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10. Disorders Involving Gender and Sexuality Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Jayne Thomas had gender reassignment surgery because ______. A. she was born without a full penis B. she feared becoming a rapist if she maintained the male role C. she had been uncomfortable with her male sex D. she knew that she could never become a father in her role as a man Answer: C 2. After her gender reassignment, Jayne Thomas found that her forceful and impassioned presentations in her work as a banking consultant were viewed as ______ in comparison to presentations that she had made as a man. A. about the same B. liabilities C. strengths D. less intelligent Answer: B 3. Before her gender reassignment surgery, Jayne Thomas had done all of the following A. fathering children B. obtaining a Ph.D. C. being a champion athlete D. being a television star Answer: D 4. Some preliterate societies in Africa and South America view ______ as deviant. A. kissing B. masturbation C. holding hands D. lip piercing Answer: A 5. Our psychological sense of being male or female is called our ______. A. sex role B. sexual orientation C. gender identity D. sexual preference Answer: C 6. In ______, there is a conflict between one's anatomic sex and one's gender identity. A. a gay or lesbian sexual orientation B. a bisexual sexual orientation C. transvestic fetishism D. gender dysphoria Answer: D 7. Transgender individuals are also referred to as __________. A. transvestites B. homosexuals C. bisexuals D. transsexuals Answer: D 8. Timmy is a nine-year-old boy who thinks that he should have been born a girl and who likes to wear girls’ clothes and play with dolls. He gets teased and criticized a great deal. Which statement is most likely to fit Timmy’s situation? A. He does not have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder and probably never will. B. He does not have a current diagnosable psychiatric disorder but it will be diagnosed if he continues this behavior past the age of 12. C. He could currently be diagnosed with gender dysphoria. D. He would be diagnosed with a childhood adjustment disorder if a teacher recognizes that he is unhappy in school. Answer: C 9. __________ is a psychosocial concept distinguishing maleness from femaleness. A. Gender B. Sex C. Homosexuality D. Tomboy Answer: A 10. Which of the following are societal expectations of behavior appropriate for men and women? A. Gender roles B. Sex roles C. Transgender roles D. Dysphoria roles Answer: A 11. People with a __________ have the psychological sense of belonging to one gender while possessing the sexual organs of the other. A. transgender identity B. homosexuality C. transvestite identity D. sex organ differentiation Answer: A 12. The term ____ refers to the biological division between males and females of a species. A. gender B. homosexuality C. heterosexuality D. sex Answer: D 13. In transgendered individuals, gender dysphoria is ___________. A. always present B. not always present C. a co-occurring feature for males but not for females D. a co-occurring feature for females but not for males Answer: B 14. Which of the following is a key feature of gender dysphoria in childhood? A. feelings of acceptance of one’s sexual anatomy B. trying to fit in by wearing the clothing of the same sex C. trying to fit in by playing with the toys of the same sex D. strong desire to have the physical characteristics associated with one’s experienced gender Answer: D 15. Gender dysphoria often begins during which period of the lifespan? A. Childhood B. Immediately after birth C. Early 20’s D. Early 30's Answer: A 16. The term gender identity disorder was replaced in DSM-5 with which of the following new diagnostic term? A. Gender dysphoria, B. Multiple gender disorder C. Transvestism D. Multiple personality disorder Answer: A 17. The textbook suggests ______ give us reason to question the validity of conceptualizing a transgender identity as a type of psychological disorder. A. cultural variations in gender roles and identities B. biological similarities between males and females C. the increase in rates of homosexuality D. the decrease of male birth rates in the human species Answer: A 18. Your text suggests that the distress that transgendered persons experience is not a direct consequence of inner conflicts over their sexual orientation, but is ________ A. acknowledging the difficult and evitable surgical transition B. coming to terms with not being able to biologically reproduce C. an understandable response to the negative treatment they receive from others D. adjusting to the loss of cultural privileges associated with their former sex Answer: C 19. The term gender identity disorder was replaced in DSM-5 with a new diagnostic term, gender dysphoria, to emphasize which of the following? A. The discomfort or distress that transgender people may experience from the mismatch between their gender identity and their designated gender. B. The loss of cultural interactions privileges associated with their previous sex. C. The difficulty in choosing the sex of partners to form relationships and become intimate with. D. The inability for transgender individuals to be able to become comfortable with any aspect of their identity at any point in their lives. Answer: A 20. Which of the following persons is most likely to undergo sex-reassignment surgery? A. A transsexual person B. A gay male or lesbian C. A person who suffers from transvestic fetishism D. A bisexual individual Answer: A 21. Transgendered individuals who have undergone sexual reassignment are often referred to as ________. A. gender role transitioners B. trans indentifiers C. transsexuals D. reassigned transformers Answer: C 22. Research on the postoperative adjustment of those who obtain sexual reassignment surgery finds ______. A. in general, neither male-to-female nor female-to-male transitioners have successful postoperative adjustment B. male-to-female transitions tend to have more favorable postoperative adjustment than female-to-male transitions C. female-to-male tend to have more favorable postoperative adjustment than male-to-female D. both male-to-female and female-to-male transitioners have equally high rates of successful postoperative adjustment Answer: C 23. In explaining gender identity disorder in males, one factor that both psychodynamic and learning theorists cite is ______. A. maternal hostility B. paternal hostility C. maternal absence D. paternal absence Answer: D 24. Claude, who was formerly Claudia, probably began developing his gender identity disorder ______. A. in very early childhood B. around the Oedipal period C. during latency D. at the onset of puberty Answer: A 25. Psychodynamic theorists point to which of the following as being involved with the development of gender identity disorder? A. extremely close father-daughter relationships B. absent fathers (with sons) or demanding, controlling mothers (with daughters) C. gay male fathers (with sons) or lesbian mothers (with daughters) D. empty relationships with one’s parents Answer: D 26. Learning theories suggest each of the following as a potential cause of gender identity disorder A. overbearing relationships with parents B. lack of positive reinforcement from the mother C. being reared by parents who wanted children of the other gender D. growing up as a child of divorce Answer: C 27. Currently, researchers suspect that gender identity disorders develop as a result of the interaction between the developing brain and the release of ______ during prenatal development. A. virulent antibodies B. stress hormones C. male sex hormones D. prostaglandins Answer: C 28. Evidence links high levels of _______ during prenatal development to more masculinized play in children. A. estrogen B. mercury C. testosterone D. calcium Answer: C 29. Disorders that are characterized by problems with sexual interest, arousal, or response are classified as _______. A. sexual dysfunctions B. paraphilias C. performance disorders D. response-cycle disorders Answer: A 30. Sexual dysfunctions are ______, and ______ people seek treatment for these problems. A. rare, few B. widespread, few C. rare, most D. widespread, most Answer: B 31. Of the concerns listed below, which sexual complaint is most often reported by women? A. reaching orgasm too quickly B. inability to attain orgasm C. partners unable to satisfy sexual needs for pleasure D. interference from ovulation and other monthly cycles Answer: C 32. Which sexual complaint is most often reported by men? A. reaching orgasm too quickly B. uncontrollable sexual desire C. difficulty achieving an erection D. lack of sexual pleasure Answer: A 33. Sexual dysfunctions that have existed throughout an individual's lifetime, and the person has never achieved normal functioning, are labelled ______ dysfunctions. A. acquired B. situational C. lifetime D. generalized Answer: C 34. Sexual dysfunctions that begin following a period of normal functioning are labelled ______ dysfunctions. A. acquired B. situational C. lifelong D. generalized Answer: A 35. Sexual dysfunctions that occur in some situations but not in others are labelled ______ dysfunctions. A. acquired B. situational C. lifelong D. generalized Answer: B 36. Sexual dysfunctions that occur in all situations and at all times are labelled ______ dysfunctions. A. acquired B. situational C. lifelong D. generalized Answer: D 37. Dave has difficulty getting an erection with his current girlfriend but has had no difficulty with sexual performance with other females. His sexual dysfunction is ______. A. acquired B. lifelong C. situational D. generalized Answer: C 38. Steve has experienced premature ejaculation with every sexual partner he has ever had. His sexual dysfunction is ______. A. acquired B. lifelong C. situational D. undifferentiated Answer: B 39. Phil used to have normal sexual desire, but since his divorce his desire has diminished to the point of being non-existent. His sexual dysfunction is ______. A. acquired B. lifelong C. situational D. undifferentiated Answer: A 40. Dave struggles with difficulty achieving orgasm every time he engages in any sexual form of sexual activity. His sexual dysfunction is ______. A. acquired B. undifferentiated C. situational D. generalized Answer: D 41. Women are about ______ as likely as men to experience problems with a deficiency or lack of sexual interest or drive. A. half B. equally C. more D. ten times Answer: C 42. According to prevalence rates derived from Lewis et al., the rate for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder is reported to be about ______ percent for women. A. 2-12 B. 80-90 C. 65-80 D. 10-55 Answer: D 43. According to prevalence rates derived from Lewis et al., the rate for Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder is reported to be about ______ percent for men. A. 2-5 B. 8-25 C. 25-40 D. 50-60 Answer: B 44. Men with ________ persistently have little, if any, desire for sexual activity or may lack sexual or erotic thoughts or fantasies. A. male hypoactive sexual desire disorder B. gender dysphoria C. gender identity disorder D. erectile disorder Answer: A 45. Women with ____________ have reduced levels of sexual interest or drive as well as absent or reduced sexual arousal during sexual activity. A. female sexual interest/arousal disorder B. erectile disorder C. female orgasmic disorder D. transgender disorder Answer: A 46. Women with female sexual interest/arousal disorder may also have few if any _______ during sexual activity. A. reproductive capability B. genital sensations C. visual capabilities D. motor function Answer: B 47. About ______ percent of males in their 60s report erectile disorder. A. 1-100 B. 10-20 C. 20-40 D. 80-90 Answer: C 48. Men with ______ may have difficulty achieving an erection or maintaining an erection to the completion of sexual activity, or have erections that lack the rigidity needed to perform effectively. A. erectile disorder (ED) B. orgasm disorder C. penile disorder D. sexual arousal disorder Answer: A 49. The diagnosis for erectile disorder requires the problem be present for a period of about ________ months or longer and that it occurs on or about ________ percent of occasions of sexual activity. A. 1; 25 B. 2; 50 C. 6; 75 D. 12; 75 Answer: C 50. The risk of developing erectile disorder ________. A. varies little across adult male age groups B. increases through middle age and levels off C. decreases with age D. increases with age Answer: D 51. In ___________ there is a marked delay in reaching orgasm in women or an infrequency or absence of orgasm following a normal level of