described by their parents as having been difficult babies during early infancy. D. They have distinctive, unusual facial features and have an "intelligent look" about them. Answer: B 52. Language and communication problems displayed by children with autism include which of the following? A. throat clearing and a raspy voice B. speaking in a monotone C. pronoun reversals D. being excessively gregarious Answer: C 53. Children with autism are bound by ______. A. separation anxiety B. psychotic episodes C. ritual D. fantasy playmates Answer: C 54. Preservation of sameness is an important feature of ______. A. autism B. separation anxiety disorder C. ADHD D. Tourette’s syndrome Answer: A 55. Which of the following is true? A. Autistic children have an unusually well-developed and differentiated self-concept. B. Most autistic children show no evidence of intellectual developmental disorder. C. Autistic children tend to be overly friendly and trusting of others. D. Because of difficulties in trying to test them, we can only estimate the intellectual ability of most autistic children. Answer: D 56. Peter is unresponsive to most social stimuli. He rarely smiles, talks, or makes eye contact with others. He seems indifferent to everyone, including his parents. He engages in solitary, ritualistic behaviors such as constantly flapping his hands. He sometimes goes into sudden antrums or panics. He also insists on the same familiar food each day. Peter's disorder is most likely ______. A. autism B. childhood schizophrenia C. intellectual developmental disorder D. avoidant disorder Answer: A 57. Billy is two years old and rarely speaks or uses gestures. He does not like to be cuddled by his parents nor anyone else for that matter. He does not play with his siblings, but prefers to play alone. His play is repetitious and without emotional expression or imagination. Billy meets the criteria for ______. A. Rett’s disorder B. autism C. Asperger’s disorder D. childhood disintegrative disorder Answer: B 58. A child who repeatedly bangs his or her head, refuses to interact socially, avoids eye contact, and has impaired communication has characteristics of ______. A. Rett’s disorder B. childhood disintegrative disorder C. Asperger’s disorder D. autism Answer: D 59. Early views on autism blamed ______ parents for causing the disorder. A. overly attached and protective B. emotionally unstable and hysterical C. overly demanding and perfectionistic D. cold and detached Answer: D 60. Research has ______ supported the notion that autism in children is caused by cold and detached parents. A. not B. partly C. mostly D. completely Answer: A 61. The researcher known for developing a cognitive-learning perspective on autism is ______. A. Bandura B. Kleckley C. Lovaas D. Lazarus Answer: C 62. Emmy takes her autistic child to a psychiatrist for an evaluation. The psychiatrist suggests that he child's autism developed as a result of perceptual deficits. According to this argument, rather than associating Emmy with food, warmth, and the clothing she provides, her child focuses exclusively on the food and clothing, and is thus unable to develop normal emotional bonds with Emmy. This psychiatrist is most likely a ______. A. psychodynamic theorist B. humanistic theorist C. cognitive-learning theorist D. biological theorist Answer: C 63. Autistic children often have difficulties integrating information from __________. A. only the auditory sense B. their various memories of childhood C. new learning with old learning D. his or her various senses Answer: D 64. Currently, scientists' suspicions are focused on ______ as the primary cause of autism. A. underlying biological abnormalities B. dysfunctional family relationships C. impoverished learning environments in early childhood D. dietary abnormalities in infancy Answer: A 65. Which one of the following statements is true? A. Children with autism have no known perceptual deficits. B. Children with autism have difficulty engaging in fine motor skills tasks. C. Children with autism vary at times from being unduly sensitive to external situation to being almost completely insensitive to it D. Children with autism have very small brain ventricles. Answer: C 66. Which of the following is true? A. The scans of brains of autistic children show an unusually large prefrontal cortex. B. Researchers suspect that multiple genetic factors are involved in the development of autism. C. Autism may, in part, be related to exposure to vaccines. D. Experts are focusing on a single malfunctioning gene variant as the primary cause of most autism spectrum disorders. Answer: B 67. Which of the following statements is true regarding the treatment of autism? A. Autism is a curable disorder if it is diagnosed by the age of two. B. Cognitive therapy has the highest rate of efficacy for treating autism. C. Behavioral therapy has the highest rate of efficacy for treating autism. D. Biological approaches have the highest rate of efficacy for treating autism. Answer: C 68. Which of the following statements is true regarding the treatment of autism? A. Intensive behavioral approaches are the least successful in treating autism. B. Most autistic people are eventually able to live independently. C. Ivar Lovaas has designed the only approach to curing autism. D. Antipsychotic drugs have been helpful in reducing social withdrawal and self-injurious behavior. Answer: D 69. Which of the following is true of behavioral approaches to treating children with autism? A. They suggest that autism is caused by faulty learning. B. They suggest that isolation and B vitamin therapy may be helpful in the treatment of autistic behavior. C. They sometimes involve the use of ignoring the autistic child as a method to eliminate self-injurious behaviors. D. They use positive reinforcement to teach and maintain new behaviors. Answer: D 70. Lovaas demonstrated significantly improve in autistic children using ______. A. group behavior modification B. intense individual behavioral therapy C. cognitive restructuring D. modeling Answer: B 71. The UCLA psychologist who developed a successful intensive behavioral treatment program for autistic children was ______. A. Leo Kanner B. Ivor Lovaas C. Eugen Bleuler D. Milton Lambert Answer: B 72. Many aspects of autistic behavior, such as tantrums and self-injurious behavior, can be diminished through the administration of drugs used to treat ______. A. narcotics addiction B. anxiety C. schizophrenia D. epileptic seizures Answer: C 73. ______ is a disorder formally called mental retardation. A. Developmental regressive disorders B. Developmental learning disorders C. Intellectual regressive disorder D. Intellectual developmental disorder Answer: D 74. A disorder characterized by a generalized delay or impairment in the development of intellectual and adaptive abilities is ______. A. autism B. childhood schizophrenia C. intellectual developmental disorder D. Asperger’s disorder Answer: C 75. About ______ percent of the general population is affected by intellectual developmental disorder. A. 1 B. 5 C. 10 D. 15 Answer: A 76. Which of the following is one of the three diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5 which must be met for a person to be labelled intellectual developmental disorder? A. The person must receive an IQ score of 70 or below. B. The person must show concurrent evidence of impaired functioning in adaptive behavior. C. The person must be categorized as a level 10 or a level 12 on the General Deterioration Scale. D. The person must show evidence of onset of the disorder after the age of 18. Answer: B 77. Most children with intellectual developmental disorder fall in the ______ range. A. mild B. moderate C. severe D. profound Answer: A 78. About ______ percent of children with intellectual developmental disorder fall in the mild range. A. 55 B. 65 C. 75 D. 85 Answer: D 79. Darcy has intellectual developmental disorder. Most people, however, don't notice it, although she walks, talks, and feeds herself more slowly than most children. She needs occasional guidance when under unusual social or economic stress, but normally she can function on her own. She is capable of reading at a 6th grade level. Her IQ is 67. The severity of her intellectual developmental disorder is best described as ______. A. mild B. moderate C. severe D. profound Answer: A 80. Paige has intellectual developmental disorder. She experienced noticeable delays in her motor development, especially speech, but she can learn simple communication, elementary health and safety habits, and simple manual skills. She can perform simple tasks in sheltered conditions and loves to participate in simple recreational activities. However, she is incapable of self- maintenance. Her IQ is 39 and she is unable to progress in functional reading and arithmetic. The severity of her intellectual developmental disorder is best described as ______. A. mild B. moderate C. severe D. profound Answer: B 81. Bonnie has intellectual developmental disorder. She has few communication skills, although she understands and responds to some speech. She can conform to daily routines and repetitive activities, and profit from systematic habit training, but needs continuing direction and supervision in a protective environment. She experienced marked delay in motor development and has an IQ of 34. The severity of her intellectual developmental disorder is best described as ______. A. mild B. moderate C. severe D. profound Answer: C 82. Patsy has intellectual developmental disorder. She has minimal capacity for functioning in sensorimotor areas and needs nursing care. She shows basic emotional responses and responds to skills training in the use of her legs, hands, and jaw. She walks and has primitive speech capabilities. She is incapable of self-maintenance and has an IQ of 14. The severity of her intellectual developmental disorder is best described as ______. A. mild B. moderate C. severe D. profound Answer: D 83. Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy can cause ______. A. Asperger’s Disorder B. intellectual developmental disorder C. Tourette’s syndrome D. ADHD Answer: B 84. Causes of intellectual developmental disorder cited in your text include which of the following? A. maternal use of B vitamins during pregnancy B. infectious diseases C. high parental expectations D. paternal use of antibiotics during the pregnancy Answer: B 85. A condition caused by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair and characterized by intellectual developmental disorder and various physical anomalies is ______. A. Down syndrome B. Klinefelter’s syndrome C. fragile X syndrome D. Turner’s syndrome Answer: A 86. Of the following, the most common chromosomal abnormality linked to intellectual developmental disorder is ______. A. Klinefelter's syndrome B. Turner's syndrome C. Down syndrome D. Reye’s syndrome Answer: C 87. The most frequently identified cause of intellectual developmental disorder is ______. A. fetal alcohol syndrome B. Down syndrome C. prenatal malnutrition D. fragile X syndrome Answer: B 88. Down syndrome is characterized by an extra chromosome on the ______ pair of chromosomes. A. 17th B. 19th C. 21st D. 23rd Answer: C 89. Down syndrome occurs in about 1 in ______ births. A. 200 B. 400 C. 600 D. 800 Answer: D 90. Down syndrome can often be traced to ________. A. a defect in the shape of the uterus B. a defect in the mother’s egg cell C. exposure to lead D. maternal depression Answer: B 91. Milton has a round face, a broad, flat nose, small, downward sloping folds of skin at the inside corners of his eyes, a protruding tongue, small, squarish hands, and unusually short arms and legs in relation to his body. He suffers from intellectual developmental disorder and from heart and respiratory problems. He most likely has ______. A. Klinefelter’s syndrome B. Phenylketonuria C. Down syndrome D. fragile X syndrome Answer: C 92. ______ children with Down syndrome have intellectual developmental disorder. A. Almost no B. A large minority of C. A slight majority of D. Nearly all Answer: D 93. Most people with Down syndrome tend to die ______. A. during childhood B. during adolescence C. in young adulthood D. in middle age Answer: D 94. The life expectancy of people with Down syndrome is approximately ______ years. A. 9 B. 29 C. 49 D. 69 Answer: C 95. Which of the following is true of children with Down syndrome? A. Most cannot learn to read or write. B. They typically are blind in addition to their intellectual deficit. C. They have an unusually good auditory memory. D. They have difficulty expressing their thoughts and needs clearly in speech. Answer: D 96. Klinefelter's syndrome is characterized by a(n) ______ chromosomal makeup. A. XO B. XX C. XXX D. XXY Answer: D 97. Klinefelter’s syndrome involves an extra ______. A. X sex chromosome in males B. X sex chromosome in females C. Y sex chromosome in males D. Y sex chromosome in females Answer: A 98. Klinefelter’s syndrome occurs ______. A. only in females B. only in males C. in equal proportions among males and females D. twice as frequently in females Answer: B 99. Which of the following is a physical symptoms associated with Klinefelter’s syndrome? A. a wide-based gait B. webbing between toes C. excessive muscular development D. low sperm count Answer: D 100. Jim never developed appropriate male secondary sexual characteristics. He is often teased by fellow male classmates for his enlarged breasts and his poor muscular coordination. He also has mild intellectual developmental disorder and is infertile. Jim is most likely suffering from ______. A. Klinefelter's syndrome B. Turner's syndrome C. phenylketonuria D. Tay-Sachs disease Answer: A 101. Turner's syndrome is characterized by an ______ chromosomal makeup. A. X B. XXY C. XXX D. XYY Answer: A 102. Turner’s syndrome involves a single ______. A. X sex chromosome in males B. X sex chromosome in females C. Y sex chromosome in males D. Y sex chromosome in females Answer: B 103. Turner’s syndrome occurs ______. A. only in females B. only in males C. in equal proportions among males and females D. twice as frequently in males Answer: A 104. Olga is shorter than average. She has mild intellectual developmental disorder with her greatest difficulties in math and science. Although her external genital development is normal, her ovaries are poorly developed and she is infertile. She is suffering from ______. A. Klinefelter's syndrome B. Turner's syndrome C. Fragile X syndrome D. Tay-Sachs disease Answer: B 105. The most common type of genetically inherited intellectual developmental disorder is ______. A. Klinefelter's syndrome B. Turner's syndrome C. fragile X syndrome D. Korsakoff’s syndrome Answer: C 106. The second most common form of intellectual developmental disorder is ______. A. Klinefelter's syndrome B. Turner's syndrome C. fragile X syndrome D. Down syndrome Answer: C 107. The most common form of intellectual developmental disorder is ______ and the second most common form is ______. A. Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome B. Down syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome C. fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome D. Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome Answer: D 108. Fragile X syndrome is caused by a(n) ______. A. extra chromosome B. mutated gene C. dominant gene D. recessive gene Answer: B 109. Fragile X syndrome is the cause of intellectual developmental disorder in one out of every ______ males. A. 100 to 200 B. 1,000 to 1,500 C. 500 to 2,000 D. 2,000 to 2,500 Answer: B 110. Fragile X syndrome is the cause of intellectual developmental disorder in one out of every ______ females. A. 500 to 1,000 B. 1,000 to 1,500 C. 1,500 to 2,000 D. 2,000 to 2,500 Answer: D 111. A genetic abnormality transmitted by a recessive gene that prevents an infant from metabolizing an amino acid found in many foods, resulting in intellectual developmental disorder and emotional disturbance, is ______. A. Klinefelter's syndrome B. Turner's syndrome C. phenylketonuria D. Tay-Sachs disease Answer: C 112. Phenylketonuria is found in 1 person in ______. A. 100-150 B. 1,000-1,500 C. 10,000-15,000 D. 100,000-150,000 Answer: C 113. Phenylketonuria is caused by ______. A. an extra chromosome B. a mutated gene C. a dominant gene D. a recessive gene Answer: D 114. Which of the following is true of PKU? A. PKU causes damage to the central nervous system. B. PKU is almost always fatal unless diagnosed immediately after birth. C. Most children grow out of PKU by adolescence. D. PKU is not apparent in a child’s urine or blood work until age four or five. Answer: A 115. A prenatal test that can detect Down syndrome is ______. A. micro genetic factorial analysis B. virtual hysteroscopy C. amniocentesis D. pregersostopy Answer: C 116. Amniocentesis is usually conducted about ______ weeks following conception. A. 4 to 5 B. 9 to 10 C. 14 to 15 D. 19 to 20 Answer: C 117. Which of the following diseases carries the risk of causing intellectual developmental disorder in an infant if the mother contracts the disease during pregnancy. A. otitis media B. endometriosis C. hay fever D. genital herpes Answer: D 118. Most children who contract ______ from their mothers do so by contact with the virus in the birth canal during delivery. A. AIDS B. rubella C. syphilis D. genital herpes Answer: D 119. Encephalitis and meningitis during infancy can cause ______. A. ADHD B. Tourette’s syndrome C. Asperger’s disorder D. intellectual developmental disorder Answer: D 120. A mild form of intellectual developmental disorder that is influenced by impoverishment of the home environment is known as ______. A. Klinefelter’s syndrome B. Down syndrome C. Turner’s syndrome D. cultural-familial retardation Answer: D 121. Most cases of intellectual developmental disorder fall in the ______ range and have ______ cause. A. mild, no apparent biological B. severe to profound, no apparent C. mild, a genetic D. severe to profound, a genetic Answer: A 122. Most cases of intellectual developmental disorder ______. A. have no apparent biological cause B. are due to genetic factors C. are due to chromosomal damage D. result from prenatal exposure to pathogens or toxins Answer: A 123. In cultural-familial retardation, the cause of the retardation is ______. A. prenatal drug use by the mother B. infection and high fever during infancy C. ingestion of environmental toxins D. not traceable to any biological source Answer: D 124. Which of the following is true of children with cultural-familial retardation? A. Their parents do not lack the necessary skills to provide the child with appropriate reading and communication skills. B. Their parents often are unable to spend quality time with them to provide the stimulation necessary for proper social and intellectual growth. C. Removing the child from the home and increasing protein in the child’s diet seem to be the only approaches that can treat the intellectual deficit. D. Even when provided with stimulating books and toys, these children fail to follow a path of normal intellectual development. Answer: B 125. Children most at risk for developing cultural-familial retardation are children ______. A. whose parents have intellectual developmental disorder B. born into poverty C. born into primitive cultures D. whose parents are divorced before the child reaches age 5 Answer: B 126. ______ is a program that has helped children at risk for cultural-familial retardation to function within the normal range of ability. A. Head Start B. Montessori preschool C. Precocity D. NAACP child focus Answer: A 127. Institutional placement is often based on ______. A. severity of the intellectual impairment B. fulfillment of basic necessities such as eating, and personal hygiene C. control of destructive or aggressive behavior D. physical disabilities like blindness or paralysis Answer: C 128. Which of the following is true of mainstreaming children with intellectual developmental disorder? A. Even children with mild retardation are overwhelmed by the demands of regular classes and usually withdraw from their classmates when mainstreamed. B. While some children with mild intellectual developmental disorder achieve better when mainstreamed, others may be overwhelmed and withdraw from their schoolmates. C. Children with both mild and moderate retardation achieve better when mainstreamed, however, those with severe and profound retardation do not. D. Even children with severe intellectual developmental disorder achieve better when mainstreamed when they are given proper guidance and supervision. Answer: B 129. Nationwide, the population of institutions for people with intellectual developmental disorder ______ from the 1970s to the 1990s. A. shrunk by nearly two-thirds B. remained relatively stable C. increased by nearly one-third D. increased by nearly two-thirds Answer: A 130. Children with intellectual developmental disorder have a _______ chance as other children of developing other psychological disorders such as depression or anxiety disorders. A. significantly lower B. somewhat lower C. higher D. comparable Answer: C 131. A deficiency in a specific learning ability in the context of normal intelligence that is not due to a general medical condition is a(n) ______. A. learning disorder B. savant disorder C. intellectual disorder D. attention-deficit disorder Answer: A 132. Nelson Rockefeller suffered from ______. A. savant syndrome B. dyslexia C. attention-deficit disorder D. aphasia Answer: B 133. Which U.S. vice president suffered from dyslexia? A. Dan Quayle B. Al Gore C. Dick Cheney D. Nelson Rockefeller Answer: D 134. The most common type of learning disorder is ______. A. mathematics disorder B. disorder of written expression C. dyslexia D. articulation disorder Answer: C 135. Which of the following countries/spoken languages have the highest rates of dyslexia? A. German and Russian speaking countries B. Spanish speaking countries C. Italian speaking countries D. English and French speaking countries Answer: D 136. Dyslexia refers to ______. A. a mathematics disorder B. an articulation disorder C. a disorder of written expression D. a reading disorder Answer: D 137. The most common type of learning disorder is ______. A. mathematics disorder B. disorder of written expression C. reading disorder D. articulation disorder Answer: C 138. Which of the following are types of learning disorders? A. physical expression disorder B. disorder of written expression C. articulation disorder D. attention-deficit disorder Answer: B 139. Which of the following is true of children with learning disorders? A. Learning disabilities are specific to childhood and resolve by adolescence. B. Children with learning disorders are often viewed more suitable for athletics than academics. C. Most children with learning disorders have low self-esteem. D. Children with learning disorders are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Answer: C 140. The DSM-5 no longer uses the term _________ to describe a learning disorder characterized by impaired reading ability. A. savant disorder B. dyslexia C. attention-deficit disorder D. amnesiac disorder Answer: B 141. Children with learning disorders are more likely than their peers to be diagnosed with _____. A. autism B. conduct disorder C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder D. oppositional defiant disorder Answer: C 142. Howard is in the third grade. He is deficient in arithmetic skills and in understanding basic mathematical concepts such as addition and subtraction. He constantly confuses mathematical symbols (+,-,=) and does not understand the multiplication tables. He is suffering from ______. A. mathematics disorder B. articulation disorder C. disorder of written expression D. reading disorder Answer: A 143. Paul has deficient writing skills. His writing is characterized by numerous errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and difficulty in composing sentences and paragraphs. Although he is only 9 years old, he is already far behind his classmates in his writing skills. He is suffering from ______. A. mathematics disorder B. articulation disorder C. disorder of written expression D. reading disorder Answer: C 144. Dyslexia affects ______ percent of school-age children in the United States. A. less than 1 B. about 4 C. about 10 D. over 16 Answer: B 145. Compared to girls, boys are ______ likely to be diagnosed with dyslexia. A. much less B. just as C. slightly more D. much more Answer: D 146. Which of the following statements is true of children with learning disorders? A. More girls are diagnosed with dyslexia. B. Girls tend to only experience mathematics disorder. C. Boys with dyslexia are more likely than girls to be disruptive in class. D. Girls are more likely to be referred for evaluation of dyslexia. Answer: C 147. Compared to girls, boys with dyslexia are ______ likely to be disruptive in class and are _______ likely to be referred for evaluation. A. less, less B. less, more C. more, less D. more, more Answer: D 148. Abe has poorly developed skills in recognizing words and comprehending written text. He reads laboriously and distorts, omits, and substitutes words when reading aloud. He also has rouble decoding letters, perceiving a "w" as an "m" or an "L" as a "J." He is only 8 years old and his reading skills are far behind those of his classmates. He is suffering from ______. A. mathematics disorder B. articulation disorder C. disorder of written expression D. reading disorder Answer: D 149. Dyslexia is usually apparent by the age of ______. A. four B. five C. six D. seven Answer: D 150. As compared to rates of dyslexia in English and French-speaking regions, rates of dyslexia are lower in ______-speaking regions. A. Portuguese B. German C. Italian D. Chinese Answer: C 151. Which of the following is true of children with learning disorders? A. Many children with learning disorders are good athletes. B. Many of them have problems processing sounds corresponding to particular letters. C. Few children with learning disorders have trouble distinguishing speech sounds. D. Many of them find that their disabilities improve or disappear as they mature into adolescence and adulthood. Answer: B 152. Children with dyslexia lack as much neural activity in the speech centres in the ______ of the brain. A. frontal precortex B. right temporal lobe C. left hemisphere D. occipital lobe Answer: C 153. Recently, scientists have speculated that dyslexia may take ______ general forms. A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 Answer: A 154. The form of dyslexia that involves defects in the neural circuitry of the brain that normal readers use to process speech sounds is the ______ form. A. pathogenic B. tertiary C. environmental D. genetic Answer: D 155. The form of dyslexia in which people’s neural circuitry is intact but they rely more on memory than on decoding strategies to understand written words is the ______ form. A. pathogenic B. tertiary C. environmental D. genetic Answer: C 156. The form of dyslexia that is associated with more persistent reading disability and is more prevalent in children from disadvantaged educational backgrounds is ______. A. pathogenic B. tertiary C. environmental D. genetic Answer: C 157. Which factor is associated with more persistent reading disability? A. reliance on decoding strategies to understand written words B. reliance on memory to understand written words C. right hemisphere defects in neural circuitry D. genetics Answer: B 158. Disorders that involve difficulty in understanding or using language are called ______ disorders. A. semantic B. learning C. phonetic D. communication Answer: D 159. Which of the following is a communication disorder? A. written expression disorder B. childhood onset reading disorder C. speech sound disorder D. language translation disorder Answer: C 160. Which of the following is a communication disorder? A. childhood onset fluency disorder B. dyslexia C. auditory delay disorder D. language translation disorder Answer: A 161. Guillermo has severe impairments in spoken language. He has had slow vocabulary development, he has difficulty recalling words, he makes errors in tense, and has problems producing sentences of appropriate length and complexity for his age. He also has some phonological and articulation problems which compound his speech difficulties. He is suffering from ______. A. language disorder B. dyslexia C. speech sound disorder D. childhood onset fluency disorder Answer: A 162. Gary has difficulty in both understanding and producing speech. He has difficulty in understanding certain types of words, such as words dealing with quantities or spatial characteristics, and he has trouble understanding sentences. His difficulties understanding language make it difficult for him to express himself appropriately. He is suffering from ______. A. dyslexia B. language disorder C. speech sound disorder D. childhood onset fluency disorder Answer: B 163. Alvin is blind and suffers from autism and intellectual developmental disorder. He can play extremely complicated musical pieces on the piano, however, after hearing them only once, even though he has no formal musical training. Alvin is best described as having ______. A. savant syndrome B. Wernicke's syndrome C. idiopathic autism D. Stockholm syndrome Answer: A 164. Fred is a human calendar. Although he has intellectual developmental disorder and cannot add two numbers correctly, when asked he can correctly calculate the day of the week for virtually any date named in the past or the future. Fred is best described as having _______. A. savant syndrome B. Wernicke's syndrome C. idiopathic autism D. Stockholm syndrome Answer: A 165. Males with savant syndrome outnumber females with the disorder by about ______ to 1. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 Answer: C 166. Although Anthony has no neurological impairment or defects in his speech mechanism, he mispronounces certain sounds—especially "ch," "f," "l," "sh," and "th." He often sounds as if he is uttering "baby talk." He is in therapy, which seems to be helping, and his doctors hope that his problems will be conquered within two years, when he will be eight years old. He is suffering from ______. A. language disorder B. mixed receptive/ language disorder C. speech sound disorder D. childhood onset fluency disorder Answer: C 167. Which of the following is true of speech sound disorder? A. Milder cases usually resolve themselves in childhood. B. Milder cases usually resolve themselves, but not until late adolescence or early adulthood. C. Even milder cases will not resolve themselves without extensive training and skills development exercises. D. Even milder cases are almost never completely "cured," even with extensive training and skills development exercises. Answer: A 168. Research on the brain functioning in dyslexic children suggested that after just _____ hours of intensive remedial instruction, multiple brain regions show an increase in neural activity to the point where they are similar to control children. A. 10 B. 50 C. 100 D. 1000 Answer: C 169. Childhood onset fluency disorder usually begins between ______ years of age. A. 2 and 7 B. 7 and 12 C. 12 and 17 D. 17 and 22 Answer: A 170. Larry, age 5, suffers from an inability to speak fluently with appropriate timing of speech sounds. His speech is characterized by repetition of certain sounds and syllables, prolongation of certain sounds, and displaying excess tension when emitting words. He is suffering from ______. A. language disorder B. mixed receptive/ language disorder C. speech sound disorder D. childhood onset fluency disorder Answer: D 171. Which of the following is true of childhood onset fluency disorder? A. The majority of cases resolve during adolescence. B. The majority of cases resolve, but not until adulthood. C. The majority of cases can only be cured with extensive speech rehabilitation training. D. The majority of cases are never "cured." Answer: A 172. Males are ______ as likely as females to stutter. A. one-third B. just C. three times D. nine times Answer: C 173. About ______ percent of those who stutter overcome the problem without treatment. A. 20 B. 40 C. 60 D. 80 Answer: D 174. Which of the following is true of those who stutter? A. Children who stutter tend to be more even-tempered than nonstutterers. B. Childhood onset fluency disorder affects most children before puberty to some degree. C. Few stutterers also have problems with social anxiety. D. Brain scans of stutterers reveal abnormal patterns of neural activity in certain regions of the brain. Answer: D 175. Children who have continuing and profound difficulties communicating verbally and nonverbally with other people in their natural contexts would be diagnosed as having _____________. A. childhood onset fluency disorder B. social (pragmatic) communication disorder C. speech sound disorder D. language disorder Answer: B 176. A behavior disorder characterized by impulsivity, excessive motor activity, and inability to focus one’s attention is known as ______. A. conduct disorder B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C. oppositional defiant disorder D. sensorimotor disorder Answer: B 177. Which of the following is one of the three major problems involved in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder? A. lethargy B. impulsivity C. intentionally aggressive behavior D. compulsive rituals Answer: B 178. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder occurs in about ______ percent of children and adolescents. A. 1 to 2 B. 3 to 7 C. 7 to 9 D. 11 to 15 Answer: C 179. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is usually first diagnosed in ______. A. infancy B. preschool C. elementary school D. middle school Answer: C 180. Todd is six years old. His behavior is characterized by inattention, bullying, temper tantrums, stubbornness, and fidgeting. He is easily distracted, fails to finish anything he starts, often acts impulsively, and requires constant supervision. He is constantly on the go, running and climbing on things, and he cannot wait his turn in games or lines. He is suffering from ______ disorder. A. obsessive-compulsive B. oppositional defiant C. conduct D. attention-deficit/hyperactivity Answer: D 181. Which of the following children is most likely to be diagnosed with ADHD? A. an African American boy B. a Hispanic American girl C. a Euro-American boy D. an African American girl Answer: C 182. Boys with ADHD tend to ______________________. A. lack empathy, or awareness of other people’s feelings B. be more emotionally affected by the sadness of others C. tend to have a strength in working memory D. are typically goal-directed in their hyperactivity Answer: A 183. To be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the disorder must begin by age ______. A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 12 Answer: D 184. Which of the following is true? A. Children with ADHD exhibit no problems with working memory. B. Normally overactive children are goal-directed and can exert voluntary control over their behavior, whereas children with ADHD cannot exert voluntary control over their behaviors. C. Black and Hispanic children are more likely to receive the diagnosis than Euro-American children. D. There is really no qualitative difference between highly active “normal” children and highly active children labelled with ADHD. Answer: B 185. Symptoms of ADHD tend to ______. A. disappear by late adolescence and early adulthood B. decline with age, but often persist in milder form into adulthood C. remain about the same well into adulthood and middle age D. increase in severity until young adulthood, when they finally begin to subside Answer: B 186. ______ percent of U.S. adults are affected with ADHD at some point in their lives. A. Less than 1 B. About 4 to 5 C. About 10 to 12 D. Over 16 Answer: B 187. Adult forms of ADHD primarily involve ______. A. hyperactivity and distractibility, but not inattention B. hyperactivity and inattention, but not distractibility C. inattention and distractibility, but not hyperactivity D. hyperactivity, distractibility, and inattention Answer: C 188. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been linked to the development of _______ in children. A. intellectual developmental disorder B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C. savant syndrome D. autism Answer: B 189. Identify the area of the brain responsible for inhibiting impulsive behavior and maintaining self-control. A. reticular formation B. prefrontal cortex C. hippocampus D. left hemisphere Answer: B 190. The most common treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is ______. A. psychodynamic B. behavioral C. surgical D. pharmacological Answer: D 191. The drugs of choice in treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are ______. A. stimulants B. opiates C. mild tranquilizers D. major tranquilizers Answer: A 192. Stimulant drugs used to treat ADHD activate the ______ of the brain to increase control over impulsive acting out behavior. A. limbic system B. brain stem region C. prefrontal cortex D. cingulate gyrus Answer: C 193. Stimulants used in treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have been shown to do which of the following? A. increase academic achievement B. increase positive mood C. decrease impulsivity D. improve ability to make friends Answer: C 194. Which of the following can be a short-term side effect of using stimulant medications to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ? A. accelerated growth B. weight gain C. insomnia D. memory loss Answer: C 195. ______ is the first nonstimulant medication to be approved for the treatment of ADHD. A. Strattera B. Cylert C. Zoloft D. Xanax Answer: A 196. A psychological disorder in childhood and adolescence characterized by disruptive, antisocial behavior is known as ______. A. attention-deficit disorder B. oppositional defiant disorder C. conduct disorder D. dyslexia Answer: C 197. Children with ______ are literally incapable of controlling their behavior and children with ______ purposefully violate social norms and the rights of others. A. conduct disorder, ADHD B. ADHD, conduct disorder C. ADHD, ADHD D. conduct disorder, conduct disorder Answer: B 198. Children with ______ are intentionally aggressive and children with ______ throw temper tantrums. A. conduct disorder, ADHD B. ADHD, conduct disorder C. ADHD, ADHD D. conduct disorder, conduct disorder Answer: A 199. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Children with ADHD intentionally throw temper tantrums while children with a conduct disorder cannot help themselves from being aggressive. B. Children with a conduct disorder throw temper tantrums while children with ADHD cannot help themselves from being aggressive and cruel toward others. C. Children with ADHD seem incapable of controlling their behaviors while children with a conduct disorder intentionally violate the rights of others. D. Children with a conduct disorder seem incapable of controlling their behavior while children with ADHD intentionally violate the rights of others. Answer: C 200. Harry is nine years old. He cheats in school, steals from his neighbours and classmates, and destroys his classmates' prized possessions when he cannot steal them. He is already using drugs and lies about his drug use and other antisocial activities. He has run away from home twice and he tried to burn down his family's house the first time he was returned home after running away. He has even been caught trying to mutilate the family cat. He appears to feel no guilt or remorse over his behavior. He is suffering from ______ disorder. A. antisocial personality B. oppositional defiant C. conduct D. attention-deficit hyperactivity Answer: C 201. Conduct disorder affects ______ percent of children overall. A. less than 1 B. about 9.5 C. about 18.5 D. about 27.5 Answer: B 202. Boys with conduct disorder are more likely than girls with conduct disorder to engage in which of the following? A. prostitution B. stealing C. running away D. crying Answer: C 203. Girls with conduct disorder are more likely than boys with conduct disorder to engage in which of the following? A. stealing B. vandalism C. truancy D. fighting Answer: C 204. The average age of onset for conduct disorder is about ______ years. A. 3.6 B. 7.6 C. 11.6 D. 15.6 Answer: C 205. A psychological disorder in childhood and adolescence characterized by excessive tendencies to refuse requests from parents and others is known as a(n) ______ disorder. A. attention-deficit hyperactivity B. childhood disintegrative C. conduct D. oppositional defiant Answer: D 206. Oppositional defiant disorder may be a precursor of ______ disorder. A. separation anxiety B. obsessive-compulsive C. conduct D. attention-deficit hyperactivity Answer: C 207. Oppositional defiant disorder typically begins before age ______. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 Answer: D 208. Alex is nine years old. He has a poor self-image and is often involved in disruptive behavior at home or in school. Typically his behavior involves not following rules or doing what he is old. Interestingly, he almost never engages in behavior that hurts others or violates their rights. He just seems to have a difficult time accepting authority and developing positive relationships with those around him. He is suffering from ______ disorder. A. obsessive-compulsive B. oppositional defiant C. conduct D. attention-deficit hyperactivity Answer: B 209. Oppositional defiant disorder is ______ common among boys than girls before the age of 12. It is ______ common among boys than girls after age 12. A. less, less B. more, less C. less, more D. more, more Answer: B 210. Compared to conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder tends to be ______ and begins ______. A. milder, earlier B. milder, later C. more severe, earlier D. more severe, later Answer: A 211. Oppositional defiant disorder typically starts in the __________ environment but may extend to other settings, such as ________. A. school; home B. daycare setting; home C. home; the child’s fantasy play D. home; school Answer: D 212. Many theorists believe that oppositional defiant disorder stems from being born with ________ temperament. A. an easy B. a compliant C. a slow to warm D. a difficult Answer: D 213. Which of the following parenting behaviours can contribute to a child developing oppositional behaviors? A. allowing the child to always voice his or her opinion B. giving in when the child refuses to comply with parental wishes C. maintaining firm limits with the child D. expecting academic excellence from the child Answer: B 214. Psychodynamic theorists look at oppositional defiant disorder as a sign of fixation at the ______ stage of development. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. genital Answer: B 215. Learning theorists view oppositional defiant disorder as arising from ______. A. excessive use of punishment B. use of aversive conditioning C. inappropriate reinforcement strategies D. the use of unconditional positive regard Answer: C 216. Which of the following is involved in the development of conduct disorder in children? A. having parents who work long hours B. growing up in a low income home C. parental marital conflict D. overprotective parental monitoring Answer: C 217. Evidence shows that early experiences of physical abuse and harsh parenting increase the risk of CD, but only in children with ____________. A. a co-occurring disorder such as ADHD B. a parent with a drug or alcohol problem C. no father in the home environment D. a certain genetic profile Answer: D 218. For treating younger children with oppositional defiant disorder, ______ must usually be changed through behavior modification techniques. A. parental behavior B. tantrums C. stealing D. television show choices Answer: A 219. A childhood disorder characterized by extreme fear of separation from parents or other caretakers is known as ______. A. conduct disorder B. separation anxiety disorder C. oppositional defiant disorder D. depressive disorder Answer: B 220. Marcy is six years old. She dreads going to first grade because she worries all day that her parents are going to die while she is at school. She often worries so much that she develops nausea. At home, she clings to her parents, following them everywhere. She is deeply concerned about death and dying and wants her mommy to stay with her when she goes to sleep. She is suffering from ______ disorder. A. separation anxiety B. generalized anxiety C. overanxious D. conduct Answer: A 221. Ainsworth found that separation anxiety normally begins ______. A. during the first year of life B. between the ages of 2 and 3 C. between the ages of 4 and 5 D. between the ages of 6 and 7 Answer: A 222. School phobia is the traditional name for what we now call ______. A. separation anxiety B. avoidant disorder C. overanxious disorder D. generalized anxiety Answer: A 223. Separation anxiety disorder affects approximately ______ of children. A. 1% B. 5% C. 10% D. 15% Answer: B 224. In most cases, ______ disorder develops after a life stress such as illness, a change in home address or school attended, or death of a family member or a pet. A. separation anxiety B. phobic C. overanxious D. attention-deficit hyperactivity Answer: A 225. According to psychoanalytic theorists, childhood anxieties are the result of ______. A. generalized fears of rejection B. negative self-talk C. unconscious conflicts D. a genetic predisposition Answer: C 226. According to cognitive theorists, childhood anxieties are the result of ______. A. generalized fears of rejection B. negative self-talk C. unconscious conflicts D. a genetic predisposition Answer: B 227. According to learning theorists, childhood anxieties are the result of ______. A. generalized fears of rejection B. negative self-talk C. unconscious conflicts D. a genetic predisposition Answer: A 228. Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents is true ? A. Strattera is an effective treatment. B. Flooding the child with the phobic stimuli and implementing response prevention are effective treatments. C. Teaching the child to replace anxious self-talk with coping self-talk is effective treatment. D. Exploring repressed memories and becoming conscious of childhood fixations is effective treatment. Answer: C 229. Major depression is ______ among preschoolers. A. non-existent B. rare C. fairly common D. extremely common Answer: B 230. Major depression is diagnosed ______ often in girls than boys in childhood. A. more B. half as C. less D. equally Answer: D 231. Distinctive feature of childhood depression include which of the following? A. avoiding parents B. wanting to spend time exclusively with peers C. hypersomnia D. fear of parents’ dying Answer: D 232. Children often do not know they are feeling depressed, in part because they are not usually capable of recognizing their internal feeling states until about the age of ______. A. 5 B. 7 C. 9 D. 11 Answer: B 233. Approximately ______ percent of depressed adolescents eventually develop bipolar disorder. A. 10 to 20 B. 20 to 40 C. 40 to 60 D. 60 to 80 Answer: B 234. Which of the following is a cognitive distortion common to children suffering from depression? A. Feeling that they are not being rewarded enough for their accomplishments. B. Feeling angry and resentful over sibling needs. C. Blaming others for negative outcomes, even when it is unwarranted. D. Selectively attending to the negative features of an event. Answer: D 235. Researchers found that depressed students in Hong Kong and Europe ______. A. readily blamed others for problems B. spent too much time watching television C. blew failures and problems out of proportion D. engaged in shoplifting or drug use prior to becoming depressed Answer: C 236. Among adolescent girls, those who develop _____ coping style are at greatest risk for developing depression. A. a passive, ruminative B. an active, avoidant C. a passive, denial-based D. an active, direct Answer: A 237. Accumulating evidence supports the use of ______ therapy in treating depression in childhood and adolescence. A. psychodynamic B. cognitive-behavioral C. Gestalt D. humanistic Answer: B 238. Suicide is ______ among younger children and younger adolescents. A. virtually non-existent B. rare C. fairly common D. an epidemic Answer: B 239. Young people in ______ are at greatest risk for committing suicide. A. early childhood B. late childhood C. early adolescence D. late adolescence Answer: D 240. Girls are ______ as likely as boys to attempt suicide. A. half B. just C. twice D. three times Answer: D 241. Compared to boys, girls are ______ likely to attempt suicide and are ______ likely to successfully complete the attempt. A. less, less B. more, less C. less, more D. more, more Answer: B 242. Adolescents living in the ______ have the highest suicide rate in the United States. A. urban east-coast regions B. rural Appalachian regions C. urban Pacific-coast regions D. rural western regions Answer: D 243. Which of the following youths is at highest risk of committing suicide? A. a non-Hispanic White B. an African American C. an Asian American D. a Hispanic American Answer: A 244. Which of the following youths is at highest risk of committing suicide? A. a Native American B. an African American C. an Asian American D. a Hispanic American Answer: A 245. About ______ percent of adolescents who attempt suicide have done so previously. A. 10 B. 25 C. 50 D. 75 Answer: B 246. About ______ percent of adolescents who take their lives have previously talked about doing so. A. 20 B. 40 C. 60 D. 80 Answer: D 247. Which of the following is true about adolescent suicide? A. Adolescent suicides rarely occur in clusters. B. Many suicides among young people are related to what is popular in the media. C. Adolescents who commit suicide rarely talk about it ahead of time. D. Adolescent suicide is linked to prior sexual abuse. Answer: D 248. Critics contend that we are overusing psychiatric drugs on children, particularly ______. A. Ritalin B. Zoloft C. Strattera D. Prozac Answer: A 249. Critics contend that overuse of ______ can cause sleeplessness and weight loss in children. A. Zoloft B. Prozac C. lithium D. Ritalin Answer: D 250. Warnings issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reveal a small increased risk of suicidal symptoms in youths and young adults under the age of ______ when treated with ____________. A. 25; stimulant medication B. 15; antidepressant medication C. 18; antipsychotic medication D. 25; antidepressant medication Answer: D 251. Youths and young adults treated with antidepressant medications show a ______ risk of suicidal symptoms. A. large decreased B. slight decreased C. slight increased D. large increased Answer: C 252. It is generally agreed by experts that ______ is the treatment of choice for psychological problems in children and adolescents. A. drug therapy B. psychotherapy c a combination of drug therapy and psychotherapy D. no existing form of therapy Answer: C 253. In previous decades, children with _________ disorder have been misdiagnosed as having ADHD or ODD. A. bipolar B. major depressive disorder C. schizoaffective D. dysthymia Answer: A 254. A 2003 survey showed that as many as _____ of children and adolescents in the United States received a bipolar disorder diagnosis, a rate that had jumped fortyfold during the past 10 years. A. 1% B. 5% C. 10% D. 15% Answer: A 255. Fetuses and newborn infants eliminate waste products ______. A. instinctively B. reflexively C. coherently D. willfully Answer: B 256. Enuresis and encopresis are disorders involving problems with elimination that are not due to ______ causes. A. organic B. psychosocial C. psychosexual D. genetic Answer: A 257. Failure to achieve control over urination beyond the "normal" age for attaining bladder control which cannot be explained by physical causes is called ______. A. general paresis B. encopresis C. enuresis D. nocturnal enuresis Answer: C 258. The most common type of enuresis is ______. A. daytime accidents in boys B. daytime accidents in girls C. bedwetting in boys D. bedwetting in girls Answer: C 259. The DSM-5 restricts the diagnosis of enuresis to children whose chronological age is at least ______, or who have achieved an equivalent level of development. A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 7 Answer: C 260. Bedwetting usually occurs in ______ sleep. A. early B. light C. restless D. the deepest stage of Answer: D 261. According to psychodynamic theorists, enuresis occurs most commonly in children for which of the following reasons? A. Enuresis represents hostility toward their parents because of harsh toilet training. B. The child just gained a baby brother or sister. C. The child is struggling with the Oedipal Complex. D. Enuresis results from an immature nervous system and the child’s inability to recognize bladder tension. Answer: A 262. According to learning theorists, enuresis occurs most commonly in children ______. A. whose parents attempted to train them early B. who just gained a baby brother or sister C. whose parents are divorcing D. who have deep-seated hostility toward their parents Answer: A 263. The disorder that characterizes children who have persistent bedwetting and have never established urinary control is ______. A. primary enuresis B. secondary enuresis C. primary encopresis D. secondary encopresis Answer: A 264. The disorder that characterizes children who have developed bedwetting problems after they have established urinary control is ______. A. primary enuresis B. secondary enuresis C. primary encopresis D. secondary encopresis Answer: B 265. Evidence indicates that genetic factors are involved in the development of ______. A. neither primary nor secondary enuresis B. primary but not secondary enuresis C. secondary but not primary enuresis D. both primary and secondary enuresis Answer: B 266. The course of enuresis typically ______. A. resolves itself as the child matures B. requires medication to correct the child’s immature nervous system C. becomes worse as the child matures D. requires psychotherapy to correct the child’s underlying anxieties Answer: A 267. The urine alarm method of treating bedwetting relies on principles of ______. A. cognitive restructuring B. response prevention C. operant conditioning D. classical conditioning Answer: D 268. The urine alarm method approach was introduced by psychologist ______. A. Leo Kanner B. Hans Selye C. O. Hobart Mowrer D. Ivor Lovaas Answer: C 269. Research into the treatment of enuresis has found that ______. A. neither psychological nor pharmacological treatments are effective B. psychological treatments are generally more effective than pharmacological treatments C. pharmacological treatments are generally more effective than psychological treatments D. both psychological and pharmacological treatments are equally effective Answer: B 270. Research indicates that compared to drug treatments, the urine alarm method for treating enuresis has the ______ success rate and the ______ relapse rate. A. lowest, lowest B. lowest, highest C. highest, lowest D. highest, highest Answer: C 271. Lack of control over bowel movements that is not due to a physical disorder in a child is called ______. A. general paresis B. encopresis C. enuresis D. nocturnal enuresis Answer: B 272. The DSM-5 restricts the diagnosis of encopresis to children of age ______ or those who have achieved equivalent development, or older. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 Answer: B 273. Bedwetting is more common among ______, and soiling is more common among ______. A. girls, girls B. boys, girls C. girls, boys D. boys, boys Answer: D 274. Bedwetting is most likely to happen during the ______, and soiling is most likely to happen during the ______. A. day, day B. night, day C. day, night D. night, night Answer: B 275. Soiling may be best helped through ______ principles. A. Gestalt B. classical conditioning C. operant conditioning D. aversive conditioning Answer: C 276. Soiling often appears to follow ______. A. overeating B. oversleeping C. situational stress D. harsh punishment for previous "accidents" Answer: D True-False Questions 277. Many behavior patterns that are normal for children would be considered abnormal among adults. Answer: True 278. The DSM-5 describes neurodevelopmental disorders as disorders involving an impairment of brain functioning or development that affects the child’s psychological, cognitive, social, or emotional development. Answer: True 279. Cultural factors help determine whether people view a child's behavior as normal or abnormal. Answer: True 280. Girls are at greater risk for developing many childhood disorders, ranging from autism to hyperactivity to elimination disorders. Answer: False 281. Asperger Syndrome has been given a separate diagnostic category from autism spectrum disorders in the DSM-5. Answer: False 282. Scientists have found no consistent link between vaccinations such as the MMR vaccine and autism. Answer: True 283. Autism is more common among girls than among boys. Answer: False 284. Investigators linked increased risk of both autism and schizophrenia in children with older mothers. Answer: False 285. Autistic children are not bound by ritual and resist parents attempting to provide preservation of sameness. Answer: False 286. The major cause of autism appears to be parents who are cold, distant, and rejecting onward their child. Answer: False 287. Biological theorists suspect that autism results from some form of brain abnormality. Answer: True 288. As measured by scores on standardized tests, most autistic children lag well below the norm in intellectual development. Answer: True 289. Ivar Lovaas has suggested that children with autism have perceptual deficits that limit them to processing only one stimulus at a time. Answer: True 290. New drug treatments appear to foster cognitive and language development among autistic children. Answer: False 291. The highest functioning adults with autism exhibit normal communication and social skills and a wide range of interests. Answer: False 292. People with severe intellectual developmental disorder outnumber those with mild intellectual developmental disorder. Answer: False 293. The cause of Down syndrome remains unknown. Answer: False 294. Most children with Down syndrome learn to read, write, and perform arithmetic. Answer: True 295. Klinefelter's syndrome occurs only among males. Answer: True 296. Turner's syndrome occurs only among males. Answer: False 297. Fragile X syndrome is the most common type of inherited intellectual developmental disorder. Answer: True 298. Fragile X syndrome usually has a more profound effect upon males than upon females. Answer: True 299. Fragile X syndrome can be treated through genetic surgery. Answer: False 300. PKU is a fatal genetic disorder. Answer: False 301. Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause intellectual developmental disorder. Answer: True 302. Most cases of mild intellectual developmental disorder have a clear biological cause. Answer: False 303. The Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act, which Congress passed in 1975, provided that people with mental retardation (now labeled ID) have the right to receive appropriate treatment in the least-restrictive treatment setting. Answer: True 304. Adults with mild intellectual developmental disorder often work in outside jobs and live in their own apartments. Answer: True 305. Deinstitutionalization of people with intellectual developmental disorder has largely resulted in massive social problems and swelled the ranks of America's homeless population. Answer: False 306. Children with intellectual developmental disorder are at a high risk of developing anxiety and depression. Answer: True 307. Intellectual developmental disorder is a type of learning disorder. Answer: False 308. Learning disorders are typically chronic disorders that affect development well into adulthood. Answer: True 309. Most people with savant syndrome are male. Answer: True 310. Some people can recall verbatim every story they read in a newspaper. Answer: True 311. Childhood onset fluency disorder occurs in males more than females. Answer: True 312. In the case of stuttering, genetic factors do not appear play an important role. Answer: False 313. Black and Hispanic children are less likely to receive the diagnosis of ADHD than Euro-American children. Answer: True 314. Normal children can sit still and concentrate for a while if they want to, but children with ADHD cannot. Answer: True 315. Children with ADHD tend to have problems with working memory. Answer: True 316. Children with ADHD tend to be below average in intelligence. Answer: False 317. Maternal smoking during pregnancy may put some children at increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Answer: True 318. Stimulants calm many hyperactive children. Answer: True 319. Children who are hyperactive are often given central nervous system depressants to help calm them down. Answer: False 320. Children with conduct disorder show nearly identical behavior patterns as children with ADHD. Answer: False 321. Conduct disorders are more common among boys than girls. Answer: True 322. Conduct disorders tend to be episodic and unstable. Answer: False 323. Oppositional defiant disorder is one of the rarest diagnoses among children. Answer: False 324. Aggressive children assume that others intend them ill when they do not. Answer: True 325. Psychodynamic psychotherapy has generally been shown to help disruptive children change their behavior. Answer: False 326. Anxieties and fears are a normal feature of childhood. Answer: True 327. It is normal for children to show anxiety when they are separated from their caregivers. Answer: True 328. Some children refuse to go to school because they believe terrible things may happen to their parents while they're away. Answer: True 329. Separation anxiety is found most frequently in boys. Answer: False 330. Depression is common among children and adolescents. Answer: True 331. Difficulties at school, problem behaviors, and physical complaints may actually be signs of depression in children. Answer: True 332. Major depression has been found among preschoolers. Answer: True 333. Major depression rarely occurs before adulthood. Answer: False 334. Many depressed children neither report nor are aware of feelings of depression. Answer: True 335. Among adolescents, aggressive and sexual acting out may be signs of underlying depression. Answer: True 336. Researchers have discovered that distorted thinking causes childhood depression. Answer: False 337. Suicide is relatively uncommon among younger children. Answer: True 338. Suicide is unfortunately quite common among young teens around the time of puberty. Answer: False 339. Adolescents who talk about suicide are only venting their feelings and do not really intend to kill themselves. Answer: False 340. Children and adolescents who have survived suicide attempts are unlikely to try it again. Answer: False 341. Family problems are present in the majority of adolescent suicide attempts. Answer: True 342. Suicides often occur in clusters. Answer: True 343. Enuresis is more common among girls than boys. Answer: False 344. Problems of persistent bedwetting in childhood generally persist into adolescence. Answer: False 345. Primary enuresis is apparently not genetically influenced and characterizes children with occasional bed-wetting. Answer: False 346. It is normal for children who have acquired daytime control over their bladders to have accidents in the nighttime for a year or more. Answer: True 347. Enuresis usually resolves itself. Answer: True 348. Principles of classical conditioning can be applied to treat bed-wetting in children. Answer: True 349. Soiling, like enuresis, is most likely to happen during the night while a child is sleeping. Answer: False Essay Questions 350. Discuss ways of determining what is normal and abnormal in childhood and adolescence. Answer: Determining Normal and Abnormal in Childhood and Adolescence: Determining what is normal and abnormal in childhood and adolescence involves considering developmental milestones, cultural norms, and individual differences: • Developmental Milestones: Understanding typical physical, cognitive, emotional, and social milestones for different age ranges provides a baseline for normal development. • Cultural Norms: Cultural contexts shape expectations regarding behaviors, emotions, and social interactions. What is considered normal can vary widely across cultures. • Individual Differences: Recognizing variability in temperament, personality, and family dynamics helps distinguish normal variations from potential signs of psychopathology. • Functional Impairment: Assessing whether behaviors or emotions significantly impair functioning in academic, social, or family settings is crucial in distinguishing normal from abnormal. Clinicians often use standardized developmental assessments, clinical interviews, and observation of behavior across different contexts to evaluate whether a child's behavior falls within expected developmental norms or warrants further evaluation for potential mental health concerns. 351. Discuss the prevalence of, and risk factors for, mental health problems in children and adolescents. Answer: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Mental Health Problems in Children and Adolescents: Mental health problems in children and adolescents are common, with varying prevalence rates across different disorders: • Prevalence: Approximately 1 in 5 children and adolescents experience a mental health disorder each year in the United States. • Risk Factors: Risk factors for mental health problems include: • Genetic and Biological Factors: Family history of mental illness, neurodevelopmental conditions, or genetic predispositions. • Environmental Factors: Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., trauma, abuse, neglect), chronic stress, poverty, unstable family environments. • Psychosocial Factors: Social isolation, bullying, academic pressures, peer relationships, and lack of social support. Early intervention, supportive environments, access to mental health services, and promoting resilience through positive coping strategies can mitigate these risk factors and promote better mental health outcomes for children and adolescents. 352. Explain what neurodevelopmental disorders are. Additionally, identify and briefly describe each of the major types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Answer: Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of conditions that typically emerge in early development, affecting the growth and development of the central nervous system. Major types include: 1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. 2. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Involves persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that impair functioning or developmentally inappropriate. 3. Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder): Characterized by deficits in intellectual functioning (e.g., reasoning, problem-solving) and adaptive functioning (daily living skills), with onset during the developmental period. 4. Specific Learning Disorder: Involves difficulties in acquiring and using academic skills (e.g., reading, writing, mathematics), despite adequate intelligence and educational opportunities. 5. Communication Disorders: Includes Language Disorder (difficulties in language production or comprehension) and Speech Sound Disorder (persistent difficulty with speech sound production). 6. Motor Disorders: Such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (difficulties with motor coordination) and Tic Disorders (e.g., Tourette Syndrome, characterized by motor and vocal tics). These disorders impact functioning across various domains (e.g., academic, social, occupational) and often require multidisciplinary assessment and intervention approaches tailored to individual needs. 353. Discuss the rise in the prevalence of autism. What factors have been identified as possibly contributing to the disorder? Answer: Rise in the Prevalence of Autism: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased significantly over recent decades. Factors contributing to this rise include: • Increased Awareness and Diagnosis: Greater awareness among healthcare professionals, educators, and the public has led to improved recognition and diagnosis of ASD, including milder forms previously overlooked. • Changes in Diagnostic Criteria: Broadening of diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 to include a spectrum of autism-related conditions, encompassing a wider range of symptoms and severity levels. • Environmental Factors: Research suggests environmental influences such as prenatal exposure to certain medications, toxins, or infections may contribute to ASD risk. • Genetic Factors: Genetic predispositions play a significant role, with identified genetic mutations and variations contributing to susceptibility. • Parental Age: Advanced parental age, particularly in fathers, has been associated with increased ASD risk, possibly due to higher rates of genetic mutations in sperm. Ongoing research aims to better understand the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors contributing to the rise in ASD prevalence. 