sexual interest and arousal and without the person desiring a delay. A. female orgasmic disorder B. transgender disorder C. delayed ejaculation D. erectile disorder Answer: A 52. In men, which of the following is a marked delay in reaching orgasm in men or an infrequency or absence of orgasm following a normal level of sexual interest and arousal and without the person desiring a delay? A. premature ejaculation B. dysphoria disorder C. delayed ejaculation D. erectile disorder Answer: C 53. Occasional experiences of rapid ejaculation, such as when a man is with a new partner, has had infrequent sexual contacts, or is very highly aroused, are ___________. A. not considered normal B. not considered abnormal C. suggestive of erectile disorder D. indicate the presence of male hyposexual disorder Answer: B 54. Men with delayed ejaculation are generally ___________ but have difficulty ________________. A. able to ejaculate through masturbation; achieving ejaculation during intercourse with a partner B. able to achieve ejaculation during intercourse with a partner; unable to achieve ejaculation through masturbation C. to have an orgasm; producing ejaculate D. able to ejaculate; gaining an initial erection Answer: A 55. The DSM-5 expanded the criteria for female orgasmic disorder to include cases in which women __________. A. experience a sharp reduction in the intensity of orgasmic sensations B. experience too intense of an orgasm C. experience multiple orgasms D. do not experience orgasm Answer: A 56. The most commonly reported form of sexual dysfunction in men is ______. A. hypoactive sexual desire disorder B. premature ejaculation C. genitor-pelvic pain D. vaginismus Answer: B 57. In females, reduced levels of sexual interest and drive as well as reduced sexual arousal during sexual activity are known as ______ disorders. A. female sexual interest/arousal disorder B. unorthodox sexual desire C. orgasm D. sexual pain Answer: A 58. A sexual dysfunction in which men have a persistent lack of sexual desire or recurrent lack of sexual interest or sexual fantasies is ______. A. sexual aversion disorder B. sexual apathy disorder C. male hypoactive sexual desire disorder D. frigidity Answer: C 59. Amber has never developed any interest in sex. She does not experience sexual fantasies. Her boyfriend cannot understand her attitude, and he is becoming frustrated by it. When he and Amber consult with a psychologist about the issue, Amber is likely to be diagnosed as having he DSM-5 diagnosis of ______. A. sexual aversion disorder B. sexual apathy disorder C. female sexual interest/arousal disorder D. frigidity Answer: C 60. Rich has no interest in sex at all. He has no sexual fantasies and no desire to engage in sexual activity. While he does not find sex disgusting or revolting, he does not understand what others find so exciting about it. He feels just fine remaining celibate. If these issues begin to cause Rich distress or interfere with his relationships, he may be diagnosed with _______. A. dyspareunia B. sexual aversion disorder C. male hypoactive sexual desire disorder D. male erectile disorder Answer: C 61. In order to be assigned a diagnosis of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder, the afflicted woman _________. A. has never experienced an orgasm B. has a physical anomaly that is contributing to the pain she experiences C. has no medical explanation for her pain; thus the condition is determined to be psychological D. is not sexually attracted to her partner Answer: C 62. For a diagnosis of a sexual dysfunction, the disorder must cause ________. A. significant distress or impairment in functioning B. a threat to one’s health C. a deviation from the norm D. a loss of income Answer: A 63. Which statement about disorders of interest and arousal is true? A. Women with the disorder experience a more active sex life. B. In men, sexual interest or arousal disorder is very rare. C. Clinicians agree on criteria for determining the level of sexual desire considered “normal.” D. For men, occasional problems in achieving or maintaining erection are common due to fatigue, alcohol, and anxiety with a new partner. Answer: D 64. In men, a sexual dysfunction characterized by an inability to achieve or maintain the physiological responses involved in sexual arousal or excitement is known as ______ disorder. A. erectile B. gender desire C. male orgasm D. sexual pain Answer: A 65. Maria does not fantasize about sex and has a lack of sexual desire, when she and her husband attempt to have intercourse. This has been a persistent problem for several months now. Her disorder is ________ A. dyspareunia B. vaginismus C. female orgasmic disorder D. female sexual interest/arousal disorder Answer: D 66. Although Clark constantly fantasizes about having sex with his wife, when he actually attempts intercourse, he cannot maintain an erection. This has been a persistent problem for several months now. His disorder is ______. A. dyspareunia B. hypoactive sexual desire C. male erectile disorder D. male orgasmic disorder Answer: C 67. Although Mona constantly fantasizes about having sex with her husband and she has no problem becoming vaginally lubricated during intercourse, she is unable to reach sexual climax no matter how long she is sexually stimulated. Her disorder is ________ A. dyspareunia B. vaginismus C. female sexual arousal disorder D. female orgasmic disorder Answer: D 68. Men suffering from delayed ejaculation ________. A. cannot achieve orgasm through masturbation or sexual intercourse B. can usually achieve orgasm through masturbation but not through sexual intercourse C. can usually achieve orgasm through sexual intercourse but not through masturbation D. achieve orgasm before penetration when attempting sexual intercourse Answer: B 69. Men with delayed ejaculation usually ______ reach orgasm through masturbation and ______ achieve orgasm through sexual intercourse. A. cannot, cannot B. can, cannot C. cannot, can D. can, can Answer: B 70. Josh can achieve orgasm through masturbation, but even though he is thoroughly aroused by his girlfriend he is unable to reach orgasm through intercourse with her. His sexual dysfunction is ______. A. male erectile disorder B. dyspareunia C. delayed ejaculation D. male sexual desire disorder Answer: C 71. Joe is having difficulties with his sex life because he climaxes just seconds after he enters his partner. Sometimes he climaxes even before he enters his partner. His disorder is ______. A. male hypoactive sexual desire disorder B. male orgasmic disorder C. premature ejaculation D. male erectile disorder Answer: C 72. The most common form of sexual dysfunction in men is ______. A. sexual erectile disorder B. dyspareunia C. male orgasmic disorder D. premature ejaculation Answer: D 73. Which of the following disorders applies to women who experience sexual pain and/or difficulty engaging in vaginal intercourse or penetration? A. Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder B. Intercourse aversion disorder C. Orgasmic disorder D. Gender identity disorder Answer: A 74. Persistent or recurrent pain experienced during or following sexual intercourse is ______. A. hyperactive sexual response B. hypoactive sexual response C. genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder D. the phi phenomenon Answer: C 75. Janet has always enjoyed sex, but lately, every time she has intercourse she feels sharp pains. It has rapidly taken the enjoyment out of her sexual activity. Her disorder is ______. A. female orgasmic disorder B. hypoactive sexual desire disorder C. sexual aversion disorder D. genito-pelvic pain/ penetration disorder Answer: D 76. The involuntary spasm of the muscles surrounding the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted, making sexual intercourse difficult or impossible, is known as ______. A. vaginismus B. dyspareunia C. the phi phenomenon D. congenital infarction Answer: A 77. Over the last several months, every time Lucia has attempted sexual intercourse she has experienced spasms of the muscles surrounding her vagina, making intercourse painful or impossible. Her disorder is ______. A. dyspareunia B. vaginismus C. female sexual arousal disorder D. sexual aversion disorder Answer: B 78. The major contemporary _______ views of sexual dysfunctions emphasize the roles of anxiety, lack of sexual skills, irrational beliefs, perceived causes of events, and relationship problems. A. psychological perspectives B. biological perspective C. social perspective D. cultural perspective Answer: A 79. According to the text, conditioned anxiety resulting from ________ may lead to problems with sexual arousal or achieving orgasm or lead to pain in women during penetration. A. a history of sexual trauma or rape B. not enough protein in the diet C. excessive caffeine use D. excessive sexual activity Answer: A 80. As cited in the textbook, Laurent & Simons (2009) found that other psychological problems, such as __________, can also result in sexual dysfunctions involving impaired sexual interest, arousal, or response. A. depression and anxiety B. learning disabilities C. bipolar disorder D. schizophrenia Answer: A 81. People who have an excessive concern about the ability to perform successfully during sexual activity are often troubled by ______. A. performance anxiety B. castration anxiety C. hypoactive sexual desire D. sexual pain disorders Answer: A 82. A man who worries, “what will she think of my ability to satisfy her,” may be suffering from ______. A. hypoactive sexual desire B. castration anxiety C. performance anxiety D. body dysmorphic disorder Answer: C 83. When people with performance anxiety are engaged in sex, they are unable to focus on ______. A. their bodies B. their erotic experiences C. pleasing their partners D. the results of their sexual functioning Answer: B 84. The erectile reflex is controlled by the ______ branch of the autonomic nervous system. A. sympathetic B. parasympathetic C. voluntary D. involuntary Answer: B 85. Ejaculation is controlled by the ______ branch of the autonomic nervous system. A. sympathetic B. parasympathetic C. voluntary D. involuntary Answer: A 86. Albert Ellis claims that ______ contribute to sexual dysfunctions. A. unconscious conflicts B. feelings of conditional positive regard C. problems in our ability to regulate our levels of sexual arousal D. irrational beliefs and attitudes Answer: D 87. In the case of Pete and Paula in the text, the sexual disorder was ______. A. Pete’s erectile dysfunction B. Paula’s sexual aversion disorder C. Paula’s hypoactive sexual desire disorder D. Pete’s vaginismus Answer: A 88. The male sex hormone testosterone is ______ in energizing sexual desire in males and is ______ in energizing sexual desire in females. A. not important, not important B. not important, important C. important, not important D. important, important Answer: D 89. Most men and women with sexual dysfunctions have ______. A. had vasectomies or hysterectomies B. abnormally low levels of sex hormones C. normal levels of sex hormones D. abnormally high levels of sex hormones Answer: C 90. Erectile disorders are commonly found in men with which of the following conditions? A. allergies B. psoriasis C. cardiovascular disorders D. gastric ulcer Answer: C 91. Which of the following conditions are often present for men with erectile disorders? A. allergies B. obesity C. gastric ulcer D. psoriasis Answer: A 92. A disease that can damage nerves that serve the penis, thus causing erectile disorder is ______. A. arthritis B. osteoporosis C. diabetes D. tuberculosis Answer: C 93. Erectile disorder and delayed ejaculation can also result from a disease in which nerve cells lose the protective coating that facilitates transmission of neural messages. This disease is known as ______. A. muscular dystrophy B. Huntington’s chorea C. Turner’s syndrome D. multiple sclerosis Answer: D 94. Eric Rimm’s (2000) study found erectile dysfunction to be linked to which of the following? A. having a large waist B. excessive, overly strenuous exercise C. a vitamin B deficiency D. eating fast food Answer: A 95. Men with erectile disorder are more than _______ to have diabetes compared to males without erectile dysfunction. A. three times as likely B. four times as likely C. twice as likely D. five times as likely Answer: C 96. The Massachusetts Male Aging Study suggests that ______ may reduce the risk of erectile dysfunction. A. three alcoholic drinks per day B. 600 mg. daily of calcium C. regular exercise D. daily meditation Answer: C 97. About one in three women who use ________ experience impaired orgasmic response or complete lack of orgasm. A. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants B. anti-inflammatory medication C. diet pills D. excessive caffeine Answer: A 98. Use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants such as ______ can cause impaired orgasmic response or complete lack of orgasm. A. Zoloft or Paxil B. Tylenol C. Xanax D. Morphine Answer: A 99. A psychiatric medication that can cause orgasmic disorder in either men or women is ______. A. Adderall B. Lithium C. Buspar D. Xanax Answer: D 100. Medication which is used to treat ______ can contribute to erectile difficulties. A. acne B. high blood pressure C. thyroid problems D. glaucoma Answer: B 101. Medication which is used to treat ______ can contribute to sexual dysfunction. A. psychological disorders B. arthritis C. indigestion D. headaches Answer: A 102. What is the common thread in alcohol, heroin, and morphine that reduces sexual desire and impairs sexual arousal? A. They are central nervous system depressants. B. Addicts prefer to use these drugs alone rather than in the company of another person. C. Users are ashamed of the physical side effects of these drugs and will not allow another person to become intimate with them. D. They regularly lead to premature ejaculation. Answer: A 103. In Hispanic culture, the marianismo stereotype is linked in the text to ______. A. male sexual impotence B. premature ejaculation C. female prostitution D. female sexual dysfunction Answer: D 104. Investigators find a greater incidence of erectile dysfunction in cultures with which of the following types of cultural attitudes? A. unrestricted attitudes toward premarital sex among females B. restrictive attitudes toward homosexuality C. restrictive attitudes toward sex in marriage D. unrestricted e attitudes toward extramarital sex Answer: C 105. According to the ______ perspective, our negative beliefs about sexuality may interfere with sexual desire and function. A. sociocultural B. biological C. physiological D. evolutionary Answer: A 106. Psychoanalytic therapists have approached sexual dysfunctions ______. A. by emphasizing penis envy B. through direct treatment of performance anxiety C. indirectly, assuming they represented underlying conflicts D. with the assessment of genetic influences Answer: C 107. There was no effective treatment for most sexual dysfunctions until ______. A. the development of psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud B. the development of behavioral techniques by B.F. Skinner C. the development of rational-emotive behavior therapy by Albert Ellis D. the publication of research by Masters and Johnson Answer: D 108. Until ______ work in the 1960s, there was no effective treatment for most sexual dysfunctions. A. Kinsey’s B. Westheimer’s C. Kaplan’s D. Masters and Johnson’s Answer: D 109. Most contemporary sex therapists assume that sexual dysfunctions ______. A. can be treated by directly modifying the couple's sexual interactions B. must be treated indirectly by resolving the underlying emotional conflicts which led to the dysfunction C. require some type of biochemical intervention to resolve the problem D. are a normal result of our nation's emphasis on sexuality and must be accepted as part of the price we pay for being so sexually oriented Answer: A 110. Which of the following is true of sex therapy? A. Sex therapy encourages the couple to consider having their relationship as open. B. Sex therapy focuses on relieving performance anxiety. C. Sex therapy focuses on expression of frustration about the partner’s performance. D. Sex therapy usually involves the therapist seeing each partner in individual therapy. Answer: B 111. Sex therapy typically uses ______ techniques in a brief therapy format. A. psychodynamic B. cognitive-behavioral C. Gestalt D. humanistic Answer: B 112. In the treatment of sexual dysfunctions, over the past 25 years there has developed a greater emphasis on the role of _____ factors and a ______ use of medical and surgical treatments. A. psychological, lesser B. biological, lesser C. psychological, greater D. biological, greater Answer: D 113. Treatment for low sexual desire might include all but which one of the following? A. insight-oriented therapy B. self-stimulation exercises C. stop-and-go technique D. testosterone replacement, if indicated Answer: C 114. George and Martha go into therapy to resolve sexual problems in their marriage. Their therapist uses behavioral methods to change problem behaviours and expectancies, as well as sensate focus exercises to help them learn to pleasure each other in a relaxed, low- pressure atmosphere. This treatment approach is most like that of ______. A. Kinsey B. Masters and Johnson C. Hunt D. Kaplan Answer: B 115. Researchers have found that testosterone ______. A. is actually not very important in the sexual interest or functioning of men and women B. plays a key role in the sexual interest and functioning of men but not women C. plays a key role in the sexual interest and functioning of women but not men D. plays a key role in the sexual interest and functioning of both men and women Answer: D 116. Treatment with ______ shows promise in heightening sexual desire for both women and men. A. gradated pornographic videos B. partner applied vibrators C. progesterone D. testosterone Answer: D 117. For men with erectile problems and women with vaginal lubrication difficulties with psychological causes, the first thing they have to do is ______. A. relax B. view erotica more often C. learn new techniques D. bear down and try harder Answer: A 118. As part of their sex therapy, Mike and Trudy are asked to massage, or pleasure, each other for extended periods of time without touching each other's genitals. This technique is called ______. A. relaxation training B. covert sensitization C. sensate focus exercising D. self-spectatoring Answer: C 119. Women with orgasmic disorder often harbor beliefs that ______. A. sex is dirty and sinful B. that one should never lose control of oneself C. sex is a weapon to be used to manipulate men D. masturbation is the only appropriate sexual outlet for women unless one is attempting to conceive children Answer: A 120. To treat female orgasmic dysfunction, Masters and Johnson used all of the following techniques A. sensate focus B. masturbation C. testosterone D. communication enhancement Answer: C 121. The most effective way for women with orgasm difficulties to achieve orgasm is through ______. A. viewing erotic movies B. sensate focus exercise C. masturbation D. group sex Answer: C 122. In females, directed masturbation has been used to successfully treat female orgasmic dysfunction in about ______ percent of cases. A. 10-30 B. 30-50 C. 50-70 D. 70-90 Answer: D 123. The standard treatment for delayed ejaculation disorder focuses on increasing _______ and reducing _________. A. sexual stimulation; performance anxiety B. monogamy; promiscuity C. attention; distraction D. testosterone levels; estrogen levels Answer: A 124. The most widely used behavioral approach for treating premature ejaculation is ______. A. the sensate focus exercise B. hypnosis C. the stop-and-go technique D. covert desensitization Answer: C 125. The stop-and-go technique was suggested by ______. A. Masters and Johnson B. Kaplan C. Heiman and LoPiccolo D. Semans Answer: D 126. In treating premature ejaculation, the stop-and-go technique has shown ______ success rates and ______ relapse rates. A. low, low B. low, high C. high, low D. high, high Answer: D 127. Vaginismus represents ______. A. psychologically based fear of penetration B. psychologically based fear of abandonment C. a physical (medical) disorder of the genital muscles D. psychologically based fear of adulthood and adult sexuality Answer: A 128. Women with vaginismus often have histories of ______. A. restrictive, morally constrained upbringing B. rape or sexual abuse C. being overly sheltered from knowledge of sex and sexuality D. being abandoned or left alone Answer: B 129. Treatment for vaginismus often includes the technique of ______. A. negative reinforcement B. aversive conditioning C. response cost D. gradual exposure Answer: D 130. Drugs such as Viagra and Cialis are used to ______. A. induce orgasms B. delay orgasms C. induce erections D. increase desire Answer: C 131. Investigators are exploring biomedical therapies for female sexual dysfunctions, including use of erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs such as _____. A. Valium B. Flomax C. Viagra D. Xanax Answer: C 132. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors can help men with ______. A. erectile dysfunction B. premature ejaculation C. sexual aversion D. voyeurism Answer: B 133. Someone who shows sexual arousal in response to stimuli involving nonhuman objects, inappropriate or nonconsenting partners, or painful or humiliating situations is suffering from ______. A. paraphilia B. sexual dysfunction C. gender identity disorder D. sexual orientation disorder Answer: A 134. Which of the following would be considered a common atypical item that someone with a paraphilia would be aroused by? A. watching heterosexual sexual activity on the Internet B. visiting a prostitute C. dressing in sexually revealing clothing typical for persons of the individual’s gender D. seeing underwear or shoes Answer: D 135. For a diagnosis of paraphilia under the DSM-5 guidelines, a person's fantasies and urges must be recurrent for a period of at least ______. A. 3 months B. 6 months C. 9 months D. 12 months Answer: B 136. Paraphilias are ______ diagnosed in women. A. almost never B. about a third of the time C. about two-thirds of the time D. almost exclusively Answer: A 137. For a paraphilic disorder to be diagnosed per the DSM-5, the presence of paraphilia must also include personal distress or impairment in important areas of daily functioning or __________. A. involve behaviors presently or in the past in which satisfaction of the sexual urge involved harm, or risk of harm, to other people. B. cause legal problems for the individual. C. result in loss of sexual interest and activity for the rest of the life. D. involve the joining of a community of like-minded people. Answer: A 138. A relatively harmless paraphilia is ______. A. transvestic fetishism B. exhibitionism C. pedophilia D. sexual sadism Answer: A 139. A most harmful paraphilia is ______. A. fetishism B. sexual sadism C. transvestic fetishism D. voyeurism Answer: B 140. A paraphilia in which one is sexually aroused by exposing one’s genitals to an unsuspecting stranger is known as ______. A. voyeurism B. exhibitionism C. frotteurism D. pedophilia Answer: B 141. Lonnie suffers from recurrent, powerful urges to expose his genitals to unsuspecting women in hopes of shocking and arousing them. He masturbates while exposing himself although he does not seek actual sexual contact with his victim. His paraphilia is ______. A. exhibitionism B. voyeurism C. frotteurism D. scatologia Answer: A 142. Which of the following is probably the safest reaction when confronted by a person suffering from exhibitionism? A. Laugh them B. Ignore them C. Show exaggerated fear or shock at their actions D. Insult them Answer: B 143. Which of the following is true of people who suffer from exhibitionism? A. It can be an expression of frustration over lack of personal success. B. They are typically interested in sexual contact with their victims. C. They tend to be shy, dependent, and lacking in social and sexual skills. D. Their victims' revulsion or fear is not reinforcing and lowers their arousal. Answer: C 144. Which of the following is true of people who suffer from exhibitionism? A. Exhibitionists enjoy visiting nude beaches because they are able to expose themselves in a socially acceptable manner. B. The goal of the exhibitionist is show off the attractiveness of their bodies. C. Exhibitionists often doubt their masculinity. D. Exhibitionists are often grandiose and see their genital exposure as a means of taunting others. Answer: C 145. Virtually all people diagnosed with exhibitionism are ______. A. shy men B. shy women C. aggressive men D. aggressive women Answer: A 146. The word "fetish" is derived from the Portuguese word meaning ______. A. bizarre B. magic charm C. odd or unusual D. sex object Answer: B 147. A type of paraphilia in which a person uses an inanimate object as a focus of sexual interest and a source of arousal is called ______. A. frotteurism B. voyeurism C. fetishism D. transvestic fetishism Answer: C 148. Larry suffers from recurrent, powerful sexual urges and fantasies involving women's shoes. He might be diagnosed with ______. A. frotteurism B. voyeurism C. fetishism