354. Discuss the concern that parents of higher functioning children with autism have about the loss of the Asperger Syndrome diagnosis in the DSM-5. Answer: Concerns About the Loss of Asperger Syndrome Diagnosis in DSM-5: The DSM-5 reclassified Asperger Syndrome as part of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), prompting concerns among parents and individuals previously diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome: • Loss of Identity: Some individuals and families valued the distinct identity associated with Asperger Syndrome, which was perceived as milder and often associated with higher cognitive abilities and functional independence. • Access to Services: There were concerns that the merging of diagnoses might impact access to specific services or interventions tailored to the unique needs of individuals with Asperger Syndrome. • Diagnostic Stability: Changes in diagnostic criteria raised questions about the consistency and reliability of diagnosis over time, potentially affecting educational and support services eligibility. Advocates emphasize the importance of recognizing individual differences within the autism spectrum and ensuring that diagnostic changes do not compromise access to appropriate supports and interventions. 355. What characterizes Down syndrome? Describe the physical appearance of the individual with Down’s, the causes of the disorder and general outcome of those with Down syndrome. Answer: Characteristics of Down Syndrome: Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) is a genetic condition characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21. Key features include: • Physical Appearance: Individuals with Down Syndrome typically have distinct facial features including slanted eyes, a flat facial profile, small ears, and a protruding tongue. They may also have a shorter stature and broader hands with a single crease across the palm. • Causes: Down Syndrome results from nondisjunction during cell division, leading to an extra chromosome 21. It can occur randomly or be inherited, depending on the type (e.g., trisomy 21, translocation, mosaicism). • General Outcome: Individuals with Down Syndrome vary widely in cognitive abilities and development. Early intervention, educational support, and medical care can significantly improve outcomes, enabling many to lead fulfilling lives with varying degrees of independence. 356. Identify and briefly describe each of the major causes of intellectual developmental disorder. Answer: Causes of Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD): Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD), formerly known as Intellectual Disability, can have various causes, including: 1. Genetic Factors: Genetic conditions such as Down Syndrome (trisomy 21), Fragile X Syndrome, and other chromosomal abnormalities. 2. Prenatal Factors: Prenatal exposure to infections (e.g., rubella), toxins (e.g., alcohol, drugs), or maternal conditions (e.g., poorly controlled diabetes) that affect fetal development. 3. Perinatal Factors: Complications during birth, premature birth, or neonatal health issues that affect brain development. 4. Postnatal Factors: Childhood infections, traumatic brain injury, or environmental deprivation that impact cognitive development. 5. Unknown Causes: In some cases, the cause of IDD may not be identified despite thorough evaluation. Each cause can affect cognitive functioning and adaptive skills differently, necessitating tailored interventions and support strategies to optimize outcomes for individuals with IDD. 357. What is PKU? How is it diagnosed? What causes PKU? Answer: Phenylketonuria (PKU): Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder characterized by the inability to metabolize phenylalanine; an amino acid found in protein-containing foods. Key aspects include: • Diagnosis: PKU is typically diagnosed through newborn screening tests shortly after birth. Elevated levels of phenylalanine in blood samples prompt further diagnostic testing. • Causes: PKU is caused by a mutation in the gene responsible for producing phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme needed to break down phenylalanine. Without this enzyme, phenylalanine accumulates to toxic levels in the body. • Treatment: Management involves a strict low-phenylalanine diet from infancy to prevent intellectual disability and other complications. Regular monitoring of blood phenylalanine levels and dietary adjustments are essential throughout life. Early detection and dietary intervention significantly improve outcomes, preventing intellectual disability and promoting normal development in individuals with PKU. 358. Discuss the cause, prevalence, features, and characteristics of Klinefelter’s and Turner’s syndrome. Answer: Klinefelter Syndrome and Turner Syndrome: Klinefelter Syndrome: • Cause: Klinefelter Syndrome results from an extra X chromosome in males (XXY), typically due to a random error during cell division. • Prevalence: It affects approximately 1 in 500 to 1,000 male births. • Features: Common features include small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (enlarged breasts), and potential cognitive and behavioral challenges such as learning disabilities and social difficulties. Turner Syndrome: • Cause: Turner Syndrome occurs when females have only one X chromosome (X0), often due to a random error during cell division. • Prevalence: It affects about 1 in 2,500 live female births. • Features: Typical features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, infertility, and specific health concerns such as heart and kidney abnormalities. Cognitive abilities vary widely, with some individuals experiencing learning difficulties. Both conditions benefit from early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care to address physical, developmental, and psychological needs. 359. Discuss the cause, prevalence, features, and characteristics of fragile X syndrome. Answer: Fragile X Syndrome: Fragile X Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects cognitive development and is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability: • Cause: Fragile X Syndrome results from a mutation in the FMR1 gene, leading to reduced production of a protein essential for brain development and function. • Prevalence: It affects approximately 1 in 4,000 males and 1 in 8,000 females. • Features: Individuals may exhibit intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe, social anxiety, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors (e.g., hand-flapping), and physical characteristics such as large ears and a long face. • Characteristics: Cognitive impairment may affect language skills, learning abilities, and adaptive behaviors, requiring specialized educational and behavioral interventions. Ongoing research explores treatments targeting the underlying molecular mechanisms to improve cognitive and behavioral outcomes for individuals with Fragile X Syndrome. 360. What types of social and academic interventions have been effective in working with persons with an intellectual developmental disorder? Answer: Social and Academic Interventions for Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD): Effective interventions for individuals with IDD include: • Educational Strategies: Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) tailored to the child's specific needs, incorporating adaptive teaching methods and accommodations (e.g., extra time on tests, visual aids). • Behavioral Interventions: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) techniques to promote adaptive behaviors and reduce challenging behaviors through positive reinforcement and structured interventions. • Social Skills Training: Teaching and practicing social skills in structured settings to improve interpersonal interactions and relationships. • Supportive Services: Access to speech therapy, occupational therapy, and vocational training to enhance communication skills, daily living skills, and job readiness. Interventions are most effective when tailored to the individual's strengths, challenges, and developmental stage, involving collaboration among educators, therapists, caregivers, and community support networks. 361. Summarize the problems children can have in learning to read. Why are rates of dyslexia higher in English and French-speaking countries? Answer: Problems Children Can Have in Learning to Read and Dyslexia Rates: Learning to read can present challenges for children due to various factors: • Phonological Processing: Difficulties in recognizing and manipulating sounds in language (phonemic awareness). • Word Recognition: Trouble with decoding and recognizing sight words fluently. • Reading Comprehension: Difficulty understanding and making meaning from text. • Language Skills: Weak vocabulary, grammar, and syntax comprehension affecting reading comprehension. Rates of dyslexia are higher in English and French-speaking countries due to: • Orthographic Complexity: English and French have more complex orthographies (spelling systems) compared to languages with more transparent letter-sound mappings (e.g., Spanish, Italian). This complexity makes it harder to decode words and contributes to dyslexia prevalence. • Sound-Grapheme Correspondence: Inconsistent mapping between sounds and letters in English and French complicates learning to read for individuals with dyslexia. • Educational Practices: Variability in teaching methods and awareness of dyslexia can impact identification and support. Effective interventions include structured literacy approaches, explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics, and accommodations tailored to individual needs. 362. Discuss the research linking learning disabilities to defects in brain circuitry responsible for processing sensory input. Answer: Learning Disabilities and Defects in Brain Circuitry: Research suggests that learning disabilities, including dyslexia, may involve defects in brain circuitry responsible for processing sensory input: • Neural Pathways: Structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions involved in language processing, such as the left hemisphere's temporal and parietal lobes. • Neuroplasticity: Alterations in brain connectivity and neural networks related to phonological processing, visual-spatial skills, and executive functions. • Genetic Factors: Inherited genetic mutations affecting brain development and function, contributing to learning disabilities. Understanding these neural mechanisms informs targeted interventions such as neurofeedback, cognitive training, and educational strategies that support brain plasticity and adaptive learning. 363. Discuss the prevalence, features, and characteristics of savant syndrome. Answer: Savant Syndrome: Savant Syndrome is characterized by extraordinary abilities or skills in specific areas despite overall intellectual disability: • Prevalence: It is rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 10 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). • Features: Individuals may demonstrate exceptional memory, mathematical prowess, artistic talent (e.g., drawing, music), or calendar calculation skills. • Characteristics: Savant abilities often coexist with limitations in social communication, adaptive functioning, and daily living skills typical of ASD. The exact neurological basis of savant skills remains unclear, but hypotheses suggest enhanced cognitive processing in specific brain regions or compensatory mechanisms. 364. Explain what communication disorders are, and briefly describe each of the various communications disorders. Answer: Communication Disorders: Communication disorders encompass various conditions affecting speech, language, and communication abilities: 1. Language Disorders: Difficulty with comprehension and/or expression of spoken or written language, including Specific Language Impairment and Language Processing Disorder. 2. Speech Disorders: Impairments in speech production, such as articulation disorders (difficulty producing sounds) and fluency disorders (e.g., stuttering). 3. Voice Disorders: Problems with pitch, loudness, or quality of voice due to physiological or functional issues. 4. Pragmatic Language Disorders: Challenges with social communication, including difficulty using language appropriately in different social contexts (e.g., Autism Spectrum Disorder). Each disorder may impact communication skills differently, requiring tailored interventions such as speech therapy, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), and social skills training. 365. Discuss the cause, prevalence, features, and characteristics of childhood onset fluency disorder. Answer: Childhood Onset Fluency Disorder: Childhood Onset Fluency Disorder, commonly known as stuttering, is characterized by disruptions in the normal flow of speech: • Cause: The exact cause is multifactorial, involving genetic predispositions, neurophysiological factors, and environmental influences. • Prevalence: It affects approximately 1% of the population, with higher rates in males than females. • Features: Speech disruptions include repetitions of sounds, syllables, or words; prolongations of speech sounds; and blocks (pauses or hesitations). • Characteristics: Stuttering may vary in severity and fluctuate over time, often accompanied by anxiety or avoidance behaviors related to speaking. Early intervention with speech therapy focusing on fluency techniques, cognitive-behavioral strategies, and communication skills training can improve speech fluency and reduce social impact. 366. Identify and briefly describe attention-deficit disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Answer: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD): Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): • Description: ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. • Types: Predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, or combined type. • Symptoms: Inattention (e.g., difficulty sustaining attention, careless mistakes), hyperactivity (e.g., fidgeting, difficulty staying seated), and impulsivity (e.g., blurting out answers, interrupting others). • Impact: Impairs academic, social, and occupational functioning, often coexisting with emotional dysregulation and executive function deficits. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): • Description: ODD is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness. • Symptoms: Often loses temper, argues with adults, defies rules, deliberately annoys others, blames others for mistakes or misbehavior. • Impact: Interferes with relationships at home, school, or work, but does not involve serious violations of others' rights or major antisocial behaviors. Conduct Disorder (CD): • Description: CD is a more severe disruptive behavior disorder characterized by repetitive and persistent patterns of behavior that violate the rights of others or major societal norms. • Symptoms: Aggression towards people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, serious violations of rules (e.g., staying out at night). • Types: Childhood-onset (before 10 years) or adolescent-onset (after 10 years). • Impact: Associated with significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and may progress to antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. 367. Describe the brain research that has been conducted with ADHD. Cite the emerging view about executive functions in the brain and ADHD. Answer: Brain Research and Executive Functions in ADHD: Research on ADHD has identified structural and functional differences in the brains of individuals with ADHD: • Brain Regions: Differences in the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum affecting attention, impulse control, and motor coordination. • Neurotransmitter Systems: Dysregulation of dopamine and norepinephrine systems implicated in ADHD symptoms. • Executive Functions: Emerging views highlight deficits in executive functions (e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility) as core features contributing to ADHD symptoms. • Neuroimaging Studies: Functional MRI (fMRI) and other neuroimaging techniques reveal altered brain connectivity patterns and reduced cortical thickness in ADHD. Understanding these neurobiological underpinnings informs therapeutic approaches targeting executive function deficits through cognitive-behavioral interventions, neurofeedback, and pharmacotherapy. 368. Summarize the types of medications used to treat ADHD. What are the limitations of this therapy? What other types of therapy can be combined with medication in order to provide more effective treatment. Answer: Medications for ADHD, Limitations, and Combined Therapies: Types of Medications: • Stimulants: (e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamines) increase dopamine and norepinephrine levels, improving attention and impulse control. • Non-Stimulants: (e.g., atomoxetine, guanfacine) target norepinephrine systems or other neurotransmitter pathways to manage ADHD symptoms. Limitations: • Side Effects: Potential side effects include appetite suppression, insomnia, and cardiovascular effects. • Individual Variation: Medication effectiveness varies among individuals, requiring careful titration and monitoring. • Long-Term Outcomes: Effects on growth, development, and long-term outcomes are areas of ongoing research. Combined Therapies: • Behavioral Interventions: Parent training, classroom management strategies, and cognitive-behavioral therapy address behavior management, organizational skills, and social skills. • Educational Support: Individualized educational plans (IEPs), accommodations, and tutoring to address academic challenges. • Multimodal Approach: Combining medication with behavioral interventions optimizes symptom management, enhances skill acquisition, and improves functional outcomes for individuals with ADHD. 369. Describe how conduct disorder differs from ADHD. What other childhood and adult problems are associated with this disorder? Answer: Conduct Disorder (CD) vs. ADHD: Differences: • Behavior Patterns: CD involves more severe and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior (e.g., aggression, theft), while ADHD primarily manifests with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. • Severity of Impairment: CD is associated with significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning, often involving serious violations of others' rights. • Developmental Course: CD often has an earlier onset and tends to persist into adulthood, sometimes progressing to antisocial personality disorder. Associated Problems: • Childhood: Academic difficulties, peer relationship problems, delinquency, substance abuse. • Adulthood: Continued antisocial behavior, legal issues, substance use disorders, and difficulties maintaining stable employment or relationships. 370. How does oppositional defiant disorder differ from conduct disorder? How do family factors contribute to the presence of this disorder? Answer: Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) vs. Conduct Disorder (CD): Differences: • Behavioral Patterns: ODD involves defiant, argumentative behavior without serious violations of others' rights, whereas CD includes more severe antisocial behaviors. • Severity: ODD symptoms are milder and primarily disruptive to social relationships, whereas CD symptoms can lead to legal or institutional consequences. • Family Factors: ODD is often influenced by inconsistent discipline, family conflict, and lack of parental supervision, whereas CD may reflect broader social and environmental influences. Family Factors: • Parenting Styles: Authoritarian or permissive parenting styles, inconsistent discipline, and lack of positive reinforcement contribute to ODD symptoms. • Family Dysfunction: Family conflict, parental mental health issues, substance abuse, and socioeconomic stressors can exacerbate oppositional behaviors. • Intervention: Family therapy, parent management training, and psychoeducation help improve communication, establish consistent discipline, and promote positive parent-child relationships. 371. What is Separation Anxiety Disorder? At what age is it most typical? How is it treated? Answer: Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Description: Separation Anxiety Disorder is characterized by excessive fear or anxiety concerning separation from attachment figures (e.g., parents, caregivers) that significantly disrupts daily life. Typical Age: SAD is most typical in children, typically manifesting around preschool to early school-age years (between 6 to 8 years old), though it can occur at any age. Treatment: • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Involves gradual exposure to separation situations, cognitive restructuring to address fears, and teaching coping strategies. • Family Therapy: Helps improve family dynamics, communication, and support systems. • Medication: Occasionally prescribed in severe cases, although typically used alongside therapy. 372. Describe the features of childhood depression. What children are most at risk for developing this disorder? Answer: Childhood Depression: Features: • Symptoms: Persistent sadness, irritability, social withdrawal, changes in appetite or sleep patterns, decreased interest in activities, feelings of guilt or worthlessness. • Risk Factors: Children at higher risk include those with family history of depression, chronic illness, trauma, abuse, or stressful life events (e.g., parental divorce, bullying). 373. List and describe at least six of the ten demographics contributing to suicide in children and adolescents. Answer: Demographics Contributing to Suicide in Children and Adolescents: Six of the ten demographics contributing to suicide in children and adolescents include: 1. Mental Health Disorders: Including depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. 2. History of Trauma or Abuse: Such as physical or sexual abuse, neglect. 3. Bullying: Persistent bullying at school or online. 4. Family Dysfunction: Including parental substance abuse, domestic violence, or parental mental illness. 5. LGBTQ+ Identity: Discrimination, rejection, or lack of acceptance. 6. Access to Means: Availability of firearms or other lethal means. 374. Explain the controversy about overmedicating children with psychiatric drugs. Answer: Controversy About Overmedicating Children with Psychiatric Drugs: Controversies: • Long-Term Effects: Concerns about potential long-term effects on brain development, growth, and overall health. • Diagnosis Accuracy: Debate over accurate diagnosis and appropriate use of medication versus alternative treatments. • Side Effects: Potential for side effects such as weight gain, metabolic changes, and mood disturbances. • Parental Concerns: Anxiety among parents about medication risks versus benefits for their children's mental health. Alternatives and Complementary Therapies: Behavioral therapies, family interventions, and school-based supports are often recommended alongside or instead of medication to address underlying issues and promote healthy development. 375. Describe how the urine alarm is used to treat enuresis. Answer: Urine Alarm for Enuresis Treatment: Description: Enuresis (bedwetting) is involuntary urination during sleep beyond the age when bladder control is typically achieved (usually after age 5). Urine Alarm: • Mechanism: A device that senses moisture and triggers an alarm (e.g., sound or vibration) when the child begins to urinate. • Purpose: Helps condition the child to wake up when the bladder is full, eventually promoting nighttime dryness. • Effectiveness: Effective in many cases, particularly when used consistently and in combination with behavioral strategies like fluid management and positive reinforcement. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene 9780205965014, 9780135821688, 9780134458311, 9780205961719, 9780130052162

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