D. transvestic fetishism Answer: C 149. In many cases, the origin of many fetishes can be traced to ______. A. early childhood B. early adolescence C. late adolescence D. early adulthood Answer: A 150. According to one research study noted in the textbook, most rubber fetishists recall first experiencing a fetishistic attraction to rubber between the ages of ______. A. 1 and 4 B. 4 and 10 C. 10 and 16 D. 16 and 22 Answer: B 151. Louie suffers from recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving cross-dressing. He is sexually excited by dressing in his wife’s clothing and often masturbates while fantasizing that he is stroking his wife. His disorder is ______. A. frotteurism B. transsexualism C. fetishism D. transvestic fetishism Answer: D 152. Which of the following would be a reason that a gay man or transgender individual would cross-dress? A. To make a statement about overly rigid gender roles B. To anger heterosexuals C. To achieve initial sexual arousal D. To use the clothing to achieve orgasm Answer: A 153. Statistically, which of the following males is MOST likely to exhibit transvestic fetishism? A. a single, openly gay male who cross dresses to attract a partner B. a single, heterosexual male who is shy, inhibited, and sexually inactive C. a married male who is shy, inhibited, and sexually inactive with his wife D. a married male who is sexually active with his wife Answer: D 154. Which man would be diagnosed with transvestic fetishism? A. a cross-dresser who is sexually stimulated by fantasies that his own body is female B. a female impersonator who cross-dresses for theatrical purposes C. one who masturbates when he cross-dresses D. men who are turned on by only wearing one particular article of women’s clothing like stockings Answer: B 155. A paraphilia characterized by recurrent sexual urges involving watching unsuspecting others in sexual situations is known as ______. A. frotteurism B. exhibitionism C. voyeurism D. pedophilia Answer: C 156. Ron suffers from recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving watching unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity. He does not seek sexual activity with the person he is watching. The watching itself is what arouses him. His disorder is ______. A. exhibitionism B. voyeurism C. fetishism D. frotteurism Answer: B 157. The main purpose for a voyeur to watch others undress or engage in sexual activity is to ______. A. satisfy sexual curiosity B. prepare to seek sexual activity with the person being watched C. attain sexual excitement D. accumulate material for potential blackmail of the person being watched Answer: C 158. A voyeur usually ______ while engaging in “peeping.” A. uses a telescope B. fantasizes about his girlfriend or wife C. exposes himself D. masturbates Answer: 3 159. A paraphilia characterized by recurrent sexual urges involving bumping or rubbing against nonconsenting others for sexual gratification is known as ______. A. frotteurism B. exhibitionism C. pedophilia D. voyeurism Answer: A 160. Andrew has recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies of rubbing against or ouching a nonconsenting person. He usually acts on these urges in crowded settings such as buses, subway cars, or elevators. Rubbing against the person is what arouses him. His disorder is ______. A. partialism B. exhibitionism C. coprophilia D. frotteurism Answer: D 161. The term "mashing" refers to what psychologists call ______. A. pedophilia B. transvestic fetishism C. frotteurism D. sadism Answer: C 162. Which of the following is true of frotteurism? A. The coercive aspects of “mashing” another is what is sexually arousing to the frotteurist. B. It generally occurs in quiet, uncrowded places. C. The physical contact that the frotteurist makes is aggressive and sustained. D. The act of physically rubbing against or touching the victim is what is sexually arousing to the frotteurist. Answer: D 163. A convenient place for a frotteurist to act out his needs would be ______. A. the beach B. a college campus C. a crowded subway D. a movie theatre Answer: C 164. A paraphilia involving recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving sexual activity with prepubescent children is known as ______. A. transvestic fetishism B. pedophilia C. frotteurism D. voyeurism Answer: B 165. Harold has recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving sexual activity with prepubescent children. He is aroused by looking at and fondling children, telling them all the while that he is "educating" them. His disorder is ______. A. partialism B. pedophilia C. necrophilia D. frotteurism Answer: B 166. To be labeled with pedophilia, a person must be at least ______ years old. A. 12 B. 16 C. 20 D. 24 Answer: B 167. A person with pedophilia must be an individual of at least 16 years of age and at least ______ years older than the victim. A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 Answer: B 168. Which of the following is true of people with pedophilia? A. When they abuse a child, they usually do it only once before moving on to a new victim. B. They are usually either friends or relatives of the victims' families. C. The person with pedophilia never has children of their own. D. Many people with pedophilia are attracted to animals as well as to children. Answer: A 169. Which of the following people is MOST likely to have pedophilia? A. a single, young male with a history of violent criminal activity B. a single, elderly male who has never married and is shy, inhibited, and socially unskilled C. a married, young, law-abiding male with no children of his own D. a married, middle-aged, law-abiding male with children of his own Answer: D 170. Most people with pedophilia are in their ______. A. teens or twenties B. twenties or thirties C. thirties or forties D. forties or fifties Answer: C 171. For _________ to be diagnosed, the person must have equal or greater sexual arousal to prepubescent or early pubescent children than to physically mature individuals. A. voyeurism B. pedophilic disorder C. frotteurism D. fetishism Answer: B 172. Which of the following is true of people with pedophilia? A. They typically have a co-existing substance use disorder. B. They are usually married or divorced. C. They are usually in their teens. D. They usually have no children of their own. Answer: B 173. Evidence based on case studies shows that men with pedophilia tend to have ____________ and the relationships ___________. A. fewer romantic relationships than other men; they do have tend to be less satisfying B. as many relationships as normal males; are without notable problems C. more romantic relationships than other men; they do have tend to be less satisfying D. little use for other adults; they do have tend to be less satisfying Answer: A 174. During adolescence, those who had been sexually abused tend to be more sexually ______ than their peers. A. abstinent B. anxious C. unsophisticated D. sexually active Answer: D 175. The most pronounced gender difference in child victims of sexual abuse is that boys tend to be more ______ and girls tend to be more ______. A. aggressive, depressed B. extraverted, introverted C. forgiving, angry D. angry, forgiving Answer: A 176. ______ personality disorder has been linked to childhood sexual abuse. A. Obsessive compulsive B. Narcissistic C. Borderline D. Avoidant Answer: C 177. The word “masochism” is derived from ______. A. a Latin word meaning self-hate B. a Greek word meaning self-hate C. the name of an Austrian novelist D. a Hebrew word meaning sexual pain Answer: C 178. Flagellation refers to ______. A. masturbation B. oral sex C. being fondled D. being whipped or beaten Answer: D 179. Strong recurrent urges and related fantasies related to sexual acts that involve being humiliated or made to suffer are characteristic of ______. These urges may be acted upon, or may cause significant personal distress. A. sexual sadism B. frotteurism C. sexual masochism D. scatologia Answer: C 180. A paraphilia characterized by recurrent, powerful sexual urges and fantasies involving receiving humiliation or pain is known as ______. A. sexual masochism B. exhibitionism C. sexual sadism D. voyeurism Answer: A 181. Roger has recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving being humiliated, bound, flogged, and made to suffer. He cannot attain sexual gratification unless he is suffering pain or humiliation. He is particularly aroused if his partner wears leather while whipping him. His disorder is ______. A. sexual sadism B. frotteurism C. sexual masochism D. hypoxyphilia Answer: C 182. A dangerous expression of sexual masochism is ________, in which participants become aroused by being deprived of oxygen A. sadism B. sadomasochism C. partialism D. hypoxyphilia Answer: D 183. The most dangerous expression of masochism is ______. A. necrophilia B. hypoxyphilia C. flagellation D. frotteurism Answer: B 184. Boris becomes sexually aroused by depriving himself of oxygen as he approaches orgasm during masturbation. He does this by putting a plastic bag over his head. This extremely risky practice is called ______. A. necrophilia B. hypoxyphilia C. frotteurism D. scatologia Answer: B 185. The word “sadism” is derived from ______. A. a Latin word meaning hatred of women B. a Greek word meaning hatred of women C. the name of a French writer D. a Hebrew word meaning sexual pain Answer: C 186. Carlos enjoys stalking and sexually assaulting nonconsenting victims. He becomes aroused by humiliating them, inflicting pain on them, and watching them suffer. His behavior is most similar to someone with ______. A. sexual sadism B. frotteurism C. sexual masochism D. hypoxyphilia Answer: A 187. The mutually gratifying interaction involving both sadistic and masochistic acts is called ______. A. sadism B. masochism C. sadomasochism D. scatologia Answer: C 188. Gerald and Elaine like to engage in mutually gratifying sex play in which one of them uses a feather brush to strike the other. No actual pain is administered; it is more the sense of dominating or being dominated that each of them finds gratifying, and they frequently switch roles so that one time Gerald uses the brush on Elaine, and other times Elaine uses the brush on Gerald. Their behavior is typical of ______. A. sadism B. masochism C. sadomasochism D. scatologia Answer: C 189. _________ is a form of paraphilia where the source of arousal is solely focused on one part of the body, such as the breasts. A. Klismaphilia B. Partialism C. Anatophilia D. Coprophilia Answer: B 190. Hank is sexually aroused by making obscene phone calls. His disorder is telephone ______. A. scatologia B. klismaphilia C. frotteurism D. coprophilia Answer: A 191. Felix is sexually aroused by fantasies involving sexual contact with corpses. His disorder is ______. A. scatologia B. klismaphilia C. necrophilia D. coprophilia Answer: C 192. Catherine is sexually aroused by having sex with animals. Her disorder is ______. A. pedophilia B. zoophilia C. necrophilia D. klismaphilia Answer: B 193. Carol is sexually aroused by having her partner defecate on her during sexual activity. Her disorder is ______. A. scatologia B. urophilia C. coprophilia D. klismaphilia Answer: C 194. Santana is sexually aroused by receiving an enema as part of his sexual stimulation. He can only achieve orgasm while receiving the enema. His disorder is ______. A. scatologia B. urophilia C. coprophilia D. klismaphilia Answer: D 195. Raul is sexually aroused by having his partner urinate on him during sexual activity. His disorder is ______. A. scatologia B. urophilia C. coprophilia D. klismaphilia Answer: B 196. Psychodynamic theories see paraphilias as a defense against ______. A. toilet-training anxiety B. castration anxiety C. incest memories D. parental rejection Answer: B 197. Men with paraphilias have been found to have higher-than-average ______. A. sex drives B. IQ scores C. extraversion D. introversion Answer: A 198. Men with paraphilias tend to have ______ than average sex drives and a ______ refractory period after orgasm by masturbation. A. less, shorter B. less, longer C. higher, shorter D. higher, longer Answer: C 199. Recently, investigators found they could distinguish men with pedophilia from (non-pedophilic) healthy men with nearly _____ accuracy by examining brain responses, as measured by an fMRI scan, to images of nude children versus nude women. A. 25% B. 50% C. 75% D. 100% Answer: D 200. The major problem with treating paraphilias is ______. A. the lack of a cooperating partner B. the absence of effective therapeutic techniques C. little motivation of people with paraphilia to change D. the treatment is expensive and usually takes over a year to be effective Answer: C 201. A variation of aversion therapy used to treat sex offenders in the United States is ______. A. systematic desensitization B. covert sensitization C. aversive shock treatment D. orgasmic reconditioning Answer: B 202. Which technique is used by cognitive-behavioral therapists to help eliminate paraphiliac behaviors? A. the empty chair technique B. flooding C. cognitive monitoring D. covert sensitization Answer: D 203. Researchers have reported some success in using the drug ______ in the treatment of voyeurism and fetishism. A. lithium B. phenothiazine C. Prozac D. Mellaril Answer: C 204. ________ drugs reduce levels of testosterone in the bloodstream and since the use of them may reduce sexual drives and urges, including urges to sexually offend and related fantasies, they are being investigated as a form of biomedical therapy. A. Xanax B. Barbituate C. Antiandrogen D. Antipsychotic Answer: C 205. About ______ percent of adult users of the internet show evidence of sexual compulsiveness in their online behavior. A. 6 B. 26 C. 46 D. 86 Answer: A 206. Phyllis spends hours every day having online sex with people she meets online. When she has tried to stop her online sex, she suffered withdrawal symptoms. Phyllis probably suffers from a new type of disorder called ______. A. sexual compulsivity syndrome B. cybersex addiction C. trichotillomania D. cyberporn habituation syndrome Answer: B 207. Experts compare computer sex addiction to ______. A. drug addiction B. spending too much time talking on the cell phone C. watching R-rated movies D. reading the same comic strips in the paper every day Answer: A Disorder? 208. Which statement is true about cybersex addiction? A. It is recognized as a diagnostic category in DSM-5. B. Cybersex addicts typically have co-existing personality disorders. C. Cybersex addicts frequently engage in exhibitionism as an alternative to online sexual excitement. D. It arises even in good, secure, relationships with adequate sexual opportunities. Answer: D 209. Online sexual addiction results in ______. A. neither tolerance nor withdrawal B. tolerance but not withdrawal C. withdrawal, but not tolerance D. both tolerance and withdrawal Answer: D Disorder? 210. Among rape victims, emotional distress tends to peak about 3 ______ after the attack. A. hours B. days C. weeks D. months Answer: C 211. Among rape victims, emotional distress peaks at roughly ______ after the assault and remains high for about a ______ before beginning to decline. A. day; month B. week; month C. three weeks; month D. one month; year Answer: C 212. About ______ percent of men become victims of rape at some point in their life. A. 1 to 3 B. 5 to10 C. 20 D. 30 Answer: A 213. Best estimates indicate that about ______ women in the United States are raped or experience an attempted rape during their lifetimes. A. 1 in 5 B. 1 in 8 C. 1 in 12 D. 1 in 16 Answer: A 214. Females aged ______ stand the greatest risk of being raped. A. 8 to 16 B. 11 to 24 C. 24 to 32 D. 32 to 40 Answer: B 215. ________ is a kind of acquaintance rape. A. A hook-up B. Date rape C. Alcohol-induced sex D. Rough sex Answer: B 216. Some men who rape on a date believe that women who resist advances are ___________. A. playing out a masochistic fantasy B. attempting to control the relationship C. simply trying not to look “easy” D. conforming to outdated sexual roles in which the woman is dominated by the male Answer: C 217. According to the U.S. Department of Justice (2006), More than four out of five rapes in the United States are ______ rapes. A. stranger B. gang C. acquaintance D. violent Answer: C 218. Men who are ______ educated and ______ accepting of traditional stereotypes about relationships between men and women are less likely to commit marital rape. A. less, less B. more, less C. less, more D. more, more Answer: B 219. Most men who engage in raping other men are ______. A. drunk B. homosexual C. motivated by sexual desire D. heterosexual Answer: D 220. The authors of the text argue that a major basis for sexual violence against women is ______. A. the socialization of aggression in men B. the vast amount of sex currently portrayed on television and the Internet C. father absence from the household of children due to the high divorce rate D. the heavy use of alcohol by men on college campuses Answer: A 221. Which of the following is a fact rather than an inaccurate cultural myth about rape? A. Rape is a crime of violence, not passion or sexual desire. B. Rape usually results from a misunderstanding that gets out of hand. C. Women secretly want to be overpowered by men. D. If a woman initiates touching or petting with a man, it’s her own fault if things go too far. Answer: A True-False Questions 222. For most people, gender identity is consistent with their physical or genetic sex. Answer: True 223. Gender dysphoria typically begins in adolescence. Answer: False 224. Estimates about the frequency of gender dysphoria in the US are readily available and accurate. Answer: False 225. A DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria requires completion of gender reassignment surgery. Answer: False 226. Gay males and lesbians have a gender identity of the opposite sex. Answer: False 227. Gender identity is virtually identical to sexual orientation. Answer: False 228. A transsexual is someone who enjoys cross-dressing. Answer: False 229. Gender reassignment surgery tends to have better outcomes in the cases of females who become males. Answer: False 230. The development of transgender identity may result from the effects of male sexual hormones on the developing brain during prenatal development. Answer: True 231. In the DSM system, there has been consensus to classify transgender identity as a mental disorder. Answer: False 232. With regard to the gender dysphoria, critics of the present diagnostic system contend that much of the distress that transgender children experience comes from difficulties getting along with other kids and being accepted by them, not from their gender identity per se. Answer: True 233. Researchers have found subtle differences in the brains of transgender people but do not yet know the implications of those differences. Answer: True 234. Many transgender individuals do not warrant a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, as they show no evidence of significant distress or impairment in daily functioning needed to meet diagnostic criteria. Answer: True 235. The majority of people with the types of family histories which behavioral and psychodynamic heorists say predict gender dysphoria, actually do develop the disorder. Answer: False 236. Fortunately, sexual dysfunctions are relatively rare. Answer: False 237. Men are more likely to report reaching orgasm too quickly when they reveal a sexual dysfunction. Answer: True 238. Despite the fact that sexual dysfunctions are believed to be widespread, relatively few people seek treatment for these problems. Answer: True 239. Some researchers argue that labeling a lack of sexual desire in women as a dysfunction imposes on women a male model of what should be normal. Answer: True 240. Problems with sexual arousal in men typically take the form of failure to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient to engage in sexual activity through completion. Answer: True 241. Men with persistent erectile difficulties may be diagnosed with erectile disorder (ED). Answer: True 242. The vagina, not the clitoris, is the woman's most erotically sensitive organ. Answer: False 243. Vaginismus is a conditioned reflex related to overly sensitive vaginal muscles. Answer: False 244. Men with performance anxiety may have difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection or may ejaculate prematurely. Answer: True 245. Women with performance may fail to become adequately aroused or have difficulty achieving orgasm. Answer: True 246. In Western cultures, the connection between a man's sexual performance and his sense of manhood is deeply ingrained. Answer: True 247. Women may equate their self-esteem with their ability to reach frequent and intense orgasms during sexual activity. Answer: True 248. Irrational beliefs and attitudes can contribute to sexual dysfunctions. Answer: True 249. The strain of a troubled relationship can take a toll on sexual desire, as can other stressful life events. Answer: True 250. Only men produce testosterone in their bodies. Answer: False 251. Antidepressant and antipsychotic medication can impair erectile functioning and cause orgasmic disorders Answer: True 252. About one in three women who use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants such as Zoloft or Paxil experience impaired orgasmic response or complete lack of orgasm. Answer: True 253. Many sexual dysfunctions are linked to restricted sociocultural beliefs and sexual taboos. Answer: True 254. Until the research of the sex researchers Masters and Johnson in the 1960s, there was no effective treatment for most sexual dysfunctions. Answer: True 255. Masturbation is not an effective direct treatment for helping women with disorders of orgasm achieve orgasm. Answer: False 256. Investigators are exploring biomedical therapies for female sexual dysfunctions, including use of erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs such as Viagra. Answer: True 257. The presence of paraphilia is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for a diagnosis of a paraphilic disorder. Answer: True 258. Paraphilic disorders are almost never diagnosed in women. Answer: True 259. Fetishism and transvestic fetishism are usually harmless and victimless. Answer: True 260. Exhibitionists are usually interested in sexual contact with their victims. Answer: False 261. Exhibitionism is almost exclusively limited to males. Answer: True 262. Wearing revealing bathing suits is a form of exhibitionism. Answer: False 263. Professional strippers are considered exhibitionists according to clinical criteria. Answer: False 264. Fetishists experience sexual gratification by masturbating while rubbing, fondling, or even smelling the object of their fetish. Answer: True 265. Most transvestites are married and engage in sexual activities with their wives. Answer: True 266. The diagnosis of transvestic fetishism is limited to heterosexuals. Answer: True 267. Watching your partner disrobe or viewing an explicit movie are not forms of voyeurism. Answer: True 268. Most cases of pedophilia involve "dirty old men" who hang around schoolyards in raincoats. Answer: False 269. Some people cannot become sexually aroused unless they are subjected to pain or humiliation by others. Answer: True 270. Hypoxyphilia is a dangerous expression of sexual sadism. Answer: False 271. The meaning of the arousing stimulus is not important in the development of sexual fetishes. Answer: False 272. A major problem in treating paraphilias is that many of the people who have them do not want to change. Answer: True 273. People with paraphilias usually do not want, nor do they seek, voluntary treatment. Answer: True 274. An antidepressant drug has been shown to be useful in treating sexual fetishes. Answer: True 275. There is no magic pill or other medical cure for paraphilias. Answer: True 276. Rape is classified as a mental disorder in the DSM. Answer: False 277. Most rapes in the United States are committed by strangers. Answer: False 278. Most men who rape other men are driven by sexual needs. Answer: False 279. For some rapists, violence appears to enhance their sexual arousal. Answer: True 280. College men are more likely than college women to believe rape myths. Answer: True 281. Socialization of young men plays an important role in creating a climate of sexual aggression in which rapes occur. Answer: True 282. If a woman initiates touching or petting with a man, it’s her own fault if things go too far. Answer: False 283. If a woman has too much to drink at a party, it’s her fault if men take advantage of her. Answer: False Essay Questions 284. Describe the reasons why people are challenging the practice of classifying transgender identity in the DSM as a mental disorder. Answer: Reasons for Challenging the Classification of Transgender Identity in the DSM as a Mental Disorder The classification of transgender identity as a mental disorder, historically listed under "Gender Identity Disorder" in earlier editions of the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), has been challenged for several reasons: 1. Stigmatization and Pathologization: Classifying transgender identity as a mental disorder contributes to the stigmatization of transgender individuals. It implies that being transgender is inherently abnormal or pathological, which contradicts evolving societal norms and understandings of gender diversity. 2. Medicalization of Identity: Many argue that transgender identity is not a mental disorder but a natural variation of human diversity in gender identity. It is more appropriately understood within a framework of identity affirmation and support rather than as a medical or psychiatric condition. 3. Impact on Access to Care: The classification as a disorder can negatively impact access to healthcare services. It may lead to discriminatory practices, denial of insurance coverage for gender-affirming treatments, and barriers to accessing necessary medical and psychological support. 4. Evolution of Diagnostic Criteria: In recent editions of the DSM-5, the diagnosis was revised to "Gender Dysphoria," which focuses on the distress that may accompany a misalignment between one's assigned gender at birth and their experienced gender identity. This revision aims to destigmatize transgender identities by emphasizing distress rather than identity itself as a diagnosable condition. 5. Social and Legal Implications: The classification influences public perception, legal protections, and policies related to transgender rights. Removing the classification as a mental disorder supports efforts to promote social acceptance, equality, and human rights for transgender individuals. 6. Professional Consensus: Many mental health professionals, advocacy organizations, and transgender individuals themselves advocate for depathologizing transgender identity. They argue for a shift towards affirming and supporting gender diversity as a normal aspect of human variation. 285. Describe gender dysphoria, and discuss the various theoretical perspectives on it. Answer: Gender Dysphoria: Definition and Theoretical Perspectives Gender Dysphoria: Gender dysphoria refers to the distress that may accompany the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender identity and their assigned gender at birth. It is recognized as a condition in the DSM-5 and is categorized into various levels of severity based on the intensity of distress and impairment in functioning. Theoretical Perspectives: 1. Biopsychosocial Model: • Biological Factors: Focuses on brain structure, genetics, and prenatal hormone exposure that may influence gender identity. • Psychological Factors: Emphasizes individual experiences of gender identity development, including early childhood experiences and socialization. • Social Factors: Considers the impact of cultural norms, socialization processes, and societal attitudes towards gender roles and identity. 2. Gender Identity Formation: • Psychodynamic Perspective: Views gender dysphoria as arising from conflicts or developmental challenges related to gender identity and socialization processes during childhood. • Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective: Focuses on cognitive processes, such as gender schema theory, which suggests that individuals develop mental frameworks (schemas) about gender that influence identity development. 3. Social Constructionist Approach: • Challenges the idea of fixed gender categories and identities, viewing gender as socially constructed and fluid. This perspective critiques pathologizing gender nonconformity and emphasizes diversity in gender experiences. 4. Affirmative and Minority Stress Models: • Affirmative Model: Supports affirming and validating gender identities that differ from assigned birth sex, emphasizing the importance of social support, gender-affirming healthcare, and legal recognition. • Minority Stress Model: Highlights the unique stressors and discrimination faced by gender minority individuals, which contribute to higher rates of mental health issues like anxiety and depression. 286. Describe the process of sex reassignment and discuss its success. Answer: Sex Reassignment: Process and Success Process of Sex Reassignment: Sex reassignment, also known as gender affirmation or gender confirmation, involves medical and/or surgical procedures to align an individual's physical characteristics with their gender identity. The process typically includes: 1. Psychological Evaluation: Assessment by mental health professionals to evaluate readiness for transition and assess mental health needs. 2. Hormone Therapy: Administration of hormone treatments (testosterone or estrogen) to induce secondary sexual characteristics consistent with the desired gender. 3. Surgical Interventions: May include procedures such as: • Top Surgery: Mastectomy or breast augmentation. • Bottom Surgery: Genital reconstruction surgeries (phalloplasty, vaginoplasty). • Facial and Body Contouring: Procedures to alter facial features and body shape. 4. Social Transition: Living in accordance with the affirmed gender role, which may include changes in name, gender markers on legal documents, and social interactions. Success of Sex Reassignment: • Psychosocial Adjustment: Research indicates that individuals who undergo sex reassignment often experience improved mental health outcomes, reduced gender dysphoria, and increased life satisfaction. • Quality of Life: Many report an enhanced quality of life, improved self-esteem, and better social functioning post-transition. • Challenges: Success can vary based on individual circumstances, access to healthcare, social support, and personal goals for transition. 287. Define and describe the features of the various sexual dysfunctions. Answer: Sexual Dysfunctions: Definitions and Features Sexual Dysfunctions: Sexual dysfunctions refer to disturbances in sexual desire, arousal, or response that cause distress or impairment in sexual relationships. They can affect individuals of any gender and may be lifelong or acquired. Major types include: 1. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Persistently low or absent sexual desire or fantasies, leading to distress or interpersonal difficulty. 2. Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: Lack of interest in sexual activity or reduced arousal, with associated distress or impairment. 3. Erectile Disorder: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection sufficient for sexual activity. 4. Premature Ejaculation: Ejaculation that occurs shortly after penetration, often before the individual wishes, causing distress. 5. Delayed Ejaculation: Delayed or absent ejaculation despite adequate sexual stimulation, leading to distress. 6. Female Orgasmic Disorder: Difficulty achieving orgasm despite adequate sexual arousal and stimulation. 288. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on disorders of interest and arousal. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Disorders of Interest and Arousal Disorders of Interest and Arousal: These disorders primarily affect sexual desire and arousal and can significantly impact sexual relationships and overall well-being. Characteristics: • Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Involves persistent or recurrent lack of sexual fantasies or desire for sexual activity, causing distress. • Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: Characterized by reduced interest in sexual activity, reduced responsiveness to sexual cues, or lack of subjective arousal. • Erectile Disorder: Inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. • Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: Involves difficulties with vaginal penetration or significant pain during intercourse, leading to distress or avoidance of sexual activity. Research Findings: • Prevalence: Rates of sexual dysfunction vary widely based on factors such as age, health status, relationship quality, and cultural norms. • Psychosocial Impact: Sexual dysfunctions can lead to distress, interpersonal conflict, and reduced quality of life. • Treatment Approaches: Include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy (e.g., medications like sildenafil for erectile dysfunction), and addressing underlying medical or psychological factors. • Gender Differences: Manifestations and prevalence rates may differ between men and women, influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. Conclusion Understanding sexual dysfunctions and gender-related issues requires a nuanced approach that considers biological, psychological, and social factors. Advances in research and clinical practice continue to inform effective treatments and support strategies for individuals experiencing these complex conditions, emphasizing the importance of holistic and individualized care approaches. 289. Describe the debate sex researchers continue to have with regard to defining sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Answer: Sex researchers continue to debate the definition and classification of sexual dysfunctions, particularly in women, due to several reasons: 1. Subjectivity of Sexual Experience: Sexual dysfunctions involve subjective experiences of distress or dissatisfaction, which can vary widely among individuals and cultural contexts. 2. Diagnostic Criteria: There is ongoing discussion about the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria for sexual dysfunctions, especially concerning normative variations in sexual response. 3. Biopsychosocial Approach: Critics argue for a broader biopsychosocial approach that considers biological, psychological, and social factors influencing sexual health rather than relying solely on medicalized models of dysfunction. 4. Gender Differences: Historically, diagnostic criteria for sexual dysfunctions were based on male sexual response patterns, which may not fully capture female sexual experiences and variability. 5. Contextual Factors: Sexual dysfunctions can be influenced by relationship dynamics, communication, cultural norms, and individual expectations about sexuality. 6. Medicalization Concerns: There are concerns about medicalizing normative variations in sexual response, potentially pathologizing natural fluctuations in sexual desire, arousal, and satisfaction. 7. Intersectionality: The intersection of gender identity, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status complicates the understanding and assessment of sexual dysfunctions across diverse populations. 290. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on disorders involving problems with orgasmic response. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Disorders Involving Problems with Orgasmic Response Disorders Involving Problems with Orgasmic Response: These disorders involve difficulties in achieving orgasm despite adequate sexual arousal and stimulation. Major types include: 1. Female Orgasmic Disorder: • Characteristics: Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. • Psychological Factors: Anxiety, performance pressure, negative body image, relationship issues. • Treatment: Psychotherapy focusing on sexual attitudes and self-image, behavioral techniques to enhance arousal and relaxation. 2. Delayed Ejaculation (in men): • Characteristics: Delay or absence of ejaculation despite sufficient sexual stimulation. • Causes: Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, relationship issues), physical factors (e.g., medications, hormonal imbalance). • Treatment: Psychotherapy, behavioral techniques, medical management (e.g., adjusting medications). 3. Premature Ejaculation (in men): • Characteristics: Ejaculation that occurs sooner than desired, often within one minute of penetration. • Psychological Factors: Performance anxiety, stress, lack of sexual experience. • Treatment: Behavioral techniques (e.g., start-stop technique, squeeze technique), psychotherapy, medications (e.g., SSRIs). Research Findings: • Prevalence: Rates of orgasmic disorders vary, with estimates influenced by cultural norms, relationship factors, and individual health status. • Impact: Orgasmic disorders can lead to distress, frustration, and reduced sexual satisfaction for individuals and their partners. • Treatment Effectiveness: Psychotherapeutic approaches, combined with education and communication skills training, show promise in improving orgasmic response and overall sexual functioning. 291. What do the major contemporary psychological views of sexual dysfunctions emphasize as to the causes of sexual dysfunction? Discuss three pathways to dysfunction presented in the text. Answer: Contemporary Psychological Views of Sexual Dysfunctions and Causes Contemporary Psychological Views: Major psychological perspectives on sexual dysfunctions emphasize multifaceted causes that include biological, psychological, and social factors: 1. Biopsychosocial Model: • Biological Factors: Hormonal imbalances, medication side effects, neurological conditions affecting sexual response. • Psychological Factors: Anxiety, depression, body image issues, past trauma, relationship conflict. • Social Factors: Cultural norms, societal attitudes toward sex, communication patterns in relationships. Pathways to Dysfunction: 1. Performance Anxiety: • Description: Anxiety about sexual performance or fear of failure during sexual activity. • Impact: Can lead to erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, or difficulties achieving orgasm. • Interventions: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to reduce performance pressure, relaxation techniques, communication skills training. 2. Communication Breakdown: • Description: Poor communication between partners about sexual needs, desires, and expectations. • Impact: Misunderstandings, unmet expectations, and reduced intimacy and satisfaction. • Interventions: Couples therapy, assertiveness training, improving sexual communication skills. 3. Negative Sexual Scripts: • Description: Internalized beliefs or learned behaviors that contribute to sexual difficulties (e.g., rigid gender roles, unrealistic expectations). • Impact: Limit sexual expression, create dissatisfaction, and reinforce dysfunctional patterns. • Interventions: Cognitive restructuring, exploring and challenging negative beliefs, promoting sexual exploration and diversity. 292. Discuss the role of learning skills in terms of sexual performance and satisfaction. Answer: Role of Learning Skills in Sexual Performance and Satisfaction Learning Skills in Sexual Performance and Satisfaction: Learning skills play a crucial role in enhancing sexual performance and satisfaction by improving communication, fostering intimacy, and addressing psychological barriers: 1. Communication Skills: • Description: Effective communication about sexual desires, boundaries, and preferences. • Impact: Enhances mutual understanding, reduces misunderstandings, and promotes emotional intimacy. • Techniques: Active listening, assertiveness training, and nonverbal communication. 2. Emotional Intimacy: • Description: Emotional closeness and connection between partners. • Impact: Increases trust, reduces anxiety, and enhances sexual satisfaction. • Techniques: Building emotional rapport, expressing affection, and cultivating empathy. 3. Sexual Techniques and Education: • Description: Learning techniques for enhancing sexual pleasure and addressing sexual difficulties. • Impact: Improves sexual confidence, expands repertoire of sexual activities, and promotes experimentation. • Techniques: Education on anatomy and physiology, exploring erogenous zones, and practicing relaxation techniques. 4. Mindfulness and Sensory Awareness: • Description: Being present and attentive during sexual interactions, focusing on sensations and experiences. • Impact: Enhances sensory pleasure, reduces performance anxiety, and promotes relaxation. • Techniques: Mindfulness meditation, sensory exercises, and body awareness practices. Overall, learning skills in sexual performance and satisfaction involves a combination of education, communication, emotional intimacy, and mindfulness practices to foster positive sexual experiences and address barriers to sexual health and well-being. 293. According to Ellis, underlying irrational beliefs and attitudes can contribute to sexual dysfunctions. Describe what these beliefs are and how they develop. Answer: According to Albert Ellis, founder of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), underlying irrational beliefs and attitudes can contribute significantly to sexual dysfunctions. These beliefs are categorized into several core irrational beliefs: 1. Demandingness: • Description: The belief that one must absolutely perform well sexually or achieve specific outcomes to be worthwhile or lovable. • Development: Often stems from early upbringing where conditional love or acceptance was tied to performance or achievement in various domains, including sexual performance. 2. Awfulizing: • Description: Exaggerating the negative consequences of sexual failure or underperformance. • Development: Learned from societal attitudes, cultural norms, or personal experiences that amplify the significance of sexual performance as a measure of self-worth or competence. 3. Low Frustration Tolerance: • Description: Inability to tolerate the discomfort or frustration of sexual challenges or perceived failures. • Development: Learned from experiences where failure or discomfort was not tolerated or was excessively punished, leading to avoidance behaviors or performance anxiety. 4. Global Evaluations: • Description: Global, absolute evaluations of oneself or others based on sexual performance or appearance. • Development: Shaped by societal expectations, media influence, or personal experiences that equate sexual prowess or attractiveness with overall self-worth. 5. Conditional Acceptance: • Description: Belief that one can only be accepted or loved if they meet certain sexual standards or expectations. • Development: Rooted in experiences of conditional love or acceptance, where approval was contingent upon meeting specific criteria, including sexual performance or desirability. 294. Define and describe the features of various paraphilias. Answer: Features of Various Paraphilias Paraphilias refer to intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve non-normative objects, activities, or situations. They typically cause distress or impairment to the individual or others involved. Common paraphilias include: 1. Pedophilia: • Features: Sexual attraction to prepubescent children, usually under the age of 13. • Diagnosis: Considered a mental disorder due to potential harm to children. Legal and ethical concerns surround its diagnosis and treatment. 2. Exhibitionism: • Features: Sexual arousal and gratification from exposing genitals to unsuspecting strangers. • Behavior: Often involves "flashing" in public places. Legal ramifications exist due to its non-consensual nature. 3. Voyeurism: • Features: Sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting individuals who are naked, undressing, or engaged in sexual activity. • Behavior: Often involves spying or peeping. Legal and ethical issues arise due to invasion of privacy and consent violations. 4. Fetishism: • Features: Sexual arousal and gratification from non-sexual objects, materials, or body parts. • Examples: Foot fetishism, leather fetishism. Often involves specific rituals or behaviors related to the fetish object. 5. Transvestic Disorder: • Features: Sexual arousal from cross-dressing, typically by heterosexual males. • Diagnosis: Considered a disorder when it causes distress or impairment. Not inherently problematic unless it leads to significant distress or dysfunction. 6. Sadomasochism: • Features: Sexual arousal from giving or receiving pain or humiliation. • Behavior: Often consensual and may involve BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Dominance, Submission, Sadism, Masochism) practices. Legal and ethical considerations focus on consent and safety. 295. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on exhibitionism. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Exhibitionism Exhibitionism: Exhibitionism is characterized by the recurrent and intense sexual arousal from exposing one's genitals to unsuspecting strangers. Key characteristics and research findings include: • Behavior: Exhibitionists typically derive sexual gratification from shocking or surprising their victims. • Motivation: Often driven by a desire for attention, shock value, or a need for validation. • Legal Issues: Considered illegal in many jurisdictions due to its non-consensual nature and potential harm to victims. • Prevalence: Difficult to estimate due to underreporting and legal implications, but research suggests it is more common among males. • Psychological Factors: Exhibitionism may co-occur with other paraphilic disorders or psychological conditions such as personality disorders. • Treatment: Often involves psychotherapy focusing on reducing deviant arousal patterns, addressing underlying psychological issues, and developing healthier coping mechanisms. 296. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on fetishism and tranvestism. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Fetishism and Transvestism Fetishism: Fetishism involves sexual arousal and gratification from non-living objects, materials, or body parts. Transvestism, on the other hand, pertains to sexual arousal from cross-dressing. Characteristics and research findings include: • Fetishism: • Objects: Examples include shoes, underwear, leather, latex. • Behavior: Often involves specific rituals or behaviors associated with the fetish object. • Prevalence: Varied prevalence rates; more common among males. • Treatment: May require psychotherapy to explore underlying psychological issues and reduce dependency on fetish objects for sexual arousal. • Transvestism: • Behavior: Involves wearing clothes typically associated with the opposite gender. • Motivation: Sexual arousal, expression of gender identity, or comfort. • Diagnosis: Considered a disorder (Transvestic Disorder) if it causes distress or impairment. • Prevalence: Estimates vary; prevalence influenced by cultural norms and individual factors. • Treatment: Focuses on acceptance and exploration of gender identity, coping with stigma, and addressing any distress associated with transvestic behaviors. 297. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on voyeurism. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Voyeurism Voyeurism: Voyeurism involves sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting individuals who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity. Key characteristics and research findings include: • Behavior: Voyeurs often secretly watch others without their knowledge or consent, using peepholes, cameras, or other means. • Motivation: Driven by curiosity, sexual arousal from observing intimate acts, or a desire for control. • Legal Issues: Considered illegal in many jurisdictions due to invasion of privacy and consent violations. • Prevalence: Difficult to estimate due to underreporting and legal implications, but research suggests it is more common among males. • Psychological Factors: Often co-occurs with other paraphilic disorders or psychological conditions such as voyeuristic disorder. • Treatment: Typically involves psychotherapy focusing on reducing voyeuristic behaviors, addressing underlying psychological issues, and developing healthier sexual behaviors and boundaries. Conclusion Understanding paraphilias and related disorders involves exploring the complex interplay of sexual arousal patterns, psychological factors, societal norms, and legal considerations. Research continues to inform therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing distress, improving interpersonal relationships, and promoting healthier expressions of sexuality while considering individual needs and ethical considerations. 298. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on frotteurism. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Frotteurism Frotteurism: Frotteurism is characterized by recurrent and intense sexual arousal from touching or rubbing against a non-consenting person. Key characteristics and research findings include: • Behavior: Frotteurs typically engage in rubbing or pressing their genitals against others in crowded places, such as public transportation. • Motivation: Sexual arousal is derived from the physical contact and the victim's unawareness or inability to resist. • Legal Issues: Often illegal due to its non-consensual nature and potential harm to victims. • Prevalence: Estimates vary, but research suggests it is more common among males. • Psychological Factors: Frotteurism may co-occur with other paraphilic disorders or psychological conditions such as impulse control disorders. • Treatment: Involves psychotherapy focusing on reducing deviant arousal patterns, addressing underlying psychological issues, and promoting healthy sexual behaviors and boundaries. 299. Summarize the characteristics of and research findings on pedophilia. Answer: Characteristics and Research Findings on Pedophilia Pedophilia: Pedophilia involves intense and recurrent sexual arousal, fantasies, or behaviors involving prepubescent children (usually under the age of 13). Key characteristics and research findings include: • Behavior: Pedophiles may engage in sexual activities or fantasies involving children, which can include grooming, manipulation, or coercion. • Diagnosis: Considered a mental disorder due to potential harm to children and legal implications. • Prevalence: Difficult to estimate due to underreporting and secrecy; more common among males. • Psychological Factors: Pedophilia may be associated with factors such as childhood trauma, distorted sexual development, or cognitive distortions about children's capacity for consent. • Legal Issues: Considered a serious criminal offense in many jurisdictions, with legal and ethical implications for reporting, treatment, and prevention. • Treatment: Typically involves specialized psychotherapy aimed at reducing deviant arousal patterns, managing impulses, and promoting behaviors that do not harm children. Legal interventions may also be required to ensure community safety. 300. Describe the effects of sexual abuse on children, and how those effects may differ between younger and older children. Answer: Effects of Sexual Abuse on Children and Differences Based on Age Effects of Sexual Abuse on Children: Sexual abuse can have profound and lasting effects on children's physical, emotional, and psychological well-being. Common effects include: • Psychological Impact: Anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other trauma-related symptoms. • Behavioral Changes: Aggression, withdrawal, self-harm, substance abuse, or risky sexual behaviors. • Cognitive Effects: Distorted beliefs about self-worth, trust issues, difficulty concentrating, or academic problems. • Social Effects: Difficulty forming relationships, problems with intimacy, and feelings of shame or guilt. Differences Based on Age: The effects of sexual abuse may vary between younger and older children due to developmental differences: • Younger Children (Preschool Age): • May have limited verbal skills to express experiences. • Vulnerable to confusion about appropriate boundaries and trust. • Effects may manifest through regressive behaviors (e.g., bed-wetting, clinginess). • Older Children and Adolescents: • More likely to understand the nature of the abuse and its implications. • May experience guilt, shame, or self-blame. • Higher risk of engaging in high-risk behaviors or self-destructive behaviors. 301. How would normal sex role play with sadomasochistic themes differ from that which would warrant a clinical diagnosis of sexual masochism disorder or sexual sadism disorder? Answer: Normal Sex Role Play with Sadomasochistic Themes vs. Sexual Masochism Disorder/Sexual Sadism Disorder Normal Sex Role Play with Sadomasochistic Themes: In consensual adult relationships, role-playing with sadomasochistic themes involves mutual agreement, clear boundaries, and a context of trust and respect. Characteristics include: • Consent: Both partners willingly engage in role-play scenarios, negotiate boundaries, and establish safe words or signals. • Mutual Enjoyment: Participants derive pleasure from exploring power dynamics, sensory stimulation, or psychological role-playing. • No Distress or Impairment: The activities do not cause significant distress, impairment in functioning, or harm to either participant. Sexual Masochism Disorder/Sexual Sadism Disorder: These disorders are diagnosed when sadomasochistic behaviors cause significant distress, impairment, or harm to the individual or others, or when they involve non-consenting individuals. Characteristics include: • Distress or Impairment: The individual experiences significant distress, guilt, shame, or impairment due to their sadistic or masochistic fantasies or behaviors. • Non-consensual Acts: Involvement of non-consenting individuals or situations where harm is intended or inflicted without regard for the victim's well-being. • Legal and Ethical Concerns: Activities may violate laws, ethical standards, or community norms regarding consent and safety. Clinical Diagnosis vs. Normal Role Play: The distinction between clinical disorders and normal role-play hinges on the presence of distress, impairment, harm, and consent: • Clinical Diagnosis: Involves persistent, distressing patterns of behavior that interfere with daily functioning, personal relationships, or legal boundaries. • Normal Role Play: Involves consensual, mutually satisfying activities that enhance intimacy, exploration, and sexual pleasure within agreed-upon boundaries. Treatment Approach: Treatment for sexual masochism disorder or sexual sadism disorder typically involves psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and sometimes pharmacotherapy to address underlying issues, manage impulses, and promote healthy sexual behaviors and relationships. In contrast, normal role play with sadomasochistic themes may benefit from communication skills training, consent education, and exploring mutual desires and boundaries. Understanding these distinctions is crucial for professionals to provide appropriate support and interventions based on individual needs, ethical considerations, and legal frameworks. 302. How do psychodynamic theorists describe the development of paraphilias? How do psychodynamic theorists explain genital exhibitionism? Answer: Psychodynamic Theories on the Development of Paraphilias and Genital Exhibitionism Development of Paraphilias (Psychodynamic Perspective): Psychodynamic theorists propose that paraphilias develop due to unresolved conflicts and disturbances during childhood development. Key aspects include: • Early Childhood Experiences: Traumatic experiences, neglect, or inconsistent parenting may disrupt normal psychosexual development. • Defense Mechanisms: Paraphilic behaviors may serve as unconscious defense mechanisms against anxiety or unresolved conflicts. • Object Relations: Distorted object relations, where sexual arousal becomes associated with non-normative objects or scenarios, may develop. • Unconscious Processes: Unresolved Oedipal or Electra complex issues, fixation at early psychosexual stages, or unresolved conflicts with authority figures can contribute. Explanation of Genital Exhibitionism (Psychodynamic Perspective): Genital exhibitionism, specifically, is explained as: • Unconscious Gratification: Exhibitionists may unconsciously seek gratification through the shock or surprise of their victims. • Defense Against Anxiety: Displaying genitals in public may serve to manage or reduce internal anxiety or unresolved conflicts. • Distorted Object Relations: Exhibitionists may view their victims as objects for gratification rather than as individuals with boundaries. • Regression: Under stress or anxiety, individuals may regress to earlier, less mature forms of sexual expression, such as exhibitionism. 303. What biologic differences have been noted between men with paraphilias and those without paraphilias. Focus on the research evaluating refractory periods and brain wave pattern analysis. Answer: Biological Differences in Men with Paraphilias vs. Those Without Biological Differences: Research examining biological factors in men with paraphilias has identified several differences compared to individuals without paraphilias: 1. Refractory Periods: • Definition: Refractory period refers to the recovery time needed after orgasm before a person can become sexually aroused again. • Research: Some studies suggest that individuals with paraphilias may have shorter refractory periods or different patterns of sexual arousal compared to non-paraphilic individuals. This may indicate differences in sexual response and regulation. 2. Brain Wave Patterns: • Analysis: Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown differences in brain wave patterns during sexual arousal in individuals with paraphilias. • Findings: These studies suggest that brain activity during sexual arousal may be altered in individuals with paraphilias, potentially reflecting distinct neural pathways or responses to sexual stimuli. Implications: • Biological Vulnerabilities: Differences in refractory periods and brain wave patterns suggest potential biological vulnerabilities or differences in neurobiological mechanisms underlying paraphilic behaviors. • Integration with Psychosocial Factors: Biological factors interact with psychosocial factors (e.g., early experiences, learning processes) to shape the development and expression of paraphilias. • Treatment Considerations: Understanding these differences can inform targeted interventions that address both biological and psychosocial aspects of paraphilic disorders, promoting effective treatment and management strategies. 304. Should cybersex addiction become a formal diagnosis? Explain the basis Answer: Basis for Consideration: The debate on whether cybersex addiction should be recognized as a formal diagnosis revolves around several key considerations: 1. Behavioral Addiction Criteria: • Similarities: Cybersex addiction shares similarities with other behavioral addictions, such as compulsive gambling or internet gaming disorder. • Diagnostic Criteria: Criteria proposed include loss of control, preoccupation with cybersex, continued use despite negative consequences, and withdrawal symptoms. 2. Controversies and Criticisms: • Debate on Pathology: Critics argue that labeling excessive cybersex use as an addiction pathologizes normal sexual behaviors and fails to distinguish between problematic use and healthy sexual expression. • Lack of Consensus: There is no consensus among mental health professionals regarding diagnostic criteria, prevalence rates, or appropriate treatment approaches. 3. Psychosocial Impact: • Negative Consequences: Excessive cybersex use can lead to relationship conflicts, social isolation, decreased productivity, and psychological distress. • Ethical Concerns: Diagnosing cybersex addiction raises ethical concerns about stigmatization, privacy, and the medicalization of normal sexual behaviors. Conclusion: While there is evidence suggesting that some individuals experience significant distress and impairment due to excessive cybersex use, the formal recognition of cybersex addiction as a diagnosis requires further research and consensus among experts. Future studies should focus on clarifying diagnostic criteria, understanding the underlying mechanisms, and developing evidence-based treatments that balance clinical needs with ethical considerations. 305. Discuss how social attitudes and myths about rape contribute to the high incidence of rape. Answer: Social attitudes and myths about rape contribute significantly to its high incidence by shaping perceptions, responses, and victim-blaming behaviors: 1. Victim Blaming: • Myths: Misconceptions such as "she was asking for it" or "he wouldn't do that" blame victims based on their behavior, attire, or relationship with the perpetrator. • Impact: Discourages victims from reporting assaults, perpetuates shame and self-blame, and reduces accountability for perpetrators. 2. Rape Culture: • Normalization: Cultural norms, media portrayals, and social interactions that trivialize or excuse sexual violence contribute to a climate where rape is tolerated or minimized. • Perpetuation: Reinforces gender inequalities, promotes toxic masculinity, and undermines consent education efforts. 3. Legal and Social Responses: • Legal System: Biases in legal proceedings, victim credibility assessments, and sentencing disparities reflect societal attitudes toward rape. • Community Support: Lack of support services, victim advocacy, and trauma-informed care further isolate and silence survivors. 4. Prevention and Education: • Challenges: Overcoming myths and addressing attitudes that normalize or justify sexual violence requires comprehensive education from schools, communities, and media. • Empowerment: Empowering survivors to speak out, promoting bystander intervention, and holding perpetrators accountable are critical steps in shifting societal norms. 5. Intersectionality and Vulnerable Populations: • Impact: Marginalized groups, including LGBTQ+ individuals, people of color, and individuals with disabilities, face compounded barriers to justice and support due to intersecting biases and systemic inequalities. Conclusion: Addressing the high incidence of rape requires challenging entrenched social attitudes, promoting consent culture, supporting survivors, and advocating for systemic changes in legal, educational, and community settings. By debunking myths, advocating for victim-centered approaches, and fostering respectful relationships, society can create safer environments and reduce the prevalence of sexual violence. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene 9780205965014, 9780135821688, 9780134458311, 9780205961719, 9780130052162

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